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MECW VOL 1

A
Absolute idea- 10, 85, 491-92
Abstraction— 8, 44, 48, 50-52, 56, 62-
63, 65, 71, 73-76, 104, 392, 413,
419, 424-25, 426, 435, 437, 439,
441, 452, 453-55, 457, 464, 471,
475-76, 490-93, 505
Accidens—see Substance
Activity, practical—439
Administration— 344-48
— communal system — 267, 270,
271, 277
Agnosticism—428
Aim—438, 439, 636
— and means—3, 7
Alexandrian school of philosophy— 34-35,
189-90, 491
Alienation (Entfremdung)— 61, 62, 64,
509
America, North— 162, 167
Analogy— 65, 69, 119, 413, 493, 494
Ancient philosophy— 420, 423, 428,432,
436
See also Greek philosophy, Roman
philosophy
Animal—3, 75, 189, 230-31, 446,
452-53
Anthropomorphism— 66-67
Antinomy— 39, 59, 70
Antiquity, the— 190, 419-20, 423
See also Ancient philosophy, Classics,
Greece, ancient, Rome, ancient
Appearance— see Essence and appearance
Arbitrariness— 130, 441, 473
Art—11, 19, 52, 189, 371, 431, 492,
636, 640, 642
— Dutch—171
See also Sculpture
Assembly of the estates— 136-37, 145-51,
293, 297-301, 303, 304, 321, 322
Assembly, political—151
Astrology— 66-70
Astronomy— 66-70, 170
—Copernicus' discovery — 201,361
Ataraxy— 51, 68-70, 72, 419, 432, 443,
449-50
Atheism—68-70,190-91,323, 393, 395
— and existence of God—103,
104-05, 425
— in antiquity—29-31, 69-71
— in the Middle Ages —323
Athens, ancient— 137, 492
Atomistics— 32, 38-39, 42, 46-65, 70-
71, 73, 412-16, 419, 424, 426, 430,
432, 441, 454-56, 470-78, 498-99,
505
— concept and qualities of the
atom—48-49, 51-58,60-64,414,
475, 486
— and teaching on essence — 58-
62, 476-77, 478
— and chance and necessity —
52, 412-13, 415
— and teaching on motion —
47-49, 416
798 Subject Index
— repulsion of atoms — 46, 47,
52, 53, 70, 416
— declination of atoms from the
straight line—46, 47-51, 53,
416, 472-75
Authority— 310, 506
B
Babylon, ancient—432
St. Bartholomew's night— 197
Becoming— 463
Being— 38, 42, 45, 50, 51, 62, 63, 415,
416, 454, 455-56, 458, 462, 463,
471, 473, 505
Belgian revolution of 1830-31— 143
Belgium—143
Berlin— 303, 386, 390
Bible— 144
See also Gospels
Bliss— 451
Body, bodies— 58-59, 424, 432, 444
— celestial body—70-72, 418-20
Books, book publishing—164, 175, 398
Bourgeoisie—169, 216
Brain— 195
Bureaucracy—126, 131, 343-45, 347-
48, 349, 363, 365
— and state—131, 321, 344-45
— and people — 321
Byzantium— 200, 318
C
Castes— 230
Categories, philosophical—71, 155, 426
— Categorical imperative (Kant)—
439
Catholicism—117, 197, 199, 316,
324-25, 329, 389-90
See also St. Bartholomew's night
Cause—43, 44, 50, 430
Censorship— 109, 122-31, 165
— and freedom of the press —
132, 133, 139-41, 153-55, 158,
159, 161, 162-64, 177, 181,
351, 353, 356-57, 393, 396
— censor— 165, 166
— and police—161-62, 164, 166-67
See also Press
Centralisation— 298, 299
Chance—see Necessity and chance
Chartism—216
China — 126
Christianity— 29, 116-17, 190-92, 197-
201, 370-71, 400
— and its ties with philosophy—
495-96
— its world outlook—371-72, 431,
432
— redemption, the—478
— and Christ as religion personified—
494
See also Catholicism, Church, Protestantism
Church
— and state—117-18, 198-200,
274-75
— Christian—495
— and ancient philosophy—29
— Fathers of the Church—29, 37,
495
See also Clergy
Classes—121, 123, 234, 235
— and state—126, 129
Classics, the— 202, 468-69, 475
See also Mythology
Class struggle—216
Clergy— 302, 325
Commissions of the estates in Prussia—
292, 297-306
Communism (communist ideas, communist
movement)—215-21, 393, 394
Community—246, 335
Concept— 12, 15, 48, 49, 52-54, 60-64,
66, 104, 309, 410, 413, 416, 426,
437, 455, 505
Concrete, the— 424, 490
Consciousness— 42, 61, 72-73, 74, 84-
85, 131, 413-15, 419, 420, 422,
424-25, 454, 505, 506, 509
— ordinary, common — 415, 448,
457, 494
— philosophical—416, 441, 448,
457, 506
— philosophising—419, 425, 440
— sensuous—74, 425
— individual—421, 491, 492
Contradiction—12, 38, 41, 45, 47-49,
53-58, 61, 62, 64, 71, 72, 73, 85, 86,
212, 414, 419, 429, 440, 491, 504
Court and legal procedure— 166, 254-55,
259, 260-61, 384
See also Prussia
Crime— 228, 229, 235, 236, 251,
252-53
Subject Index 799
Critique— 85, 86, 104
Cuba—262
Cuit—66, 172, 199
— worship of animals — 230, 263
Culture— 165, 167, 195, 292, 636
Custom— 230-33
Customs Union— 219, 365
Cynics— 34, 35, 491
Cyrenaics— 34, 35, 431, 504
D
Death—see Life and death
Definition, determination—12, 60-61,
413, 415, 425, 429-30, 438, 443,
448, 498
Deity, divinity, god, gods—3, 4, 18,
30-31, 121, 144-45, 147, 168, 169,
199, 230,425,430-31,437,495,506
— pagan—104, 172
— of antiquity—51, 68, 84, 104,
172, 430, 432, 435, 436, 475
— Christian—104, 636-39
— ontological proof of the existence
of god—103-04
— concept of god in Epicurean
philosophy—30-31, 51, 66, 418,
432, 450-51, 473, 505. 639
— as seen by Aristotle — 189
— as seen by Lucretius — 474-75
— as seen by Plato — 636
— as seen by Plotinus—498
— as seen by Plutarch — 84, 449-51
Despotism— 130, 160, 177
Determinism— 43, 48, 49, 415, 418,
473-74
Development—12, 60
— philosophical—462
— political—178, 202
Dialectics— 18, 264, 412, 443, 451-52,
457-58, 491-92, 493-94, 498, 504
District president— 355, 357
Divorce— 274, 275, 307-10
See also Family, Marriage
Doctors' club—19
See also Young Hegelianism
Dogmas, religious— 191-92, 197, 200
Dogmatism—12, 45
Dualism (of Anaxagoras) — 435
Duty— 3
E
Eclecticism— 34-35
Education—154, 193, 208, 289, 292,
438
Egypt, ancient— 176
Eleatics (Eleatic school of philosophy)—
436, 504
Elements (in ancient philosophy) — 469-
70, 486
Empirical, the—448-49
Empiricism—41, 45, 58, 65, 73, 76,
413, 432, 438-39, 448-49, 453-54,
456-57, 494-96, 499
Energy— 436
England— 178, 219, 286, 302
— history — 156
— constitution — 302
— industry — 286
— labour movement—216
— the press—141,142,311-12,317
— and problems of communism—
215-16, 219
See also Chartism
English revolution of 1640-60—142
Enjoyment, pleasure—447, 449-51, 473
Enlightenment, the— 144, 161, 202, 203,
205
Epicurean philosophy— 29, 30, 34-36,
46, 50, 71-72, 101, 404-509
— its principle —71-73, 412, 415,
445-46, 505-06
Epoch—182, 491-92, 500-01
Epos, epic poetry—475
Equality (social) —230, 347
See also Inequality (social)
Essence and appearance—39-40, 45, 61-
65, 68-69, 71, 471
Estates— 145, 169, 170,175-76,177-80,
231, 232, 241, 262, 292-306
— princely—138, 141, 143, 145,
152, 169, 240
— knightly—138, 145, 146, 148,
151, 156, 169, 239
— urban—138, 169, 170, 239
— in Plato's Republic—440, 495
See also Peasantry, Workers
Ethics— 35, 68, 504
See also Morality
Evil—see Morality
Existence—469-70, 505-06
— and essence—61, 71, 309-10
800 Subject Index
— empirical—76, 454
— and appearance — 64
Experiment—167
Externalisation (Entäusserung)— 54, 57
F
Family— 308-09
See also Divorce, Marriage
Fear— 74, 75, 448, 452-53, 455
Fetishism—189
Feudalism— 230
Feuerbachianism—386, 400
Fichu's philosophy— 12, 18, 494, 577
Forests and forest-owners— 237-38, 239-
40, 246-47, 250-53. 260, 262
Form and content—15, 35, 36, 43,
70-72, 129, 264, 282, 360, 420,430,
454-55, 456, 469-70, 509
Fourierism— 216, 220
France— 239-40
— and the press—143, 167, 311-
12, 318
— history—142, 398
— constitution — 302, 303
— landed property—302-03
— workers' movement—216
— and problems of communism—
216, 219
See also Enlightenment, French
philosophy, French revolution of 1789-
94, French revolution of 1830 (July),
Huguenots
"The Free"— 390, 393-95
Freedom— 42, 47, 62, 72, 85, 131,
132-33, 144-45, 151, 157, 171-74,
199, 200, 230, 256, 260, 264, 286,
301, 359, 365, 385, 392, 394, 397,
418, 421, 443, 444, 640-62
— abstract—419
— from premises—432, 473, 474,
478
— inner—209, 414, 415, 421, 444,
448, 449, 468, 491-92, 496
— and individual—161-62, 169,
208, 301, 306, 334
— of speech —355, 357-58, 432
— of the press—114-15, 132-81,
224, 337, 349, 353
— and law—162
— and constitution — 392
— and arbitrariness—162, 165
— and censorship—154, 155, 158,
163-64, 166-67, 397
French philosophy—423
French revolution of 1789-94— 139, 143
See also Jacobin dictatorship
French revolution of 1830 (July) —264
Friendship—see Morality
G
German literature—140-41, 178, 290-
91, 382
German philosophy— 140, 195
See also Feuerbachianism, Fichte's
philosophy, Hegelianism, Kantianism,
Schelling's philosophy
Germany—114-15, 138, 219, 283
— national character—172-73
— literature—140-41
— and philosophy—140-41
— and the press—139-40, 168,
284, 312-13, 315-17, 318-19,
326-37
— censorship in—139-40
See also Berlin, German literature,
German philosophy, Prussia, Saxony
Good, the—see Morality
Gospels—199, 212, 370-72
Government— 121, 143, 155
Greece, Ancient—34, 35, 51, 189, 202,
430, 432, 436-37, 500
See also Athens, ancient, Sparta,
ancient
Greek philosophy— 29-30, 34-37, 66,
69-70, 419-20, 423-30, 432-441,
490-500, 504, 505
— character of—413, 494
— contradictions of—71, 425,439
— and astronomy—65, 66, 68-70,
72-73
— and religion — 497
— philosophy of Aristotle — 34,
35, 69-70, 424, 504
— philosophy of Democritus—35,
39, 40, 44, 4&, 52, 62, 65, 473
— philosophy of Socrates — 35,
436-39, 492
See also Alexandrian school of philosophy,
Eleatics, Epicurean philosophy,
Ionian philosophy, Plato's doctrine,
Subject Index 801
Pythagoreans, Scepticism, Sophists,
Stoicism
Guilds—257
H
Homo—369
Health—444-45
Hegelianism—18-20, 29-30, 84-86,
103, 385, 391, 439, 491-93, 510-14
See also Young Hegelianism
Heretics, heresies—139, 323
Hero— 35
Historical school of low—203-10, 387
History— 8, 10, 19, 168, 179, 182, 195,
230, 317-18, 636
Holland—142, 143
Holy Alliance— 199
Homoeomeria (of Anaxagoras)— 470,
485
Huguenots— 197, 199
Hypothesis— 73
I
Ideal—8
Idealism—11-12, 17-18, 28
Ideality— 76, 412, 414, 435-36, 439,
440, 454
Ideas— 4, 8, 18, 21, 28, 65, 85, 122,
154, 172, 196, 220-21, 423, 439,
462, 478, 494-96
See also Absolute idea
Identity— 419, 451, 464
Ignorance— 202
Illness— 163, 444
See also Health, Life and death
Immanent—85, 86, 414, 448-49, 471,
474-77, 493, 494, 497-98
Immortality—455, 478
Individual— 76, 164, 168, 182,251-52,
348-49, 432, 438, 439, 444, 448-51,
453-55,457,462,468,473,475,497
See also Hero, Mon, Personality
Individual, particular and general,
the— 35, 36, 50, 52, 56-57, 62,
71-73, 165, 431, 444, 454-55, 457,
493
Industry— 286
Inequality (social) — 230
Infinity, infinite, the—60-61, 499
Inquisition— 197, 372
Instinct— 505
Institutions—130-31
Intellect— 30, 44, 63, 305
Intelligence— 293, 300-05
Interests— 302
— general—243, 305, 345
— estate—299, 300-01, 302-03,
304, 305
— private—228, 236, 239-42,
246-50, 254, 256-62, 301, 302,
343-44, 345, 347-48
— and state—241, 302, 304, 344,
347-49
— people's interests—312
Investigation, research —111-14, 188,
468-69
See also Experiment, Method
Ionian philosophy—424, 435
Ireland— 199
Irony (as a form of philosophy)—493-
94
J
Jacobin dictatorship—119
Jews, Jewish question— 391-92, 400
See also Judaism
Journalism—125, 333
See also Literature, Press
Judaism—199, 400
See also Jews
Judgment— 135, 437, 438, 451
July revolution— see French revolution of
1830
Jurisprudence— 20, 165, 274, 275
K
Kantianism—18, 104, 119, 206, 428,
440, 577
Knowledge— 38, 60, 62, 84, 428, 429,
432, 458, 498, 506
L
Landed property, landownership—220,
224, 235, 246, 293-95, 300-03, 305,
306
802 Subject Index
Law, laws— 1% 15, 17, 19,109-12, 114,
115, 119, 120, 121, 122, 161-66,
168, 183, 198, 200, 202, 204-10,
227, 230-33, 235, 257, 260-62, 273,
275, 308, 309, 335, 355, 438, 445,
640-41
— civil—209, 232, 233
— constitutional—198, 209
— private—15, 17
— public—12, 252
— patrimonial—237
— and personality—243
— and equality—347
— and freedom of opinion—119-
22, 145, 161, 162
— and censorship—130, 165
— and private interest—236-37,
257, 345
— Roman law—12, 233
— medieval criminal law—260
— Prussian —201, 275, 307
— Chinese—260
Leap—lb, 454
Legislation— 232, 243, 308, 309, 364,
365, 384
Liberalism— 137, 180, 264, 304, 365
— French—283
— German—172, 283
— pseudo-liberalism— 110
Life and death—11, 35, 153, 163, 164,
309, 454-55, 456, 479, 492
See also Health, Illness
Literature—164, 167, 398, 642
— its history — 176
See also Books, Classics, German literature,
Journalism, Poetry, Press,
Writer
Logic— 18, 34, 44-45, 104, 292, 293
298, 445, 473, 504
Love—see Morality
M
Man—S, 4, 7-9, 33, 52, 65, 74, 75,
104-05, 158-59, 191-92, 300-01,
310, 428, 432-35, 436-37, 438, 450-
54, 455-57, 505, 636-37
— and state—199-200, 306
See also Individual, Personality
Marriage—192, 193, 204, 207, 274,
275, 307-10
See also Divorce, Family
Materialism (abject)—262
Mathematics— 12, 40, 201
Matter— 15, 61-64, 70-72, 441
Measure—491
Metaphysics as part of idealistic
philosophy—12, 17, 35-36
Method— 60, 61, 69, 70, 71, 182, 204,
413, 419, 424, 426
Middle Ages— 29, 134, 146, 197, 234,
260, 286, 369
Mind— 73, 85, 110,468-69
Monad— 48, 492
Monarchy
— absolute—119
— constitutional—382
Morality— 84, 118-19, 120, 164, 209,
274, 307-10, 312, 319, 372, 435,
468, 624, 636-37
— good, the—51, 158-59, 439,
446, 448-49, 451, 456
— evil—51, 158-59, 445-46, 448-
49, 451-52
— friendship—53, 309-10
— love—75-76, 453, 498
See also Duty
Motion— 48,49, 51,412,415,437,439,
440, 473-74, 490
Mysticism— 73, 140, 152
Mythology— 30, 42, 66-70,85,104,172,
185, 196, 431, 454, 475, 491, 492,
497-98
See also Classics, Deity
N
Napoleonic Code— 192-93, 201-02
Natural science— 18, 167
Nature— 3, 12, 18, 45, 52, 71, 72, 112,
234, 295, 309, 431, 468, 508, 637
— sensuous—18, 65
— spiritual—18
Necessity and chance—42-45, 52-53,
337, 412, 415, 419, 441, 443, 445-
46, 473, 478, 492
Negation— 426, 441, 493
Netherland revolution of 1566-1609—
257
Notion— 415, 421, 426
Number— 133, 435
Subject Index 803
o
Official, officialdom— 130, 343-45
See also Bureaucracy
Opposites—38, 41-42, 61, 429, 504
Opposition— 137, 364
Outlook (world) —499
Ownership— 303, 317
P
Pantheism— 423-24
Panellation— 220, 347
Part and whole— 348
Particularism—144
Parties, political— 120, 202, 312
Patriotism— 129
Peasantry— 177, 179, 180, 294, 299
See also Poor
Penal code in Germany—226
People—137, 141, 144-45, 164, 167,
168, 176, 227, 251, 265, 292, 296,
306, 309, 312, 320-21, 333, 347,
351, 353, 506, 636
Personality—10, 122, 229, 243, 266,
334, 354, 436, 494, 499, 504-06
See also Hero, Individual, Man
Philistinism— 390, 456, 458, 545"
Philosophy— 15, 17-19, 29-31, 35, 36,
62, 84-87, 183, 191, 195-96, 201,
202, 395, 429, 431, 488, 494, 497-
98, 500, 507
— and external world — 491
— and practice—85, 197, 491
— and science—429, 496
— and religion—196, 198, 487,
493, 495-96
— philosophy of law—12, 274
— history of—29, 101, 423, 431,
490-93, 506
— objective universality of — 491
— philosopher—84-85, 200, 201,
432-40, 450, 452, 457, 462-63
See also Ancient philosophy, French
philosophy, German philosophy,
Spinoza's teaching
Philosophy of nature—504
— ancient—25-73, 84-87, 431-35,
440-41, 468-71, 500, 504
— of Hegel—510-14
Pietists— 478
Plato's doctrine— 35, 439, 440, 462-63,
490, 497, 636
Poetry— 11, 17, 174-75, 371-72
Police— 161, 166, 191
Politics— 117, 118, 284-85, 351
Poor, the— 230, 232, 234-35
Positive philosophy— 86
See also Schelling's philosophy
Possibility and reality—43, 44, 72, 415,
443, 444
Poverty— 332, 343, 347
Predicate—see Subject
Prejudice— 70
Premises— 420,423,431,441,473,478
Press— 155, 157-58, 164, 167-68, 176,
177, 198, 292, 314-15, 316-17, 333,
334, 336, 348-49
— and revolution—143
— and people—137, 167-68, 176,
336, 348-49, 351, 352-55
— popular—159,313, 314,315-17
— conservative — 292, 363
— censorship—109, 131, 140, 158-
59, 163-64, 167-68, 176-77, 316
— press legislation—161-62, 164
— in Belgium—143
— in England—141, 142, 311
— in France—143, 167, 311
— in Germany—140, 167, 196,
197, 288-92, 311-30, 359, 363
— in Holland— 142
— in Prussia—110, 124, 132-37,
140, 184, 196, 197, 266-73,
277-79, 280-82, 311, 336, 337,
349-51, 353-56, 361-65, 373
— in Switzerland—144
— in the U.S.A.—167
See also Censorship, Freedom, Journalism,
Literature
Principle— 413, 414, 418-19, 426, 427,
436, 487
Profession— 3-9
Progress— 202, 364, 397
Proof— 506
Property— 199, 204, 229, 232-34, 252,
257, 303, 305, 306
— private—220, 232, 234, 240-
41, 251, 252-53, 255
— of monasteries — 232
See also Landed property
Protective tariffs—286
Protestantism— 197, 199, 212
804 Subject Index
Provincial assemblies and assemblies of the
estates in Prussia—137, 138, 145-46,
147, 148-51, 179-81, 224, 226, 229,
235, 237, 239-40, 241, 246, 248,
254, 258, 259, 260-61, 262, 299-
302, 303-05, 364, 396
Prussia—135-36, 282-83, 302, 303,
318, 365, 384, 389-90, 396-97
— state system —296-98, 302, 321,
353-64, 362, 363, 384, 394,
396-97
— legal procedure—130, 236-37,
238, 240, 307, 355, 384
— press laws—109-11, 114-19,
121-31, 132, 133, 139, 264,
280- 83, 285, 332, 335, 349-50,
357,365, 397
— laws on marriage—274-75,
307-10, 365
— and Russia—365
See also Berlin, Commissions of the
estates in Prussia, Press, Provincial
assemblies and assemblies of the estates
in Prussia, Rhine Province
Psychology— 85, 130
Publicity— 334, 350,351, 353,355,384
Public opinion—164, 269-71, 349,
353-54
Punishment—162, 228-29, 235, 251-52
Pythagoreans—48, 66, 426, 435, 436
Q
Quality and quantity— 54-58, 76,454-55
R
Rationalism in religion— 116, 200
Reality— 39, 44, 60, 72, 84-85, 435-36,
437, 439, 444
See also Possibility ana reality
Reason—4, 105, 113, 151-52, 168, 197,
200,202,204,295,419,508-09,639
— voôg (in Anaxagoras) —435,490
Redemption—see Christianity
Reflection— 42, 64-65, 84, 419, 439,
441
Reform, legal—364
Regularity— 69, 422
Relationship)—38. 52, 438-39, 452,
457, 493-94
Relativity—443
Religion— 8, 18, 30, 116-18, 144, 152,
173, 189, 190, 191, 197, 198, 230,
274, 285, 323, 371-72, 384, 386,
394-95, 438, 493, 494
— general principle —121
— as philosophy of transcendence
— 497
— and, philosophy—196, 493
— and science—190-91
— and state—199-201
— and secular authority —118
See also Atheism, Christianity,
Church, Deity, Judaism, Mysticism,
Mythology, Pietists
Republic— 200
Revolution— 113
See also Belgian revolution of 1830-
31, English revolution of 1640-60,
French revolution of 1789-94, French
revolution of 1830 (July), Netherland
revolution of 1566-1609
Rhine Province—140, 179, 180, 258,
261-62, 283, 284, 310, 330, 335,
355, 364, 365, 389-90
— Mosel region —332-58
See also Provincial assemblies and
assemblies of the estates in Prussia
Right—164, 199, 228-32, 235, 240,
248, 252, 256, 347, 384
— customary —230-32, 234, 235
— private—233, 252, 253, 255
— public — 233, 255
— of the state—253, 256
— right to property — 234, 252
— and private interest — 248,
257, 259, 262
— patrimonial—252
— as a privilege—145-46
— legal position —316, 327
See also Court and legal procedure,
Crime, Custom, Jurisprudence, Law,
Legislation, Punishment
Roman philosophy— 189-90
— philosophy of Lucretius—48,51,
62, 65, 72-73, 416, 468-71, 475
Rome, ancient—35, 119, 189, 318,
431, 640-42
See also Classics
Russia— 120, 365
Subject Index 805
s
Saxony—391
Scepticism— 29, 30, 34-36, 38-39, 45,
106, 189, 410-11, 415, 423, 427,
429-30, 432, 436, 464, 492, 504
Schelling's philosophy— 103, 105
Science—8, 11-12, 18-20,29-30,40-41,
84, 111-14, 133, 429, 636-3.7
— and religion—190
See also Astronomy, History, Investigation,
Method, Philosophy
Sculpture— 51, 431, 437
Self-consciousness—SO, 35, 39, 45, 52,
63, 65, 66, 70, 71-73, 85-86, 104,
165, 418, 493, 506
Semblance— 10, 39-40,45,64, 309,421,
430, 444
Sensation, sensuousness—39, 40, 45, 64-
66, 69, 74-75, 135, 295, 413, 418-
20, 425, 435, 448, 451, 454, 458-59,
462-63, 465, 469-71, 473-74
Serfdom— 139
Slavery—162
Social relations—4, 337
Society— 3-8, 120, 130, 137-38, 166,
234
See also Classes, Family, Public opinion,
Social relations, State
Sophists—436-38, 504
Soul—50, 413-15, 449, 452-53, 454,
496, 504-05
Space— 12, 48, 62, 64, 70, 71, 134
Sparta, ancient—34, 181
Speculation (speculative philosophy) —
29-30, 35-36
Spinoza's teaching—119, 201, 496
Spirit— 424, 428, 430-32, 436-41, 443,
444, 448, 491
State, the— 12, 120-22, 126, 129, 166,
183, 200, 249-255, 295, 302-06,
309, 317-18, 347-49, 384
— its origin — 200
— and civil society—234-35, 347-
48
— and private interest — 235-36,
240-41, 245, 250, 251, 256-57,
303
— system of organisation — 296,
321, 344, 346, 382, 392
— and government—155, 176,
182
— and law—256-57, 384
— and religion—189, 198-200
— and church—198-99
— and philosophy—195, 201-02
— as seen by ancient philosophers—
409-10, 435, 440, 494,
495
— in antiquity—435
:— estate representation—302,303
— Christian—117, 199-201, 400
— theocratic—199
— despotic—130, 177
See also Bureaucracy, Classes, Government,
Law, Monarchy, Parties, political,
Police, Politics, Republic, Right
Stoicism, stoics— 29-30, 34-36, 43, 59,
70, 72-73, 101, 189, 432, 493, 501,
504, 638-39
Subject— 437-39, 506
— and object—113
— and predicate—438, 458
Subjectivity— 72, 437, 439, 444
Substance— 426, 430-31, 432-41, 452-
53, 455-56, 469-71, 474, 475
— and accidens — 63-65
Supernaturalists—478
Switzerland—142, 144
System, philosophical— 35, 84-85, 505,
506
T
Tautology— 104, 425
Teleology— 422
Terrorism— 119, 372
Theology— 30, 74-76, 197, 447
Theory and practice— 40-42, 84-85, 220-
21, 432, 436, 441, 451
Thinking— 38, 42, 45, 113, 425, 439,
458, 471
Time— 33, 48, 63-65, 70, 441, 443
Trade— 286, 368
Tragic fate— 202
Truth—8, 39-40, 111-14, 191-92, 457-
58, 494, 497, 636
U
Unity and difference— 74, 295-97, 413,
453-54, 458, 476, 491
806 Subject Index
V
Vedas, the—191
Void—48, 58, 441, 471, 474, 478
W
Weight— 55-57, 60, 70
Whole and part—see Part and whole
Will— 137, 244, 308
— of the people —309, 321
Workers (working class)—195, 216
World— 61-62, 63, 64, 413, 419, 424-
26, 439, 440, 472, 475, 478, 491,
497
Writer— 119, 174-75
Y
Young Germany—208
Young Hegelianism— 192, 194
See also Doctors' club, Hegelianism


MECW VOL 2


A
Absolute idea— 99, 184-85, 186-87, 197,
213-14, 215-17, 289-90
See also Hegelianism, Idea
Absolutism—48-50, 96-97, 145, 356-58,
363-66, 480
See also France, Monarchy, State
Abstraction—140-41, 210-11, 221-22,
236, 266, 324-25, 338-39
Alsace—149-50
America—see United States of America
Ancient art—134, 275
See also Ancient tragédies, Hellenism,
Poetry
Ancient poetry—see Poetry
Ancient tragedies—73, 78, 275
Anthropology— 237-38
Anti-Corn Law League—376-77, 381
See also Corn Lauis
Apriorism—218
Architecture—7-8, 132-34
See also Cologne Cathedral, Gothic style,
Xanten Cathedral
Aristocracy—67, 357
— landed—146-47, 357-76, 380-82
— monied—104-05, 112, 357, 375
Art—133, 217, 275
— socially conditioned—48, 49, 51-52
— and religion—274-75
See also Ancient art, Architecture, Comic
and tragic, Drama, Literature, Music,
Opera, Painting, Poetry
Artistic form and content—44-46, 49-50,
53-54, 74-75, 138, 162
Artistic work— 81-82, 95
— and the writer's personality—
83, 84, 85, 89
— independence in—84, 85, 86
See also Artistic form and content,
Fantasy
Asceticism— 33, 138-39
Atheism— 286, 296, 328-29, 330-31,
332-33, 339-40, 349-51, 361
See also Bible, Christianity, Religion
Athens—258, 259, 260
Austria—266, 481
See also German states, Germany,
Prussia
Authority— 76, 158, 201, 286-87, 294,
454, 459
See also Faith, Reason
B
Barmen— 8-9, 415-16, 468
Basle—170
Battle o/Jena—163, 271
Being and thinking—186-87, 201-02, 214-
16, 218, 220
See also Hegelianism, Schelling's philosophy
Belgium—149-50
Berlin—86, 259-60, 268, 325, 335, 396-
97, 483
Bifc-le—12-15, 17, 66, 74, 157, 231, 233,
251-52, 257-64, 313, 322, 416, 426,
453-55, 457-62, 471, 476
— historical criticism of—74, 256-57,
486
670 Subject Index
— rationalistic criticism of—128, 156,
157, 323-24, 336, 426-27, 453-
59, 466, 476
— and church doctrine—466
See also Christianity, God, Pietism, Rationalism,
Theology
Bonn— 276, 325-26, 396-97
Book printing (in Germany)—66, 103-04
Bourgeoisie— 357-58, 364-65, 368-69,
373-75
See also Burghers
Bremen—102, 104, 112, 113-16, 119-20,
126, 157-60, 416, 528
Bremerhaven—115-16, 119, 498, 499
Bureaucracy— 97
See also Officials, Prussianism
Burghers, German—68-69, 104-05, 112,
145-46, 364-65
C
Calvinism—11-12, 97, 126, 489
Cartesianism—186-87, 197
Category (phil.)—206-07, 211, 236-37
Catholicism— 9, 101, 236, 360-61, 362-65
See also Church
Censorship— 309-11, 334, 465, 472, 481,
488
— and public opinion—307-08
— and law—306-07, 309-10
— in Prussia—38, 280, 298, 304, 307-
08, 309-10, 331-32, 360-61
See also Freedom, Press, Prussia
Centralisation—see State
Chance—see Necessity and chance
Character (in literature)—34, 45, 54, 72-
73, 74-75, 77-79, 89-90
Chartism
— as a workers' party—368-69, 374,
375-76, 377, 379
— and the ruling classes—368-69
— and universal suffrage—368-69
See also England, People's Charter,
Working class
Christianity— 30, 95, 97, 121, 155, 158,
228-29, 230, 238-39, 254-55, 455-62,
476-79, 526-27
— its origin—231
— its contradictions—201, 224-25
— criticism of—196-97, 248-49
— and other religions—222, 236-37,
251-53
— and the problem of man—226-27
— Christian conception of history—
256-58
— and law —361-62
— and morals—249-50
Church—48, 74-75, 155, 230, 257-58,
363-64, 454, 457-58, 481
— its history—48, 235, 257-58, 260-61
— and State—361-64, 380
— Catholic—64-65, 235, 257-58, 260-
62, 362-65
— Protestant—121, 257:58, 261, 363
Classes— 302-03, 370, 372-7*4, 378-79
See also Class struggle, Interests
Classicism (in literature)—82
Class struggle— 368, 372-73, 378-79
See also Chartism, Classes, Strikes,
Working class
Clergy— 75-76, 127-28, 350, 366, 460
Cologne—132
Cologne Cathedral—132-34, 353-54
Comic and tragic
— in art—78-79
— in life—78-79
Condition of the working class—see
Working class
Consciousness— 54, 139, 148-49, 166,215-
16
See also Being and thinking, Self-consciousness
Constitution— 175, 421
— bourgeois—298-99
— English—346-47, 370
— Spanish—140, 493
— Prussian—298, 365-67, 493
— of the Holy Roman Empire—175
— French—266, 355-56
Constitutionalism—32, 37, 149-50, 163,
365-67, 442-43
Contradictions— 208-09, 212-13, 326, 372,
373-74, 459-60, 476
— internal and external—267, 459-60
— in society—358-72
Corn Laws (in England)—376-77, 380-81
Cosmopolitanism—141-42, 163, 266
See also Liberalism
Craftsmen (in Germany)—10-11, 117
Crisis (trade) — 373, 378
Criticism— 81-82
— literary—82, 87-88, 90-92, 93, 288,
289-90, 448-49
— of the theatre—74, 80-81
Crusades— 133
Subject Index 671
D
Descartes' philosophy—see Cartesianism
Despotism— 166
— in Prussia—364-65
— in Russia—148, 358-59, 360
See also Absolutism, Monarchy
Dialectics— 81-82, 359
See also Hegelianism, Schelling's philosophy
Dogmatism— 237-38, 527
Drama—-77-78
— the problem of dramatic action —
71-72, 73, 76-78
— plot—74-75, 78-79
— and reality—292
See also Criticism, English drama,
German drama, Theatre
Dualism— 83-84, 95, 200-01
E
Eastern question—148
Education—17-21, 138-39, 165, 268, 277,
455, 462, 466, 480
See also Universities, Youth
Election system
— in England—381
— in France—358
— in Prussia—365-67
Emancipation—37, 38, 77, 101, 139, 141,
361, 363, 421, 443
Emigration—115-18, 498
Empiricism— 218
Encyclopaedists— 50
England
— industry—370, 371-73
— trade—371-73, 378
— political system—360, 370-71
— political parties of ruling classes —
368-69, 371, 375-77, 380
— judicial power, laws—302, 371
— electoral reform movement—368-
69, 380
— home and foreign policy—148,
368-69, 370, 372-73, 375-79, 381
— colonial policy —372-73, 379
— prospects of revolution—368-69,
370, 373-74, 380-81
See also Anti-Corn Law League, Aristocracy,
Bourgeoisie, Chartism, Class struggle,
Constitution, Corn Laws, Free trade,
Nobility, Peasants, Radicals, Revolution,
Working class
English drama— 72, 76, 100, 166
English poetry—95, 100-01
Entails—146, 147, 364
Epos—see German folk legends
Essence and appearance—358-59, 364-65,
371, 375
Estates system—145-46, 364-65
See also Bourgeoisie, Burghers, Craftsmen,
Germany, Guild system, Interests,
Peasants, Prussia
Ethics— 32, 281-82, 361-62, 379, 456,
459, 477
— good and evil—5-6, 230, 259, 426
— love—173
Europe— 266, 355-56
Executive power— 302, 359
See also Election system, Law, Legislation,
State
Experience (phil.)—201, 218
F
Factory labour—9-10
Faith— 236-37, 250, 426, 471
— its origin—122
— and reason—250-51
See also Authority, Christianity, Reason,
Religion, Science
Family—164-65, 262, 282
Fantasy—195, 199-201, 235-36
— imagination in artistic work—43-
44, 53-54, 82, 85
Federation—see State
Feudalism— 48, 355, 371
Feuerbach's philosophy— 209, 237, 296, 337
See also Anthropology, Christianity
Fichte's philosophy—165, 198-99
— and Schelling's philosophy—198-
99
Folk-song—148-49
— in Germany—9, 42, 82
France—142, 302, 321, 358
— absolute monarchy—357-58
— under the Restoration—136, 196,
358
— the July monarchy—355-56, 360
See also Ahsoiutism, Constitution, French
literature, French Revolution, Huguenot
672 Subject Index
wars, Jacobin dictatorship, July revolution.
of 1830 in France, Legitimism, Music.
Napoleonic wars
"Free, TV'—332, 334, 337-38, 342-
44, 347-48, 349-51, 353
Freedom—145, 147, 151, 169, 184-85,
235-36, 238-39, 321, 349-50, 371
— of property—147
— political—48, 266, 272-73, 290,
298, 300-01, 334, 356-57, 358-61,
364-65
— of personality—338-39, 356-57,
455-56, 459
— of the press—300-01, 360, 364-65
See also Censorship, Journalism, Press
Freedom of denomination—363-64
Free trade— 373, 377
French literature—49-50, 68, 82-83
French Revolution—50, 141, 249, 367
— its prerequisites—357-58
— its influence in Europe—137, 140,
141, 263
See also Gironde, Jacobin dictatorship
G
German drama—45-46, 54, 71-81, 102-03,
129-30, 275, 288
German emigrants—116-18, 159-60, 498
German folk legends— 96, 132-33, 135,
136, 137, 160, 175
See also Germanpopular books, People'sart
Germanising trend (Germanisation)—140-
42, 167
— as a trend without historical and
philosophical foundation—140,
145
— as an extremely nationalistic trend
— 141-42, 145-46, 148
German liberalism—see Liberalism
German literature— 20-22, 24-25, 33-34,
37, 50-52, 53-54, 82-84, 89-90, 92-93,
104-05, 158-59, 289, 293, 413, 420-21,
485
— conditions of its development—
41, 78-79, 88-89
— influence of Hegel's philosophy on
— 50-51, 88, 286, 291
— national tendencies—137-40
See also German popular books, Young
Germany movement
German philosophy—117-19, 165, 168
See also Feuerbach's philosophy, Hegelianism,
Kant's philosophy, Philosophy, Spelling's
philosophy
German poetry— 21-23, 42-46, 53-54, 81-
82, 100-01, 161-69, 288, 411, 468
— medieval—33-34, 51-52
— religious tunes in—24-25, 30-31,
86, 397-98, 416
German popular books (Volksbücher)—
32-40
German states—103-04, 105, 119-20, 147
See also Austria, Prussia
German theatre— 80-81, 102-03, 275, 393,
397, 523
See also Criticism, Drama, German
drama, Theatre
Germany— 90-98, 100-01, 139-40, 143,
145, 147-50, 192
— industry—373, 378
— political system—32-33, 136, 140
— home and foreign policy—116-17,
137, 141-43, 147-50, 266-67, 298-
99, 393
— problem of unification—140, 149-
50, 266, 298
— patriotic and national liberation
movement, 1808-13—139-41, 162-
63, 205, 364
— prospects of revolution—147, 420,
463-64
See also Absolutism, Alsace, Austria,
Bonn, Book printing, Bremen, Bremerhaven,
Burghers, Cologne, Craftsmen, "Free,
The", German drama, German emigrants,
German folk legends, Germanising trend,
German literature, German philosophy,
German poetry, German popular books,
German states, German theatre, Hanse,
Journalism, Liberalism, Merchants, Munich,
Music, Nationalism, National liberation
movement, Nobility, North Germany,
Peasants, People's art, Philistinism, Press,
Prussia, Shipping project, South Germany,
Westphalia, Wuppertal, Young Germany
movement, Young Hegelians, Youth
Gironde—339
Gnoseology— 207-09
God, gods—133, 231-33, 248, 251-58,
260-61, 264, 363-64, 460, 462-66
— German—133
Subject Index 673
— Greek—16, 231
— and speculative philosophy—216-
17, 220-21, 223-25, 227-28, 230,
232-33, 236, 248-57, 259, 263, 316,
321, 323, 454-55, 458-62, 476-79,
489
— ontological proof of the existence of
God—219, 220
See also Bible, Christianity, Religion,
Theology
Gospel—see Bible
Gothic style—101, 133
Great week—see July revolution of 1830
in France
Greece— 95, 253
See also Ancient art, Athens, Mythology
Guild system—364-65
See also Estates system
H
Hanse—97, 158
Hegelianism
— general characteristic of Hegel's
system—86, 89, 99, 143-44, 165-
66, 168-69, 191-96, 197-98, 237-38,
269-70, 281, 286-87, 451-52, 483,
486, 489-90
— problems of identity of being and
thinking—186-87, 200-02, 209-10
— dialectic—198-99, 206-07, 208-09,
210-11, 236,451
— place and importance of logic—
202, 206-07, 210, 215-17
— revolutionary and conservative
elements of Hegel's philosophy—
66, 86, 142-43, 191, 196-97, 217-
18
— contradictions in Hegel's system—
196, 217, 235
— philosophy of law—196
— Hegel's teaching on the state—
196, 289, 362
— philosophy of history—47, 68-69,
213-14, 256-57, 486, 490
— philosophy of religion—196, 224-
25, 287, 489
— problems of freedom and necessity—
86
— and Prussian monarchy—86, 197-
98, 486-87
— influence on German literature—
50-51, 88, 89-90, 168-69, 286, 291
See also Absolute idea, Being and thinking,
Idea, Young Hegelians
Hegelians—see Young Hegelians
Hellas—see Greece
Hellenism— 230, 238
Heretics, heresies—12-13
— gnosticism—201, 207
— Pelagianism—249
— Socianianism—249
Historical school of law—145-47, 271-
72, 361, 364, 375
History—68-69, 256-57, 272-73, 281-82,
355-57
— its law-governed character—47-48,
75, 228, 272-73, 355-56
— historical progress—47-48, 239-40,
272-73, 356-57, 370-71
— and personality—75-76, 78-79,
355-56
Holland— 97-98, 134, 149
Holy Roman Empire—175
Huguenot wars—357
I
Idea, ideas
— their role in social progress—
48, 143, 196, 239-40, 290, 370-71
— ideological struggle—284
— in Hegel—186-87, 212-13
— in Schelling—205-06, 212-13, 216-
17
See also Absolute idea, Hegelianism,
Intellectual life, Schelling's philosophy
Identity (phil.)—205, 214, 220, 223
See also Hegeiionism
Immigration—117-18
Industrial production—372-73
— its contradictions under capitalism—
372-78
— and impoverishment of the proletariat—
378-79
See also Working class
Infinity— 208
Inquisition—126, 493
Intellect— 287, 323, 462, 486
— in literary work—43-44, 53-54,
82, 85
Intellectual life—12-13, 17-18, 65, 141-
42, 144, 152, 271-74, 277, 290
674 Subject Index
Interests— 363, 370, 381
— material—370-71
— class—381
— of the estates—364-65
— of the state—266
Islam—see Mohammedanism
Israel—see Jews
J
Jacobin dictatorship—64
Jesuits— 76
Jews—142, 149-50, 182, 196, 387-88,
443
— Hebrews—74-76, 192, 231
— emancipation of—141, 421, 443
See also Judaism, Religion
Journalism—2S, 105-06, 148, 298-99
— its role in society—27, 158-59, 292
— as a means of political and literary
polemic—87-88, 90-91, 92-93,
— and literature—291-92
— in Germany—21-23, 92, 105
See also Censorship, Criticism, Freedom,
Literature, Press
Judaism— 76, 96, 232, 236, 252, 324-25
See also Jews
July monarchy—see France
July revolution of 1830 in France—50,
136, 142, 196, 355-56, 358, 420, 501
— its prerequisites—358
— its influence in Europe—266-67,
420, 463-64
See also France
Jury system—136, 141, 302-03, 307, 358-
59
K
Kant's philosophy— 69, 156, 186, 218
— "thing-in-itself"—165
— rational thinking—186
— ability to know—202
— as the basis of religious rationalism
— 128
See also Apriorism, Philosophy
Königsberg— 277, 284
Koran—454-55
L
Landed property—146-48, 376, 381
See also Legislation
Landlords—see Aristocracy
Language (linguistics)—138, 193, 443-44
— popular—160
— German—138, 176, 159-60, 396
— Romance—176
See also Thinking
Law—144, 302-03, 371
— criminal—283
— civil—141
— hereditary—146-47
— and property—302-03
— English—371
— Prussian—304-11, 364, 479-81
— Roman (Pandects)—141
— sense of justice—371
— and equity—144
— and religion—362
See also Legislation
Legislation— 304-07, 309-10, 359, 371,
374
— agrarian—146-47
— practice of the courts—305, 307,
480
Legitimism— 49, 355-56, 361-62
Liberalism— 20-21, 141
— French—355-56, 357-58
— German—86, 143, 266-67, 284-85,
289, 292, 295-96, 297-98, 302, 364-
66
Libertines—489
Libya— 96
Literature—165, 288
— its social role—27, 32-33, 48, 51-52
— and reality—292
— and philosophy—50-51
— the author's views—74
See also Artistic form and content,
Character, Criticism, French literature,
German literature, Journalism, Popular
character, Prose, Spanish literature, Style
Logic—156, 166, 184-85, 205-08, 221-22,
464
See also Hegelianism
Lorraine—149
Lutheranism—12-13, 66, 362-63, 454, 486
See also Church, Pietism, Protestantism
Lyrics—42, 82
See also Poetry
Subject Index 675
M
Mankind— 129, 146, 238-40, 296, 356,
458-59
Market— 372-73, 376-77
Marriage—see Family
Masses—173, 275, 358, 380, 387
See also People
Materialism— 50, 222
Medicine—281-83
Merchants (in Germany)—104-05, 117,
172
Middle Ages— 66, 133, 145-46, 170, 357,
363-65
See also Absolutism, Crusades
Middle class—see Bourgeoisie
Military training—129-30, 146, 505-06,
507-08
Mohammedanism—182, 236
See also Koran
Monarchy— 289, 358-59, 360-61, 493
— absolute—97, 135-36, 144-45, 358-
59, 363-65
— constitutional— 144, 360
See also Absolutism, Constitutionalism,
England, France, Prussia, State
Monotheism— 222, 224
Morals—138-39
See also Ethics
Munich—200, 397
Music—159, 275, 404-07, 418
— French—159, 530-31
— German—150,159, 275, 387, 473-
74, 523, 530
— Italian—150,159,523,529-30
See also Opera, Poetry
Mysticism
— in religion—10, 11-12,15, 17-18,
458, 471
— in philosophy—200-01, 227-28,
291, 296-97
See also Spelling's philosophy
Mythology—199, 228, 231
— Greek—414-15, 553
— German—75, 132-33, 414-15, 554
— Christian—75, 228, 476-77
See also German folk legends, God
N
Napoleonic Code (Code Napoléon)— 21
Napoleonic wars—139, 141,153-54,271-72
Nationalism—141, 148-49, 163
— its origin—140-42
— and cosmopolitanism— 141-42
See also Germanising trend
National liberation movement—137, 140,
149-50
Nature—205, 212-13, 214-16, 236-38,
310-11
Necessity and chance—236, 364, 459, 466
Negation (phil.)—140-41, 149-50, 284
— and positive content—239-40, 293
— in Hegel's philosophy—205-07,
211, 212-13, 222-24
See also Hegeiianism
Neo-Schellingianism— see Schelling's
philosophy
Nobility— 69-70, 146-47, 364-65, 376
— and the estates system—146, 363-
65
— its ideology—68-70
— English—376, 380-81
— German—67-69, 70, 145-46
See also Aristocracy
North Germany— 95-96, 158-59, 163,
265-66, 276, 298
O
Object and subject— 214, 215-17, 286
See also Hegeiianism, Schelling's philosophy
Objectivity— 216-17, 287
Officials—136, 305, 307-08, 359, 360,
362, 364-65, 484
See also Bureaucracy, Prussianism
Old Lutheranism—see Lutheranism
Opera (in Germany)—129, 400, 538
Opposition—65, 265, 267, 284-85, 309-
10
P
Painting—134, 170
Pantheism—95, 106, 222, 224-25, 244,
489, 526
Paris—357-58
Parliamentarism—265, 267, 355, 268-
69, 376-77
Parsees—489
Patriotism—141, 148-49, 265
676 Subject Index
Peasants
— English—375, 381
— German—116-17, 126, 364
People
— its sovereignty—144, 163
— the role of masses in history—37,
76, 281-82, 370, 377, 378
— its participation in the administration
of the state—144, 147, 302,
308, 358-59, 365-66, 371, 421
— its role in the national liberation
struggle—140
See also Masses
People's art (fairy-stories, poetry, legends) —
4, 5, 35, 36-37, 96-97, 1-74-75
See also Folk-song, Gt man popular
books, Mythology
People's Charter—S68
See also Chartism
Personality— 83-84, 89-90, 177, 226-27,
355-59
See also Artistic work, Christianity,
Freedom, History, State, Will
Philistinism— 25, 135, 143, 166, 168-69,
276, 300, 331, 353, 396-97, 416, 475,
484, 525
Philosophy— 99, 109, 200-02, 205-06, 209-
10, 218, 221-22, 280, 282, 316, 321-
22, 455, 462, 527
— and the state—197-98
— in Germany—118, 165, 168, 267
See also Cartesianism, Empiricism,
Feuerbach's philosophy, Fichte's philosophy,
German philosophy, Hegelianism, Kant's
philosophy, Mysticism, Schelling's philosophy,
Stirner's philosophy, Wolf's philosophy,
Young Hegelians
Pietism—10-12, 14-18, 22-23, 25, 30, 32-
33, 48, 86-87, 103-04, 121, 127-29,
155-56, 284-85, 345-46, 416, 423, 446,
457, 460, 462, 466, 471, 480, 489, 494
Poetry—18-19, 33, 42-43, 45, 47-54, 81-
82
— its social content—37-39, 43-44
— ancient—82
— medieval—23-24, 33, 82, 172-73
— Romance—33-34, 37
— and religion—95, 397, 416
— and music—43-44
See also Character, Fantasy, German
poetry, Lyrics, Popular character, Verse
Political crimes—136, 304-07, 308-09,
310-11, 480
See also Law, State
Political rights—365
Politics—165, 271-72, 289, 368-69
— political awareness—298, 381
Popular character (in literature)—33-35,
39-40
Positive philosophy—see Schelling's philosophy
Possibility and reality— 202-03, 207
See also Hegelianism, Schelling's philosophy
Press— 200
— and public opinion—66, 355
— press laws—304-11
— as a means of political struggle—
87-88 304-05
— French—357
— German—22-23, 105-06, 412-1.1
See also Censorship, Freedom, Journalism 
Press laws—see Press
Progress—148, 237-38, 239-40, 270-72,
293, 298, 338-39, 355-56, 360-61, 370-
72, 455
See also History
Proletariat—see Working class
Property—147-48
— and law—302-03
— and revolution—373
Prose— 22-23, 81-88, 167
See also French literature, German literature.
Literature, Spanish literature
Protestantism—64, 197, 360-63, 454
— and Catholicism—100-01, 360-61
See also Church
Prussia—163-64, 268-69, 271-72, 360-61,
366-67
— social and political system—96-97,
135-36, 197-98, 272-73, 298, 299,
304, 310-11, 363-66, 480
— laws—136, 304-07, 309-10
— home and foreign policy—304-05,
360, 362-63, 367
— democratic movement—298-99,
365-67
See also Absolutism, Barmen, Berlin,
Censorship, Constitution, Despotism,
Election system, Law, Monarchy, Napoleonic
wars, Press, Prussianism
Prussianism— 97, 163, 166-68, 298, 361
Publicity— 301, 302-03, 307, 480
See also Freedom, Press
Subject Index 677
Public opinion—66, 92, 181, 271-72, 284,
298, 307-08, 365-66, 371, 465
Q
Quakers—103
Quality and quantity—306
R
Radicals (in England)—368-69, 375-77
See also England
Rationalism (in religion)—74, 127-28,
141-42, 156-58, 248-49, 423, 486
Reality—see Possibility and reality
Reason— 82, 157, 208-09, 210, 287, 293,
295, 356, 456, 459
— and authority—158
— and faith—157, 249-51, 321, 454,
461-62, 486-87
— and reality—287, 293
Reformation— 357
Reformists—9, 11-12, 13, 15, 19-20, 29,
30, 122, 126-27
— and German philosophy—122
— and art—12, 122
— and Catholics—12, 20
— and Lutherans—12, 13, 20
See also Calvinism, Church, Religion
Religion— 95, 133-34, 196-97, 217-18,
231, 282, 287-92, 321-22, 326, 357,
456, 460-62
— and the state—362-64
— and science—122, 127-28
— and art—24-25, 30-31, 36-37, 122,
274-75
— religious fanaticism—12, 357, 416
See also Christianity, Mohammedanism,
Mysticism, Rationalism, Theology
uiissance—49
ublic— 359
:e also Slate
jration—see France
lution
its prerequisites—147,357-58,369-
71, 373-74
ways and means of its accomplishment—
373-74
and law—368-69, 374
political—303, 357, 374
->cial—374, 380-81
See also England, French Revolution,
Germany, July revolution of 1830 in
France
Rhenish Province of Prussia—81, 95, 163,
274-75
Right—356-57, 358, 371
Romanticism (as a literary trend)—35, 39-
40, 162, 167-68
— and religion—30
— in Germany—30, 33, 51-52, 105,
166
Rome, Romans—48, 82, 231, 253, 443
Russia
— as a reactionary force in Europe—
148, 150
— tsarist despotism—148, 359, 360
See also Despotism
S
Satire
— ancient—82, 96
— German—389
Saxony—96
Spelling's philosophy—184-85, 199-200,
221, 225-26, 236-37, 293
— its religious and mystical character—
198-201, 202-03, 205-06,
_209-12, 213-19, 223-28, 231-37,
243-48, 250-51, 253-56
— its place in the history of modern
philosophy—183
— criticism of Hegel's philosophy—
182-86, 214-16, 220
— positive and negative philosophy—
183-85, 186-87, 200-01, 204-05,
213-14, 217-20
— problem of essence (concept) and
existence—184, 186, 200-04, 207-
08, 209-10, 213-14, 215-16, 222-23
— power (potential)—184, 187, 202-
14
— matter—203-04, 207, 212, 220
— nature—204-05, 212-13, 236
— philosophy of history—213-14
See also Hegelianism, Idea, Philosophy
Science—156, 164-65, 268, 270, 271-73
— and life—50-51
— objectivity of—216
— and religion—122, 127-28, 321,
457, 458-59
6 7 8 Subject Index
Sculpture
— ancient—134-35
— medieval (in Germany)—132-33
Self-consciousness— 239-40, 296, 361
See also Consciousness
Shipping project (in Germany)—128-29
Single, particular, universal—272, 287,
356-57, 359, 364
Slavs—149, 277
Society—165, 366-67
See also Classes, Family, State
Sophistry—126-27, 267, 371, 479
South Germany—265-66, 298
See also Germany, Rhenish Province of
Prussia
Sovereignty—139-40, 355, 363
Spanish literature—78-79
Spirit (mind)—see Absolute idea, Hegelianism,
Schelling's philosophy
Starvation— 374, 376, 379
Stole—48, 145, 271-73, 302, 356, 358-
59, 363, 364-65
— and society—136, 358-59, 364-65
— and the individual—356-59
— and the nation—139-40, 144-45
— and law—136, 144, 146-47, 358-59
— and Church—360-64
— and philosophy—197-98
— monarchic—356-59, 480
— republican—358-59
— federal—359
— centralised—356-59
— feudal—146-47
— Christian—360-63
See also Absolutism, Despotism, Hegelianism,
Historical school of law, Monarchy,
Politics
Stirner's philosophy—339
Stoicism— 249, 259
Strikes, general— 373-74
Style
— in literature—25, 39, 81-82, 85,
86, 138, 162-63, 472-73, 481
— in philosophy—186-87, 195
Switzerland—170-71
T
Taxes—367, 480
Theatre— 80-81, 102-03, 129-30
See also Criticism, German theatre
Theology— 219, 269-70, 322, 326-27, 361-
66, 459-60, 471, 476-80, 487, 490, 526
See also Bible, Christianity, Church,
Pietism, Rationalism, Religion
Theory and practice—195-96, 266-67,
271-73, 338-39, 370
Theory of knowledge—see Gnoseology
"Thing-in-itself—see Kant's philosophy
Thinking— 205-06, 213-15, 219, 293
— and reality—195-96, 207-08, 220
— and language—195
See also Being and thinking, Hegelianism,
Intellect, Reason, Schelling's philosophy, Self-consciousness
Time (phil.)—see Kant's philosophy
Town—138, 146, 357-58
Trade—364-65, 372-73, 376-78
See also Crisis, Free trade
Transcendental— 218, 233, 256
Truth—47, 187, 196-97, 235-36, 250-
51, 455, 461, 527
See also Authority, Faith
U
Unemployment— 379
See also Working class
United States of America—116-17, 358-
59, 498-99
Unity of the world— 295-97
Universities (in Germany)—268, 276, 396-
97
V
Verse—45, 51-52, 54, 79-80, 101, 39
94, 449
W
Wages— 373
Westphalia—161
Will—15, 232, 458
See also Christianity, Personality
Wolf's philosophy—156
Women— 38, 77, 291, 379, 421
— emancipation of—38, 77, 42.'
— their participation in public
101
Subject Index 679
Working class
— its emergence—373
— condition in capitalist society—
9-11, 370, 373, 375-79
— its class awareness—373-76, 378-
79
— as a revolutionary force—373-74
Wuppertal— 7, 8, 16
X
Xanten—132, 134-35
Xanten Cathedral—132-34
Y
Young Germany movement—20-21, 41-42,
50-51, 84, 86-87, 279-80, 284-91, 411,
420-22, 460, 467
— its place in ideological struggle—
50-51, 422-23
— and German literature—20-21, 27,
41-42, 86-87, 420-21, 449-50, 464-
65
See also German literature
Young Hegelians— 64-65, 85-86, 92-93,
142-45, 165, 181, 196-97,287-88,451-
52
— progressive and conservative aspects
of Hegel's philosophy—143-
44, 216-17
— criticism of some aspects of Hegel's
philosophy—143, 287-88
See also Hegelianism, Young Germany
movement
Youth—137, 168
— in Germany—132, 135-36, 137-39,
165, 168-69, 173-74, 196, 266, 274
See also Education, Universities
Z
Zurich—171, 173




MECW VOL 3





A
Absolutism— 79, 190
Abstract and concrete—28, 78, 325.
331-32
Abstraction—15, 61, 64, 79, 89, 235,
270, 275-76, 286, 298-99, 305, 307,
327, 329, 334, 338-39, 342-46, 424-
25, 427, 464, 475
See also Person, Thinking, Abstract
and concrete
Activity— 80, 236-37, 272, 274-75, 276-
78, 302, 304, 308, 317, 348
— social—298, 303
— objective—336
— abstract—183, 238, 308
— human—432
See also Labour, Man
Administration—44, 49-50
See also Bureaucracy
Aesthetics— 273, 277
Agriculture— 263-65, 286-87, 292, 294,
429, 436, 440
— and industry—285-88, 293
See also Fertility, Science
Aim— 166-67, 286
Algeria—528-29
Alienation— 309, 310, 314, 324-26, 339-
40
— of species-activity of man—212,
217-18, 219, 226, 227, 275-76,
277-78, 279-80, 302-03, 307, 317,
321, 324-25, 328-29
— of the product of labour—216,
219, 238, 272, 274, 277-80, 292,
302, 306
— as the domination of the world
of things over man—272, 306
— under the rule of private property—
173-74, 212, 217-19, 237-38,
266, 271, 278-80, 281-82, 291-93,
297, 309, 314, 317, 322-23, 476
— and objectification — 271-72, 281,
303
— Hegel's conception of alienation—
329-35, 338-46
See also Christianity, Consciousness,
Estranged labour, Estrangement,
Landed property, Man, Nature,
Private property, Production, Profit,
Science, Self-estrangement, State,
Value, Wages, Worker
America—see United States of America
Animal—12, 81, 104, 117, 275-77, 308
See also Man
Antagonism—see Contradiction and Opposites
Anti-Corn Law League, the—380, 382-84,
428, 505
See also Corn Laws
Antiquity—110, 180, 470, 474, 475
See also Greece, People, Rome, Slavery,
State
Anthropologism (philos.)—322
Appearance—56,311
Appropriation— 281, 322, 331, 341
Arbitrariness, caprice— 20, 25, 36, 57, 68,
100
See also Violence
Aristocracy— 32, 399, 455, 491-92
— landed—265-70, 379, 444-46,
449, 453, 456, 476-77, 488,497-98
— moneyed—266, 379, 444-46, 449,
453, 456, 476-77, 488
— in England—379, 444-46, 449,
453, 456, 476-77, 493-94, 497-98
See also Nobility
Aristotle's philosophy—137, 305
Art—275, 297, 302, 309, 326, 340-41
Artisans, handicraftsmen—32, 264, 355,
357, 401
Asceticism— 311
Atheism, atheists—152, 190, 297, 305-06,
341-42, 385-86, 388, 404, 450, 457,
463
See also Communism, Religion
Austria—183, 352
Authority—47, 232
B
Babouvism— 393, 396
Bonking—214, 216
Being, existence—27
— and consciousness—290, 298-99,
301, 312, 325, 329-32, 342-43,
344-45
See also Thinking
Bible, the—158, 171
Bill of exchange— 213
Bourgeoisie—185, 199-202, 497-98, 513
See also Bourgeoisie in .England, Bourgeoisie
in France, Bourgeoisie in Germany,
Capitalist, Classes, Middle class,
Working class
Bourgeoisie in England—192-95, 200,
379-80, 444-46, 456, 477, 487, 496-
98, 513
Bourgeoisie in France—185, 200, 396
Bourgeoisie in Germany—185-86, 190,
191, 193, 199-200, 202
Bourgeois political economy—217-18, 221,
231-32, 240-46, 248-55, 257-58, 270-
73, 280-81, 284, 304, 307, 308-11,
313-14, 316-17, 418, 419, 433-37,
438-39, 443
— classical (Adam Smith, David Ricardo)—
192-93, 211, 217-18, 235,
239-40, 246-54, 255-65, 285, 290-
92, 309-11, 317-21, 333, 375, 418-
21, 422-31, 485-86
— petty-bourgeois political economy
— 316
— in England—211-28, 291, 309-12,
319-20, 420-21, 424-25, 485-87
— in France—246-47, 291, 309-11,
318-19, 320-21, 375, 424-26
— in Poland—319-21
See also Capitalist, Competition, Industry,
Landed property, Law, Malthusianism,
Mercantilism, Money, Physiocrats,
Private property, Production,
Value, Wages, Wealth
Bourgeois society—117, 185-86, 188,
197-98, 212, 214-15, 219, 237-41,
250, 260, 262-64, 270, 280-81, 285,
302, 317, 321-22, 324-26, 477-78
See also Capitalist, Industry, Interest,
interests, Money, Private property,
Production
Bureaucracy—44-48, 50-54, 60, 63, 66,
76-77, 79, 119, 122-24
See also Administration
C
Capital
— as a form of estrangement—
215, 221, 300, 316
— as accumulated labour—237, 239,
240, 247, 250, 289, 312, 427, 430
— conditions for private property
becoming capital—293, 315-16
— as private property in products
of other men's labour—247, 285
— as governing power over labour
and its products—241, 246-47,
272-73, 283
— as dominating power in bourgeois
society—266, 267, 269-70
— its separation from labour—213-
14, 221, 235, 270-72, 285-86,
288-89, 312, 375-76, 430-32
— its separation from landed property—
221, 235, 270-71, 286-89
— and capitalist competition—238,
250-52, 255, 435-36, 440
— conditions for accumulation of —
238-40, 250-51, 253-54, 258, 268,
270, 287-88
— concentration of—238, 251, 253,
268, 321
— and interest on—239-52, 263-
64, 283, 284, 289, 316, 317, 430
— profit on—250-52, 375, 430
— costs of—289, 312, 316
— fixed and circulating—253-54
— advanced—248
— industrial—293, 315-17
— and crude egalitarian communism—
296
See also Capitalist, Competition, Labour,
Landed property, Private property
Capitalist, capitalists
— economic prerequisites for domination
of—235-36, 239, 246-47
— as owner of means of subsistence
for worker—235-37, 240, 279-80,
283-84
— competition among capitalists and
ruin of small capitalists—237-38,
250-53, 263-64, 288-89, 432, 433-
34
— and landlord—263-64, 265, 267-
68, 269-70, 286-89, 315
— bourgeois classical economists
on—247-49, 250-52, 270, 284,
285, 308, 312, 316
— and crude egalitarian communism—
296
See also Capital, Competition,
Labour, Landed property, Private property,
Profit, Worker, Working class
Categories— 343, 424
Catholicism— 48, 50-51, 183, 190, 290,
422, 457, 471
Censorship— 184, 349
Chance—see Necessity and chance
Chartism—190, 379-85, 386, 391, 393,
447-48, 467, 492-94, 496, 497,
504-05
— People's Charter—373, 450, 476
Chemistry—440
Child labour— 308, 424
Christianity
— and essence of religion—30, 462
— as a form of man's estrangement-^-
79, 137, 156-57, 158-59, 173-74,
463
— its dogmas—33, 91, 152, 439
— and man—419
— and Judaism—147, 149-50, 168,
171-74
— and communism —385, 399, 403,
407
— Hegel on—88-89
See also Bible, Catholicism, Church,
Clergy, Communism, Judaism, Lutheranism,
Protestantism, State-
Church—158, 474
— and the state—474-75
— and socialism — 385-87
Civilisation— 81, 295, 308, 478
See also Culture
Civil society
:— opposition and contradiction
, between the state and civil society—
7-9, 40, 70-71, 72-73, 78-79,
81, 90, 159-60, 162, 172-74, 182-
83, 197, 198
— under feudalism—111, 164-65
— under the bourgeois mode of production—
163-64, 166-67, 171-72,
184-85, 287-88, 316-17
— Hegel's idealist conception of—
5-11, 30, 40-42, 44, 46, 48-50,
51-53, 65-66, 71-73, 75-77, 78-79,
83, 84-86, 89-90, 95-96, 99, 102,
111-12, 116-17, 118-20, 121, 122-
23, 340
— and the citizen—8, 21, 40-42, 50-
51, 76-77, 80, 90, 104, 111, 114-
15, 121, 123-24, 128-29, 154, 155-
56, 159-62, 164, 166-68
— civil life and civil organisation—
76-77, 78-79, 231
See also Community, Emancipation,
Hegel's teaching on the state, State
Classes, the
— and revolution—184-86, 204
— in bourgeois society—89-90, 238-
40, 265, 269-70
— in England—379-80, 384
— in France— 186
— in Germany—185-86, 380
See also Bourgeoisie, Capitalist, Estates,
Peasantry, People, Working
class
Class struggle, the— 185-86, 235, 260
— in England —379, 380, 415
— in France—186
— in Germany—186, 415-16
See also Interest, interests, People,
Politics, Revolution, Working class
Clergy, the—50, 108, 171, 185
Commodity—213-14, 251, 263-64, 267,
269, 270-72, 283-84, 422, 440, 441
See also Capital, Worker
Communal being, community—78-80, 164,
204-05, 286, 295-96
Communism (theory)
— scientific—294-98, 313-14, 342,
405-07, 415-16
— premises for the rise of scientific
communism—312-13, 392-93,
403-06
— and atheism—190, 297, 342
— crude egalitarian—295, 296
— Utopian—142-44, 294-97, 399-
400, 401-02, 403-04
— Icarian—142-43, 396-400, 403-
04, 411-13
— artisans'—409, 410, 413
— and Christianity—385-86, 399,
404, 408
— as actual humanism—296-98,
302-04, 336, 342
See also Interest, interests, Labour,
Man, Politics, Property, Science, Weitling's
communism
Communist movement, the
— in England—312-13, 385, 392-
93, 406-07
— in France—312-13, 392-94, 395-
400, 403-04, 407-08
— in Germany—312-13, 392-93,
400-04, 406-07
Communist society—297-98, 305-06, 312-
13, 398-99, 433-35, 438-39
See also Interest, interests. Labour, Man,
Science
Community—48, 67
— primitive—313-14
Competition
— private property as the basis of
capitalist competition—294-95,
431-32
— law of—432-34
— its influence on development of
productive forces—255, 310,
434-35
— its influence on market prices—
252, 263-64, 375, 426-27, 430
— its influence on production of labour-
power—438
— contradictions of capitalist competition—
431-33
— among capitalists—250, 440
— and advantage of big capitalists
over small capitalists—252-53
— among landlords—263-65, 267-
70, 440, 441
— among workers—235, 238, 240,
435-36, 440
— and economic crises—433-37
— and monopoly—431-33
— bourgeois economists on—213,
221, 248,251, 258, 270-71,424-26
— transformation of competition into
emulation in future society—434-
35
See also Capital, Capitalist, Landed
property, Worker
Concept—25-26, 341, 343
Concrete—see Abstract and concrete
Consciousness
— its role in social progress—56
— its role in man's activity—275-77
— and being—290, 298-99, 301,
312-13, 329-32, 343, 344-45
— estranged—297-99, 463
— Hegel's conception of—19, 56,
332-34, 338, 355-56
See also Ratiocination, Reason,
Self-consciousness, Thinking
Constitution— 55, 56-57, 130, 163-64, 221
— in England—397-98, 445-46, 489-
513
— in France—113-14, 130, 161-65,
397-98
See also Hegel's teaching on the state,
Law, Legislative power
Consumption— 80-81, 220, 221, 224, 225,
226, 273, 300, 310, 315, 316, 435,
438
See also Production
Contract— 30
— social—419
Contradiction—294, 326, 435-36
— in essence and in fact—91, 291-92
— affirmation through contradiction
— 339
— determination through contradiction—
421, 429, 432-33
— in society—321
— apparent—280, 439
See also Essence and phenomenon, Interest,
interests
Corn Laws, the—263, 383-84, 453, 476
See also Anti-Corn Law League
Corporations, medieval—32, 44-46, 48-
49, 52, 68, 81, 89-90, 93, 102, 109,
112, 115, 122, 165-66, 286
Counter-revoiution—176
Credit system— 214-17
Crime—442
Criticism, critique—91, 142-45, 175-78,
181-82, 231-34, 327, 328, 329-30,
331-33, 356
Culture—295
See also Civilisation
D
Definition, determination—426, 428,429
Demand and supply—211, 213, 226, 235-
37, 262, 313-14, 325, 411-12, 433,
435-36, 438
Democracy—29-32, 115-16, 139-40, 159,
393, 454-55, 466, 491-92
— bourgeois—393, 396-97, 399-400
— working-class—476
— and people—28-30
— as a political form of social emancipation—
29-30
See also Freedom, Rights, political
Dependence—102, 225
Despotism— 32, 138, 140, 165-66
See also Absolutism, Monarchy
Dissenters—379-81
Division of labour— 220, 236-40, 249,
264, 267, 271, 272, 317, 319-21, 443
Doctrinairism—144
Dogmatism—91
E
Economic crisis— 237, 239-41, 263-64
— commercial crisis—433-34, 441
— and capitalist competition—269-
70, 433-37
Education— 80, 152, 193, 195
Egalitarianism— 397
Egoism—172, 174, 185, 217, 288, 300,
321
Election— 120-21
See also Suffrage
Emancipation—146-47, 168, 170-71, 174,
182-83, 184-85, 186, 187, 201
— political—146, 147-48, 149-52,
155-56, 159-60, 162, 164-66, 168,
182-83, 280-81, 306
— of mankind—146, 149-50,151-52,
155, 160, 168, 170, 174, 184-85,
186, 280-81, 300, 303, 305-06, 354
See also Revolution, Revolution, bourgeois,
Revolution, proletarian
Empiricism—», 9, 33, 39
Encyclopaedists—470
England
— political and social system of—
113, 120, 180, 192, 195, 445-46,
498, 503
— as a leading capitalist power —
471, 477-78, 489
— economy, industry and trade of—
179-80, 192-94, 201, 423-24, 435-
37, 446-47, 476-78, 485-86
— landed property of—268-69
— home conditions of—179-80, 192-
94, 435-37, 467-68, 473-74, 476-
77, 478-79
— legislation of—191-94, 386, 498-
99, 501-02, 505-13
- P o o r Laws-193-95, 197, 284,
437-38, 496
— struggle for electoral reform in the
1840s—486-87, 496-98
— political parties of ruling classes—
486-88
— culture of—380, 387, 444-47
— press, journalism of—444-45,
446-47, 493, 500-01, 504
— education, schools of—380-81,
443
— church of—379, 381, 385-87, 473-
75, 501-04, 512
— and Ireland—389-91
— prospects of proletarian revolution—
182, 200, 312-13, 380, 467,
469, 472-73, 476-77, 512-13
— English, the—445-46, 471-74,
489-90, 493
See also Anti-Corn Law League, Aristocracy,
Bourgeoisie in England, Classes,
Class struggle, Communist movement.
Constitution, Corn Laws, Dissenters,
English bourgeois revolution of the
17th century, English philosophy, Industrial
revolution (in England), Ireland,
Lancashire, Liberalism, Literature,
Monarchy, Parliament, Pauperism, Peasantry,
Reformation, Religion, Scotland,
Socialism, Tories, Trade unions,
Whigs, Workers' movement, Workhouses,
Working class in England
English bourgeois revolution of the 17th
century— 472-73, 476, 478-79, 490-91,
495
English philosophy— 460, 471-74, 478-79,
490
Enjoyment— 315-16, 322
Equality— 79, 163-64, 268, 313, 393-94,
398-99
Essence and phenomenon— 21, 311
— dialectical conception of development
of essence— 87-89, 90,91-93
— contradictions between essence
and phenomenon—55-56
— essential distinctions—286
— and existence—87-89, 296-97,
305-06
— and general—23-24, 26
— abstract essence—306-07
— criticism of Hegel's idealist conception
of essence and phenomenon—
7-8, 9, 90, 332-33, 337, 341
See also Opposites
Estate-representative system—75, 79, 80-81,
84-85, 118-20, 128, 143-44
See also Estates, Hegel's teaching on the
state
Estates
— in feudal society—62-63, 65-72,
76-78, 79-80, 81, 83, 84, 89-90,
114-15, 313-14
— general estate—50, 70-71, 103
— middle estate—53, 186-87
— and individual in the epoch of feudalism—
79-80, 81, 146-47, 153,
167
— dissolution of estates and formation
of classes—78-80, 165-66,
186-87
— Hegel's theory of—59-60, 65-73,
75-76, 78, 82, 83-85, 89-98, 102,
i r - 1 2 , 121-22
See also Classes, Clergy, Corporations,
Estate-representative system, Hegel's
teaching on the state, Middle Ages, Nobility,
Peasantry, State
Estranged labour— 219-20, 228, 237, 240-
42, 271, 275-82, 294, 296-97, 300,
303, 317, 442-43
Estrangement
— in the process of labour—213,
217, 220, 270-71, 273-74, 275-76,
277-79, 281, 291, 303
— political—31-32, 100-01
— religious—158, 212, 272, 278-79,
291, 297-98, 331-33, 339, 340,465
— ways of transcendence of—296-
300, 303-04, 312-13, 316, 338-42
See also Alienation, Christianity, Consciousness,
Estranged labour, Landed
property, Man, Nature, Private
property, Production, Profit, Science,
Self-estrangement, State, Value, Wages,
Worker
Ethics, morality— 94, 100, 107, 133,
215, 231, 287-89, 297-98, 309-11,
341, 421-22, 423-24, 430, 432, 434-
35, 442
Europe—183, 393
Exchange— 215, 217, 219-21, 224-27,
270-71, 320-21, 426-27
Exchange-value— 211, 213, 219-20, 424-
27
See also Value
Executive, the
— under the rule of private property—
41, 57, 76-77, 79-80
— contradiction between executive
and legislative power under rule
of private property—57, 58-60,
64-65, 120
See also Hegel's teaching on the state,
Legislative power, State
Exploitation—140-42, 267
See also Capitalist, Private property,
Working class
F
Factory system—424, 442-43
Family— 5-11, 38-40, 78, 93-94, 96, 98-
100, 104, 165, 297, 340, 424
See also Hegel's teaching on the state,
Marriage, State
Feeling— 322
See also Sense organs
Fertility—260, 264-65
See also Agriculture, Science
Fetishism—290, 292, 312
Feudalism—165-66, 178-79, 181, 183-
84, 185, 266-69, 286-87, 290, 477-78
See also Corporations, Estate-representative
system, Estates, Feudal rule, Industry,
Landed property. Middle Ages, Monarchy,
People, Primogeniture, Serfdom,
Trade
Feudal rule—109
Feuerbach's philosophy—144-45, 187,
232-34, 303-04, 327-30, 339, 350-
51, 354-55, 427, 462-63
Form and content—62, 63-65
Fourier's socialism—142-43, 294, 392,
394-96, 398-99, 411-12, 434-35
France
— in the epoch of absolutism—
109, 130
— during Consulate and Empire—
195-96, 199, 393-94, 397-98
— during the July revolution of 1830
and July monarchy—30, 49, 55,
113-14, 119-20, 130, 150-51, 183-
84, 194, 214-15, 351-52, 395-96,
527-29
— economy and industry of—312,
478
— class struggle in—186
— poor laws—196-97
— public and political thought of—
312-13, 393-400
— French, the— 354-56, 397-98,471,
472-74
See also Bourgeoisie in France, Classes,
Class struggle, Clergy, Communist movement,
Constitution, French philosophy,
Humanitarians, Liberalism, Lyons weavers'
uprisings of 1831 and 1834, Napoleonic
wars, Nobility, Paris, Parliament,
Peasantry, Religion, Republicans,
Socialism, Vendée, Voltairians, Workers'
movement
Freedom
— its determination by the history of
society—313-14, 466
— and necessity—296-97
— social—393-94, 398-99
— in bourgeois society—103, 105-
07, 152-53, 162, 167, 237
— Hegel's conception of—5, 56, 62,
65-66, 99-100,101-03,105-06,108
See also Free trade. Law, Religion,
Rights, political
Free trade—179-80, 269, 420-22, 423-24
See also Protectionism
French bourgeois revolution of the end of the
18th century—363-74, 469-513
— prerequisites of—204-05, 471,
472-73, 478-79
— ideologists of—199, 396-97
— Convention—196-97, 199, 397-
98, 472-73
— dissolution of estates and formation
of classes—79-80
— contradictions between its theory
and practice—164-65
— its influence on other European
states—133-37, 139-40, 393-94,
404, 474-75, 487
See also Girondists, Jacobins, Montagnards
French philosophy—S49-51, 387, 399-
400, 419, 470-71, 472-74, 478-79
See also Encyclopaedists, Voltairians
G
General—see Individual, particular and
general
Geognosy—304
German Confederation, the—349
Germanomaniacs—177, 179
German philosophy—106-07, 108, 110,
175-76, 179-81, 187, 233, 313, 392,
403-07, 460, 461, 465, 467, 471-74
See also Feuerbach's philosophy, Hegel's
philosophy, Kant's philosophy, Schelling's
philosophy, young Hegelians
Germans— 38, 137, 180-81, 354-55,
445, 460, 471, 472-74
Germany
— constitution of—109, 110, 146-
47, 149-51, 156-58, 178-79, 183-
84
— in Middle Ages—56, 109
— during Reformation—182-83,
399-402
— industry and trade of—109,
140-42, 178-80, 187, 401-02, 415,
478
— home policy and conditions—
133-39, 140-42, 180-81, 190, 192,
193-94, 380, 417, 514, 517-18,
521, 522
— and Russia—140-41, 517-18
— prospects of revolution—133-36,
139-40, 182-87, 205-06, 392
See also Artisans, Austria, Bourgeoisie
in Germany, Classes, Class struggle,
German Confederation, German philosophy,
Peasant War in Germany (1524-
25), Prussia, Socialism, Working class
in Germany, Workers' movement
Girondists, the— 362-74
God, gods— 28, 272, 278, 306, 463-65
Greece— 32, 38, 51, 72, 136, 178-79,
312-13
Guilds, medieval—286
See also Corporations, medieval
H
Hegel's philosophy— 5-28, 29-46, 47-56,
57-59, 60-76, 77-80, 81-86, 87-105,
106-08, 110-16, 121-30, 181, 232,
234, 329-35, 337-42, 343-44, 403-05,
456-57, 463
— dialectic—232-34, 327-29, 332-33,
341-42
— logic—327, 329-31, 343-44, 403-
04
— philosophy of law—61, 63, 340,
403-04
— abstract historism—329-31
See also Alienation, Christianity,
Consciousness, Essence and phenomenon.
Estrangement, Freedom, Hegel's
teaching on the state, Labour, Law,
Nature, Private property. Property,
Young Hegelians
Hegel's teaching on the statt
— idealist conception of the state—
7-13, 14-15, 18-19, 20-21, 23, 29-
33, 38-40, 61-63, 67, 115-16, 130,
330-31
— constitution—10, 11-15, 18-20,
24-25, 37, 54-59, 97-98
— political conviction—10-11, 13-
14, 19-20, 96-97, 98, 102, 124-
125
— the state and civil society—5-11,
30, 41-42, 44-45, 46, 48-50, 52-
53, 65-66, 71-73, 75-79, 81, 83,
84-86,89-90,99, 102, 111-15, 116,
119-20, 121-23
— various authorities—11-17, 18-19,
58-59, 73
— monarch—18-21, 23-29, 32-38,
40-41, 42-43, 44, 51-52, 59-60, 68,
83, 84-87, 95-96, 107-10
— executive power—18-20, 35-37,
41, 42-54, 57, 58-60, 62-64, 65-
70, 76-77, 83-87, 89-92, 95-96,
102, 119-20, 124-25
— legislative power—18-20, 24-
25, 53-60, 68-69, 72-73, 77, 85,
89-90, 92, 95, 106-07, 116, 118-
20
— estates' deputation—43, 59-64,
65-73, 77-78, 83-85, 87, 89, 92-
93, 95, 96, 115, 117, 119, 121,
125
— sovereignty—21, 25, 28-29, 32-33,
37, 42-43, 51-53, 72-73
— constitutional state of affairs—
22, 30, 37
— primogeniture—97-103, 105-08,
111, 130
— election—120-21
— and morals—107, 122
— and civil law—5-7, 30
— and individual—7-10, 19-20,
21-22, 24-26, 29-35, 38-39, 41-43,
51, 58-59, 63-64, 76-77, 79, 118
— and family—5-11, 30, 38, 41-42,
94, 99, 104
— and the people—19-20, 29-30, 38,
53-54, 61, 63-67, 69, 83, 85, 102
Heraldry—105
Historical and logical—179-80, 285-86,
297-98, 329
Historical school of law, the— 177
Historiography— 303
History—147-48, 151-52, 176, 178-79,
296-98, 303-04, 313, 327-28, 332-33,
337, 463-65, 470, 474-75
— world history—305-06, 336, 340,
457-58
— modern history—32, 54, 81, 198,
286-87, 419, 422-23, 458, 464,
469-71, 475, 478-79
See also Historiography, Middle Ages
Holland—133
Holy Roman Empire, the—184
Housing question, the (under capitalism)
— 257-58, 263, 307, 312, 313-15
See also Worker
Humanism—143, 232, 296, 298, 302-
04, 336, 342, 460
Humanitarians, the (secret society in
France)—397
I
Idea— 11, 183, 466
Idealism— 328, 336
Imagination— 27
Individual, particular and general—23-25,
26, 39-40, 83-84, 90
See also Essence and phenomenon,
Interest, interests, Opposites
Individual, personality, the
— social essence of—21, 38, 76, 77,
80, 217
— role of individual in history—
466
— and the people—164, 355-56
— role of individual in science—64
— in bourgeois society—263, 274-75
— and Christianity—419
— Hegel's abstract and mystical conception
of personality—23, 26-27,
100, 106-07
See also Estates, Man, Nature, Science,
Society
Individuality— 77, 228
See also Hegel's teaching on the state.
Law, State
Industrial revolution, the (in England)—
443, 469, 478-88, 513
See also Progress
Industry
— under feudalism—108
— in bourgeois society—198, 263-
64, 269-70, 307, 322
— and economic policy— 178-79, 269
— and landed property—269, 285-
87, 293
— as a condition for the rise of proletariat—
186, 269
— bourgeois economists on—263,
290-92
See also Agriculture, Capital, Economic
crisis, Production
instruments of labour— 254, 264, 267-68
Interest, interests
— relations between individual, private
interests and general interest
under the estates system—5, 6,
41-42, 49, 56, 63-65, 68, 103,
123, 128
— separation of interests under the
rule of private property—47-49,
423-25, 466, 475-76
— opposition of private interest and
the interest of society under the
capitalist mode of production—
41-42, 239, 250-51, 263, 285, 287,
321, 433
— opposition of interests of workers
and capitalists—240-41, 263-64
— opposition between interests of
landlords and interests of tenants
and farm labourers—260, 263-
64
— struggle of interests under capitalist
competition—422, 432-33
— political and social interests in the
bourgeois state—479
— intellectual —478
— and principles—407
— transcendence of opposing interests
in communist society —
428, 434-37, 438-39, 441, 475
— criticism of Hegel's idealist views
of—15, 47-48, 56
Interest (financial)—285, 375, 430, 431
— rate of—252, 315
— compound—239, 250
— simple—239
— on capital—239, 252, 264,
283-84, 289, 316
— on money—240, 253, 265, 316
Ireland, Irish, the—308, 389-91, 417,
436
Italy— 514
J
Jacobins—199, 367
Jews—146-50, 154, 155, 160, 162, 169-
74
See also Judaism
Journalism—444-45
See also Press
Judaism—147-51, 155, 161, 167-68,
169-73
— and Christianity—146, 148, 167-
68, 169, 172
See also Jews
Judiciary— 41, 50, 108
Justice (social)—398
K
Kant's philosophy—404
Knowledge— 335, 338-39
See also Progress, Science
L
Labour, work
— its social significance—79-80,
236
— man as a product of labour— 305,
333, 342
— as an inner need of man—228,
236, 275, 277, 465
— and private property—315-16,
320-21
— and capital—221, 249, 312, 425,
428, 430
— its separation from capital—214,
226, 235, 270-71, 430
— contradiction between labour and
capital—285-86, 289, 294, 432,
435-36
— its separation from wages—376,
431
— advance made by human labour
on the natural product—249,
305, 312
— object of—273-74
— mode of—165, 308, 312
— abstract—235, 240-41, 292-93
— industrial—247, 253, 286, 293
— under communism—435-37
— Fourier on—395-96
— Hegel on—332-33, 342
See also Activity, Agriculture, Alienation,
Capital, Child labour, Estranged
labour, Estrangement, Instruments of
labour, Man, Nature, Needs, Private
property, Production, Wages
Labour time— 239-40
Lancashire—381
Land—375-76, 428, 440
Landed property
— as a form of alienation under
the rule of private property—
221, 235, 441
— under feudalism—97-103, 266-
68, 314
— non-productive character of landlords
in bourgeois society—
262-64, 271, 316-17, 429, 440
— capitalisation of—263-64, 265,
267-68, 269-70, 286-89, 315-16
— and industry—286-89, 293
— and technical progress—264-65
— its division under capitalism—
267-69
— competition among landed proprietors—
264-66, 267-70, 440,
441
— and class of tenants—268-70,
286, 288, 429
— necessity for abolition of—267-69
— bourgeois economists on—240,
258-59, 260, 261-64, 286-89
— Physiocrats on—293, 316-17
— Hegel on—98, 100, 104, 107
See also Agriculture, Aristocracy,
Capitalist, Competition, Interest, interests,
Primogeniture, Rent of land, Trade
Language— 226, 298, 304
See also Consciousness, Thinking
Law
— as a form of estrangement—
297, 339-41
— civil—26, 101, 105-06, 107, 110,
111, 166, 340
— criminal—241
— constitutional—101, 107, 110,
115, 124
— Roman—107, 110-11
— abstract—101, 107, 110
— and proletariat—186-87
— and religion—176
— and bourgeois political economy—
231
— in Germany— 111
See also Hegel's teaching on the state,
Judiciary, Law (juridical), Person, Privacy
of correspondence. Rights, political,
Suffrage
Law (economic)—211, 270, 273, 310-11,
432-33
Law (juridical)—30, 37, 54, 56, 57-59,
76, 115, 119
Lease, tenant farmers—286-88, 384, 390,
429, 477
See also Landed property
Legislative power— 65, 68, 72, 73, 75,
77, 92-93, 106, 112, 113, 116, 118-
21
— social basis of—104-05, 118-19
— elements of—60, 83-87, 99
— inner contradictions of—89-90,
95
— contradictions between legislative
power and constitution—54,
55, 57-58
See also Executive, Hegel's teaching on
the state, Parliament, State
Legitimism—190
Liberalism—133, 190, 192, 421-22, 423,
432, 445
— in England—381, 383-84
— in France—396
— in Germany—133
Literature—302
— belles-lettres—415
— English—380, 444-45, 446, 465,
467, 490
— German—458, 460-61, 465
Logic—10, 17-18, 330
See also Concept, Definition, Object,
Predicate, Subject
Love—11, 98, 100, 295-96, 300, 301,
326, 356
Lutheranism—182, 290, 291, 400-02
See also Protestantism, Reformation
Luxury—see Wealth
Lynch law—446
Lyons weavers' uprisings of 1831 and 1834
—203
M
Machine, machines—201, 238-39, 240,
308, 312, 443
See also Worker
Malthusianism—194, 197, 311, 314,
380, 420-21, 435-40, 452
Man, human being
— as species-being—154, 162, 164,
182, 204-05, 217, 275-78, 295-
99, 302-03, 307, 313-14, 320,325,
328-29, 337
— as determined by social relations—
30, 38-40, 78-81, 474-75
— as the motive force and the
object of social progress—19, 21,
25-26, 29, 57, 82
— as individual—77, 104-05, 115-
16, 167, 217, 298-99, 320, 322,
326, 336-37
— and animal—81, 302, 319-20
— needs of—225-26,276-77,306-07,
336
— objectification of his nature—
225-26, 228, 276-77
— in bourgeois society—101, 162,
263, 316-17, 322-24, 326, 442
— estranged under the rule of private
property—32, 81, 158, 173-
74, 212, 213-14, 215, 217, 220-24,
278-80, 281, 285, 291-92, 293,
296-97, 301, 306, 310-11, 325,
328-29, 333-34, 335-36, 339, 341,
342, 343-45
— his self-estrangement in religion—
29, 152, 175-76, 290-91, 303, 461,
464-65
— criticism of the idealist conception
of man—82, 116, 167, 327,
330-35, 339-40, 342-45, 466
See also Consciousness, Hegel's teaching
on the state, Individual, Labour,
Private property, State, Worker
Mankind— 430, 437-39, 442, 462, 465-
66, 473-76
Manufacture— 248
Marriage—30, 295, 311
See also Family
Materialism—105, 302, 336, 355, 419,
478
Mathematics—48
Means of production—376
See also instruments of labour,
Production
Measure—341
Mercantile system, the— 213-14, 290, 292,
418-19, 420, 421, 422-23, 432
Middle Ages, the— 32, 72, 79-81, 108,
113, 187, 263, 314, 458, 461, 464,
474, 475
See also Corporations, Estates, Feudalism,
Guilds, Politics, State, Trade
Middle class, (he—93-94, 187
See also Bourgeoisie
Mind— 7, 17, 89, 108
Monarchy—68, 83-85, 86-87, 89, 92-93,
94, 95, 399, 419
— absolute—79, 138-39, 158, 185
— constitutional—25, 29-30, 36-37,
83, 94, 113, 492
— and democracy—28-32, 399
— in England—388, 492-93, 497
— in Germany—137-38, 183-84, 190
See also Absolutism, Estate-representative
system, Hegel's teaching on
the state, Princes, Prussia, Russia,
Sovereignty
Monetary system—see Mercantile system
Money—171-72, 212-14, 322
— as a form of estrangement under
the rule of private property—
220-21, 271, 306-07, 309, 324-26,
476
— as an expression of value—214,
326, 434-35
— power of money under the rule
of private property—170-72, 213-
14, 309, 310, 322-26, 450-52
— money fetishism—312
— as a state monopoly—441
— paper—214, 250
— metal—312
— and credit—214-16
— and banks—216
— possibility of abolishing money—
170
— bourgeois economists on—211,
213-14
— Saint-Simonists on—214
See also Banking, Bill of exchange,
Credit system, Interest, Politics, State,
Value
Monopoly—65, 221, 236, 263, 268-71,
286, 421, 423, 432-33, 441-42
Monotheism—171
Montagnards— 362, 363, 365-74
Morocco— 528-29
Music—301
Mysticism— 7, 9, 12, 14, 17, 19, 23-24,
34, 39-40, 52, 58, 61, 62, 83, 107,
332, 343-45, 394-95, 411
Myths—180
N
Napoleonic wars—138, 469
Naturalism— 232, 298-99, 336
See also Communism, Humanism
Natural science— 275-79, 303, 304, 341-
49, 380
See also Chemistry, Mathematics
Nature
— as an object of cognition—337,
341
— as man's inorganic body—275-
76, 277, 305-06
— as element of production—248-
50, 272-73, 428
— and society and individual—64,
104-05, 301-06, 312-13, 324, 335-
37
— its estrangement from man under
the rule of private property—
275-77, 278-79, 281, 285, 296-97,
303-04, 326
— French Enlighteners on—419
— Hegel's idealist conception of—
343-49
See also Humanism, Labour, Man, Naturalism,
Science, Society
Necessity and chance—6, 21, 56, 79-80,
211, 270-71, 433-34
Needs, requirements
— as the motive force of social and
scientific progress—178, 295-96,
303-04, 313-14
— in the sphere of economic relations—
219-20, 224-28, 303,
313
— labour as an inner need of man—
228, 395
— physical—241-42, 276-77, 284,
336
— social—56, 79-80, 120, 313-14
— and their estrangement under
the rule of private property—
296-97, 306-12, 316-17,
322
Negation of the negation (philos.)—268,
305-06, 313, 328-30, 337-38, 340-43,
344-45, 346
Nobility, landed aristocracy—105, 113,
185-86, 266-67
Object—100
See also Subject
Objectification— 224-25, 228, 271-73,
277, 281-82, 296-97, 301-03, 329-30,
331-33, 342
See also Alienation, Estrangement,
Labour
Officialdom—see Bureaucracy
Opposites, antitheses
— conditions of their existence—
325-26
— struggle of opposites — 88, 288-
89
— transformation of opposites into
each other—316-17, 424-25
— fusion and separation of—88,
432-33
— supersession of antitheses—316-
17, 426-27, 433-34, 438-39
— opposition between generality and
singularity—84
— opposition of essences and opposites
within one essence—87-89,
293, 325
— abstract antitheses—88, 294
— Hegel's conception of—331-32,
346
See also Interest, interests
Owen's socialism— 297, 386, 398
P
Pantheism—450, 457, 460, 462-63, 465-
66
Paris—142
Parliament— 92, 112-14, 123-24
— in England—120, 194, 197, 381,
445, 456, 493-501
— in France—120
See also Legislative power
Part and whole—231
Parties, political—143, 144, 180, 181,
190-91, 192-93, 197, 379
Party, proletarian—144, 314, 379-80, 406-
07, 411
See also Revolution, proletarian, Working
class
Patriotism—11, 133, 179
Pauperism—191-97, 200, 287
— in England—192-95, 197, 200,
392-93, 448, 449
See also Workhouses
Peasantry— 94-95, 98, 99, 270
— in England—384, 474-78, 487
Peasant War in Germany, the (1524-25)—
182-83, 399-402
People, nation— 28-30, 53-54, 57
— in ancient times—180
— in the epoch of feudalism and
absolute monarchies—28-30, 31-
33, 61, 63-67, 69, 78-79, 83, 92,
165-66, 186-87
— in bourgeois society—498
— as the motive force of historic
progress—57, 133-36, 433-34,
435-36, 439
— and individual—164, 355-56
— its significance and role in revolution—
57, 184-86, 365-66
— as a political force—53-54, 57-58,
61, 63-64, 65-69, 78-79, 83, 92,
119, 127-28, 166, 498,501
— and development of its political
consciousness—57, 63-64, 177-78,
182, 495, 498
— preconditions for its free development—
182-83
— and property—498
— and proletariat as its vanguard—
202, 204
— and bourgeoisie—185-86
— and the state—28-33, 53-54, 57,
64-65, 78
— sovereignty of—28-33, 38, 53-54,
57, 65, 69, 83, 153
— and officials—53-54, 63, 124-25
— and religion—176, 179-80
— interests of—64-65, 391
See also Classes, Class struggle, Democracy,
Hegel's teaching on the state,
Population, State
Person, individual— 22-23, 24, 26-27,
117, 119
— abstract—38, 40
— private—40, 77, 80, 103
— juridical—38
See also Individual, personality
Phenomenon—see Essence and phenomenon
Philistines—136-37, 139-41, 185
Philosophy
— and changing of reality—142-
44, 176, 179-82, 187, 302
— and science—478-79
— and natural science—303
— and the state—97, 181-82
— and religion—89, 144-45, 175,
232-34, 328-29, 340
— of history—471
— social—394, 456
— of law—101, 179-81, 231
See also Aesthetics, Alienation, Categories,
Contradiction, English philosophy,
Essence and phenomenon, Estrangement,
Form and content, French
philosophy, German philosophy, Idealism,
Logic, Materialism, Necessity and
chance, Negation of the negation, Opposites,
Part and whole, Quality and quantity
Physiocrats—285, 292-94, 298, 316-17
Poland— 519-20
Police—41, 49, 163
Political economy—see Bourgeois political
economy
Politics
— as a form of estrangement—31-
32, 100-01, 302-03, 339
— its determination by social and economic
relations—94, 155-56, 178-
79, 185, 199
— in the Middle Ages—31-32, 70-
71, 79, 81-82, 84, 95, 105-06,
112-13, 165
— in bourgeois society—79, 113-14,
118, 121, 164-66, 199
— and class struggle —190-91, 204
— of parties—143-44, 190-91
— and religion—156-57, 159, 176
— political consciousness—10-11,
97-98, 102, 204
— and money—170-72, 309
— and bourgeois political economy—
241
— and theory of scientific communism—
313
See also Parties, political
Population— 261-62, 311, 313-14,435-38,
440, 442
See also JVfaltbusianism
Poverty—302, 304
Practice—see Theory and Practice
Precious metals—213, 312
Predicate—10, 23, 26, 343
Press—131, 404-06, 413, 417
See also Journalism
Price—211, 219, 235-36, 238-39, 240,
248, 250-51, 263, 375, 426-28, 433-
34
Primogeniture—40, 97, 98-108, 111-12,
130
Princes, sovereigns—72, 108, 185
Principles—406-07, 424
Privacy of correspondence—164, 351-52
Private life— 80, 197
Private property
— as a product of estranged labour—
211-14, 217-22, 224,
226, 228, 237, 271, 279-80,
290-91, 294, 315-17, 320-21, 322,
476
— in ancient times—107, 110-11,
294
— feudal—40, 49, 97-101, 103-11,
124, 165, 292
— formation of bourgeois property
—293, 315-16, 423-24
— bourgeois—140-41, 143-44, 246-
47, 251, 267, 285-86, 288-89,
294, 302, 375, 421-22, 427-28,
432-33, 441, 466, 485
— and the bourgeois state—152,
153-56, 165, 198
— as the basis of capitalist competition—
294-95, 432
— as a factor restricting political
freedom in bourgeois society—
162-64, 167
— man and his needs under the rule
o.f private property—300, 307,
311-12, 322,442
— its abolition—187, 280-81, 296-
97, 300, 305-06, 312-13, 342,
406-07, 420-21, 426, 429-30, 439,
441, 466
— as a prerequisite of bourgeois
political economy—217-18, 270,
419-20, 421-22
— bourgeois classical political economy
on —262-63, 290-92, 319-
21
— Hegel on—98-101, 103-10, 124
— Utopian Communists on —142-
43, 294-96
See also Capital, Labour, Landed property,
Value
Privileges—72, 81, 108, 114, 160, 162, 166
Production
— as social human activity—225,
276-77, 302-03, 306, 313-14
— in ancient times—278-79
— as estrangement of labour under
the rule of private property—
225, 240, 274-77, 281-84, 296-98,
432
— anarchy of production in bourgeois
society —263-64, 433-34,
435-36
— and consumption—220, 224-26,
310
— and division of labour—220
— and exchange—225
— and distribution—221
— costs of production—201, 375,
426-27
— object of production in classless
society—228, 306, 433-35
— science as an element of production
under communism—427-28,
435-36
— bourgeois economists on— 280-81,
312, 313-14, 316-17, 321
See also Consumption, Division of labour,
Labour
Productive power, productivity—240, 287-
88, 434-36
Product of labour— 220, 238-41, 246-47,
270, 273-75, 280-82, 431
Profession—153
Profit
— as a form of estrangement—
221, 270, 375-76, 430
— as a result of human labour—
249-50
— and market price—236
— of capitalist—235, 240, 246-47,
252, 258, 315-16, 431
— and rent of land—285-86
— bourgeois economists on—241,
247-48, 250-51, 312
See also Capital, Revenue, Wages
Progress— 304-05, 499
— historical —57, 134, 296-97, 423-
24, 433-34, 435-36, 439, 463-64
— prerequisites for social progress—
19-20, 57, 111
— social consequences of economic
progress in bourgeois society—
238-40
— scientific and technical—427-28,
435-37, 440, 442-43, 482-83
See also Industrial revolution (in
England), Science
Proletariat, the—see Working class
Property
— feudal—30, 32, 103-04, 267, 291,
292
— public—109, 392, 405-06
— Hegel's conception of—97, 165
See also Landed property, Private property
Prostitution— 244, 258, 287, 294, 310
Protectionism—178-79, 192-93, 269,
524
See also Trade
Protestantism—155, 182, 190, 422, 462,
471, 477
See also Lutheranism
Proudhonism—143, 241, 280, 294, 316,
356, 399
Prussia—31, 51, 133-36, 137-42, 183,
189, 191-92, 207-10, 515-16, 525-26,
530-31
See also Absolutism, Censorship, Despotism,
Germany, Monarchy, Prussianism
Prussianism—133
Psychology—302-03
Public opinion— 379
— and the press—404-06
— and literature—415
Q
Quality and quantity— 306-07, 341
Quantity—see Quality and quantity
R
Radicalism
— in England—379, 381-82, 445-
46, 447-48, 493, 496-97, 500
— in France—395
KafiocinaJion— 27, 30
Raw material—262, 312, 427
Reality— 9, 183, 299, 341
Reason— 457, 460, 462
Reformation— 182-83, 399-401, 470, 474
See also Lutheranism
Religion
— origin and essence of—30, 152,
155, 175-76, 461-62, 491, 493
— as a fantastic reflection of reality—
279-80, 461-62
— its social and gnosiological roots
— 155-56, 173-74, 280, 305, 307,
461-62, 463-65
— as a product of estrangement—
155, 158, 173-74, 212, 272, 274,
277-79, 291, 297-98, 302-03, 331-
32, 339-40, 465
— as a form of social consciousness
—29, 143, 151, 175-76
— its social role—175-76, 182-83
— religious consciousness—159,
190
— religious myths—180
— history of—463-64
— significance of criticism of religion—
175-76
— "religion is the opium of the people"—
175-76
— supersession of religion, its conditions—
147-49, 151, 155-56,
175-76, 182, 297-98, 305-06,
339-42
— in slave-owning society—184
— and the state—146-162, 167, 191,
501-04
— and politics—156, 159, 175-76
— and philosophy—89, 144, 175-76
— and morality—310, 462-63
— and freedom of conscience—161-
62
— in Egypt—278-79
— in England—471-74, 485-86, 501-
04
— in France—354, 471-74
— in Germany—471-74
— in India—278-79
— in Mexico—278-79
— in the U.S.A.—150, 155
See also Atheism, Catholicism, Christianity,
Clergy, God, Law, Lutheranism,
Man, Monotheism, Myths, People, Politics,
Protestantism, Reformation, State,
Superstition, Theology
Rentiers— 252, 315
Rent of land—221, 235-36, 240-41, 259-
65, 269-70, 285, 291, 315-16, 375,
427-31
See also Capital, Landed property,
Wages
Representative bodies— 53-54, 111-12, 116,
118-19, 121-24, 125-26
See also Hegel's teaching on the state,
Parliament, State
Republic— 30-31, 140, 151-52, 388, 419
Republicans
— in England—388
— in France—395-96, 411
— in Germany—405, 406, 417
Revenue—235
See also Profit
Revolution— 56, 57, 90, 130, 133-34, 380
See also Emancipation, English bourgeois
revolution of the 17th century,
French bourgeois revolution of the end of
the 18th century, Revolution, bourgeois,
Revolution, proletarian
Revolution, bourgeois, the— 164-67, 176-
77, 184-85, 205-06, 419, 469, 471,
472, 476-77, 513
Revolution, proletarian, the
— as social revolution—182-85, 473-
74, 476-77
— inevitability of and prerequisites
for—140, 182, 269-70, 296-97,
434, 476-77
— historical significance of—182-
85, 205-06, 392, 469, 471, 472-
73, 513
— as permanent revolution—156
— proletariat as the motive force of
— 184-87, 202, 204, 205
— and importance of its scientific
theory—182, 186-87, 202, 204,
296-97, 405-06
— and petty-bourgeois and Utopian
theories—241-42, 397-98
See also Class struggle, Emancipation,
English bourgeois revolution of the
17th century, French bourgeois revolution
of the end of the 18th century,
Revolution, Revolution, bourgeois, Working
class
Rights, innate human—105, 164-65
Rights, political—160-65, 287-88, 393,
417, 504-06
Romanticism— 287, 350, 461
Rome— 38, 51, 107, 110, 111, 184, 294,
308, 489
See also Law
Russia—53, 140, 514, 519-20, 524
See also Despotism, Serfdom
S
Saint-Simon's socialism — 214, 294, 394-
96, 398
Scepticism— 460, 466, 472
Science
— as a form of social consciousness—
142-43, 297-98
— and reality—47, 303
— in bourgeois society—427, 442,
443
— as a form of superseding man's
estrangement—304
— role of individual in science—64,
298
— as a productive force under communism—
428, 435-37
— its role in technical progress—
427-28, 440, 482
— Hegel's idealist conception of—
11, 25, 27, 148
See also Chemistry, Mathematics, Natural
science, Philosophy, Production
Schilling's philosophy—349-51, 404, 461-
62
Scholars, learned people—32, 380
Scotland— 448
Scythians—180
Self-consciousness—19, 100, 306, 312-14,
327, 332-35, 340-41, 343, 356
See also Consciousness
Self-estrangement, alienation—169-70,
173-74, 176, 214, 221, 272-75, 281,
291, 294, 296, 317, 333, 338-39, 342
See also Alienation, Estrangement
Sense organs— 299-300
See also Feeling
Serfdom— 32, 105-06, 187, 263, 266,
267, 268, 287-88, 464, 476
Slavery—110, 198, 263, 475
Socialism (theory)—142-43,146,202, 204,
205-06, 304, 305-06, 354, 512-13
— in England—379-82, 385-86,
388-89, 392, 393, 397-99, 407,
421, 446-47, 466, 467, 505
— in France—232, 385, 392-94, 395-
400, 407, 410-11, 414
— in Germany—232, 392-93, 400,
403-04, 405-10, 417
— in Ireland—391
— in Switzerland—392-403
See also Communism, Communist
movement, Communist society, Fourier's
socialism, Owen's socialism, Saint-
Simon's socialism, Workers' movement
Social relations— 219, 226, 260, 278-79,
286-87, 324, 329-30,421-22, 441
Society— 321, 325
— in the Middle Ages—80-81
— and the state—104-05, 198
— and individual—38, 64, 80-81,
101, 104-05, 163-65, 175, 217,
300-01, 324
— and humanism—297-98, 302-04
See also Bourgeois society, Civil society,
Communist society, Individual,
Social relations
Sophistry—154, 233, 268, 419, 420
Sovereignty— 23-24, 28-29, 33, 38, 73,
108
— of monarch—27-28, 34, 96
— of the people—28, 153
Spirituality— 302, 419, 473
State, the— 29-33, 37-42, 57, 58, 63, 78,
143-44, 156-58, 160-61, 198-99,
297-98, 340
— and civil society—7-11, 39-40, 70-
71, 72-73, 78, 81, 90, 153-56,
159, 160, 162, 167, 171-72, 173-
74, 183, 197-98
— as an expression of estrangement—
31-32, 473-74
— prerequisites of—-7-9, 10-11
— of antiquity—30-33, 51, 72, 198
— in the Middle Ages—30-32, 37,
72, 81
— Christian state—146-48, 149-51,
155-58, 160, 168-69, 476
— modern—30-33, 63, 64-65, 80,
82, 83-84, 91, 181, 183, 198-99,
419
— and the people —28-33,53-54, 57-
58, 64-65, 78, 117-18
— and family —7-11, 38-40, 78, 137-
38
— and individual—38-40, 80-81,
168, 175
— and economic relations—231,
297-98
— and legislative power — 56, 58,
64-65, 84, 90
— and suffrage—153
— and money—216
— and primogeniture—99
— and religion—31, 148-50, 153,
154-57, 158-59, 174, 473
— and bourgeois revolution—135,
165
— its abolition under communism —
295-96, 476
See also Absolutism, Church, Civil society,
Democracy, Executive, Hegel's
teaching on the state, Legislative power,
Monarchy, Republic
Stock Exchange, the—434
Subject— 271-72, 277, 301, 322, 325,
332-34, 335-39
Substance—62
Suffrage—152-53
See also Election
Superstition—151, 464
Switzerland— 402-03, 514, 525
See also Socialism
T
Taxes— 58-60, 72, 316-17
Terrorism— 156
Theology—150-51, 156, 232-34, 271,
329, 389, 462
Theory and practice—164-65, 181, 183-
84, 239, 241, 275-76, 282, 300, 302,
312-13, 422-23, 429, 478-79
Thinking, thought— 304-05, 328-29, 333-
34, 339, 341, 344, 345-46
— abstract—330-31
— and being—299, 301, 343, 344-45
— and language—304
See also Consciousness, Knowledge,
Self-consciousness
Tories—192, 379-81, 388, 391, 441,
491, 493
Town and country—79
Trade— 375, 421-22
— in the Middle Ages—32, 80, 108,
418-20, 422-23
— in bourgeois society—198, 238,
251, 281, 288, 321, 418, 419-20,
422-23, 485
— in land—265-66, 268, 269, 288,
429-30
See also Economic crisis. Free trade,
Protectionism
Trade unions—415
Truth—430, 435, 436, 457
Turkey— 294
U
Unemployment—see Working class
United States of America—31, 150, 153,
155, 160, 170, 175, 446
Unity— 90, 92
See also Interest, interests, Essence and
phenomenon
Universities— 380
Uprising of Silesian weavers in 1844—
189-90, 200-04, 530-34
Utility— 300, 302, 375, 425-26
V
Value— 427, 429
— as abstract expression of social
relations—212-13, 226-27
— as a form of alienation of private
property —212-13, 221
— determination of—211, 240,
310, 375, 425-26, 430, 433-35
— and costs of production — 211,
375, 424-27
— and exchange-value—211, 213,
219-20, 375, 424-25
— bourgeois economists on—211,
375, 424-27
— influence of fashion on—310
See also Exchange-value, Money
Vendée—374
Violence, force — 68, 218
— as an instrument of class rule—
398, 399
Voltairians—355
W
Wages
— as expression of alienated labour
under the rule of private proper
ty—219-21, 225, 238, 376, 431-
32
— their essence under capitalism—
235, 241, 285-86
— level of—235
— and intensification of labour—
237
— and demand for labour—236,
239
— and competition among workers
— 235
— as a constituent part of market
price—235-36, 263-64
— and capital—289
— and rent of land—264-65
— bourgeois political economy on—
235, 240-42, 247-48, 252, 270,
288, 312, 427, 443
— and crude egalitarian communism
—296
— Proudhon on—241-42, 280
See also Labour, Worker
Wars— 419, 423
See also Violence
Wealth
— labour as a source of—237, 291,
293, 431
— under capitalism—267, 304, 311-
12, 314-16
— capitalists amass riches, causing
the impoverishment of the working
class —237-40, 241, 271, 421-
22
— under socialism—304
— bourgeois classical political economy
on —240-41, 250-52,
290-91, 309-10, 316, 320-21,
421-22
— Mercantilists on—2.92
— Physiocrats on—292-93
— Hegel on—332
— Proudhon on—316
Weitling's communism—143, 201, 232,
402-03, 412-13
Whigs_379, 381-82, 384, 388-89, 391,
447, 491, 493
Will— 8, 58, 64, 91, 100-01, 102, 104,
119, 198-99, 225, 301, 326
Women's question—172, 295
Worker
— his estrangement under the capitalist
mode of production—204,
238-39, 241, 271-75, 276-77,
278-80, 381-82
— reduction of his needs to mere
bodily needs in capitalist society —
220-21, 274-77, 308-09, 440-41
— his decline to a mere machine—
238-39, 240, 308, 443
— as a commodity—235-36, 240,
270-72, 283-84, 312, 439
— and crude egalitarian communism
—294-95
— Proudhon on—280
— Saint-Simon on—294
See also Capitalist, Labour time, Man,
Workhouses
Workers' movement— 190, 192, 313
— in England—190, 199-201, 355,
379-80, 384-85, 387, 446-47,
450, 467
— in France—200-01, 204, 313, 355,
395-97, 401-02, 411
— in Germany—191-92, 199-202,
355, 401-02, 404-05, 406-07
See also Chartism, Class struggle,
Communist movement, Lyons weavers'
uprisings of 1831 and 1834, Party,
proletarian, Socialism, Uprising of
Silesian weavers in 1844
WorWtouses (in England)—195, 448
Working class
— conditions for its rise—187, 267,
269, 487
— in the Middle Ages—79-80, 189-
90
— division of society into capitalists
and workers—265-66, 431
— tendency towards numerical
growth, in increasing proportion,
of the working class under capitalism—
434
— its impoverishment under capitalism—
241, 258-59, 270-72
— its living conditions in capitalist
society—307, 311
— unemployment of—239, 284
— competition among workers—
238, 432
— condition of agricultural workers
under capitalism — 285-86
— antagonism between workers' and
capitalists' interests—263-64
— capitalist as owner of workers'
conditions of life and their means
of subsistence—235-38, 240,
252, 279, 283, 310-11
— development of its political consciousness—
200, 202, 204, 387,
396-97, 449-50
— its emancipation as a condition
for the emancipation of all classes
of society—186-87, 205, 280-81,
354
— as the motive force of socialist
revolution—184-87, 202, 204-05
— and progressive philosophy—187
— parties and associations of—
313, 379-80, 406-07, 411
— and bourgeois reforms—191-92,
241-42, 280
— and religion—396
See also Classes, Class struggle, Revolution,
proletarian, Worker, Workers'
movement, Working class in England,
Working class in Germany
Working class in England—192-94, 200-
02, 263, 269-70, 308, 311, 435-36,
445-46, 447-49, 456-57, 468, 474,
486-87, 496
See also Workers' movement
Working class in Germany—185-87, 190-
91, 196, 201-02, 204, 401
See also Workers' movement
World outlook—102, 173
Y
Koung Hegelions—327-28, 344, 356-57,
404-06





MECW VOL 4





A
Absolute—see Relative and absolute
Abstraction—19, 20, 22, 23, 24, 35, 39,
40, 41, 53, 57-60, 66-67, 71, 72, 83,
97, 99, 110, 120, 128, 137, 141-42, 153,
155, 169, 178-80, 193, 205
— abstract and concrete—23, 40, 52,
53, 85, 166-67, 193
Aesthetics— 55, 161, 167
Agitation— 237, 525, 653
Agricultural proletariat—see Working class
Aim— 37, 93-94, 123
— means to achieve it—93
— as an end in itself—123
Alchemy—27
Alienation—41, 50, 82, 116, 140, 141,
143, 160
— self-alienation—9, 21, 53, 82, 140
See also Estrangement
America—see United States of America
Analogy—10, 161, 166, 201, 206
Analysis and synthesis—114, 128
Anarchy—117, 122
Anti-Corn Law League, the—13, 15-16,
272, 289, 387, 417, 519, 520, 555,
566-67, 588, 657-60
See also Corn Laws
Antithesis—35-36
— between classes—35-37, 56, 244,
329, 411-12, 414, 418, 466, 497,
503, 528, 529, 556, 577-78, 581-82,
583
See also Class struggle, Contradictions,
Opposites, Working class
Aristocracy—304, 520
See also England—landed aristocracy,
landlords
Army—249-50
Artisans, handicraftsmen—116, 321, 325,
326, 488-89, 497
Asceticism—99, 128
Ashton—313, 345, 587
Astrology—27
Atheism, atheists—82, 89, 110, 127, 212-
13, 412
— workers' atheism—421, 526, 538,
653
Atom—120-21, 128
B
Babouvism—47, 119
Barnsley—344
Basis and superstructure—109, 112
Being, existence
— and consciousness—36-38, 43, 53,
58, 59, 85-86, 125, 129, 141-42,
144, 191-93
See also Consciousness
Belfast— 315
Belgium—213, 676, 677
Birmingham—318, 329, 340, 341, 488,
489, 491, 517, 529
Bohemia
— insurrection of cotton printers in
1844—230, 303-04, 503, 647
Bolton—12, 313, 345, 508
Bourgeoisie
— general characteristics—280-81,
285, 286, 325, 330-31, 375-80, 393,
409, 412-13, 416, 420, 421, 423,
424, 425, 427, 430, 431, 433, 434,
508, 525, 546-47, 673
— industrial (manufacturers)—409,
432, 435, 444, 457, 469, 473, 486,
509-10, 563
— liberal—416-17, 460, 517, 562, 570
— as a ruling class—298, 393
— and feudal monarchy—649-50
See also Middle class
Bourgeoisie in England
— general characteristics—212, 230,
267, 304, 323, 410-11, 413-14, 416-
17, 419-21, 426, 458, 512, 555,
657, 660
— big—321, 325, 348, 497, 556-57
— petty—244, 321, 326, 371, 375,
488-89, 498, 520, 528, 548, 556,
580-81
— industrial (manufacturers)—322,
325, 326, 383, 409, 428, 430,
447, 456, 458, 459, 460, 461, 462,
469, 470, 486, 488-89, 510, 520,
538, 544, 555, 566, 587, 657, 658,
660
— commercial—660
— liberal—322, 416, 459, 460, 517,
520, 523, 528, 562, 570, 579
— as a ruling class—298, 393, 407,
409, 410, 412
— in Parliament—322, 323, 517
— its cultural level—528
— and working class (interrelations,
exploitation)—349-50, 385-86, 413,
416, 418, 419, 423, 424, 425, 428,
434, 506-10, 520-21, 522, 523, 528,
538-40, 562-83, 585
Bourgeoisie in France—50, 56, 122-24,
212, 262-63, 267, 304
See also French bourgeois revolution of
the end of the 18th century
Bourgeoisie in Germany—230, 237, 265-
68, 274, 275, 292, 302-04, 393, 544,
563, 647-50, 652-53
Bourgeoisie, Prussian—649
Bourgeois political economy—31-32, 34,
42, 49-50, 198, 265-68, 271-72, 276,
284, 287, 290, 293, 598
See also Malthusianism
Bourgeois society—37', 69-70, 76, 123, 135,
267-68, 275-76, 280-81, 283, 303,
597, 671
— its organisation—275, 276
See also Capitalist mode of production
Bradford—315, 343, 519
Brain—22, 59, 66, 140
Bristol—340, 389
Bureaucracy—267
Bury—345
Byzantium—178
C
Capitalist mode of production—244, 245,
246, 247, 263-64, 330, 378, 456-58,
473, 479, 497-98, 508, 554-55, 564,
572
Cartesianism—126, 127
— Cartesian materialism—125, 130,
132
Casuistry
— moral—182, 185
Category—22, 30, 41, 42, 44, 53, 54, 57,
60, 67, 72, 73, 83, 93, 148, 153, 159-
60, 191, 193
— abstract—67, 159-60
— logical—90
— philosophical—137
Catholicism—81, 346
Causality, cause and effect—13, 16, 46, 73,
134, 280, 285-86
Censorship—229
Charity, bourgeois—564-65, 570
See also Humaneness, Philanthropy
Chartism
— general characteristics—418, 477-
78, 517-21, 577
— as an independent political movement
of the working class—15, 517,
528-29, 545, 555
— People's Charter, political programme
of Chartism—465, 517-
19, 522, 566-67
— need for combining it with socialist
theory—524-27
— and bourgeois and petty-bourgeois
radicals—518, 522-23, 524, 528-29,
578
— General Working-men's Association
of London (Lovett)—517-18
— National Charter Association—
522-23
— and movement for the repeal of the
Corn Laws (free traders)—13, 519-
21
— and struggle for shorter working
hours—13-15, 519, 523
— and Trade Unions—540-41
— and the agrarian question—523-24
— and the 1842 strike—512-17, 520-
22, 566, 587, 588, 658-59
Chemistry—546
— chemical properties of substances—
27
Cheshire— 316, 403, 554
Children
— in England—399-401, 402, 405,
435-38, 440, 442-43, 496-97
See also Child labour, Family, Mortality
among children
Child labour
— in factories—384, 408, 411, 441-
44, 446-47, 450, 455-60, 463-64,
466, 468, 477-83, 485, 489-92, 494-
97, 672, 673
— in mines and collieries—533, 534,
538-39
— in agriculture—550
China—261, 580
Christianity—56, 59, 85, 88-89, 94, 95,
109, 110, 169-81, 184
— and the state—88
— and the individual—178
Church—117, 653
— Anglican—409, 556
— in England—464, 477, 559, 564
See also Religion
Civilisation—251
Classes, the—197
— and their interrelations—584, 597,
671
— class prejudices—427
— propertied—13, 15, 16, 36, 526-27
— non-propertied—14, 36, 135
See also Antithesis—between classes,
Bourgeoisie, Class struggle, Peasantry,
Working class
Class contradictions—see Antithesis—between
classes
Class solidarity—see Working class—class
solidarity
Class struggle, the—24$, 248, 329-30,
331, 375, 427, 429, 502, 508-09, 511,
512, 513, 554, 555, 580-83, 585
— between the proletariat and the
bourgeoisie—323, 386, 413-14, 416,
427, 501, 506-08, 510, 511, 528-
29, 561, 570, 582-83
— and social revolution—418
— and class-consciousness—417-18,
528-29
See also Antithesis—between classes,
Working class
Clergy, the
— English—421
— German—235, 268
— French—213
— and secular education—408
See also Church
Communism (theory)—36-37, 52-53,
94-95, 130, 131, 136, 241, 263
— workers' communism (German,
French, English)—124, 125, 302
Communism (economic formation)—246-
52, 253, 254, 282
— public ownership of the means of
production—254, 263
— productive forces—250-52
— abolition of class contradictions and
class distinctions—246, 281-83
— ways of transition—253-55
— peaceful transition—253-54, 263,
465, 581-82
— and the state—248
— and labour—250-52
— policy of peace—249-50
Communist movement, Communists
— in England—242
— in Belgium—213
— in France—131, 152-53, 196,
212, 213, 242, 253, 526, 527, 582,
613, 614
— in Germany—213, 229-42, 256,
613, 644
— in Switzerland—242, 652-53, 655
Communist colonies—214-28
— in England—214, 215, 223-27, 235
— in the U.S.A.—214, 215, 217-18,
220-24, 232, 235, 238, 239
See also Harmony, Rappites, Shakers
Competition
— general characteristics—49, 122,
243-45, 251, 257-58, 261-62, 267,
275, 279, 280, 308, 326, 375-76,
379, 382, 427, 524, 555, 564, 566
— over land—556-59
— and monopoly—261-62
— between states—14, 259-61, 466,
480, 579-80, 657
— among workers—16, 251, 307-08,
372, 375-88, 433-34, 507-08
See also Unempbyment
Concept, notion—70, 72, 78, 92, 93, 128,
132, 137, 138, 145, 668
Conception, idea—32, 33, 57, 60, 62, 81,
128, 137-39
Connection—120, 130
— interconnection—19
Consciousness—19, 31, 33, 39, 41, 53,
79,85,86,104,109, 119, 133,141, 171,
174, 177, 178, 192, 665
— unconsciousness—33, 36, 39, 85,
113
See also Reason, Self-consciousness,
Thinking
Contemplation—see Perception
Content—see Form and content
Contradictions—32, 33, 34, 36, 39, 41,
49, 58, 93, 99, 105, 107, 111, 114,
115, 116, 121, 128, 133, 139, 161,
166, 167, 168, 183
See also Antithesis, Opposites
Corn Laws—288, 289, 519-20, 522, 523,
549, 566, 588, 656-61
— repeal of—13, 15, 322, 411, 519-
20, 521, 522, 555, 566, 579, 581,
588, 657-61
See also Anti-Corn Law League
Cost of production—16, 32, 49, 657
Court and legal procedure—467-68, 487,
541-42, 567-69, 587, 589-93, 650
Crime—234, 248, 249, 386, 412, 413,
422, 425-27, 494, 502, 508-09, 551,
553
— in England—412-13, 425-27,
508-09, 551
Crises, social—419
See also Revolution
Critical Criticism—see Young Hegelianism
Customs Union—259
D
Deduction—see Induction and deduction
Definitions—84, 95, 96, 97
Definition, determination—25, 28, 32, 45,
49-50, 52, 58, 60, 61, 84, 95, 97
Deism—129, 421
Derby—314, 340, 479, 481, 554
Development— 23, 36, 76, 95, 96, 105,
128, 131, 138
— concrete—52
— spiritual—135
Dialectics—11, 23, 42, 61, 64, 73, 75,
78, 80, 93
— dialectical process of thinking—
53, 78
— speculative dialectics—54, 103
Diseases, epidemics (engendered by the
development of capitalism)—13, 364-
65, 397-400
Dissenters—112, 464
Division of labour— 325, 344-45, 381,
415-16
Dogmatism, dogma—20, 34, 83, 95, 96,
107, 158
Dublin—337, 338
Dundee—315
E
Economic crisü—382-84, 386-87, 388,
518
— development in cycles—383, 386
— commercial—245, 353, 381-83, 399,
429, 580-81, 658
— agrarian—548-49
— in 1837-39—245, 518
— in 1842—245, 386-88, 508, 520
— in 1847—386
Economic relationships—33, 53, 122, 197
Edinburgh—338, 339, 340, 341, 389,
397, 404
Education—235
— general education in communist society—
253-54
— in England—407-12, 459, 462, 464,
477, 490-92, 494, .496, 527, 528
See also Schools in England
Egoism—120, 668
Elberfeld—237
Emancipation, political—see Revolution,
bourgeois, Revolution, proletarian
Emigration
— political—229, 652-53
— Irish immigration to England—
321, 337, 355, 376-77, 389-92, 419-
20, 560
Empiricism—39, 72, 80, 82, 85, 109,
155, 178
Energy—141
England
— general characteristics—307, 320,
328
— before the 19th cent.—307, 309,
312, 320
— as the leading capitalist country
of the 19th cent.—245, 261, 318-
19, 320, 328, 419, 465-66
— history of—309, 644
— population of—320, 321, 325, 326,
381, 416-18, 432-33, 548, 656
— agriculture, agrarian relations in—
289, 311, 318-19, 324, 358-60, 548-
49, 550, 553, 554, 555-58, 568,
660, 661
— livestock breeding in—317, 557
— peasants, tenant farmers—288,
308, 311, 375, 548-52, 553-58, 559,
562, 657, 660
— landed aristocracy, landlords—288,
520, 548, 552, 553, 554, 555, 559,
562, 656-57, 660-61
— trade of—13, 245, 288-89, 312,
313, 317, 326, 381, 385, 480
— commercial crises—245, 360, 381-
83, 398, 580-81
— communications—317-20, 569
— poor rates—386, 388, 549
— peasant movement in the 1830s and
1840s—553, 554, 557
— Constitution—14, 518, 661
— Parliament—14, 322, 503, 517-18,
546, 549, 569-70, 572, 578, 658,
660
— electoral system, Reform Bill of
1832—322, 503, 517-18, 571, 657,
660
— legislation of—322, 503, 514,
517-18, 567, 568, 569, 570, 660-61
— Poor Laws—322, 463, 464, 519,
523, 550, 553, 557, 568, 569, 570,
574, 577-78, 660-61
— laws against tramps and vagabonds
—567-68
— Game Laws—552-53
— Factory Acts—13-14, 322, 428,
443, 459-66, 539, 569-70
— political parties in—13, 15, 304,
322, 381, 416, 517-18, 520, 555,
570, 646
— church of—464, 477, 559, 564
— prospects of proletarian revolution
—260-61, 262, 546-47, 579-83
— and Ireland—560, 561
— temperance societies—423
— English, the—419, 560
See also Bourgeoisie in England, English
bourgeois revolution of the 17th century,
Industry in England, Industrial
revolution in England, Ireland, Tories,
Whigs, Workers' movement in England,
Working class in England
English bourgeois revolution of the 17th
century—262
English materialist philosophy—125, 126,
127-31
Enlighteners
— German—134-35
— French—124-25, 126
— and religion—124-25
Epicureanism—169
Epidemics—see Diseases, epidemics
Equality—38-39, 40, 41
— bourgeois—38-39
— and private property as its negation
—41
Essence and phenomenon—21, 22, 27, 28,
33, 35, 41, 42, 52, 57-61, 64, 68,
72, 73, 84, 89, 93, 96, 97, 106, 107,
109-10, 114, 121, 123, 128, 138, 152,
174
Estrangement—41-43, 120, 192, 665
— self-estrangement—36, 41, 42
Ethics—see Morality
Europe (political characteristics)—652-53
Exchange value—266, 275-83, 284
See also Value
Existence—see Being
Experience—23, 79, 128, 129, 130
Exploitation
— of labour by capital—418-19, 461,
467, 469, 506-07
See also Labour, Working class
F
Factory legislation in England—13-14, 15,
322, 428, 443, 460, 462-66
— Apprentices' Act of 1802—459
— Factory Act of 1819—459
— Factory Act of 1825—459
— Factory Act of 1831—459-60
— 1833 (1834) Act—459, 461-62
— Lord Ashley's Act (1842) banning
the employment of women and
limiting the employment of children
in mines and collieries—539
— Masters' and Servants' Act (1844)—
322, 569-70
— Ten Hours' Bill (1844)—435, 460-
61, 465-66
Factory legislation in Germany—672-73
Factory system—14, 284-85, 311-12, 434,
439, 445, 457-60, 466, 467, 472-73,
474-79, 485, 489, 497
See also Child labour, Female labour,
Labour
Family
— of the worker—424-25, 437-38,
439-40, 497
— patriarchal—309
Fatherland—250
Female labour—406, 464
— female labour replacing male
labour—384, 431, 434-36, 477, 672
— in factories—434-38, 440-42, 451-
55, 464, 469, 481-82, 489, 497,
672, 673
— dress-makers, sewing-women—497-
500
— in mines and collieries—533-35
— in agriculture—550
See also Family, Women's question
Feuerbach's philosophy—92-94, 139
Fichte's philosophy—139
Form and content—97, 107
Fourier's socialism—50, 84, 152, 263,
302, 613-15, 641-43
France—261, 309, 320, 644
— Directory—122
— during Consulate and Empire—
74, 81, 123, 124, 270, 598
— restoration of the Bourbons—
74, 81, 85, 124, 598
— the 100 days—598
— during the revolution of July 1830
—124
— agriculture, agrarian relations—
199, 200, 560
— home policy of—281
— police—598
— monarchist party—598
— radicals—135
— French, the—419, 512, 560
See also Bourgeoisie in France, French
bourgeois revolution of the end of the
18th century, Revolution of 1848-49 in
France, Workers' movement in France,
Working class in France
Freedom—32, 33, 50, 94, 98, 111-16,
122, 129, 169, 170
French bourgeois revolution of the end of
the 18th century—30-31, 81-82, 118-
20, 122-24, 262, 320, 323, 517, 597,
598, 644, 666
— Declaration of the Rights of Man—
113, 114, 122
— Cercle social—119
— Enragés—119
— Hébert's party—114
— Constituent Assembly—598
— Convention—598
— Thermidor—323
— revolutionary army, revolutionary
wars—250
— Terror, revolutionary—74, 81, 95,
123-24
— constitutions—597
— and religion—111, 113-14
See also Babouvism, Girondists, Jacobins
French philosophy of the 18th cent.—124,
125, 126, 129-32, 139, 140
G
General—see Individual, particular and
general
Geology—546
Geometry— 128
Germany—256, 309, 320, 518, 549, 552,
645, 646
— agriculture, agrarian relations—
549, 560
— trade, home and foreign—258,
259, 261-62, 275
— home policy and internal situation
—229-42
— classes—671-72
— peasantry—413
— political system—111
— civil life—113, 120, 121
— court and law—672, 674
— poor laws—674
— army—249-50
— prospects of the revolution—238-
39, 257, 259-62, 646-47
See also Bourgeoisie in Germany,
Customs Union, Industry in Germany,
Socialism in Germany, Workers' movement
in Germany, Working class in Germany
German philosophy of the 18th and 19th
cent.—7, 8, 17, 40, 41, 125, 153, 653
See also Feuerbach's philosophy, Fichte's
philosophy, Hegel's philosophy
Girondists, the—581
Glasgow—314, 341, 489, 397, 421,
509
Grain
— prices of grain—286-87, 656
— export of grain—289
See also Corn Laws
Greece, ancient—120
Greek philosophy—126, 128
Guilds—116
H
Halifax—315, 344
Harmony (socialist colony)—223-27, 232,
235, 238
Hegel's philosophy—12, 20, 57, 60-61, 89,
100-01, 103, 131-32, 137-39, 141, 148-
49, 167, 178, 192-93, 665
See also Old Hegelianism, Young Hegelianism
Heywood—345
History—12, 13, 32, 79-82, 86, 109, 114,
122, 124, 135, 150, 267, 671
— as activity of man pursuing his
aims—93, 281
— Hegel's conception of history—85,
86, 114
— development of history—84
— historic progress—474
— role of masses in history—81, 82,
85, 94
"Holy Family"—see Young Hegelianism
Homoeomeriae—128
Housing question, the
— in capitalist society—331-66, 395-
96, 470-72, 532, 539, 543-44
— in England—331-66, 373-74, 396-
98, 434, 470-72, 491-92, 532, 539,
552, 559
See also Lodging-houses
Huddersfield—315, 344
Hull—13
Humanism, real—7, 125, 131
Humaneness—179
— bourgeois—462, 565, 571
— proletarian—420
I
Idea, thought—40-41, 49-50, 81-82, 94,
119, 125-26, 128, 129, 138, 168, 179,
184, 186, 203
Ideal—19, 82, 88, 140, 142, 170, 188
Idealism—16, 53, 80, 123, 137, 140, 153
Ideology—see World outlook
Idolatry—127
Individual, personality, the—22, 79, 85,
86, 113, 120, 122, 160
Individualism—276
Individual, particular and general—19,
52, 61, 62, 78, 85, 100, 114, 115,
124, 128-29, 142, 193
Induction and deduction—31, 128
Industry—116, 122, 130, 150, 244, 256,
260-61, 265, 280-81, 324-27, 354-56,
375, 381, 419, 433, 502, 659-60
See also Industry in America, Industry
in England, Industry in Germany
Industry in America—579-80
Industry in England
— general characteristics—245, 259,
260-61, 275, 281, 283, 289, 324,
325-27, 344, 355-57, 379, 383-84,
389, 393, 419, 426, 433, 465-66,
497, 530, 548, 566, 579-80, 644,
656, 657-58, 660
— history from the middle of the 18th
century to the beginning of the 19th
century—311-21
— cotton—12, 313-14, 414, 428-29,
433-34, 580
— linen—315-16
— woollen—289, 314-15, 342
— silk—316
— lace—314, 481, 482-83
— textile—428-32, 479, 484
— iron and steel, machine-building,
coal-mining, metal-working—316-
18, 488-89, 491, 494, 532
— potteries—318, 495
— glass—496-97
Industry in Germany—245, 256, 258-61,
275
Industrial revolution in England—307, 309,
313, 320, 324, 325, 503
Infinity—129
Intellect, understanding—58, 128, 129
See also Reason
Intemperance (as a social category)—
400, 401, 421-23, 444, 466, 467
.Interdependence—113, 117
Interest, interests—41, 42, 81, 82, 120,
124, 126, 143, 174, 175
— material—123
— historic—41
— political—91, 123
— private, personal—113, 130-32,206
— general, common—130, 132, 133,
134, 144
Internal and external—22, 23, 82, 83,
101, 108, 137-38, 174, 178
Internationalism, proletarian—298, 301
Inventions—12, 71, 289, 307, 310-13,
317, 344, 428, 429, 511, 656
See also Industrial revolution in England
Investigations—32, 83, 110, 112
Ireland—558, 559, 560
— population—321, 391
— history—321
— agrarian relations (tenant farmers)
—391, 557-61
— English agrarian legislation for
Ireland—559
— Poor Law of 1838, workhouses—
577-78
— impoverishment and diseases of
popular masses engendered by colonial
oppression—397, 399, 533,
558-59, 649
— pauperism—558-59, 577-78
— Irish workers in England—322,
324, 376-77, 384, 390, 391, 392,
397, 399, 421, 577-78
— agricultural proletariat—558
— Irish, the—391-92, 421, 559, 560
See also Working class in England—
Irish workers, Repealers
Italy—408
Italians—559
J
Jacobins—121-23
Jesuits, Jesuitism—126, 190
Jews, Jewish question—87, 88, 90, 95, 96,
98, 106-12, 113-14
See also Judaism
Judaism—90, 99, 110
See also Jews
K
Knowledge—53, 125, 129
See also Conception, Senses
L
Labour, work—278, 279 280, 672
— social—278, 279
— human—50
— conditions of labour under capitalism—
414-16, 443-48, 450-52, 453-
55, 462, 466-67, 468-69, 479-89,
530-39
— coerciveness of labour—415, 466,
468-69
— night work—444
— organisation of labour—19
— manual labour, its replacement by
machines—312-13, 428-29, 433-35
— merging of industrial and agricultural
labour—548
— system of fines—469-70, 486, 487,
488, 539-40
See also Child labour, Division of
labour, Female labour, Working day
Labour time—48, 49
Lancashire—M2, 313, 314, 315, 342,
344, 403, 410, 425, 445, 488, 494,
528, 554, 587
Landlords, landlordism—see England—
landed aristocracy, landlords
Landed property—45-46, 116, 286-90, 318,
559, 673
See also England—agriculture, agrarian
relations in
Language— 319, 438
Law, right—SI, 97, 116, 117
— Roman law—44
Law (juridical)—28, 29, 116, 117, 129,
179
Lease, tenant farmers—311, 319, 359-
60, 548-49, 556-59
Leeds—315, 316, 329, 342, 343
Legislation, bourgeois—514-15, 567, 568
See also Bourgeois society, Court and
legal procedure
Legislative acts regulating the working day
in England—see Factory legislation in
England
Leicester—314, 340, 470, 479, 480, 481
Leipzig butchery (1845)—see Workers'
movement in Germany
Literature
— communist, Utopian—235, 240
— socialist—56, 597, 644
— English—135, 289, 416-17, 420,
528
— German—229
— French—135
Liverpool—13, 313, 326, 340, 389, 403,
405, 593
Lodging-houses—336, 532
Logic—17, 24, 31, 45, 46-47, 62, 76,
90, 131, 137, 167
— Hegelian—18
— speculative—62, 157
See also Analogy, Definition, Subject and
object, Tautology
London—320, 326-29, 331-37, 372, 389,
396, 397, 424, 498, 499, 517
Love—20-23, 439
Luddism—433, 503
See also Industrial revolution in England
Lumpenproletariat—see Working class in
England—lumpenproletariat
Lyons—53
— revolt of Lyons weavers in 1834—
512
M
Machine, machinery—13, 14, 308, 311,
317, 321, 325, 344, 482
— and appearance of the proletariat—
321
— replacing manual labour—429-35,
482, 489, 548, 553
See also Inventions
Macclesfield—59 3
Malthusianism—379-80, 432, 570-73
Man, human being—7, 20, 22, 23, 27, 39,
40, 42, 43, 46, 49, 54, 65-66, 70-71,
82, 85, 87-88, 92, 93, 98-99, 107, 109,
111, 113, 114, 116, 120-21, 125, 127-
34, 138, 139, 141-43, 150, 160, 165,
166, 167, 168, 169, 171-75, 178, 179,
181, 184, 185, 191-93, 201, 665
— his essence—21, 22, 39, 41, 106,
114, 115, 141-42, 174, 177, 194
— his activity—49, 50, 53, 54, 153,
176, 188
— his freedom and rights—87-88,
98-99, 111, 113, 114, 130-31
— his relationships—32, 42, 43
— his feelings—21, 22, 23, 35, 67,
84, 161, 174-75, 180-81
— needs of—52-53
— humanity, mankind—22, 26, 83, 84,
85, 88, 136, 139, 142, 144, 167,
177, 281, 671
— human and inhuman—33, 76, 110,
111, 113, 116, 195
See also Alienation, Estrangement
Manchester—12-13, 53, 313, 316, 326,
329, 344, 345, 347-66, 387-89, 396,
397, 403, 405, 406, 422, 423, 426,
455, 457, 464, 477, 478, 495, 512, 513,
517, 520, 521, 522, 564, 565, 587,
588, 592, 593, 657-60
Manifestation, sign—34-35, 123, 177
Masses—9, 11, 12, 78, 80, 81, 84, 85,
133-34, 135, 136, 154-56, 193, 244,
249-50, 514, 521-22
— their role in history—80-81, 84-
85, 103
Materialism, material—22, 49, 80, 82, 85,
95, 113, 124-25, 126-31, 132, 136,
139-41, 150, 192, 196, 265-66
— material production—49, 150
— material conditions—95
— mechanical materialism—125
Mathematics—48
— mathematical motion—128
Matter— 46, 83, 85, 93, 125, 128, 129,
132, 135, 136, 140-44, 194
— its forms—129, 140
Medicine—564
Metaphysics—17, 37, 62, 75, 79, 125,
126, 127, 130, 137-41, 166, 180
— Cartesian—126-27, 130
— of the 17th cent.—126, 127, 129,
132
— speculative—130
Middle class, the—244, 245, 321, 325,
349, 375, 388
See also Bourgeoisie in England, Bourgeoisie
in France, Bourgeoisie in Germany
Middleton—345
Mind—60, 61
Mineralogy—58
Mode of production— 150
See also Social formation
Monarchy—114, 115
Money, money system—53, 109
— as a form of private property—32
— power of money—412, 456-57,
562-64
Morality—130, 169-70, 180-85, 201, 308-
09, 407, 411, 423-24, 483, 492, 496,
528, 643
— of the worker—343, 392, 408,
411, 412, 417, 419-20, 441, 442,
466-67, 483-84, 538, 539
See also Crime, Family, Love
Mortality—403, 404, 405-06, 532
— among children—405-06
Movement, motion—35, 125, 128, 140,
141, 142
Mysticism—11, 30, 39, 58, 60, 138, 167,
193
N
Napoleonic wars—289, 548, 656
Nation—153, 276, 281, 381
— national prejudices—298
Nationalism— 120
Nature—129, 138, 139-41, 150, 167, 170,
172
Natural philosophy—22, 150
Natural science—57, 125, 128, 130, 149-
50, 155
Necessity and chance—23, 25, 37, 61, 113,
130-31, 139
Needs, requirements—19, 38, 52, 113,
120, 278
Negation of the negation (law of)—22, 33-
34, 160
Newcastle—543
Nobility—266
— the squire—656
Nominalism—127, 128
Norfolk—554
Nottingham—314, 340, 479, 481, 483
O
Oldham—313, 345
Old and new—103, 104, 106, 124
Old Hegelianism—142
Opium war (1842)—261
Opposites, opposition—14, 16, 34-48, 45,
54, 56, 58, 84, 85, 86, 94, 96, 98, 103,
105, 110, 112, 117, 130, 139, 141,
144, 148, 151, 154, 155, 158, 167,
168, 179, 193, 201, 203
See also Antithesis, Contradictions
Organisations and associations of workers—
378, 418, 420, 459-60, 503-08,
509-10, 517, 540, 568
See also Trade unions in England
Orthography, English—409
Owen's socialism—84, 223-24, 232, 252-
53, 459, 525-26, 614
P
Papism—268
Panellation—116, 257
Paris—57, 597-612
Patriarchal relations—418, 550
Patriotic War of 1812 in Russia—124
Pauperism— 12
— in England—549-50, 551, 571,
573
— in Ireland—558-59, 577
— in Germany—234, 671-72
See also Charity, bourgeois, Humaneness,
bourgeois, Philanthropy, Workhouses in
England
Peasantry—289, 375, 548, 550, 553
See also Lease, tenant farmers
Penalty
— penal theory—176-79, 186
Perception—58, 61, 129, 158
— sensory perception—58, 61
Person, individual—23, 79, 248, 253,
426, 514
Phenomenology—665
Philanthropy—237, 384-85, 459, 460,
474, 525-26, 578, 597, 649
See also Charity, bourgeois, Humaneness,
bourgeois
Philistines
— German—267, 268, 280, 282, 283
Philosophy--7', 24, 39, 76-77, 85-93, 125,
129
See also English materialist philosophy,
German philosophy of the 18th and 19th
cent., Scholasticism, Speculation
Philosophers—17, 29, 59, 60, 146-47
Phraseology—266, 291
Physics—125, 126, 128, 130
Physiocrats—see Bourgeois political economy
Poaching—551-53
Police— 73, 598
Political economy—see Bourgeois political
economy
Poor relief—see Philanthropy
Population
— centralisation of; towns—325, 326,
394, 416-18, 441, 548
— in England—321, 326, 381, 432,
548
Practice—see Theory and practice
Pragmatism—41
Predicate—21
Premises, preconditions—31, 32, 35, 42,
45, 101
See also Logic
Press
— bourgeois—480, 523, 543
— socialist and communist—212-13,
654-55, 674
— in Germany—229, 231, 671
— in France—212-13
Preston—12, 313, 345, 522
Price— 32, 50
Principles—7, 12, 14, 16, 17, 27, 28, 31,
39-41, 82, 89, 93, 105, 115, 121, 129,
130-31, 584
— basic—121, 129, 131-32
Private property—35, 36, 42-43, 49, 278
— its forms—32, 33, 53
— proletariat as its creation—35-36
— "drives itself to its own dissolution"—
36
— its essence—33
— historical justification of its existence—
41
Privileges—115-16
Production—49
Productive forces—266, 276, 277, 284-88
Profit
— on capital—32
Progress—29, 82-85
— historic—474
— social—26
— scientific and technical—32, 259-61,
480
See also Industrial revolution in England-
Proof—25, 28, 45, 67, 79, 80, 81
Property-289, 325, 421, 497
— as the negation of equality (according
to Proudhon) — 40-41
— centralisation of property—14
— the right of property (according to
Proudhon)—45
See also Landed property, Private property
Prostitution—251, 332, 422, 424, 441-42,
469, 494, 672
Protectionism—258-60, 261-62, 266-67,
274, 275, 282, 290, 656, 657
See also Trade
Protestantism—346-47
Proudhonism—23-35, 38, 39, 40-54, 156-
57, 528, 642-43
Prussia—646, 649, 676
— internal policy—112, 234
— government—230, 234
— socialist movement—237, 238
Psychology - 3 1 , 99
R
Rappites—218-20
Rationalism—128
Reading-rooms (at factories) in England—
477
— proletarian—527
See also Education in England
Reality—53
— objective reality—193
— as a criterion of truth—27-28
— abstraction from reality—19, 58,
59, 60, 141-42, 180
— real man—22, 39, 53, 85-86, 108-
09, 120-21, 139, 153, 160, 175,
177, 192, 248
— Hegel's conception of—60-61, 79,
85-86, 90, 139, 191-92
— Young Hegelians' idealist conception
of reality—7, 12-13, 19, 23,
24-25, 27-28, 53, 58-61, 77, 79,
83-84, 90, 95-96, 108-09, 125,
140-42, 145, 155, 157-60, 180
— and semblance—33, 58, 83, 101-02,
248
— and ideas, concepts, notions—19,
49-50, 53, 58-61, 77, 79, 82, 120-
21, 145
— and thinking, consciousness—54,
58, 140-41, 190-93
— and its reflection in philosophy—
7, 126-27
— and religion—108-09, 175, 177
— and possibility—126, 127
— and bourgeois political economy—
32-33, 42, 54
Reason—32, 41, 58-61, 65, 85, 90, 128,
129, 141, 142, 143, 179
— abstract reason—59-60, 66-67
— common sense, common human
reason—143, 147, 151
"Rebecca" (peasant revolt in 1843)—557
Reflection—110
Relative and absolute—114, 121
Religion—89, 97, 108, 109, 116, 166,
408-11, 421, 464, 526, 527, 564
— Christianity—59, 89, 109, 110
— freedom of conscience—111-12
— religious consciousness-^ 166
— religious fanaticism—421
— religious sects—215-18, 408, 409
— and the state—111-12, 117
— in England—408, 411, 419-21,
464, 496, 526, 538
See also Atheism, Catholicism, Christianity,
Church, Judaism, Protestantism,
Theology
Repealers—560, 561
Rent of land—271-72, 287, 288, 289-90,
656
— as an economic expression of landed
property—289
Revolution
— general characteristics (its essential
features and tasks)—81, 82, 118-19
— and economic crises—580-81
— revolution of the minority—81, 82
See also Masses—their role in history,
Revolution, bourgeois, Revolution, proletarian
Revolution, bourgeois, the
— general characteristics (its essential
features and nature)—81, 82, 110-
11, 122-23
— its limitations (incompleteness, halfheartedness)—
81, 82, 261-62
Revolution, proletarian, the
— general characteristics (its essential
features and tasks)—36, 37, 109-
10, 257, 258, 260, 261-64, 266-67,
282, 283
— prerequisites for—261, 262
— historical inevitability of—418, 580-
81
— its international character (revolutions
breaking out simultaneously
in a number of countries)—261
— fundamental difference from the
bourgeois revolution—87, 88, 94,
95, 110-11, 261, 262
— and the role of the proletarian party—
581-82
— and resort to revolutionary violence—
546-47, 581-82
— possibility of a peaceful development
and an objective necessity
of transition to the armed struggle
in the course of the revolution—
263-64, 581-82
See also Revolution — general characteristics
Revolution, technical—see Industrial revolution
in England, Progress—scientific
and technical
Revolution of 1848-49 in France—579
Right—see Law
Rochdale—SU, 315, 345, 430
Rome—120, 268, 510
— plebs—510
Russia—289
S
Saint-Simon's socialism—50, 282-83, 614
Salford— 363, 464
Saxony—646, 647
Scepticism—127, 201-02, 584
Scholasticism—107, 127
Schools in England—407, 408, 411, 412,
459, 462, 464, 477, 490, 491, 494
— Sunday schools—408-09, 410, 492,
496
See also Education
Science—24-27, 28, 30, 31, 32, 41, 58,
89, 93, 127, 128, 129
See also Mathematics, Natural science,
Physics
Scotland—319, 386, 404, 422, 484, 503,
530, 533, 534, 535, 578, 591
See also Working class in England—
Scottish workers
Sects, religious—see Religion
Self-consciousness—7, 12, 39-41, 79, 80,
82, 85-86, 93, 104
See also Consciousness
Semblance, appearance—33, 36, 37, 58,
83, 84-85, 99-103, 108-09, 116, 138,
140, 141, 145, 196
Senses, sensuousness—19, 22, 58, 61, 65-
69, 82, 83, 120, 128, 129, 150, 178,
181, 192
— sensations—130
— world of the senses—23, 58, 128,
178, 184, 192
— sensuous understanding—58
— experience of the senses—23, 128
See also Perception
Sensationalism—127, 128, 129
See also Senses
Serfdom—413, 472
Shakers and the foundation of communist
colonies in the U.S.A.—215-18
Sheffield—317-18, 340, 488, 492-94,
508, 509, 519
Silesia
— riot of the weavers in 1844—230,
258, 303-04, 646, 674
Slavery —IIS, 122, 380, 413, 473, 474
Social estates—88-89
Social formation—150, 642
Social relations—158
Socialism (theory)—53, 94-95, 130, 136,
302, 418
— in England—14, 125, 153, 231, 302,
418, 524-27
— in Germany—229-31, 241, 303,
614, 642-43
— in France—125, 153, 614
See also Communism (theory)
Socialism, petty-bourgeois—24-25, 53,
94-95, 241
Socialism, scientific—94-95, 232
Socialism, Utopian—84, 152-53, 232,
251-53, 263, 302, 459, 524-27, 613-14
See also Fourier's socialism, Owen's socialism,
Saint-Simon's socialism
Socialist movement, Socialists
— in England—215, 524-27
— in France—19, 24, 25, 212-13, 598
See also Communist movement, Communists
Society—49-50, 131, 160, 251-52
— feudal—122-23, 243, 473, 550
See also Bourgeois society
Somersetshire—316
Sophütry—34, 61, 140, 174, 182, 185
Spain—408, 548
Speculation— 7, 13, 23, 57, 125, 139, 143,
166, 167, 168, 178-79, 191
— German—7
— critical—35, 37
Spinoza school—124, 131, 137, 139
Spirit—7, 135, 141-42, 153
— Hegel's conception of—15-16, 77,
84-85, 139, 167
— Young Hegelians' conception of—
7, 40, 77, 82-86, 94, 97, 104-05,
113, 134-36, 139-44, 145-46, 177-
78, 186, 206
Spiritualism—7, 42, 82, 84, 94, 122, 128,
145, 150, 178
Staffordshire—488, 491
Stalybridge— 313, 345, 346, 587
State—88, 95-96, 110-11, 115, 120-21,
124
— of antiquity—113, 122
— bourgeois—112-14, 116, 117, 274,
666, 668
— democratic representative—114,
115, 122, 123, 666
— and the national question—111
— and religion—111-12, 117
Statistics—247
Stockport— 345, 346, 430, 464, 521
Stoicism—169
Strikebreakers—544, 586-87
Strikes and strike movement in England—
458, 505, 506, 507, 508-12, 540-41,
584, 585
— in 1812—503
— in 1818—503-04
— in 1822—503
— in 1842-43 (Manchester)—387,
512-17, 521-23, 585, 587-96, 659,
660
— in 1844 (of coal-miners in the
north of England)—426, 460, 541-
47, 569, 585
See also Chartism, Workers' movement
in England
Strikes and strike movement in France—
512, 650
Subject and object— 21, 22, 59, 60, 61,
71, 72, 75, 78, 79, 80, 82, 85, 129,
137, 138, 141, 142, 144-45, 159, 160,
167, 192, 193, 665
Substance—58-60, 125, 129, 131, 132,
137-41, 160, 668
Suffolk—554
Suicide—412, 597-612
Summary—128
Superstition—127
Sweden—532
Switzerland—242, 651, 652, 653
T
Tautology—20, 84, 153
Taxes—254-55
— general progressive tax—254
Teism—110
Teleology—79
Terror— 74, 81, 95, 122-23, 124
Theology—17, 89, 94, 102, 109, 110, 112,
127, 143
Theory and practice—
— their dialectical correlation—53
— their unity—153, 235-36, 263
— discrepancy between them—613-
15, 641-44
— their contradiction—115-16, 643-44
— criticism of the idealist interpretation
of the correlation between theory
and practice—39, 46, 82,
141-42, 192-93, 613-15, 641-44, 665
— the role of practice in transforming
reality—53, 82, 94-95, 506-07
— revolutionary practice—12, 94-95,
263
— theory and practice of the workingclass
movement—84
Thermidor—see French bourgeois revolution
of the end of the 18th century
Thinking, thought—13, 39, 53, 54, 82-83,
97, 126-29, 140-43, 151, 153, 158,
191-93, 665
— abstract—39-40
— absolute—159
— ability to think—21
— speculative—58
See also Being and consciousness
Time—48-49
See also Labour time
Tories—14, 15, 289, 381, 416, 463-64,
465, 503, 519, 520, 521, 555-56, 578
— philanthropic Tories—460, 473,
578
— Tory Cabinet of Robert Peel—660
Towns—292-93, 325-30, 339, 340, 373,
394-95, 416-19, 423, 441, 444, 460,
467, 498, 532, 556
— factory—12, 13, 325, 326, 327, 394-
95, 416-19, 441, 444, 460, 498,
532
— in England—313-14, 317, 318, 319-
21, 326, 328-74, 459, 660
— in Germany—672
See also Birmingham, London, Manchester
and other towns
Trade—33, 116, 289, 292-93
— as a form of private property—33
— free trade—267
See also Economic crisis, Protectionism
Trade unions in England—13, 503-07,
509, 510, 526, 540-43, 544-47, 586,
591, 593
See also Workers' movement in England
Transcendentalism—7, 40
Truth—26, 27, 28, 79, 80, 138, 139, 140
U
Unemployment— 250, 251, 261, 377, 381,
382, 384-88, 396, 429-31, 433, 553-54,
566
See also Competition, Working class
United States of America—116, 247, 272,
289
— position of Negroes—468-69
See also Communist colonies in the U.S.A.
Universe—140, 142
Usury—423
V
Value—32-33, 46, 47, 49-50
— exchange value—266, 275-83, 284
W
Wage-labour—36, 53
Wages—16, 32, 52, 53, 278, 279, 286,
287, 288, 307, 308, 330, 377-81, 387,
431-32, 504, 505, 507, 594, 596, 658,
659
— dependence on the introduction of
machines—431-32
— in agriculture—549-51, 552
— truck system—470, 471, 473, 539,
542, 673
— in England—13, 307, 308, 376-79,
387, 426-27, 431, 432, 481, 505-07,
508, 523, 549, 550, 552, 571
Wars—249-50
See also Napoleonic wars, Patriotic War
of 1812 in Russia
Weitling's communism—235-36, 614, 615
Whigs—14, 460, 463, 578
— German Whiggery—646
Will—13, 95, 98
Women's question—438-42
See also Child labour, Family, Female
labour
Workers' associations—52-53, 503-04
See also Trade unions in England
Workers' movement— 227, 263, 302, 321,
418, 419, 581-82, 653
See also Class struggle, Communist movement,
Strikes and strike movement in
England, Strikes and strike movement in
France
Workers' movement in England
— general characteristics—242, 321,
324-25, 344, 418, 428, 433, 444,
488, 489, 494, 498, 501-22, 526,
529, 541-47, 553, 561, 566, 582-
83, 645
— movement for shorter working
hours—15, 459, 460, 465, 519, 523,
569
— struggle for higher wages—426,
505-07, 523, 586
— and peasantry—555
See also Chartism, Luddism, Strikes and
strike movement in England, Trade
unions in England
Workers' movement in France—263, 512,
650
Workers' movement in Germany—227-28,
230, 236, 253-54, 256-57, 646-48
— "Leipzig butchery" (1845)—645-46
Workhouses in England —521, 573-77
Working class
— general characteristics — 36-37,
265, 302-04, 330-31, 376, 379,
419-20, 421
— its rise and development — 257,
259, 260, 261, 309-11, 320-21, 324-
27, 354-56, 375
— its world-historic role — 36-37 257
421
— its condition in capitalist society —
302-03, 322-23, 329-32, 373-74,
423-25, 473-74, 671
— antithesis and struggle between the
proletariat and the bourgeoisie —
35, 323, 329-30, 375-76, 379,
385-86, 413-16, 419-20, 427, 506-
08, 510, 529, 561-63, 570
— need for its organisation — 376
— its class-consciousness — 36-37, 53,
253-54, 418, 419, 501, 529, 546-47
— its internationalism — 212, 303-04
— class solidarity — 565
— its living conditions—36, 37, 373-
74, 394-95
— dwellings —331-42, 355-57, 395-96
— food —368-74, 399-400, 434, 491
— similar conditions of workers' life
in various countries—302-04
— conditions of labour—415-16,
443-46, 447-48, 450-52, 453-56,
462, 468-69, 479-89, 530-39
— competition among workers—16,
250-51, 307-08, 372, 375-88,
433-34, 507-08
— humaneness — 420
— agricultural proletariat — 257,
310-11, 548-62
See also Revolution, proletarian, Unemployment,
Workers' movement, Working
class in England, Working class in
France, Working class in Germany,
Working class in Ireland
Working class in England
— general characteristics — 36-37,
262-63, 297, 302-03, 321, 322, 326-
27, 354-56, 373-74, 413, 418-19,
421, 428, 435, 436, 470, 473-74,
500, 501-02, 584
— its rise and development—307-08,
310-11, 312, 317, 320-21, 324, 325,
326, 344-45, 375, 548
— world-historic role — 36-37
— workers doing their work at home,
handicraftsmen —308, 310, 311,
321, 488-89
— antithesis between the proletariat
and the bourgeoisie; class antagonism
and class struggle — 36, 323,
375-76, 379-80, 413-14, 415-16,
497-98, 501, 506-07, 512-13, 562-
83, 585, 660
— labour aristocracy — 461, 477
— class-consciousness of — 36-37, 84,
134-36, 418, 419, 529, 546-47
— internationalism of—298-99
— humaneness — 420
— class solidarity — 546-47, 565
— its living conditions —303, 331-32,
348-49, 373-74, 392-95, 398, 400,
403-04, 405-07, 658
— dwellings-331-66, 373-74, 396-99,
407, 434, 470-72, 491-92, 532,
539, 543, 558
— conditions of labour—415-16,
443-48, 450, 451-52, 453-56, 462,
468-69, 479-89, 530-39, 585-86
— enmity towards Irish workers —
376-77, 392
— Irish workers —322, 324, 376-77,
390, 392, 399, 421, 534, 544
— Scottish workers —590, 591, 593
— agricultural proletariat—13, 257,
284-85, 310-11, 548-62
— weavers —308, 310, 311
— lumpenproletariat—251, 552
— moral principles—308-09, 343, 392,
411, 412, 419, 420, 441, 442, 483,
484, 496, 538
— its atheism—412, 421, 526, 538
— education and upbringing—407-12,
421, 490-92, 494, 496, 526-28, 538
See also Chartism, Factory system, Industry
in England, Trade unions in England,
Wages, Workers' movement in
England
Working class in France—212, 213, 262-63
— its theoretical consciousness—36-
37, 84
— Proudhon's standpoint—41
Working class in Germany—230, 236, 237,
256, 257, 259, 260, 261, 303, 304,
647, 652-53, 671-73
See also Workers' movement in Germany
Working class in Ireland—390, 392
— agricultural proletariat—558-59
Working day
— in England—13, 14, 15, 382, 384,
408, 428, 435-36, 443, 444, 461-
66, 479, 481-82, 491-92, 499-500,
533, 592-93, 672
— movement for the Ten Hours' Bill
—15, 459, 460, 461, 463, 464, 465,
519, 569
See also Factory legislation
World outlook—170
Writers
— socialist and communist—36, 84
— and censorship—82-83
Y
Yeomen—see England—peasants, tenant
farmers
Yorkshire—342, 403
"Young England"—205, 570, 578
"Young Germany"—651-53, 654
Young Hegelianism—7-9, 10-11, 20, 39-
42, 47-51, 52-54, 78-79, 82, 94, 95,
96, 97, 99-103, 105-15, 131-34, 136-
61, 191, 197-200, 211
See also Reality—Young Hegelians'idealist
conception of reality





MECW VOL 5





A
Abolition (Außebung)—47-48, 49, 50,
51, 64, 77, 78-80, 205, 218
Abstraction— 3-5, 29, 83, 87, 155, 175,
183, 326, 510, 517, 534
— and reality —99, 229-30, 281, 284,
291, 293, 302, 305-06, 362, 417,
430, 458, 464, 469, 538
— and history —29, 37, 50, 61, 89,
130, 138, 144, 172, 302, 511, 532
— abstract and concrete — 317, 430,
469, 503
— as a characteristic feature of idealism,
metaphysics and religion —
99, 116, 159, 171, 176, 196, 262-
63, 281-82, 305-06, 510, 534, 538
— mystification of the dialectics of the
abstract and the concrete in the
philosophy of Hegel and his followers—
89, 98-99, 100, 105, 130,
138, 172, 174, 175, 193, 237, 251,
317, 414, 468, 469, 481
— abstract categories, concepts — 41,
275, 362, 447
— abstract theory, science — 458,498-
99
— abstract thinking—4, 7, 263-64
Accumulation—63, 68, 69, 79, 86
Activity of people—4, 7, 50-52, 55, 64, 74,
81
— as a premise of human history —
31, 36-37
— basic aspects of social activity —
41-45, 50
— material, productive, practical —
3-8, 35-37, 40-41, 45-46, 63, 82
— spiritual, mental, theoretical — 3, 6,
45, 63, 82
— estrangement of social activity —
47-48, 52
See also Intercourse, Labour, Practice,
Production, Self-activity
Aesthetics—485
Afghanistan—546
Agriculture—32-34, 38, 63, 69, 75, 390
Alexandrian school of philosophy—142
Alienation (estrangement) — 46-53, 76-80,
88, 230, 245, 281-82, 301, 350, 396,
486
— religious self-alienation — 4, 7, 159
See also Activity of people
America
— discovery of—50, 70
— Indians —225
— South America — 80
Analogy— 475, 480, 530
Analysis—5, 8, 57
Anatomy—440
Ancient Egypt— 55, 136
Ancient Greece—34, 83, 138-43, 187,
251, 347, 417, 512
Ancient Greek philosophy—136-43, 154,
417, 512
See also Alexandrian school of philosophy,
Cyrenaic school, Epicureanism, Neo-
Platonism, Scepticism, Sophistry, Stoicism
Ancient Rome— 33-34, 40, 84-85, 89,
90-91, 137, 140, 141-43, 187, 277,
318, 358, 363, 390
Ancient society— 33-34, 84, 89-90, 92
Ancient World— 33-34, 40, 67, 83-85,
89-90, 92, 136, 137, 138-44, 189, 432
See also Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome
Animal
— and man — 31, 44, 161
Antithesis—see Opposition
Appearance, illusion—28, 30, 36-37, 39,
46-47, 55, 60-61, 74, 78, 83, 87, 90-91,
127, 130, 141-42, 154, 184, 195, 222,
242, 246-47, 264, 266, 267, 275, 278,
279, 281-84, 297, 298, 300, 316, 334,
397
Aristocracy—46, 59, 60, 221, 342
Arithmetic—156
Art—66-67, 92, 394
Asceticism — 417, 419
Association — 78, 354, 361, 414-15
Astronomy— 394, 540-42, 548-49, 553,
555-56, 560-61, 570, 573, 574
Atheism— 141-42, 300
Atom—139, 141, 283, 459
B
Babouvism—210, 226, 461, 553
Banker— 85, 384
Banks—72
— Bank of England — 411
Barbarians— 34, 67, 84, 225, 342
Barbarism (epoch) — 33, 64
Basis and superstructure—35-37, 48, 50,
53-54, 81-82, 89, 329-30, 373, 412-
13, 462, 550
Being
— and consciousness — 24, 35-37,
43-45, 128-29, 246, 250-51, 262,
287-89, 330, 429, 434
— and essence—13, 58, 77, 264,
511-12
— actual being —49, 82, 269, 283
— being determines consciousness
36-37
Belgium — 360
Berlin — 361, 572
Bible— 120, 534
Bills of exchange— 399
Botany—440, 461
Bourgeoisie—73, 76-77, 221-23, 229,
410-14
— big —70, 71
_ petty —70, 71, 217, 230, 271, 303,
378, 381, 417, 469-70
See also Bourgeoisie in England, Bourgeoisie
in France, Bourgeoisie in Germany,
Bourgeoisie in the Netherlands, Bourgeois
society, Capital, Capitalist, Civil
society, Classes, Competition, Family,
Interests, Landed property, Law, Private
property, State, Working class
Bourgeoisie in England—119, 193, 196,
200, 249, 411-12, 455, 546, 557
Bourgeoisie in France—61, 119, 193, 195,
196, 200, 335, 351, 409-12, 455, 520,
557
Bourgeoisie in Germany—23, 112, 119,
129, 193-96, 200, 201, 237, 314-15,
411, 430, 457, 557
Bourgeoisie in the Netherlands—194, 411
Bourgeois political economy—86, 229-30,
392, 409, 412-13
— Physiocrats — 409, 412
— classical (Smith, Ricardo)— 72,
392, 403
— vulgar (Senior) — 360
— petty-bourgeois — 373
Bourgeois society— 52-53, 72-74, 78-79,
80, 88-89, 181-82, 200, 213, 250, 256,
290, 348, 354, 361, 363, 408, 409,
415-16, 430, 513, 550
Bureaucracy (officialdom)—195, 225,
348
Brain, human—36, 537
Bremen — 194
Byzantium — 204
C
Cabetism (Cabet's system) — 226, 461,
462, 519-29
Capital— 34, 49, 50, 54, 63, 64-65, 66,
68-70, 72-73, 77, 85-86, 89, 91, 93
Capitalist — 40, 69, 74, 408
See also Bourgeoisie
Carthage—83
Caste system. — 5 5
Categorical imperative—254, 292
Categories—29, 53, 58, 126, 301-02, 317
Catholicism — 170
Cattle-raising—33, 89
Cause—65, 66, 75, 84, 86, 136, 154, 162,
181, 187, 205, 219, 269, 351-52, 395-
97, 304-05, 464, 467, 547, 558
— cause and effect —63, 175, 283,
304, 305, 352, 370, 376, 416-17,
447, 462, 465, 508
Celts — 364
Chance—see Necessity and chance
Chartism — 207, 217, 226, 461, 466, 566
Chemistry— 27, 40, 110, 141, 186-87
China —51, 165, 369
Christianity—SO, 136-37, 143-44, 145-
46, 151,' 152, 153, 154, 188, 189, 211,
220, 254, 304, 449, 510
Church—170-71, 557
Circulation—66, 68, 70, 72, 73
Civilisation—63-64, 84, 181, 204, 205,
342, 388, 531, 538
Civil society—5, 8, 42, 49-50, 53, 89-90,
342
See also State
Classes— 32-35, 40, 47, 52-53, 59-61, 64,
66-67, 68-69, 73-80, 90, 92, 129, 176,
194-95, 197, 200, 219-20, 222, 245,
289-90, 293, 329-30, 343, 354, 359,
371, 395, 411-13, 417, 419, 431, 432,
439, 455, 462, 469, 540, 542, 546, 559,
567, 572
— production and division of society
into classes — 40
— division of labour and division of
society into classes—32-33, 46, 52-
53, 64, 66-68, 77-78, 80, 86, 436
— in ancient society — 33, 64, 66-67
— in feudal society — 33-35, 66-67,
68-70, 74, 90, 92, 176, 343
— in bourgeois society — 52, 68-70,
76-77, 206, 219, 222, 343, 413,
418-19
— division of labour within a class —
59-63, 76-77, 92
— and the state —46-47, 53, 78, 81
— class interests —46-47, 77, 80, 90,
194-95, 245, 334, 342, 371
— class relations —32-33, 69-70, 73-
74, 78-79, 418, 436-37, 462
— class rule —33-35, 47, 52-53,
77-79, 89-91, 92, 200
— ruling class and ruling consciousness—
59-62, 289, 292, 328-30,
334, 355, 356, 418-19, 432
— revolutionary class — 47,52-53,60-
61, 178, 194, 289
— and social estates—32-33, 60,
77-80, 89-91, 200
— abolition of classes as a result of
communist revolution — 47, 53, 61,
77
See also Bourgeoisie, Class struggle,
Individuals, Nobility, Peasantry, Working
class
Class struggle—47, 52, 61, 74, 77, 176,
361, 366, 371-72, 419, 436, 567
— class struggle of the proletariat —
47, 52, 74, 217, 219
Clergy— 35, 44, 178, 220, 516
Cognition—109, 155, 192, 197
Collision—60, 74, 81, 98-99, 136,
286-87, 407, 420, 432
Colonies— 70, 83, 308, 411
Commerce—see Trade
Commoner— 79
Commune (medieval) — 224
Communism (theories and trends)
-— communist movement — 49, 52-53,
54, 81, 213, 214, 215, 220, 226,
229, 255, 264, 292, 323, 354, 455,
456, 461, 469, 520, 531
— bourgeois — 226, 469
— German— 107, 215, 232, 455, 457,
459, 462, 466
— English —216, 455-56, 461, 466
— French —217, 226, 455, 456, 459,
460, 465, 466, 468
— Swiss — 537
— as described by bourgeois and
petty-bourgeois ideologists — 205-
15, 218, 229-30, 247, 389
See also Communism, scientific,
Materialism, Revolution, proletarian
Communism, scientific—38, 41, 49, 51-
54, 81, 213, 214, 218-19, 225, 229,
246, 255, 264, 324, 354, 394, 439
Communism (social formation) — 4, 5, 7,
8, 47-49, 51-53, 54, 61, 64, 75, 77-
79, 80-81, 82, 87-88, 255-56, 292,
394, 438-39, 537
— development of productive forces
as a material premise of communism
—48-49, 52, 54, 64, 65-66, 80,
87-88, 289, 381
— necessity of proletarian revolution
38-39, 41, 48-49, 51-53, 54, 87-
88
— necessity of proletarian dictatorship—
47
— abolition of private property — 48,
51, 64, 75, 77, 86-88, 439, 469
— public property —87-89, 482
— abolition of the class division of
labour—45, 77-78, 380, 438-39
— abolition of classes — 47, 52-53, 60-
61, 77-78
— and the state —46-47, 80, 212
— abolition of the antithesis between
town and country — 64, 76
— creation of the material conditions
of communist society — 81
— regulation of production — 41, 47-
48
— communal domestic economy —
76
— transformation of labour into selfactivity—
51-53, 77-78, 80, 87-
88, 205
— abolition of occupational isolation
of individuals — 47, 88
— real liberation of men — 38, 51, 78-
81, 435, 439
— real unity of society — 5, 8, 47-48,
60-61, 77-78, 83, 88
— and the individual —77-78, 80,
86-89
— conscious organisation of the joint
activity of people — 47-48, 51-52,
78, 79-81
— subordination of the development
of society to a general plan of
freely associated individuals — 83
— alteration of people — 4, 7, 52-53,
87-89
— transformation of the family — 4,
7, 76
— removal of religious notions from
people's consciousness — 4, 7, 53-
54, 55-56
— its international, world-historical
character — 43, 50-52
Communism, Utopian—see Babouvism,
Cabetism, Weitlingianism
Community (Gemeinde)— 33, 34, 64, 364
Community (Gemeinschaft)
— illusory and real —46, 78, 80, 83
Community (Gemeinwesen)— 34, 63, 85-
86, 88-90, 92, 143-44, 364, 365
Comparison — 440-41
Competition—27-28, 34, 49, 61, 65, 67,
69-73, 74-75, 77-78, 85-86, 89, 91
Concept (Begriff) — 24, 45, 61-62, 81, 92,
100, 157, 159-60, 190, 195, 196, 237,
288, 326, 341-42, 363-64, 429-30, 433
See also Conception, Ideas
Conception (Vorstellung) — 23-24, 29-30,
36, 45-47, 55-56, 77, 126-27, 130, 133,
159, 182-84, 233, 235, 245, 271, 287,
363-64, 420
Conclusion— 175, 420, 481
Connection—35, 42-44, 45, 62, 65, 82,
87, 145, 183, 274, 396, 413-14, 418,
426, 433, 437-39, 450, 456, 516, 520
Conquest— 33, 34, 67, 84-85, 390
Consciousness — 29-31, 35-37, 43-45, 52-
54, 56-58, 59, 62, 74, 81, 83, 89, 92-
93, 109, 136-37, 154, 183-84, 245,
249, 252, 257, 271, 282, 290-93, 307-
08, 378-79, 383, 410, 419, 423, 431,
439, 472-73, 479-81, 514
— and being—23-24, 35-37, 43-45,
128-29, 246, 250-51, 262, 287-89,
330, 430, 433, 456
— as a social product — 5, 8, 44
— and language — 36, 44, 446, 449
— forms of social consciousness — 29,
36-37, 54, 92
— its production — 36-37, 43-45, 51,
59
— revolutionary — 52, 60, 469
See also Reason, Self-consciousness,
Thinking
Constitution—196, 346
Consumption — 45, 515-18
Contemplation—254, 295
— contemplative character of Feuerbach's
materialism — 3-8, 38-41,
57-58
Content and form — 55, 180, 185, 194,
195-96, 230-31, 255, 262, 292, 295,
320-21, 332, 385, 412-13, 418, 462
Contradiction (Widerspruch)— 4, 7, 13,
45-46, 52, 59, 63-64, 74-75, 79, 82, 84,
98-99, 111, 139-40, 195, 245, 274,
287-88, 356-57, 358, 405, 429, 436,
515, 516
See also Collision, Opposition
Co-operation — 371-72
Corn Laws in England—64, 98, 325, 353
Corsica—378
Cosmopolitanism—470
— bourgeois—159, 194
Country
— separation of town and country
32, 64, 76
— antithesis between town and country—
32-35, 64-65, 374, 401
— in the Ancient World — 33, 84
— in the Middle Ages —33-35, 65,
68-69, 73
— in modern times — 69, 71, 73
— abolition of the antithesis between
town and country — 64, 76
Court and legal procedure—162, 316,
342-43
Crafts, craftsmen—34, 65-66, 72, 73, 79,
218, 462
Crime—330
Criticism — 28-30, 41, 54
Cult— 29, 198, 363
Customs Union—411
Cyrenaic school—417
D
Debt, national—72, 361
Deduction—56, 57, 478-79
Democracy—46, 333
Determination, definition — 46, 50, 57,
124, 156, 169, 170, 184-85, 195-97,
240-42, 245, 247-48, 254, 257-58, 260-
61, 266, 279-80, 284, 286-87, 290-91,
298, 301-302, 306, 307, 309-11,
321-22, 324, 328-29, 337, 340, 342,
366, 368, 381, 395-96, 399, 464, 481,
510
Development— 31-93, 102, 114-15, 131,
132-33, 136, 138-39, 144-45, 154, 193-
94, 196, 214, 225, 240, 246, 254-56,
262-64, 278, 281-82, 283, 292, 293,
297, 299, 316, 323, 330, 343, 352-
54, 355, 356, 364, 369, 374, 387, 393-
94, 409-14, 417-18, 419, 424-25,
432, 434, 436-38, 440-41, 461, 464,
468, 473, 475-77, 480, 482, 492, 505,
516, 532
Dialectics
— idealistic—124-25, 153, 156, 193,
253-54, 302, 325, 508
—- Proudhon's serial dialectics — 530
Dictatorship of the proletariat (the conquest
of political power by the proletariat) —
47
Discoveries (great geographical discoveries)
— of America and the sea route to
India —70
Distribution
— of labour—40, 46, 52, 63
— of the products of labour — 46
— of ideas — 59, 446
Dividends — 356
Division of labour— 13, 32-33, 35, 44-48,
51, 52, 55, 59-60, 62-68, 72-73, 77-78,
80, 88, 92-93, 123, 246, 259, 262, 292,
295, 329, 342-43, 357, 363, 374, 390,
395-96, 397-401, 415, 419, 424-25,
434, 436, 483
— and development of the productive
forces —32, 93
— and forms of property — 32-35, 45-
46, 86, 93, 367
— natural —32-33, 44, 45-46, 73
— social and its consequences — 44-
48, 77-78, 92-93
— and division of society into classes
32-33, 46, 52, 64, 66-68, 77-78,
80, 86, 436-37
— within a class —59-60, 62-63, 77,
92
— division of material and mental
labour—44-45, 59-60, 62-63, 447
— and separation of town and country—
32, 64-65
— and separation of commerce and
industry —32, 33, 35, 66-67
— between the various towns — 67
— between countries — 32, 33, 51
— in primitive society — 33, 44, 387
— and the caste system — 55
— in ancient society — 33
— under feudalism — 35, 66-67
— and the rise of manufactures — 67
— and large-scale industry — 73
— abolition of the class division of
labour —45-46, 77, 438
— and competition — 370-72
— and art —393-94
See also Private property
Dogmatism—31, 106-07, 108, 138, 246,
364, 367, 434, 462
Domestic economy—76
Duties—69-73, 94, 196, 199, 200
See also Protectionism
E
East Indies—69
Economic crises—518
Economic relations—112, 196, 400, 412-
13
Eighteenth century—57, 60, 71, 72, 81,
151, 181, 190, 359, 410, 411
Emancipation —113, 193
Empirical, the—31, 35-37, 39, 43, 45,
48-49, 51, 62, 83, 130, 136, 137,
146, 154, 159, 176, 178, 180, 198,
204, 216, 223, 236-37, 246, 250, 256,
260, 262-63, 277, 281-82, 289, 302,
303, 305, 319, 321, 326, 330, 353-55,-
537
Empiricism — 37, 144, 455
England— 84, 86, 91, 369, 445
— in the Middle Ages — 69, 84, 204,
353
— 1688 revolution ("Glorious Revolution")
— 72-73, 213, 409
— industrial and trade monopoly —
71-73
— industry —40, 51, 68", 69, 70, 72,
75, 194, 411-12
— agriculture and agrarian relations
—48, 351
— finances —330-31, 361, 399
— national debt—330-31, 557
— taxation — 366, 557
— science—72
— law —90-91
— labour legislation — 366
— Church of—557
— and Ireland —249, 351
— sea power—71, 411
— colonial monopoly — 70, 411
See also Bourgeoisie in England, Chartism,
Corn Laws in England, English
bourgeois revolution of the 17th century,
English, the, English philosophy, Nobility
in England, Tories, Working class in
England, Working-class movement in
England
Enlighteners— 139, 141, 198,409-10,543
English bourgeois revolution of the 17th
century— 72-73, 409
English, the—441
English philosophy— 132, 172, 192
Enjoyment—417-19
Epicureanism—139-43
Epoch — 37, 40, 53, 55, 56, 59, 60, 62, 70,
75, 83, 84, 88, 129, 145, 246, 330, 342,
350, 356, 372, 380, 413, 415,418, 438,
455, 532
Equality— 60, 479
Essence— 4, 7, 98-99, 102, 110, 121,
157-58, 159-60, 167, 169, 208-09,
215-1-6, 234, 238, 243, 264-66, 276-78,
282-83, 365, 369-70, 474
— and being—11, 58, 77, 264, 511
— and appearance—158, 221, 359,
430
See also Being, Man
Estates, social— 33, 34, 35, 61, 66, 69, 70,
77-79, 81, 90, 93, 195, 196, 200, 210,
222, 418, 462
Estrangement—see Alienation
Exchange (Austausch)— 40, 43, 48, 63-64,
69
See also Trade
Exploitation— 408-13
Expropriation— 357
F
Family— 4, 7, 33, 43, 46, 50, 63, 81, 180,
362, 512-13
— in primitive society — 75, 161
— in slave-owning society—137, 143
— in bourgeois society — 180, 181,
340, 356, 372
See also Communism (social formation)
Farm-hands— 354, 392
Feudalism— 34-35, 65-70, 76, 79, 83-85,
89-91, 92, 93, 176, 222, 277, 314,
327, 335, 342, 363,390,410,412,415,
417
Feuerbachianism—3-13, 28, 39-41, 57-58,
97, 98, 100, 101-02, 103, 106-09,
115, 134, 192, 234-38, 460, 486, 491,
492, 512, 572
Fichte's philosophy— 98
Finance, financial system—72, 73
Flanders—67
Force (mechanical)— 187, 292, 421
Form of intercourse {Verkehrsform)— 32,
45, 50, 53-54, 74, 80-84, 85, 92, 183,
193, 390, 438
— and production — 32, 43-45, 50,
53-54, 81-82, 92, 213, 329, 355
— production of the form of intercourse—
43-44, 82
— contradiction between the productive
forces and the form of intercourse
as the basis of social revolution—
74, 81-83, 380, 432
Forms of existence— 51
Fourierism— 226, 415, 461, 462, 481,
492, 510-18, 551
France—57, 86
— in the Middle Ages — 91, 146, 204,
220, 334-35, 405
— in the 18th century — 411, 525
— in the period of the First Empire—
195, 277, 353
— under the Restoration (1815-30) —
514
— economy —388, 411-12
— industry — 68, 71
— agriculture and agrarian relations
48, 351
— duties — 557
— finances —359, 411-12
_ law —91
— science — 48, 394
See also Bourgeoisie in France, French
bourgeois revolution of the late 18th
century, French, the, French philosophy,
July 1830 revolution in France,
Napoleonic wars, Nobility in France,
Press, Working class in France, Workingclass
movement in France
French bourgeois revolution of the late 18th' .
century— 27, 50,61, 73, 143, 146, 154,
178, 179, 181, 184, 193, 196, 197,
198-200, 204, 207, 208, 212, 338, 353,
379, 402, 409, 412, 510, 514, 526-28
French, the— 412, 417, 441, 525
French philosophy—57, 138, 417-19
Freedom — 60, 119-20, 205, 225, 241,
256, 261, 273, 279, 280, 301-15, 401,
431, 433, 440, 459, 465,476,481, 490,
505
— conditions for the real liberation of
man —38, 51, 78-81, 434-35, 439
— of the individual —372
Friction—422
G
Geographical environment
— as a material condition for the existence
and development of society—
31, 38, 41-42, 374
Geology— 31, 38, 374, 465, 476
German philosophy— 23-31, 36, 38-39,
40-41, 47, 51, 55-58, 124, 129-31, 132,
144, 147, 171, 172, 175, 184-85,
192-97, 209,-212, 215, 225, 232-37,
255, 270, 273, 285, 300,321,366, 371,
372, 406, 447, 455-57, 460, 469, 483,
486, 491, 514, 533
See also Feuerbachianism, Hegelianism,
Kantianism, Old Hegelians, Schellingianism,
Stirnerianism, Young Hegelians
Germans (ancient) —34, 86, 188, 342,
364, 390
Germans— 23-24, 86, 441, 467, 470
Germany— 23-30, 38, 43, 44, 55-57, 62,
85, 86, 111-12, 181, 193-96
— economy—196
— industry—194
— railways — 304
— agriculture—194, 352, 390
— political situation — 89-90, 194-96
— Junkers— 194
— Napoleonic rule—195
— war of liberation (1813) — 51
See also Bourgeoisie in Germany, German
philosophy, Germans, Peasant War
in Germany (1524-25), Prussia, Tugendbund,
Working class in Germany
Gnosticism — 95, 117
Goal, aim—40, 50, 87, 97, 184, 215,
242-43, 289-90, 470, 486
God, gods— 23, 120, 235
Gold—see Metals
Gravity— 295
Guilds, the guild system—34, 65-70, 73,
222, 370
H
Haiti— 309
Hamburg—194
Hanse—194
Hegelianism— 24-27, 28-30, 42, 55-56,
59-62, 98-101, 105, 115, 121-22, 129,
133-34, 149-50, 153^54, 160, 168-69,
171-76, 182, 184-85, 192, 203, 234-36,
242, 272, 283, 305, 319, 326, 336, 337,
348, 353, 410, 434, 511, 513, 530
See also Old Hegelians, Young Hegelians
Historical approach— 38, 39, 78, 81-83,
102, 129, 153-54, 174, 180, 246, 410,
425-26, 438-39, 456, 462, 479, 512,
516
Historical science—28, 31, 37, 41-43,
54-57, 60, 62, 92, 144, 394
History
— of nature and of human society —
28
— premises of human history — 31,
37, 41-42
— its real basis —41-42, 50, 53, 145
— primary historical relations — 41-
45
— continuity of the historical process
50-51, 53, 82-83, 251, 438
— its transformation into world history—
49, 51, 73
— role of violence in —84-85, 321,
322, 324, 329, 363, 364
— empirical (real, material) history—
176, 184, 221
— no independent history of the
superstructure — 37, 91, 154, 330
See also Idealism, Materialist conception
of history
Holland— see Netherlands
Holy Alliance—361
Housing—38, 48, 75
Humanism— 105, 259, 458, 466-67, 510,
521, 526, 548
Humanism, r«/ (communism] — 51, 107
Humanity—see Mankind
Huns— 94, 187
Hypothesis— 42, 141
I
Iceland— 83
Ideal— 49, 88, 124, 138, 245, 260, 283,
292, 305, 419, 420, 429, 431, 479
Idealism—3, 6, 24-27, 102, 120, 128,
131-34, 144, 145, 170, 192, 212, 239-
40, 275, 301
— idealist conception of history — 24,
28, 36, 41, 45, 50-51, 53-57, 60-62,
77, 84-85, 88-89, 108-09, 130-34,
137-38, 144-45, 157, 160, 164, 168,
169-70, 171-74, 175-78, 183-84,
190-91, 221, 234, 252, 269, 293,
299, 532
— the ideal —51, 59, 88, 118, 124,
136, 144, 176, 184, 189, 197, 209,
223, 245, 248, 283, 287, 288, 293,
306, 328, 378-81, 419, '532, 538,
549
See also Abstraction, Hegelianism, Mysticism,
Speculative philosophy
Ideas—23, 24, 36, 50, 54, 61, 74, 78, 82,
91, 99, 130-31, 133, 160-61, 177, 179,
181, 183-84, 190, 196, 241, 252,
255, 274, 284, 287, 293, 342, 348, 363,
378, 379-80, 420, 430, 431, 446-47,
456, 462, 466, 468, 475, 533, 538
See also Idealism
Ideology— 24, 28-29, 36-37, 42, 45, 73,
77, 78, 109, 179-80, 196, 232, 255,
274, 282, 287, 292, 298, 300, 304, 330,
335, 347, 353, 373, 378-79, 420, 421,
437, 456, 460, 469, 514, 540
— German—19, 24-30, 45, 111, 246,
255, 295, 311, 453-57, 459, 466,
467, 515
— its kinds — 36
— ideologists —45, 60-61, 92, 99,
133, 172, 176-77, 183-84, 196-97,
230, 295, 311, 326, 330, 341-42,
348, 351, 355, 420, 447, 457, 462,
468, 532
India— 51, 55, 193, 445, 546
Individuals, the individual— 80, 101-02,
121, 128, 150, 154, 193, 228-31, 241,
246, 247, 250, 260, 263, 277, 281, 284,
286-88, 292, 301, 304, 305, 317, 319,
321, 334, 342, 348, 351, 355, 359, 361,
362, 363, 367, 372, 375, 377, 379, 380,
389, 393, 394, 396, 399, 404-05,
408-14, 417-19, 424-25, 436, 438-40,
446-47, 456, 459, 467
— their existence as a premise of
human history — 31, 36-37
— and classes —31-33, 59-62, 64-66,
74-80, 90, 129, 218-19, 289, 290,
329-30, 334, 342, 420, 437
— and society —4-5, 7-9, 38, 41, 42-
52, 63, 73, 77-83, 85-93, 219, 245,
254, 255, 262, 390, 400-01, 437-38,
464, 476, 479, 480, 559
— and nature—139
— and the state —329-31
See also Labour, Man, Personality, Stirnerianism
Industry— 32-35, 38, 39-43, 58, 63-64,
67, 70-75, 77, 85, 89-90, 92, 93
See also Crafts, Industry, cottage, Industry,
large-scale, Manufacture
Industry, cottage—35, 68, 73
Industry, large-scale—64, 67, 72-74, 85-
86, 89, 220, 519
Instruments of labour—32, 67, 86
Instruments of production—63-64, 87
Interaction—28, 40, 44, 49, 50-51, 53,
71-72, 424, 475, 477
Intercourse (Verkehr)
— its necessity—11, 12, 44
— and production —32, 36-37, 38,
49-50, 51, 63, 66-70, 81-89, 91-92
— material —36-37, 45, 87-89, 234,
240, 245, 263-64, 276, 356, 395,
408-11, 417, 436, 441
— mental — 36, 365
— internal —32, 431
— external, international — 32-33, 67,
70, 75, 393
— universal, world-wide — 49, 61, 67,
87, 371, 401
—commercial — 39, 67
— relations of — 81, 410
— mode of—39, 43, 88
— means of—52
— and language — 44
— and communist revolution—88
— relations of production and intercourse—
154, 176, 189, 203, 209,
354, 384, 387, 396, 417
— conditions of production and intercourse—
256, 376, 418
— mode of production and intercourse—
159, 247, 367, 373, 418
— organisation of production and intercourse—
256
See also Form of intercourse
Interests— 178, 309, 371, 385, 392
— material — 195, 415
— particular, private and common,
general —46-47, 60-61, 74, 83, 90,
179, 194, 196, 245, 247, 273, 293
— class —46-47, 77, 80, 90, 194-95,
245, 334, 342, 371
— bourgeois —73, 90, 179, 194-95,
201, 222, 258, 314, 357, 371, 557
— personal—125, 128, 244-45, 247,
293, 342
— common, general—159, 222, 329,
354, 357
— private — 356
— of town and country — 32, 33, 64,
76
— local —56, 196
— guild — 65
— and duties — 213
— egoistic (according to Stirner) —
248, 252, 259, 318
— party — 457
Internal and external, the—308-09, 333,
511
International relations — 343
Interpretation (philosophical) — 5, 8, 24,
30, 100, 102, 192, 395, 404, 406, 515
Inventions — 51, 58, 67, 159, 302-03
Ireland— 249, 312, 351, 366, 378
Italy — 40, 67, 84, 91, 361, 393
J
Jacquerie—204
Jews— 180, 369
Joint-stock companies—356, 371, 411, 415
Judaism — 382
Judgment— 142, 285, 289
July 1830 revolution in France— 196, 569
K
Kantianism— 193, 195-96
L
Labour—13, 32-33, 34-38, 40, 42, 43,
45-46, 49, 52, 63-68, 73, 77-80, 83,
85-88, 215-16, 218-19, 292, 418, 459-
60, 481-83, 537
— as a premise of human history — 42
— as the basis of man's sensuous
world — 40
— conditions of—86-87
— mode of—32-33, 76, 79
— productive — 393
— organisation of—394, 482
— and forms of property — 220
— and private property — 34, 63-67,
85-87
— and capital —34, 49, 63, 64-65, 66,
73, 86
— its domination over individuals—
63, 64, 79
— transformation of labour into selfactivity—
52, 77-78, 80, 87-88, 205
See also Division of labour, Instruments
of labour, Production
Labour-power—46, 49
Land—230
Landed property—63-64
— in primitive society — 32-33, 63, 89
— ancient—33, 84, 89, 93
— feudal —34-35, 69, 79, 89, 93, 200
— bourgeois —48, 91, 93
— big—353-54
— small —353-54
— transformation into industrial property—
352
Landowners— 354
Language— 36, 38, 44, 46, 85, 231, 277,
426, 446, 447, 449
— and consciousness — 36, 44, 446,
449
Law, right, legislation—29, 36, 62, 83,
89-93, 315-18, 319-26, 355, 366
— as a superstructure — 36, 89-93,
318-19, 326-27, 328-31, 341-42,
354, 355-56, 361-63, 419
— right and might—321, 322, 323-24,
328, 363
— right and will —328-30
— barbarian — 342
— Roman —89-91, 137, 318, 330, 363
— feudal —342
—club-law —342
— old German —342
— bourgeois —222, 232, 362
— English —202, 204, 322, 330
— French—146, 202, 204, 322, 339-
40, 363
— German — 571
— Prussian —339-40, 571
— right of ownership — 210
— right to property — 208
—civil law —90, 91, 209, 318, 322,
329
— family right — 210
— right of inheritance—146, 361-63,
501, 502, 508
—criminal law — 329
— maritime law —91
— rights of man— 197, 210
— political —209, 358
— franchise — 46
— citizenship — 217
— right to work — 514
— legislation —36, 90-93, 328-31, 334-
35, 419
See also Court and legal procedure, Crime
Laws—277
— of nature —286, 442, 533
— of society — 533
— of thought — 286
Legislation—see Law
Leipzig— 558
Liberalism—111-12, 195, 196-97, 198,
201, 202, 208, 232, 301, 346, 455, 540,
572
Lock-out—387
Logic — 81, 150, 153, 184, 186, 206,
211, 215, 223, 229, 240, 241, 265, 275,
287-88, 290-93, 297, 304-05, 313,
321, 326, 551
— Hegelian —30, 121, 154, 337
— formal—139, 287, 289
Love—41, 100, 512
Lumpen-proletariat—84, 202
Lutheranism— 170
Lyons — 374
M
Machines—38, 40, 51, 52, 68, 72-73, 76,
230
Magnetism—283
Man
— his physical, corporeal organisation—
31-37, 42, 43
— and nature —28, 31, 36, 39-40, 44,
50, 54-55, 58, 63, 186, 480-82
— and animal — 31, 44, 161
— his essence—4-5, 7-8, 23, 54, 58, 61,
100, 104, 160, 184, 225, 234, 459-
63, 468, 479, 482, 486, 514, 518
— and society—183, 214-15, 474-75,
479-80
— man in general —29, 38-41, 61, 77,
88, 91, 100, 183, 360
— Feuerbach's category "Man" — 29,
39, 57, 61, 100-04, 105, 146, 192,
235-37, 366, 486
Manchester—40, 374
Mankind, humanity— 5, 8, 119-21, 166-
67, 389, 426, 489, 490, 499, 566
Manufacture— 67, 73, 89, 93, 370, 411
Market
— home —28, 68, 71
— external —68, 70-71
—colonial — 71
— world —28, 49, 51, 69-73, 387
Masses— 49, 54, 60, 176, 178, 224, 323
Material, the— 24, 32, 36-37, 45, 62,
81-82, 87, 136-37, 143, 160, 162,
176-77, 195, 221-22, 235-36, 247,
254-55, 318, 325, 328, 354, 357, 361,
363, 395, 410, 411, 415, 419, 465, 479,
514, 533, 549, 553
Material conditions of the life of society
— 31, 36-37, 41, 54, 75-82, 183,
288-89, 417, 419-20, 455, 462, 479
— as a premise of history — 31, 36-37
Materialism — 3-11, 27, 38-42, 62, 136,
144, 235-36, 301, 306, 319, 424
— and communism — 5, 8, 38, 41
Materialist conception of history—28, 74-
75, 84
— its premises —31-32, 37, 41-42
— its essence —35-37, 53-54, 82-83
— its conclusions—50-53
Mathematics—124, 151, 156, 275, 485,
513
See also Arithmetic
Matter
— and consciousness — 44, 105-06,
459-60
Means of communication—66-67, 73, 75,
76, 303, 353, 371, 374
Means of production—59, 65, 84
Mechanics — 72, 186, 422
Mediation — 90, 240
Merchants — 34, 66-67, 68, 70, 71
Metals, precious—70-72
Metaphysics (in the old meaning, as part
of philosophy) —36, 51, 121, 182,430,
458, 468-69, 476
Method—62, 105, 126, 151, 156, 179,
197, 225, 280, 283,294,296,299,326,
341, 363, 410, 456, 474,511,530,535
Middle Ages— 33, 64-67, 72, 89, 154,
170, 174, 176,202,220,327,371, 418,
431
See also Feudalism
Migration of the peoples—85, 143
Mode of production—31 -32, 36, 43-44, 45,
51, 53, 61, 84, 88, 90, 181, 245, 326,
370, 390, 432, 516
— and of intercourse— 159, 247, 367,
373, 418
Monad—442
Monarchy— 35, 222
— absolute —46, 59, 90, 92, 194, 195,
200, 201, 314, 411, 417
—constitutional — 347-48
Monetary crisis—395-97
Monetary system — 398
Money—52, 63, 66, 69-73, 221
— definition (essence) of — 410
— universal means of exchange — 396
— contradictions of money — 396-98
— metal —399
— paper — 399
— the most general form of property—
230
— accumulation of—361
Monopolies (colonial) — 70-71
Morality— 11, 29-30, 36, 45, 53, 73, 92,
178, 180, 247, 250, 254,284,289,292,
320, 322, 366, 373, 375-76, 378, 381
— as a superstructure — 36, 45, 53, 92
Mysticism (as a feature of idealist
philosophy) —5, 8, 12, 24, 28, 35, 51,
134, 253, 266, 464, 469, 473, 481, 483,
491, 520, 532-33, 538
Mythology— 108, 549
N
Napoleonic wars—136, 195
Nation—28, 32, 45, 51-52, 56-57, 64, 67,
69-73, 83-86, 89-90, 129, 194, 196,
201, 343, 412, 415, 419, 426, 435-40,
462, 470, 492
Nationalism, bourgeois—196, 470
Natural science—29, 40, 72, 73 92
139-41, 143, 185-86, 190, 307 ' 419
422, 496 '
Natur«—5, 99, 105, 139, 143, 187, 286
442, 471-74
— and human history — 28, 31, 36,
39-40, 44, 50, 54, 55, 58, 63, 144,
186, 253-54, 437, 474-76, 479, 481.
482
Navigation — 72, 352
Necessity and chance—36, 41, 44, 51-53,
64, 65, 67, 80, 85, 247, 292, 303, 363,
376, 385, 397, 438
Needs— 11, 13, 33, 34, 39, 42-44, 65-67,
72, 75, 82, 83, 84, 112, 256, 289,
303-04, 354, 411, 429, 432-33, 437,
455, 476, 536-38
Negation— 129
— law of the negation of negation—
305
Neo-Platonism— 138, 139, 142, 143
Netherlands— 194, 361, 374, 411
See also Bourgeoisie in the Netherlands
New Zealanders— 225
Nobility— 34, 46, 59-61, 76, 78-79, 91,
222, 417, 418, 432, 516
Nobility in England— 194, 546
Nobility in France—194, 335
Normans—83
O
Objectification (Versachlichung)—78, 245
Old Hegelians —SO, 98
Opium wars— 166
Opposition, antithesis (Gegensatz)— 27, 33-
35, 36, 60,64, 76, 80, 95, 97, 100, 128,
132, 136-37, 144, 157, 172, 192-93,
213, 218, 246, 248, 254, 445, 458-59,
460, 462, 464, 466, 469, 474, 477, 479,
480-82
— between the classes — 60, 78, 204,
431, 438, 469
See also Contradiction
Overproduction—see Economic crises
Owenism—7, 216, 461-62
Oxygen—422
P
Parcel, panellation—354
Paris—411
Parties, political— 208, 462, 466, 490, 566
Party, proletarian— 57, 323, 455-57
See also Revolution, proletarian, Working
class
Patriarchalism — 32, 65, 69, 195, 387, 410
Pauperism—202, 366
Peasantry— 353-54, 390
— in the Ancient World — 33
— in the Middle Ages —34-35, 66,
68-69, 79
— in modern times — 68
Peasant war in Germany ( 1524-25) — 194
People, nationality — 49, 159, 278-79, 377
Perception — 44
Personality— 77-82, 87-88, 98-100, 228,
235, 245, 273, 283, 332, 372-73, 376,
378, 436, 437, 442
Philology— 440
Philosophy— 28, 45, 101, 145, 171, 196,
236, 250-52, 293, 461
— as a superstructure — 36, 54, 282,
330, 449
— its subject — 37
See also Abolition, Abstraction, Aesthetics,
Alienation (estrangement), Ancient
Greek philosophy, Appearance, Basis
and superstructure, Being, Categories,
Cause, Concept, Conception, Connection,
Consciousness, Content and form, Contradiction,
Criticism, Development, Dialectics,
Empirical, the, English philosophy,
Essence, Form of intercourse, French
philosophy, German philosophy, Idealism,
Individuals, Interaction, Intercourse,
Logic, Man, Materialism, Matter, Metaphysics,
Method, Necessity and chance,
Negation, Opposition, Personality, Philosophy
of Nature, Possibility, Practice,
Quality and quantity, Reality, Sensuousness,
Single, particular and general,
Speculative philosophy, Spirit, Subject and
predicate, Substance, Theory, Thinking,
Truth
Philosophy of nature — 11, 186
Phoenicians— 67
Physics— 40, 110, 141, 186, 441, 472
Physiology— 187, 513
Pietism— 533
Plants— 471, 476
Plebeians
— in Ancient Rome —33, 84, 358
— in the Middle Ages — 35, 65
Police— 201
Politics— 119, 288, 322, 361, 371, 410,
492
— its origin — 64
— as a superstructure — 29, 35-36, 62,
74, 82, 90, 92, 363, 380, 462
— political relations — 36, 67, 372, 412
— political ideology —29, 42, 347
— political activity —82, 161, 193
— political struggle — 74
— political power —47, 112, 200, 222
— economics and politics — 69, 72, 84,
90, 176, 194, 196, 356, 358-59, 401,
412, 503
— idealist conception of—29, 42, 43,
55, 57, 305, 330-31, 514
Population
— growth of population, its role in the
development of society—31-35, 43,
44, 64, 66-68, 70, 84
Positive philosophy—98
See also Schellingianism
Possession—89, 209, 538,
Possibility—67, 80, 303, 330, 397
— and reality—45, 255, 383, 430
Practice— 3-8, 12, 38, 44-45, 47, 49, 51-
58, 60, 62, 63, 81, 91, 126, 136, 176,
180, 235-36, 291-93, 379, 409, 455,
492
— and consciousness—44-45, 54, 56,
62, 287-89, 410
— revolutionary—3-8, 38, 53, 58, 215,
255-56, 289-90
Pragmatism—58
Premises—28, 29, 31, 48-50, 60, 63, 64,
68, 81, 83, 184, 235, 364, 400, 412,
434, 439, 455
— of the materialist conception of
history — 31-32, 37, 41-42
— of the communist transformation of
society—49, 52, 54, 64, 65-66, 80,
87, 88, 289, 381
Press (French) — 546-48
Primitive society—32-33, 42
See also Barbarism, Tribe
Principles—24, 27, 91, 139, 170, 171,
175, 196, 200-201, 246-47, 314, 458,
478, 537, 550
Private property—230, 364, 368
— and the division of labour—46,
64-65, 72, 77, 367
— its necessity at a certain stage of
development of production—63,
64-65
— its material conditions—354
— forms of its existence — 230-31
— in antiquity—33, 89, 90
— in feudal society—33-34, 65-66,
89-90
— in bourgeois society — 34, 63-64,
72-73, 85-86, 89-90
— movable and immovable—33, 68,
70, 79, 89, 90-91
— and isolated domestic economy—75
— and the state and law—89-92, 319,
321-22, 354-62
— contradiction between the productive
forces created by large-scale
industry, and private property—64,
73, 85-87, 355, 438-39
— abolition of private property by
communist revolution — 48, 51, 64,
75, 78, 87-88, 438-39, 469
Privilege—70, 210, 327, 437
Process—530
Production—99, 108, 186, 206, 231, 303,
316, 363, 394-95, 413, 420, 431-32,
437, 466, 513, 516-17, 518
— its necessity—40-42, 85, 161, 188
— and intercourse—32, 36-37, 38, 49-
50, 51, 63, 66-70, 81-89, 91-92
— material production of means of
subsistence—31-37, 40-43, 45, 50,
51-54, 55-56, 59, 63-74, 81-82, 84-
85, 87, 89, 183, 355
— of needs—42-43, 82
— of people—43
— of the form of intercourse—43-47,
82
— of consciousness—36-37, 44-45, 51,
59
— its regulation under communism
— 41, 47-48
See also Industry, Instruments of production,
Labour, Means of production, Mode
of production
Production relations—34, 35, 81, 189, 195,
200, 214, 363
— relations of production and intercourse—
154, 176, 189, 203, 209,
354, 384, 387, 396
See also Civil society, Form of intercourse,
Intercourse
Productive forces—32, 34, 36, 40, 43, 45,
48-50, 52, 54, 67, 73-76, 80-89, 93,
159, 211, 304, 330
— and the division of labour—32, 93
— and form of intercourse (social relations)—
36, 43, 50, 52, 81, 82, 84-85,
89, 230, 355-56, 437
— contradiction between the productive
forces and the form of intercourse—
45, 52, 85-86, 293
— contradiction between the productive
forces and the form of
intercourse as the basis of social
revolution —74, 81-83, 381, 431-
32
— and the continuity of the historical
process—50, 53-55, 82
— their development as a material
premise of communism —48-49, 52,
54, 63, 76, 80, 87-89, 289, 381
Profession—47, 62, 88, 92, 379, 419
Progress—82, 83
Proletariat— see Working class
Property—46, 63-65, 228-32, 355-56,
364
— property relations—68, 83, 89, 91,
181, 189, 357, 362, 363, 400, 407
— forms of property—32-34, 48, 63,
74, 85-86, 89-90, 93, 220, 358, 364,
367, 389-90
— tribal (family) —32, 34, 89, 364, 390
— ancient communal and state property—
33-34, 89, 93
— feudal or estate (in particular, corporative)—
33-34, 64-66, 69, 78-79,
89, 93
— bourgeois (modern private property)—
77, 90-91, 93, 356, 361
— and communism—87, 230
— relation of state and law to property—
89-92
See also Landed property, Private property
Prostitution — 559
Protectionism—69, 71, 72, 73,
Proudhonism, Proudhonists—216, 225,
529-30
Prussia— 181, 190, 213, 335, 375, 402,
532, 545
Psychology—511-12
Purchase and sale—230, 231
Q
Quality (property) —294-95
Quality and quantity—32, 46, 68, 71, 123,
257-59, 392, 418-19
R
Race—31, 425
Railways—160, 304, 356
Reality
— idealist conception of reality—50,
53, 538
— materialist conception of reality—3,
6, 31, 36, 53-54, 162, 236
— as human practice—3, 6, 36, 37,
42, 51, 274
— cognition of reality—236
See also Appearance, Possibility
Reason ([Vernunft) — 60, 101, 102, 122,
196, 208, 256, 458, 479
Reason, understanding ( Verstand)— 137,
142, 146-47, 154, 307, 511
Reflection (Abbildung) — 23, 36, 196, 209,
287, 370, 374, 475
Reflection (Reflexion) —183, 251, 253,
256-69, 278, 282, 287, 290-91, 296,
305, 308, 313, 341, 410, 440, 480-81
Reformation—171, 194
Relation—43, 91, 294, 363
Religion—139, 178, 205, 214, 285, 418,
492, 532
— as a superstructure—36, 44, 45,
53-54, 55, 82, 91, 92, 102, 154,
159-60
— and the distinction of man from
animals—31
— its origin—53-54, 55-56, 93
— natural religion (deification of nature)—
44, 155
— and the caste system — 55
— in antiquity—92, 141
— in feudal society—35, 92, 170
— in bourgeois society—56, 73
— conditions of its abolition — 4, 7,
53-54, 55-56
— idealist understanding of religion
by Young Hegelians and "true
socialists"—23-24, 29-30, 38, 42,
43-44, 55-56, 514
— Feuerbach's view of religion—4-5,
7-8, 13, 23, 29-30
See also Clergy
Rent—91, 230, 231, 352
Rentier—78, 206, 218, 464, 516
Republic— 346, 347
Research — 57
Revolution—$-8, 27, 51-54, 60-61, 73, 83,
88, 210, 214, 377-81, 514
— as the driving force of history—54
— contradiction between the productive
forces and the form of intercourse
(production relations) as the
basis of social revolution—74-75,
81-83, 380, 431-32
— social—372
— bourgeois—222, 310
— in philosophy—27
See also Emancipation, English bourgeois
revolution of the 17th century, French
bourgeois revolution of the late 18th
century, Revolution, proletarian
Revolution, proletarian, communist—38,
41, 48-49, 51-54, 57-58, 60, 80-81, 88,
214, 218, 220, 289, 290, 381, 438-39
See also Class struggle, Emancipation,
Revolution, Working class
Right—see Law
Romanticism, reactionary — 314
Russia — 539
— peasant unrest — 378
S
Saint-Simonism — 226, 232, 464, 468-
69, 475, 481, 493-510, 535
Saxony—557, 577
Scepticism— 132, 136-38, 141-43
Schellingianism—134, 192
Scholasticism—3, 6, 113, 147
Science—IS, 28-29, 37, 55-56, 72, 92,
121, 137-39, 164, 174, 383, 387-88,
394, 409, 412, 441, 455-56, 458-59,
464, 467, 475, 482, 486, 490, 495-96,
498-99, 503, 506, 522, 540, 552, 572
Scotland—146
Sect—456
Self-activity (Selbstbetätigung)— 82, 87-88,
409
Self-consciousness—29, 40, 51, 52, 54, 55,
62, 94-101, 104-05, 109, 115, 154,
160, 388, 473
Semblance — see Appearance
Sensation—39
Sensationism — 492, 521
Sensuousness, sensuous world, sensuous
activity—40, 43-44, 94, 154, 168, 176-
77, 465, 512
— Feuerbach's contemplative attitude
to the sensuous world —3-8, 39-42
Serfdom—34, 38, 64-65, 79, 194, 220,
223,302,376,418,431
Shares—399
Silver—see Metals
Single, particular and general — 45-47, 60-
61, 90, 98, 100, 111, 157, 169, 179,
180, 216, 245-48, 273, 284-86, 289,
291, 317, 334, 337, 342, 365, 397
Sixteenth century—177
Slave-owning society— see Ancient society
Slavery—33-34, 38, 46, 84, 159-60, 189,
220,308,309,431,479
Slavs—364
Socialism (theories) —301, 419, 458, 469,
503, 535-36
— English—181,226
— French—181,458, 468, 514, 556
— Christian—226
— reactionary —537
See also "Truesocialism"
Socialism, Utopian — see Fourierism,
Owenism, Saint-Simonism
Social relations —4, 7, 35, 36, 41, 43, 45,
46, 48, 52, 54, 78, 80-81, 99, 183-84,
213, 230, 231, 245, 255, 262-63, 323-
24, 378, 394, 410, 412-13, 420, 425,
430-32, 436-38, 442, 563
Social system—39, 41, 50-51, 61,81, 143,
256, 393-94, 417-18, 453, 458, 498,
499,516
Society—4-5, 7-9,47,52,54, 59,60-61,80,
88, 183, 213-15, 293, 348, 396, 401,
413, 417, 418, 431, 437, 438, 463-64,
475-76, 479-80, 515, 538, 559
— structure of—4, 7, 32-36, 40, 60, 79,
84, 88-89
— state of society (stage of social
development) — 39, 43, 46
— form of society — 5, 8, 45, 47, 54,
154,255,390,476
See also Ancient society, Bourgeois
society, Civil society, Communism (social
formation), Feudalism, Primitive society,
Social relations, Social system
Sophistry, sophists—132, 136, 147,417
Space-—164
Spartacus' uprising (Ancient Rome) —220
Species (human race)—4, 8, 29, 52, 77,
100,101-02,236,286,422-27,441,459
Speculative philosophy—35, 37, 42, 50-52,
61, 98-99, 114, 128, 130, 133-34, 155;
160, 168, 171-73, 192, 212, 245, 277,
282, 298, 353, 410, 447,532-33
Spinoza's philosophy—98
Spirit— 27, 36, 43, 51, 55, 98-99, 102,
129-30, 139, 152-54
Spiritualism — 53, 531
State—62, 92
— its essence —90, 355
— as a superstructure—35, 50, 53, 89-
90, 154,329-30,363,503
— its origin —50
— and division of society into classes
— 46-47, 52, 78, 80
— and the caste system — 55
— ancient—33, 89, 92, 141, 358
— essence of the bourgeois state—90
— and the bourgeoisie—70-71, 76-77,
80, 89-91, 200-01, 203-04, 205,
346,356-57,359-61
— and the working class—47, 80,
359-60
— as seen by Young Hegelians—29,
76, 196-98, 202-203, 334-35, 341,
347-49, 354-61,379, 400-02
— state independence, real and illusory—
90, 195,361
— and civil society—90, 342, 402
See also Monarchy, Republic, Stirnerianism
State securities—39
Stirnerianism
— as ideology of the German petty
bourgeoisie —119, 216-17, 218-19,
230/237, 244, 246, 255, 271, 277,
282, 303, 306, 309-10, 311, 314-15,
352, 355-56, 357, 359, 369-73, 378-
79, 382, 392, 396-98, 399-400,410-
11, 413, 415, 429-30
— attitude to the individual, to personality—
120-21, 128-29, 146,150,
154, 157-62, 183-85, 186, 192-94,
212, 215, 221, 225, 227-37, 238-42,
243-48, 250-51,260-62,273,281-83,
285-94, 297, 300,301,305,329,339-
43, 347-49, 351, 365-66, 371-80,
400-02, 408-14, 417-20, 424-26,
429-33, 435-43
— attitude to the state—76, 202-03,
281, 334, 347-49, 355-61, 379,
400-02
Stock exchange—72, 90
Stoicism—138-43, 184, 187, 512
Strikes and the strike movement—304, 360,
386,388
Subject and predicate—57, 100, 101, 109,
123, 145, 149, 155, 234-37, 279, 284,
293, 296-97, 300, 316, 394-95, 447,
465
Substance— 29, 40, 53, 54, 94-95, 97-99,
101, 104-06, 108, 109, 122, 160, 164,
235,378,394-95,414,428
Superstructure—see Basis and superstructure
Switzerland—537
T
Talent—394
Tautology—100, 114, 279, 291, 313, 321,
323,407,536
Taxes—64, 90, 200, 201, 508
Terrorism—178-79, 195, 300, 353, 412
Theology—29, 45, 97, 101, 235
Theory—112, 141, 145, 195, 197,229-30,
236, 247, 420, 421, 455, 456,458, 467,
469,486, 538
— and practice —3-8, 41, 45, 54-57,
61-62, 83, 156, 180, 242, 245, 252,
271, 274, 277, 290, 298, 339-40,
370, 406, 418, 441, 457, 469, 492,
511, 532, 533, 535-38, 547-49
Thinking— 3-4, 6-7, 31, 36-37, 59-62,
142, 261-64, 272-73, 286, 290-92, 330-
31, 434, 446-47, 449, 455, 465
Time—13
Tories—456
Town, city
— separation of town and country—
32, 64-65, 75
— antithesis between town and country—
32-35, 64-65, 374, 401
— ancient—33, 84, 89
— medieval —33-35,64-70,71,76
— in modern times—68-70, 71,
73, 75-76, 181
— abolition of the antithesis between
town and country—64, 76
Trade— 32, 35, 38, 39-40, 42, 48, 63, 65,
66, 74, 76, 89, 90,91,92, 231, 361, 372
— world—74
— sea—33,71,91,370,411
Tradition—83, 93
Tribe-(Stamm)— 33, 44, 46,63,78,83,89,
159,390
— tribal property —32, 34, 89, 364,
390
— tribal system —33, 50, 64, 404
"True socialism"—209, 232, 374,458-580
— general characterisation —455-57
Truth—3,6, 102,119-21,136-38,144-46,
154, 155-56, 170-71, 174, 197, 203,
229, 238-41, 250, 314, 456, 467, 469,
579
Tugendbund—196
Turkey—84
U
United States of America—80, 83, 86, 90,
347-48
— state and political system — 90,
213,
— population—83, 165,440
— bourgeoisie —200
— working class —217
— railways —303
See also America, Working-class movement
in the U.S.A.
Upbringing, education—4, 7, 292, 393,
424, 439, 512
Usury—90
Utility theory—408-13
V
Vagabondage— 69, 202, 232
W
Wages—370
Wales—351
War—51, 65, 67, 69, 71, 84, 89
— as a form of intercourse —33, 84
See also Napoleonic wars, Opium wars,
Peasant war in Germany (1524-25)
Wat Tyler's rebellion (England, 1318)
—204
Wealth—384
Weaving—68
Weitlingianism—226, 461
Westphalia — 545-46, 549
Will—36, 47-48, 64, 90-91, 181, 193,
195-97, 245, 292, 328-35, 348, 375,
379,400,410,412,439,511
Women's question—500
Workers—69, 74
Working class—56, 61, 66, 74-75, 214,
231, 232, 236, 292, 316, 359-60, 371,
455-57, 557
— origin and formation — 33-34, 77,
78, 202, 282
— its condition in capitalist society—
48, 49, 52, 53, 58, 79, 80, 87-
88, 219, 289
— its world-historic role —49
— class contradiction between the proletariat
and the bourgeoisie —52,69,
76-77, 78, 204, 290, 372-73, 432,
436,464,469
— its class struggle—47, 51-52, 74,
217, 219, 360,^366,371-72,418,436,
567
— its struggle for economic and political
rights—217, 218, 219, 360-61
— necessity for an independent political
party—323
— its class-consciousness —461
— and the peasantry — 354
See also Classes, Class struggle, Dictatorship
of the proletariat, Revolution, proletarian,
State, Working class (in England,
France, Germany), Working-class movement
(in England, France, U.S.A.)
Working class in England—204, 557
Working class in France—204, 498-99
Working class in Germany—75
Working-class movement—74,214,220-21,
323,361,388,461,464
— preconditions of its origin and stages
of development —220-21
— combination of political and economic
struggle — 204-05
— its political character—371-72
Working-class movement in England —
360, 386, 455
— in the 14th-18th centuries—204
— in the 1830s and 1840s—205
See also Chartism, Owenism
Working-class movement in France—217,
386, 455, 567
— in the 14th-18th centuries — 204
Working-class movement in the U.S.A.
— 217, 360, 489
Working hours—418
World outlook—105, 138-39, 173, 236,
462,470
Y
Young Germany (movement) —457, 484
Young Hegelians—23-30, 37-38, 55-57,
572
See also State
Z
Zoology—181,425
See also Animal





MECW VOL 6





A
Absolute monarchy — 65, 75, 86, 94, 211,
233-34, 317-319, 321, 328, 329, 346,
355, 465, 486, 495, 529, 540, 542
— origin —320, 326
— and the working-class struggle —
322, 356
— in France — 161
— in Prussia and Germany — 78, 92,
326, 331-33, 356, 465, 511
Abstraction — 117, 119,162-64,166,179,
197, 253, 289, 337
See also Categories
Africa — 399, 410
Agrarian reformers—see National reformers,
National Reform Association
Agrarian question — 42,43, 358,413,518
Agriculture — 42, 78, 81, 84, 96, 133,
186, 187, 193, 199-206, 279, 288, 296,
304, 322, 327, 349-54, 505, 509
Algeria, Algiers — 399, 410, 471
Alienation — 113, 511
Alsace — 420, 424
America — 179, 185, 252, 399, 410, 485,
574, 627, 629
American War of Independence, 1775-83
— 293
Amsterdam — 575
Analysis — 163, 184
Ancient Egypt — 487
Ancient Greece — 4, 18, 158, 258, 325
Ancient Rome—4, 18, 325, 368, 485,
487
Ancient world — 503
Antagonism — 212, 353, 389, 499, 504,
516, 519
See also Contradictions
Anti-Corn Law League — 277, 283, 287,
333, 454, 457
Antwerp — 575
Appropriation — 495, 498-50
Aristocracy
— feudal —27, 28, 94, 95, 345
— its ideologists — 355, 507-08
— its struggle with bourgeoisie— 27,
28, 30, 58, 94, 217, 232, 345, 355,
362, 493, 494
— in bourgeois society — 58, 59, 71,
217, 389-90
— and proletariat — 507-08
— landed — 58, 217, 307, 358, 362,
453, 508
— financial — 61
— in Austria — 531, 533
— inEngland —20,21,58,59,81,85,
201, 202, 217, 358, 389-90,507-08,
526
— in France — 27, 61, 217, 507
— in Germany — 27, 30, 94, 508
— in India — 628
— in Poland — 551
See also Nobility
Asia—179, 399, 410, 628
Atheism — 20, 46, 292
Austria, Austrian Empire
— in the Middle Ages — 368, 531,
533
— during the French Revolution and
the Napoleonic wars — 530, 533,
554
— in 1815-47 — 373, 530-36, 542
— economic development—552 '^4
— prospects of revolution — 26, 2 ^ '
535
— and the national question — 535,
536
— and the oppressed Slav peoples —
535, 536
— foreign policy - - 552
— and other European states — 25,
27, 71, 368, 371-72, 373-74, 520,
523, 531-32, 33-36, 540-43,
552-55
See also Austro-Swiss wars of the 14th
century, Bohemia, Bourgeoisie in Austria,
Hungary, Polish question, Working class
in Austria
Austro-Swiss wars of the 14th century—
367-69, 371
B
Babouvism — 5, 321, 514, 576
Baden — 78
Banks, bankers — 52, 57, 61, 80, 85, 86,
90, 144, 218, 227, 231, 235-40, 351,
375, 422, 542
Basle — 524
Belgium — 16,41, 74, 275, 331, 355, 390,
520, 521, 527, 530, 537, 538, 546,
559-68, 569, 581-82, 592, 630, 640,
641
See also Antwerp, Bourgeoisie in Belgium,
Brussels, Workers' movement in
Belgium
Berne — 524
Blanquism — 125, 252, 277-78
Bohemia — 244, 332, 441, 533-35
Bolton — 207, 208
Book-printing— 342, 404, 411
Bourgeoisie, middle classes — 28-30, 85-90,
176, 342, 350, 482-90
— origin and formation—79, 185,
211, 212, 268, 337, 341-42, 345-
46, 485-86, 488
— role in developing productive
forces — 372, 487-89
— role in fighting feudalism — 28, 29,
174, 211, 328, 329-33, 337, 345,
482, 489, 503
— economic and political domination
— 28-30, 76, 77, 78, 80, 81, 83,
84-86, 89, 90, 92, 94, 185, 196,
248-49, 268, 319, 342-43, 345-46,
449, 486, 488-89, 495, 508, 519,
527-28
— liberal — 28, 29, 59, 70, 221, 225,
333, 356
— and proletariat — 6, 29, 94-95,
175-77, 212, 296, 319, 331-33, 343-
47, 352, 356-57, 372, 388, 482-90,
497-98, 504-06
— and peasantry — 83-84, 525, 527
— and nobility — 28, 65, 71, 82, 84,
89, 90, 507-08
— and petty bourgeoisie — 79, 82, 83,
87-90, 267, 509, 512
— rural —82, 89, 201, 322
— as a brake on historical development
— 29, 218, 489-90
— its national limitation — 6
See also Bourgeoisie in Austria,
Bourgeoisie in Belgium, Bourgeoisie in
England, Bourgeoisie in France,
Bourgeoisie in Germany, Bourgeoisie in
Prussia, Bourgeoisie in Russia, Bourgeois
revolution, Class struggle, Proletarian revolution
Bourgeoisie in Austria—530, 531, 532,
535
Bourgeoisie in Belgium — 31, 331, 521,
527, 537, 546, 559, 569, 570
Bourgeoisie in England — 29, 78, 80, 86,
121, 196, 208, 217, 218, 322, 389-90,
391-92, 461, 522, 526, 532
Bourgeoisie in France — 5, 7, 17, 18, 19,
24, 25, 27, 31,69, 77, 78, 80-82, 85, 86,
161, 218, 239, 319, 333, 364, 380-81,
385, 387, 467
Bourgeoisie in Germany — 17, 18, 20, 24,
25, 30, 32, 76, 78-95, 245, 248, 294,
297, 326, 327, 332,334,356,465, 510,
511, 519, 521-22, 530, 543-44
Bourgeoisie in Prussia — 53, 65, 66-71, 80,
88, 89, 90, 511, 523
Bourgeoisie in Russia — 527
Bourgeois revolution — 71, 212, 319,
323-33, 335, 485, 558
— as a prerequisite of a proletarian
revolution — 333, 519, 543-44
See also English revolution of the 17th
century, French Revolution, July revolution
of 1830 in France, Revolution of
1848 in France, Revolution of 1848 in
Italian states, Revolutions of 1848 in
Europe
Bourgeois society— 212, 246, 355, 485,
495, 497-500
— rise —211, 322-23, 337, 355, 485,
489
— its economic foundations—137,
143, 166, 183, 194, 322-23, 324,
345-46, 487-90
— class structure—159, 204, 212,
345-46, 352, 389, 485, 491-92,
494-95, 505-06, 509, 515, 539-40,
551, 633
— and class struggle — 352, 440, 485,
491-95, 539-40
— and the state—322, 324, 326, 328,
489, 505, 511-12
— inevitability of its revolutionary
transformation — 356, 389, 436,
489-90, 493, 495-96, 515
See also Bourgeoisie, Capitalist mode of
production, Civil society, Working class
Brazil— 167
Bremen — 86
Brussels — 275, 276
Brussels Democratic Association—391,
402, 537-39, 560, 566, 567, 624-26,
640-42
Brussels Communist Correspondence Committee—
54
Bureaucracy— 16, 30, 62, 65, 69, 77, 79,
84, 86-92, 94, 222-27, 230, 294, 318,
333, 512, 522-23
Burghers in Germany— 31, 85, 326-27,
345-46, 368, 485, 493, 500, 508-09
Burgundian wars of the 15th century—
367-68
C
Capital
— as a social power — 346, 381, 499
— as accumulated labour— 122, 125,
132, 346, 434, 499
— and labour — 143, 178, 185, 186,
211, 288, 310, 318, 362, 377, 428-
29, 430, 432-33, 458-59, 463, 490,
498-99, 500, 514, 573
— and bourgeoisie — 84, 346, 490,
495-96
— and proletariat — 433, 490, 499
— productive — 428-33, 435, 459-60
— industrial — 196
— concentration of—80, 86, 188,
296, 303, 429, 459, 509
— accumulation of—122, 124, 159,
185, 295, 429, 459
— competition of capitals — 82, 199,
281, 288, 429
— fixed — 122, 206, 431
— circulating — 122, 431
— profit on — 99, 199, 232, 341, 430
— interest on — 199, 203, 204, 429
— outflow and inflow of, in various
branches of production— 134, 157
— investment of, in land — 200,
203-05, 455
Capitalist mode of production — 122, 123,
162, 167, 174, 175, 193, 197, 199,202,
203, 209, 319, 348, 488, 500
Carbonari — 31
Castes — 179, 184
Categories
— as a theoretical expression of real
relations — 162, 165, 176-78, 179,
197, 202
— and dialectics—165, 168-70, 178
— critique of idealist conceptions of
— 4, 162-72, 179, 185, 192, 197
— economic— 164-68, 171, 172, 183,
193, 195
See also Gause and effect, Chance and
necessity, Essence and appearance, Fo-,m
and content, Quality and quantity
Catholicism — 41, 172, 173, 218, 309,
331, 521, 546
See also Jesuits
Cause and effect — 21, 169, 180, 197, 354
Censorship — 28, 32, 73, 75, 77
Chance and necessity— 167, 292, 294, 295,
304, 349, 435
Chartism — 3, 7, 331, 333, 389, 392,442,
446
— as the first independent political
party of the working class — 210,
324, 517
— uprising of 1842 — 7
— and bourgeois and petty-bourgeois
radicals — 361
— and the Anti-Corn Law campaign
— 285, 452
— Land Cooperative Society — 358-
60
— and the Irish question — 445-50
— and Owenism — 516
— before 1848 — 58-59, 307-08, 361-
63, 383-84, 435-37, 521
See also Fraternal Democrats (society),
National Charter Association, People's
Charter
Chemistry — 204, 489
China — 345, 485, 628
Christianity — 45-46, 48, 49, 163, 164,
231, 258, 403, 503, 508, 510, 527, 630,
631
See also Catholicism, Essenes, Protestantism
Church—217-18, 283, 508, 525
See also Clergy, Religion
Civil society—3, 100, 175, 253, 346
Civil list—233, 328
Classes, the
— general characteristics — 66-70, 85,
99-102, 211-12, 322, 330, 337, 341,
342-43, 345, 348-49, 389-90, 485-
86, 495, 499-501, 573, 577, 629
— formation of—175, 178, 185-86,
211-12, 3-^, 389-90, 493, 515,
533
— and division of labour — 353
— abolition of, as a result of proletariat's
victory — 95, 102, 212,
353, 389, 505-06
See also Bourgeoisie, Peasantry, Working
class
Class struggle, the
— general characteristics — 85, 133,
159, 174-78, 210-12, 330-33, 352-
53, 391-92, 436, 482-84, 493, 497-
98, 505-06, 633
— and history of society—133,
174-75, 482-84, 495, 503
— and mode of production—133,
144, 159, 174-78, 212, 293, 389-90,
436, 498, 514-15, 627-28, 633
— political nature of —211,212,292,
306, 493, 507
— revolution as the apex of—212,
290, 482-84, 495
— between bourgeoisie and feudal
aristocracy — 28, 94, 174, 211, 332,
337-38, 350, 465, 485, 493
— between bourgeoisie and proletariat—
29, 56, 58, 94, 126, 175-78,
210-12, 222, 296, 303-04, 332, 352,
356, 389-90, 415, 435-36, 440,463,
465, 485, 492-93, 495, 497-98,
505-06, 628, 633
— internationalist character of proletariat's
class struggle — 6, 290,
351-52, 389-90, 392, 629
— its disappearance in communist
society — 134, 212, 332, 352-53,
389, 435, 503, 505-06, 545, 633
See also Classes
Clergy, the
— in feudal society—16, 19, 254,
333, 363, 372, 508, 512, 522, 528
— and bourgeoisie — 436, 487, 522,
528
— in Belgium — 537
— in England — 218, 283
— in France — 218
— in Germany—16, 31, 263, 333,
512, 522
— in Ireland — 309
— in Italy — 372
— in Spain — 22
Code Napoléon — 19
Colonies, colonial policy—21, 23, 179, 185
Commerce, trade
— prerequisites for development of
— 485, 627
— demand as material content of—
574
— and development of the productive
forces — 86, 87, 113, 119, 489
— in the Middle Ages—149, 320,
328, 575
— period of prosperity — 69, 86, 160
— world — 79, 119, 150 167,304,355
— trade crises —82, 160, 286, 347,
489, 490, 492, 632
— in money — 79, 150, 351
— maritime — 86, 185
— small — 491, 494
— wholesale — 90
— trade legislation — 89
See also Market
Commodity— 122, 124, 125, 127-30,132,
134, 144, 145, 148, 150-51, 156, 289-
90, 343, 415, 419, 436, 490
Commune (medieval) — 320, 485, 486
Communism (theory) — 96-103, 331, 341-
57, 481-519, 577-78
— as a revolutionary science — 178,
303
— as a teaching on the emancipation
of the working class — 101, 304
— objective historical prerequisites —
101, 178, 303-04, 321, 496, 498,
538
— and German philosophy — 45
— and religion — 7, 47, 102, 503-04
— and doctrinairism — 178, 303, 337
See also Communist League, Communist
movement, Communist party, Communist
society
Communist League, the — 481
— theoretical, programmatic principles
of— 174-78, 212, 220-34, 292-
98, 331-32, 341-57, 477-519, 585-
88
— aims of—303-04, 356, 497-98,
504-06,518-19
— congresses of — 355-57, 481, 586-
87, 589-600
— and petty-bourgeois and bourgeois
democrats — 76, 77, 291-99, 305-
06, 355, 356, 402-03, 518-19,
537-39
See also Brussels Communist Correspondence
Committee, Communist party,
League of the Just
Communist movement, the
— as an expression of proletariat's
interests — 76-77, 179, 303
— as vanguard of democratic movement
— 5, 7, 14, 63, 299, 356-57,
406-07, 440, 518
— ultimate aim — 96
— and religion — 45
— and bourgeoisie — 356-57
— in Europe — 50, 481
— in Belgium — 356
— in England — 7, 14, 55, 321, 356,
538
— in France — 55, 63, 76, 321, 356,
407-08, 438, 443-44, 518, 538
— in Germany — 55, 60, 75, 76, 220,
291, 292, 321, 356-57, 519, 528,
538
— in Poland — 518
— in Switzerland — 356, 518
— in USA — 41, 43, 321, 356
See also Egalitarian communism, Press,
Socialism, Utopian communism
Communist party— 35, 55, 75, 220, 225,
306
— as most revolutionary party —
220-21, 497, 518, 519
— as true exponent of proletariat's
interests — 76, 177, 225, 355, 493,
497, 498
— struggle against alien ideology —
77, 291, 292, 295, 300-301, 306,
355-56
— and other workers' parties — 497-
98, 518
— and democratic parties — 63, 298-
99, 356, 518
— its attitude to bourgeoisie — 332,
356, 519
See also Communist League
Communist society— 96, 353-54, 500, 505-
06
— material preconditions for establishment—
178, 194, 212, 319-20,
347-48, 351, 436, 498, 500
— proletariat's political domination as
a condition for transition to — 299
— abolition of private and establishment
of public property — 96, 101,
102, 295, 337, 348, 351-52, 441,
498-500, 505, 633
— as a classless society—134, 212,
353, 389, 506, 519, 545, 633
— elimination of political power
proper —211-12, 505-06, 516
— planning of production — 337,
352-54, 505
— distribution and consumption —
133, 348, 352-54, 434
— and personal property — 499, 500
— and physical labour — 436
— abolition of the antitheses between
town and country — 351, 353-54,
505, 516
— social evolution as a form of development
of — 212
— and personality — 96, 101, 351,
353, 498-500
— and the national question—102-
03, 354, 388, 503
— and the status of women—102,
354, 502
— and the famity —102, 354, 501,
502, 516
— and the education of children —
102, 299, 351, 353, 500, 501, 505
— and science — 352
— and religion — 46, 49, 102, 354
— criticism of idealist and Utopian
conceptions of—39, 45, 142-45,
194, 229, 230, 500, 515-16
See also Period of transition from capitalism
to communism, Political domination
of the proletariat
Competition
— in bourgeois society—79, 81,
82-84, 99-101, 159, 176, 183, 184,
191-93, 194, 195, 209, 240, 278,
284-86, 289, 295-96, 319, 322, 341,
346-48, 388, 464, 489, 503
— of capitals —82, 200, 281, 288, 429
— and price—199-200, 202-203, 462
— and wages—160, 206-207, 329,
415, 435, 453
— and profit—156, 206-07
— and petty bourgeoisie — 491, 509
— between employers —
423-24
— among workers — 143, 195, 211,
309, 350, 358, 422, 424, 428-30,
459, 493, 496
— and living standard of the proletariat
— 99-101, 160, 341, 344,
423-24, 492
— abolition of, as a condition for
emancipation of proletariat — 101,
295, 344, 348, 496
— between nations — 22, 65, 66, 74,
81, 87, 90, 167, 218, 276, 280, 281,
286, 288, 388, 416, 436, 464
Consciousness — 96, 251
See also Reason, Social consciousness,
Thought
Constantinople—179
Constitution, Constitutional question—56,
294, 324, 356
— in Belgium — 527
— in England —22, 59, 526
— in France — 5 , 6, 7, 18, 22, 270,
363, 364, 526
— in Germany —25, 26, 27, 30, 32,
71, 76, 79
— in Prussia — 23, 26, 52, 53, 64-71,
292, 520-22
— in Switzerland — 367
— in USA — 335, 356
Consumption — 113, 118-19, 130, 131,
133, 137, 158, 196, 284, 286,459,464
Continental blockade — 22, 65, 80
Contradictions
— as essence of dialectical development
— 133, 168, 493, 515
— criticism of anti-dialectical understanding
of—164, 168-73
— solution of—256
— in capitalist production—427,
432, 509
— class — 56, 126, 133,144,159,175,
176-78, 212, 229, 248-49, 310,330,
331, 362, 389, 391-92, 435, 485,
498, 503, 506, 513-15
— between the ruling class and nation
— 85
See also Unity and struggle of opposites
Convention— 19, 234, 265, 442
Corn Laws, the — 28-29, 65, 207, 217,
322, 333, 452-58, 463, 466, 521, 546
See also Anti-Corn Law League
Corvée labour — 83, 84, 227, 294
Cosmopolitism — 3, 7, 8, 398-400, 410-
11,454,488,543
Cost of production — 81, 88, 90, 118, 119,
125, 128, 132, 134,149, 150, 197-203,
217, 284-85, 343, 415, 422, 430, 436,
455, 462, 491
Country, the — 78, 174, 179, 345, 351,
353-54, 488, 505, 516, 533
See also Town
Cracow insurrection of 1846 — 518, 545-
46, 630, 644
Credit — 162, 167, 168, 173, 196-99
Crises — 137, 320
— industrial — 137, 307-09, 322,420,
424, 429, 432, 462, 509
— commercial — 69, 82, 160, 286,
347, 489, 490, 492, 632
— of the world market — 303
Criticism — 409
Crusades — 487, 574
Customs — 31, 87
Customs Union (Zollverein) (in Germany)
— 66, 80, 87, 92, 266
Cynicism — 125
D
Deism — 248, 254
Demand and supply— 118, 132, 137, 460,
574
— and wages — 225, 415
— of labour — 130, 209-10, 285, 329,
433
Democracy, democrats — 3, 6, 367-68, 389,
399, 409, 410-11, 440, 442, 519, 549
— and liberal bourgeoisie — 29, 59,
331, 377, 378-79, 385-86, 450
— and petty bourgeoisie — 355-56
— and democratic movement — 32,
71, 295, 368, 391-92
— and working class — 29, 103, 295,
299, 350-51, 368, 372, 504
— in Belgium — 392, 408, 537
— in England —7,26-27,59,71,310,
358, 361-63, 383-84, 389, 391-92,
399, 408, 410, 412-13, 447, 449,
450
— in France — 4, 62, 71, 371, 376-79,
380, 385-87, 399, 408-09, 410-11,
439-42, 443-44
— in Germany — 26, 32, 71, 255, 269,
287, 291-99, 306, 389, 391, 392,
408, 411
— in Norway — 367-68
— in Poland — 389, 549
— in Switzerland — 367-68, 373-74
— in USA — 356
Denmark — 275, 542
Despotism, tyranny—16-19, 21-27, 71,
368, 392, 410, 427
Dialectics— 165, 167, 170, 181, 182, 196,
257
See also Antagonism, Categories, Contradictions,
Negation of the negation,
Opposition, Unity and struggle of opposites
Dictatorship of the proletariat — see Political
domination of the proletariat (idea of
dictatorship of proletariat)
Distribution — 126, 143, 197, 289
— in bourgeois society—184, 305,
329
— under communism — 348, 352
Division of labour — 111, 118, 120, 127,
143, 145, 158, 159, 162, 166, 172,
178-91, 288, 319, 330, 342, 353-54,
420, 422, 427, 431, 435, 459, 464,485,
490, 491, 509
Dramaturgy— 18, 213
Dynastic opposition (in France) — 62, 331,
375, 376-79, 385-87, 406, 439-40,
443-44
E
East and West — 488, 574
Economic laws — 123, 124, 132-35, 147,
162, 170, 176, 181, 202, 203, 290, 296,
336, 440, 458, 462, 463
Economy, economic relations — 44, 120,
124, 131, 133, 138, 143, 146, 147,
149-51, 165, 166, 168-73, 176-78, 184,
191, 209, 211, 226, 228-29, 255, 280,
322^23, 328-29, 330, 336-37, 343, 514
See also Production relations
Education — 17, 81, 94, 101, 102, 299-
300, 351, 354, 364, 427, 500, 501,
500-02, 503, 505, 525
Egalitarian communism—512, 514
Egoism—41, 46, 193, 239
Egypt— 167, 470, 487, 528
Emigration — 6-7, 11, 14
England
— under absolutism — 196, 322
— the glorious revolution of 1688 —
17, 196, 322
— industrial revolution — 341
— monopoly in trade and industry —
23
— in the 19th century (first half) —
58-59, 78, 285
— industry and trade — 65, 87, 90,
187, 208, 210, 308-09
— railways — 398, 410, 533
— agriculture, agricultural relations
— 187, 201-02, 322
— finances, budget — 196, 218, 229
— parliamentary system — 213, 233,
446, 526
— election reform movement — 29,
31-32, 380
— foreign policy — 21, 438
— prospects of a social (proletarian)
revolution — 352, 389, 391-92
See also Anti-Corn Law League,
Bourgeoisie in England, Chartism, Colonies,
English revolution of the 17th
century, Free Trade movement, Manches
ter, Peterloo, Poor laws, Reform Bill of
1832 (in England), Ten Hours Bill,
Tory, Trade unions, Workers' movement
in Englazd, Working class in England,
Young England
English revolution of the 17th century — 17,
233, 321, 322, 410
Entail — 345
Eauality — 5, 7, 19, 21, 28-29, 228, 346,
442,51 i
See also Proudhon's doctrine
Essence — 32, 94
Essence and appearance — 177
Essenes — 50
Estates, orders — 28, 31, 84, 132, 228, 326,
328, 332-33, 337, 482-87, 494, 508-09
Europe — 4, 5, 6, 21, 24, 26, 71, 179, 391,
481, 522, 554, 574-75, 627
Exchange— 79, 112-14, 118, 119, 124,
126, 130, 131, 134, 137, 142-47, 150,
151, 185, 187, 196, 209, 296, 304,
319, 351, 352, 463, 464, 485, 486,
489
Exchange (exchangeable, marketable) value
— 111-22, 124, 130-32, 134, 135, 145,
156, 199
F
Factory, automatic workshop — 83, 87, 89,
99, 101, 102, 159, 173, 182-85, 188,
190, 202, 322, 342, 347, 491
See also Industry
Family — 41, 102, 194, 267, 323, 354,
429, 453, 487, 494, 501, 502, 508, 509,
516
Federal Diet (Germany) — 15, 16, 25, 32,
55
Federation, federal state
— as an ideal of the petty-bourgeois
democrats —318, 328-29, 336
Federative Act (Germany) — 26, 27
Feuerbach's philosophy— 73, 250-51, 256,
258, 292, 293
Feudalism — 29, 78, 101, 174, 179, 194,
322, 349, 485, 489, 503, 508, 523, 532
— and the inception of capitalist relations
— 174, 211, 337, 485, 489
— disintegration and collapse of —
19-20, 78, 174, 192, 211, 267-68,
319, 337, 485, 531, 533-34
See also Entail, Guilds, Middle Ages,
Property, Serf peasants, Town, Trade
Fichte's doctrine—18
Flanders—16
Form and content— 177
Fourier's doctrine— 209, 256, 429, 514,
516, 576
France
— territory, population — 3, 4, 7, 16,
20, 275, 276, 350, 509
— peculiarities of historical development
of — 71, 486, 526
— in the Middle Ages — 85, 116, 148
295, 369, 410, 411, 486, 530
— during absolutism — 70, 151, 160-
61, 218-19, 232, 333, 410
— the Thermidor reaction and the
Directory — 19, 370
— during the Consulate and the First
Empire — 22-27, 80
— during the Restoration (1815-30)
— 22, 25, 30, 506, 546
— the July monarchy (1830-48) — 32,
77, 78, 218, 238, 331, 364, 365,
375-76, 520, 525, 526
— economy and trade — 30, 69, 78,
187, 192, 532
— agriculture — 78
— home policy, domestic situation —
76, 214-17, 218-19, 331-32, 381-82,
450, 521
— September laws on the press (1835)
— 331
— political crisis of 1846-47 — 213-
17, 218-19, 375, 381-82, 438, 439,
520
— the election reform movement —
62, 63, 76, 219, 376-82, 385-87,
406, 409, 438-44, 520, 526
— corruption of the ruling classes —
213-17, 381-82, 438
— parliament —61-62, 128, 213-17,
266, 438, 439
— prospects of revolution — 352,381,
385-86
— foreign policy — 365-66
— and England —20, 91, 438
— and Germany and Prussia—19,
23, 25, 26, 27, 52, 78, 80, 81,
269-70, 411
— and other European states — 20,
22, 23, 31, 366, 371-72
See alio Alsace, Babouvism, Blanquism,
Bourgeoisie, Burgundian wars of the 15th
century, Code Napoléon, French
philosophy, French Revolution, July
revolution of 1830 in France, Lorraine,
Napoleonic wars, Paris, Revolution of
1848 in France, Working class in France
Fraternal Democrats (society)—384, 391,
392, 466-67, 590, 647
Freedom — 29, 117-19, 263, 304, 344,
463, 498-99, 502, 505, 512, 515,
528-29
See also Freedom of the press, Man,
Political freedoms
Freedom of the press — 17, 25, 26, 28, 29,
32, 56, 66, 71, 76, 218, 225, 228, 232,
252-53, 511, 545
See also Publicity
Free Trade movement—284, 288-90,
450 «3
— and the bourgeois political economy—
94, 274-78, 288-90, 416,
449-64, 539
— as the principle of industrial
bourgeoisie — 58, 275, 384, 450-
58, 461, 539
— and the working class — 58, 94,
280-81, 283-86, 287-88, ?,VS
See also Protectionism
French philosophy, the — 399, 410, 510
See also Holbach's philosophy, Rousseau's
philosophy, Voltairianism
French Revolution, the — 3, 19, 27, 218,
232-34, 253-54, 262, 263, 333, 546
— character and specific traits of-r- 4.
5, 319, 498, 547
— historical significance of — 3, 319,
322, 41Ï
— stages of— 18, 65, 232
— political groupings — 4, 5, 18, 270,
376, 545
— and the masses — 18, 233-34, 319,
371
— Le Comité de salut public (Committee
of Public Safety) — 335
— counter-revolutionary movement
— 27, 232-34, 333
— influence over Germany—15, 18,
24, 25, 27, 510
— and counter-revolutionary European
powers — 5, 24, 530, 534
— and Switzerland — 371-72
See also Convention, Girondists, Jacobins,
Vendée, Wars of revolutionary France at
the end of 18th century
G
Geneva — 524
German Confederation, 1815-66 — 25, 26,
27, 32, 55
German Democratic Society in Paris — 656
German philosophy— 3, 4, 18, 46, 73, 76,
77, 109, 161, 510
See also Feuerbach's philosophy, Fichte's
doctrine, Hegel's philosophy, Kantianism,
Young Hegelianism
German Workers' Club in Paris — 654, 658
German Workers' Educational Society (London)
— 590, 630
German Workers' Society in Brussels — 403,
560, 581, 626, 630
Germany — 43 Î
— peculiarities of its historical development—
17-18, 76, 78-79, 84-
85, 259, 267, 326-27, 331-32, 512,
538, 543-44
— in antiquity — 367, 368, 373, 482
— in the Middle Ages — 15, 17, 80,
84-85, 179, 326-27, 530-31
— survivals of feudalism—16, 17,
19-20, 23, 30, 79, 81, 83, 85, 94-95,
332, 333, 335, 511, 519, 530-31
— during the French Revolution and
the Napoleonic wars — 18-28, 78,
80, 81, 259, 510*
— between 1815 and early 1848 —
23-26, 28, 30-33, 78-95, 520-22
— industry—17, 19, 30, 78, 80-81,
83-85, 87-89, 91-93, 188, 276, 279,
293, 296, 326-27, 332, 531
— agriculture—17, 78-79, 81-82, 83,
201
— home and foreign trade—17, 66,
78, 86, 87, 90-93, 326-32, 531
— protectionist policy — 84, 87, 89,
90-94, 232
— estates, classes—17, 84, 92, 248-
49, 332
— state and political system — 78, 79,
294, 326-27, 328, 332, 511-12, 519
— disunity and problems of unification—
24, 31, 32-33, 85, 293, 335,
552, 553
— political parties — 78
— bourgeois liberal movement—20-
21, 24-26, 30-33, 66, 69, 71, 77,
220-25, 292-94, 299, 332-33, 356,
510-11, 519-22
— Hambach festival, 1832 — 332
— youth, students — 20, 24, 30, 31,
32
— education—17, 81, 427, 512
— religion and church — 20, 248
— foreign policy— 16, 84, 90, 535-36
— and oppression of Poland — 389,
391-92, 535, 551-52
— and other European states—15,
16, 23, 24, 27, 411, 551-52
— prospects of revolution — 85, 86,
293, 352, 512, 519, 522, 538, 543,
551-52, 554
See also Austria, Bourgeoisie in Germany,
Burghers in Germany, Customs
Union, Federal Diet, Federative Act,
German Confederation, German philosophy,
Holy Roman Empire of the German
Nation, Peasant War in Germany,
Prussia, Rhine province, Saxony, Working
class in Germany, Württemberg,
Young Germany
Girondists—18
God, gods— 20, 171, 174, 231, 235, 241-
42, 257
Good and evil — 167, 169, 172, 180
Gothic — 487
Greco-Persian wars, 500-449 B.C.—368,
371
Guilds, fraternities, corporations — 88, 101,
174, 179, 184, 186, 190, 192,267,270,
276, 322, 330, 345, 348-49, 355
H
Hamburg — 86
Hanseatic towns — 80, 85
Heathens — 258
Hegel's philosophy — 18, 265
— dialectical method of — 163-67,
169, 256
— and Feuerbach's philosophy —
256, 258
Historiography— 326
History— 50, 133, 164, 170, 174, 178,
179, 192, 204, 253, 319, 337, 345,494,
507, 521, 530
Hobbes' philosophy — 233
Holbach's philosophy — 254, 256
Holy Alliance, the — 22, 31, 93, 320
Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation
— 15, 17, 19, 271
Humanism — 6, 48, 125, 256, 270, 292,
293
Hungary — 7, 343, 527, 531, 535, 542
I
Ideas— 162, 165, 170-71, 177, 179, 184,
196, 197, 501, 504
Illuminati — 303
Immigration — 43, 167, 309
India — 167, 185, 187, 345, 422, 628
Industrial revolution — 341, 343-47, 485
Industry
— under feudalism — 191, 320, 328,
489
— domestic — 174
— and protectionist policy — 80, 93,
279, 280, 287, 288, 328, 465, 573
— large-scale —79, 81, 87-89, 99,
127, 137, 138, 143, 183, 187, 207,
210-11, 279, 287-88, 296, 328, 342,
345-47, 349, 351-53, 355, 429,
432-33, 465, 485, 486
— contradictions within it under
bourgeois mode of production —
135, 515
— and property relations—159,
303-04, 322-23
— and trade — 113, 167
— small-scale — 138, 279, 429, 509,
573
— and peasantry — 83
— and bourgeoisie — 79, 81, 486,
493, 494, 524, 527
— ousting of skilled workers and use
of women's and children's labour
— 420, 422, 427, 433, 491, 501,
502
— during the period of transition
from capitalism to communism and
under communism — 299, 304,
305, 322, 350-51, 352-53, 505
See also Guilds, Industrial revolution,
Machines, Manufacture, Production cycle,
Trade
Interest, interests
— and private property — 388, 487
— and social and economic progress
— 85, 368, 493, 527, 542-43
— opposite, and their elimination —
6, 24, 28, 83-84, 87, 175, 211, 368,
388-90
— identity of — 390, 550
— alleged harmony of, in bourgeois
society — 144, 362, 514
— general, particular and private - -
6, 19, 79, 95, 175, 187, 210. i56,
372, 379, 388-90, 489, 497, 525,
534, 552
— material, economic — 76 83, 93,
211, 493
— political — 31 350
— national — 6, 84-85, 368, 372, 489,
534, 542-43, 550, 552
— social under communism — 348
— and law — 89, 90, 494
— their expression in ideology and
theory — 333, 511-12
— estate — 79, 333
— class —76,83-85,95, 175,211,489
— party — 75, 76, 78, 333, 390
— during transition from capitalism
to communism — 299
— in communist society — 348, 388
Internationalism, proletarian — 6, 390,497
Inventions — 156, 159, 187, 158, 204,
207, 284, 341, 346
Iran — 528
Ireland—13, 200, 286, 307-09, 425,
445-49, 466, 482, 549
Irish Confederation — 549
Italy
— in the Middle Ages —205, 486,
530
— industry and trade — 523, 531,
533, 541
— home policy — 371-72
— Austrian rule in — 520, 523
— in the first half of the 19th century
— 31, 371-72, 520, 532-34, 541,
554
— struggle for national liberation and
reunification —31, 371-72, 523,
534, 540
— revolution in Naples, 1799 — 371-
72
— revolution of 1820-21 — 31, 371-
72, 540
— revolutionary events of 1831 — 31,
366, 371-72, 520, 532, 533
— liberal reforms in Papal states —
521-23
— revolutionary upsurge in 1847 —
520-21, 523, 528, 532
— and other European states — 366,
371-72
See ako Carbonari, Kingdom of the Two
Sicilies, Lombardy, Papal ~-.ates, Fv. dmont
(Kingdom of Sardinia), Revolution of
1848 in Italian states, Rome
J
Jack Cade's rebellion, 1450—295
Jacobins, Jacobin dictatorship, the — 4, 5,
18, 19, 319, 335, 372, 376, 386, 403,
545
Jacquerie (France, 1358) — 295
Jesuits — 524, 525
Jews — 158, 237, 239, 243, 276
July revolution of 1830 in France— 29, 31,
52, 266, 371, 507, 520-21, 534, 540
Junkers — see Nobility
K
Kantianism — 17, 182, 259
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Naples)—
371, 522, 539-40
L
Labour
— as the source of value — 120, 127,
132, 149, 150
— simple and compound— 127, 182,
185, 422, 427, 429
— machine.— 79, 345
— as an element of bourgeois production
— 82, 346
— and capital — 133, 428, 463, 490,
500, 573
— struggle between labour and capital
— 58, 178, 288, 310, 435, 440,
515
— as a commodity in bourgeois society
— 130, 341, 343, 344, 415, 433,
436, 462, 491
— mental, as an article of trade in
bourgeois society—436
— child —422, 427, 491, 505
— women's — 422, 491
— in the period of transition from
capitalism to communism — 295,
350, 351, 377
— under communism — 499
See also Manual labour, Productivity of
labour, Wage labour
Labour power— 125, 127, 130, 285
Labour time—127, 134-35, 143, 150,
154, 203
Landed property
— as a basis of feudal system — 519
— and industrial capital — 201, 203,
322
— and bourgeois revolution—66,
322, 546
— bourgeois — 89, 173, 199-202
— evolution under capitalism — 89,
90, 173, 197-99, 200-03, 205, 322
— tendency to abolish and nationalise
it under capitalism — 203, 322
— preconditions for its transformation
into social property — 352-
53, 505
— small-peasant — 173, 322, 352
— critique of bourgeois and pettybourgeois
theories — 42, 197-99,
201-03, 322
— in England — 201-02, 322
— in Germany — 201, 519
— in Poland — 546
— in Scotland — 173
— in USA — 42
Law — 31, 81, 83, 88-90, 119, 147, 150,
164, 177, 184-85, 194, 197, 209, 253,
494, 501, 504, 511, 577
See also Legislation, Penal code, Right of
inheritance
League of the Just, the — 589-600
Legal procedure — 66, 88, 228
Legislation
— as expression of economic relations
— 28, 147, 209, 346
— and classes — 58, 61, 79, 80, 87-90,
346, 467, 488-89, 493, 524-25
— in England — 58, 187, 209, 213,
456
— in France — 61, 213, 218
— in Prussia — 65, 228
— in Switzerland — 524-25
Legitimism — 20, 22, 24, 31, 77, 331, 508
Levant, the — 187
Liberalism
— bourgeois— 26, 28, 29, 59, 221-25,
333, 356, 377, 379, 386, 523
— and democracy — 29, 59, 384-86,
450
— in Belgium — 331, 521, 546
— in England — 384, 450
— in France —22, 331, 377, 379,
380-82, 385-87
— in Germany and Prussia — 26,
30-33, 66, 70, 221-25, 230, 243,
292, 299, 331-33, 356, 511, 519,
521, 522
— in Italy — 522
See also Free Trade movement
Lisbon — 575
Literature
— world — 488
— English — 7, 59
— French — 397
— German—18, 75, 244-45, 256-61,
268-69, 270-71, 273-74, 312-16,
332, 337, 339
See also Poetry
Logic—116, 158, 163-67, 169, 193,
196
Logos — 163
Lombardy — 523, 533, 534, 542
Lorraine — 16
Lumpen proletariat — 83, 246, 494
M
Machiavellianism—254, 262
Machines — 66, 79, 87, 99-101-, 127, 130,
158, 167, 176, 178, 182-85, 186-89,
200, 202, 207- 09, 279, 284, 287, 288,
304, 341, 342, 345, 346, 353, 389-90,
399, 419, 422-23, 426-32, 459-61,
489-92, 500, 533, 627-28
Malthusianism — 416, 426, 428
Man, individual, personality
— nature and essence of — 43, 45, 76,
147, 257, 265-66, 271, 415, 487,
510-11
— and Nature — 111, 197, 201-02
— and society—155
— and production—111-13, 125,
127, 166, 170, 174-75, 186-87, 188-
90, 319-20, 347
— and private property — 498-99
— and division of labour — 127, 180,
187, 188-90, 304-05, 353
— and classes — 330-31
— in feudal society — 486
— in bourgeois society—133, 176,
442, 463, 486-87, 498-500
— in communist society — 348, 351,
353, 498-500, 505
— and freedom — 29, 463, 498-500
— as seen by Feuerbach — 249-50
Manual labour— 158, 188, 206, 279, 280,
287-88, 344-45, 423, 455, 459, 461,
491, 532-34
Manchester — 208
Manufacture— 79, 84, 87, 88, 179, 185-
87, 327, 342, 343-45, 348-49, 352-53,
355, 426, 532-33
Market — 66, 69, 394
— and industrial development— 173,
186, 351
— of labour power — 431
— domestic and foreign — 218
— continental — 24, 65, 275
— world — 90, 187, 210, 217, 303,
322, 327, 332, 345, 351, 388, 421,
422, 429, 436, 465
— struggle of the bourgeoisie for
markets — 20, 22, 24, 25, 66-69,
90, 173, 21 : all
— cotton — 311
Masses— 3, 5, 71, 75, 222, 226, 232-33,
294, 350, 440
— as decisive force in revolutions —
17, 19, 71, 232-34, S\0, 337
Materialism — 254, 255, 407
Means of produciion— 99, 118, 130, 135-
37, 173, 183, 186, 187, 193, 197, 199,
200, 205-06, 211, 343-45, 348, 350,
436, 440, 459, 461, 482, 488, 489,
492, 502, 504, 509, 577
Mechanics — 146, 187, 188, 207
Mediterranean Sea — 179
Metaphysics — 18, 49, 161, 163-65, 169,
197, 546
Method — 161, 164-66
Mexico — 527
Middle Ages, the — 82, 94, 113, 133, 182,
185, 190, 231, 252,267,270,271,326,
327, 330, 343, 348-49, 482, 522
Mode of production — 144, 146, 166, 170,
174, 296, 304, 342, 348,441,486,487,
504
See also Capitalist mode of production,
Communist society, Feudalism, Primitive
communism, Production relations, Productive
forces
Monarchy — 325-28, 345, 531
— origin — 325-27, 345, 540
— with estate representation — 26,
66, 71, 486
— constitutional —66, 78, 317, 321-
24, 333, 345, 540, 542
— and bourgeoisie —28, 30, 80, 87-
90, 318-19, 330
See also Absolute monarchy
Money
— as a social relation — 145
— as a measure of commodity value
— 123
— as the universal agent of exchange
— 117, 145, 151
— paper — 57, 150
— metal — 57, 145-50, 252
— in bourgeois society — 28, 29, 79,
238, 271, 345, 421, 427, 436, 500
— and political power — 320-21, 324
— its abolition under communism —
351
Morality — 169, 194, 247, 259, 272, 301,
317-18, 325, 494, 504
See also Good and evil
Mystic, mysticism — 50, 153, 158, 197,
199, 258, 512
Mythology— 157-60, 214, 313-15, 335-39
N
Naples — see Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Napoleonic wars — 19-28, 65, 320, 549,
554
See also Wars of revolutionary France at
the end of 18th century
Nation - 3 , 372, 465, 488, 503
— under communism—102, 354,
388, 503
See also National question
National Charter Association — 383
Nationalism — 3, 6, 411, 488-89, 534,
560, 562
National question — 3, 4, 389, 390, 392,
402-03, 449, 503, 540, 544-49, 551-52
National reformers, National Reform As
sociation (USA) — 41, 42, 43, 48, 324,
356
Nature — 111, 137, 158, 174, 176, 187,
197, 201, 202, 252, 315, 432-34, 464,
489, 501, 577
See also Society
Needs — 86, 111, 112, 117-18, 132, 133,
143, 150, 170, 173, 188, 190,192,193,
200, 225-26, 347, 352-54, 487, 511
Negation—163-64, 172, 182, 187, 192,
195,317
Negation of the negation, the — 163, 164,
195
Netherlands, the — 22, 116, 179, 186, 286,
399, 410, 575
New York — 43
Nobility
— in feudal society — 16, 17, 79, 81,
82, 84-86, 326-28, 343, 486, 494
— and peasantry — 79, 83, 84
— and monarchy — 86. 235, 486
— in bourgeois society — 79, 82, 83,
89, 345-46, 528
— in Germany — 16, 19, 79-88, 294,
327, 511
— in Italy — 371, 523, 533
— in Prussia — 65, 66, 69-70, 82, 83,
86, 89-90, 522
Norway — 83, 367, 368, 381
O
Objects of prime necessity— 133, 147, 217,
226, 453
Officials — see Bureaucracy
Opposition — 84, 114, 116, 133, 193, 208
Orleanists — 378, 380, 386, 387
Overproduction—136, 143, 284, 290,
352, 458, 489, 490, 509, 632
Owen's system — 209, 514, 517, 576
P
Palestine —- 205
Pantheism — 264
Papal states — 205, 371, 521, 522, 523,
532
Paris—5, 8, 13, 18, 62, 63, 376, 380,
381, 407
Party, parties
— social basis of — 546
— and sects — 30-31
— inter-party struggle — 47, 294
— leaders of — 7, 76
— and revolution—101, 349
— progressive — 64, 71, 521, 525
— revolutionary — 13, 29, 30, 220
— democratic — 63, 71, 355-57
— reactionary — 202
— bourgeois — 86
See also Chartism, Communist party,
Democracy, Girondists, Jacobins, Legitimism,
Orleanists, Proletarian party, Tory
Pauperism — 43, 323, 324, 434, 495, 509
Peasantry, peasants — 44
— in feudal society — 79, 83, 84, 186,
533
— and commodity relations — 533
— expropriation of — 187
— free — 527, 549
— role in bourgeois revolutions—
498
— in capitalist society — 353
— conservatism of — 19, 83, 295, 494
— small — 83, 233, 294-95, 420-425
— and bourgeoisie — 82-83,488,494,
525, 527
— and working class — 294-95, 350,
491, 494, 525
— and proletarian revolution — 525
See also Serf peasants
Peasant War in Germany, 1524-25—27,
295, 326
Penal Code — 209
People's Charter—14, 29, 59, 308, 361,
414, 466, 647
Period of transition from capitalism to
communism—101, 102, 104, 295-96,
299, 350-51, 355, 377-78, 505-06
See Political domination of the proletariat
Personal property — 498-500
Peterloo — 23, 29
Petty bourgeoisie—7, 17, 81, 84-86, 178,
339, 356
— and bourgeoisie —79-80, 82, 88-
90, 267, 509, 512
— and working class — 82, 294-95,
350, 380, 509, 512
Philistinism — 242, 245, 248, 253, 259,
264, 266, 273, 302, 313, 316-17, 512,
519
Philosophy—163, 164, 178, 179, 181,
255-56, 293, 317, 503, 511
See also Deism, Dialectics, French phi
losophy, German philosophy, Logos,
Materialism, Metaphysics, Mystic, Pantheism,
Sensationism
Physics— 146
Piedmont (Kingdom of Sardinia)—523,
540
Poetry— 240-42, 247-49
— German—17, 20, 236, 243-44,
255, 259, 272-73
— of the "true socialists"—235-49,
252, 265-66, 272-73
Poland — 7, 22, 23, 31, 71,276, 334, 343,
388, 389, 391, 392, 527, 535, 550,
545-52
See also Cracow insurrection of 1846,
Polish insurrection of 1830-31, Polish
question
Polish insurrection of 1830-31 — 388,
391-92, 532, 549, 550
Polish question — 388-89, 391-92, 518,
545-52
Political domination of the proletariat (idea
of dictatorship cf proletariat)
— historical m.\.c:-Aty and inevitability
of winning political power by proletariat—
299, 319, 440, 495,
497-98, 502, 504-05
— as condition of proletariat's liberation
— 467
— tasks of — 299, 351, 372, 504-05
— and democracy —294-95, 299,
350,351,368
See also Classes, Class struggle, Period of
transition from capitalism to communism,
Proletarian revolution
Political economy, bourgeois
— representatives of, as theoreticians
of the class of the bourgeoisie —
121, 125, 178
— attitude of, to the working-class
struggle —206-11, 289-90, 329
— classical—115, 120-25, 127-28,
129, 135-36, 138, 146-47, 150,
151, 156, 159-60, 174-76, 179,
180, 186-87, 198-202, 289-90,319,
329, 330, 337, 457, 462, 574
— and vulgarisation tendencies —
115, 120, 123-24, 129,136-37, 150,
152-54, 156, 157, 160, 176-77,
180, 181, 190, 196, 203, 252, 274-
77, 282-83, 419
— humanistic school — 177
— romantic trend — 176
— philanthropic school — 177
See also Malthusianism, Free Trade
movement
Political freedoms— 31, 218, 225, 228,
Political power— 28, 29, 81, 82, 212, 294,
318-21, 345-46, 381, 440, 505, 524
See also Political domination of the
proletariat, State
Political rights — 32, 233, 254, 255, 362,
393
Political system— 78, 102, 174, 222, 489
Politics
— as an expression of economic relations
— 147, 319, 320, 327, 381,
546-49
— and social relations — 4, 5, 7, 17,
75-76, 212, 292, 294-95, 321,
324,328-31, 364, 380,381,546
See also Class struggle
Poor laws (England) — 434, 453
Portugal— 28, 31, 179, 575
Practice — see Theory and practice
Press, the
— partisanship of—291, 294-95,
297-99
— bourgeois — 360
— aristocratic —294-95, 392
— democratic —64, 294-95, 298, 311,
387, 392, 407-08, 439-42
— proletarian and communist — 35,
54, 59, 220, 221, 294, 295, 297,
303, 306, 337, 576
— in England — 59, 225, 331, 360
— in France — 64, 82, 225, 387
— in Germany—17, 19, 64, 253,
294-95, 297
— in Italy — 523
See also Censorship, Freedom of the press
Price, prices
— as a result of the fluctuation of
demand and supply—115, 116,
123, 125, 126, 132, 134, 148-50,
156, 208, 459
— and competition — 199-200, 202,
343, 462
— and costs of commodity production
— 490-91
— of industrial products and luxuries
. — 137, 199, 200, 207, 217, 345
— of agricultural products—199,
202, 204, 453, 455
— of staple goods—133, 160, 217,
225
— and wages—126, 129, 160, 206,
208, 217
— market — 132, 199, 204, 208, 210,
419
Primitive communism—482
Principles—5, 86, 162, 165, 170, 303,
337
Private property
— as an embodiment of bourgeois
production relations—197, 337,
489
— and productive forces — 304, 348-
49, 489, 490
— historically transient character of
forms of — 348-49, 498, 501
— in the primitive and patriarchal
family — 355
— feudal form of—323, 332, 337,
338, 489
— cooperative, or guild — 322, 348
— based on producer's own labour —
345, 498
— transformation of feudal into
bourgeois — 322-23, 337-38, 344,
348, 498, 545-49
— bourgeois — 296, 318-19, 348-49,
388, 489, 498, 500
— and law — 501
— historical inevitability of abolition
of — 95, 96, 295, 304-05, 322-23,
332, 344, 348-49, 352-54, 388, 494,
498, 500, 501
— abolition of, in course of proletarian
revolution — 295, 350-51,
504-05
— as seen by bourgeois and pettybourgeois
reformists — 44, 405,
501-02
Privilege— 16, 18, 28, 29, 101, 174, 181,
191, 216, 218, 318, 320,345, 466, 467
Production
— development of—118, 349, 352-
55, 488
— under feudalism — 337
— under capitalism — 491
— forms and methods of — 144, 492
— and division of labour — 111
— and classes — 132, 348-49, 503
— of means of subsistence—111,
143, 166, 184, 488, 500, 503, 505
— of social relations—162, 165
— and needs—111, 118,352
— intellectual —488, 500, 503
— in communist society — 352-54,
505
See also Cost of production, Means of
production, Mode of production, Production
relations, Productive forces
Production cycle— 137, 426, 458, 462
Production relations
— as a social form of productive
forces—162, 166, 174-75, 193,
197, 577
— contradiction between productive
forces and production relations—165,
174-75,212,348-49,489
— and classes — 506
— criticism of anti-historical approach
to understanding of—162, 173,
174, 202, 319-20
— bourgeois — 160, 162, 175, 176,
194, 197, 202, 319-20, 337, 436,
489, 499, 502, 504, 509, 513
Productive forces — 99, 119, 137, 152-60,
183, 184, 290, 489
— prerequisites for development
of—132, 159, 174, 176
— and mode of production—166,
348-49
— and production relations as social
form of — 166, 174-76, 193, 577
— and superstructure — 170
— contradiction between productive
forces and production relations—
165, 174-75, 212, 348-49, 489, 490
— and condition of the working class
— 422, 423, 428, 432-33, 459
— development of, as a material condition
of transition to communism
— 212, 303, 349, 352, 490, 495
Productivity of labour — 158, 419
Profit— 124, 154-57, 185, 191, 199-202,
205-07, 225, 232, 305, 329, 341, 454,
457
Progress — 345, 367, 390, 527, 528
— and class struggle — 85, 132
— and national interests — 542
— in science and technology—152,
293
— in industry—137, 493, 495-96
— and bourgeois society — 29, 81,
168, 217-18, 372, 526, 540, 569
— under communism — 212, 352
"Progressive conservatives" in France —
214, 439
Proletarian party— 3, 5, 210-11, 222-25,
324, 493, 498, 519
See also Communist party
Proletarian revolution, the—519
— historical inevitability of—94-95,
319, 372, 495-96, 528-29, 599
— as a means of the proletariat's
liberation—178, 290, 345, 436,
504, 515
— as a means of liquidating social
oppression — 294, 381
— material prerequisites of—101,
178, 319-20, 346-47, 349-50, 352,
436, 465, 515
— as the peak of class struggle between
bourgeoisie and proletariat
— 212, 290, 495
— international character of—352,
388, 629
— and possibility of a peaceful way of
development—101, 349
Proletariat—see Working class
Property, ownership— 100, 119, 197, 261,
296, 322-23, 348-49, 436, 498-501,
546, 577
See also Appropriation, Landed property,
Personal property, Private property, Social
property, State property
Prostitution—250, 354, 501, 502
Protectionism—92, 276-83, 287-89, 464,
465, 573, 628
See also Protective tariffs
Protective tariffs, duties—6, 65,69, 80,84,
87, 90-94, 196, 232, 266, 267, 279,
280, 284, 287, 288, 290, 324, 450,
454, 465
Protestantism—218, 631
Proudhon's doctrine
— as ideology of petty bourgeoisie —
191
— philosophical foundations of—
109, 166, 178, 195
— and Hegelian philosophy—109,
161, 165, 167, 168, 169
— distortion of dialectics—119, 163,
172, 182, 183, 195
— elements of mysticism—153, 158,
173, 197, 199
— theory of the person-society—
152-57, 159, 171
— teaching on human reason ("social
genius")—171-73
— view on the origin of authority—
184-86
— view on man—118, 119, 152-54,
159, 192, 193, 197
— political economy — 73, 74, 109,
110, 147, 151, 158, 161, 162, 164,
165, 168, 178-79
— and classical political economy —
120-25, 127, 128, 135, 138, 146,
151, 156, 179, 180, 186, 188, 199
— metaphysical method—113, 181,
184
— views on property—197-99, 260
— views on labour—120, 124, 125,
128-30, 136, 138, 144, 149, 150,
153, 156, 158, 159, 190, 194
— teaching on value—111-14, 115-
17, 120, 123-27, 128-31, 134-36,
138, 144-47, 150-52, 154, 156, 160,
172, 193, 199, 208, 209
— theory of utility—115-17, 132, 134
— views on industry and its origin —
111, 112, 133, 174
— views on needs— 112
— views on division of labour and
machines—112, 118, 158, 178,
179, 181-84, 186, 187, 188
— teaching on commodity and money
— 113, 118, 144-52, 162
— views on capital— 154-55, 205
— views on demand and supply—
115-17, 119, 131, 134, 137, 149,
150
— exchange bank—145
— views on wages— 125, 128-29, 160,
182, 192, 206, 207, 208
— views on competition—119, 166,
191-95
— on taxes — 168
— on science—178
— petty-bourgeois equalisation—124,
126-29, 138, 159, 172, 173, 181,
184, 193, 196, 202, 203, 204
— equalised distribution—159, 181,
203
— views on future society— 123, 129,
138, 159, 160, 192-94
— negation of economic struggle of
the working class — 206-209
Prussia—26, 27
— feudalism and its aftermath — 23,
66, 83, 227, 333
— during the French Revolution and
the Napoleonic wars — 22, 23, 26,
27, 65, 80, 523
— reforms of 1801-14 — 23, 523
— in 1815-early 1848 — 26, 27, 52,
63-71, 89-90, 520
— industry — 65, 66, 80
— railways—69
— finance, budget, taxes — 52, 53, 57,
58, 69, 231-32, 522
— trade — 65, 66
— peasantry —66, 83, 225, 227, 229
— political and state system — 30, 65,
71, 92, 225, 227, 333, 522
— bureaucracy —30, 65, 69, 89-92,
227, 230, 292, 333, 522, 523
— provincial assemblies of the estates
— 31, 55, 64, 83, 243
— prospects of revolution — 522
— foreign policy — 89-90
— oppression of Poland — 93, 545,
552
— and the German Con frcip ration—
25, 26, 32, 65, " •
— and other European countries —
26, 65, 542, 543
See also Bourgeoisie in Prussia,
Working class in Prussia
Prussian society of maritime trade
(Preußische Seehandlungsgesellschaft)—
52
Publicity—66, 89, 213, 218, 253
Public opinion— 17, 26, 61, 64, 219, 227,
361
Puritans—85
Q
Qualification—28, 32, 379, 467
Quality and quantity— 73, 124, 127, 128,
130, 163
R
Railways—57, 62, 81, 86, 155, 157, 160,
218, 227, 232, 299, 350,351,375, 398,
410, 486, 489, 493
Reason, understanding'—162, 164, 165,
166, 168-73, 195, 325, 577
Reformation—16, 312
Reform Bill of 1832 (in England)—SI
Reforms— 280-81, 288-89, 295, 305, 309,
355, 380, 466, 467, 573
Religion— 20, 164, 256, 405
— illusory character of conceptions of
— 48, 317
— ancient religions—503
— religious fanaticism — 24, 26
— religious wars — 20
— and anti-scientific explanation of
its origin—174, 325-26
— criticism of, by German philosophy
— 630
— as a tool for spiritual enslavement
— 24, 26, 225
— creation of new religions—46-50,
248
— and bourgeoisie — 486, 525
— the proletariat's and communists'
attitude towards it—7, 59, 102,
231, 355, 494, 503
— overcoming of, under communism
— 46, 47, 102, 355
See also Atheism, Christianity, Church,
Clergy, God, Mythology
Rent— 122, 124, 185, 197-206,322,455,
457, 500, 505
Rent, tenants — 83, 173, 200, 201, 203,
205, 344, 455
Repealers—448, 449
Representative system—76, 77, 80, 324,
325, 511
Republicans—4, 7, 13, 22, 292, 321, 324,
325, 334, 335, 377, 385, 438
Republicans, moderate ("National" party) in
France—63, 364, 376, 377, 379-80,
385-87, 406-08, 439-43
Republics of antiquity— 179
See also Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome
Revolution— 101, 349
— objective character of — 349
— as the principal means of transforming
class society—212, 482
— and people — 333
— revolutionary epochs — 69, 312,
317
See also Bourgeois revolution, Proletarian
revolution
Revolution of 1848 in France—556-59,
645-47, 649
Revolution of 1848 in Italian states—
540-44, 549, 553-56
Revolutions of 1848 in Europe—512, 540,
543-44, 556, 558-59
Rhine province of Prussia— 19, 25
Right of inheritance— 102, 296, 350-51,
505
Romanticism—176, 240, 260
Rome—4, 18
Rousseau's philosophy—334
Russia — 20, 23, 26, 28, 71, 81, 247, 343,
527, 541, 542, 545, 552, 646
See also Bourgeoisie in Russia
S
Saint-Simon's doctrine—515, 576
Saxony—78
Science—18, 158, 161, 177, 178, 188,
212, 251, 252, 312, 353
See also Chemistry, Mechanics, Physics
Social science
Scotland—14, 173, 308
Sensationism—255
Serf peasants—84, 174, 343-44, 349,
482-85, 495
See also Corvée labour
Slave, slavery— 100, 133, 167, 168, 201,
231, 325, 343-44, 471, 482
Social consciousness—504
Social-Democratic Party ("Réforme" party)
in France— 55, 75, 76, 365, 366,
376-80, 385-87, 406-08, 438-39, 516-
17, 557
Socialism
— Utopian — 3 , 138-44, 321, 421,
509, 510, 512, 515-16, 576
— feudal —355, 506-07, 576
— bourgeois — 355, 513, 576
— petty-bourgeois — 508-09, 576
— and Communists — 355-56
— Christian —294, 508
— in England — 3 , 138, 209, 321
— in France —209, 321, 511
See also Fourier's doctrine, Owen's system,
Saint-Simon's doctrine, Utopian communism
Social property—348, 352, 499-500, 508
— preconditions for establishment of
— 348-52, 490, 494-96, 498,
504-06
— transition to it in the course of a
proletarian revolution — 349-51,
353-54, 494-95, 498-99, 504-06
— and management of production —
348, 352-54, 500, 504-05
— and distribution on its basis —
352-53
— and labour—353-54, 499-500
— and abolition of classes — 353-54,
499, 506
See also Communist society, State property
Social relations— 145, 159, 163, 165, 166,
170, 171, 174, 183, 193, 197,204,205,
211, 229, 235, 249, 321-22, 487, 502
Social science—515, 516
Social system—89, 347-49, 352-53, 355,
487, 508
Society
— history of— 144, 173-74, 495, 504
— and classes —89, 212, 248, 342-43,
353
— and division of labour—118, 119,
179, 184-185
— and productive forces — 348-49,
352-53, 432-33
— and the State —326-28, 334-35
— and individual—119, 193
See also Bourgeois society, Civil society,
Communist society, Feudalism, Social relations,
Social system, Primitive communism
Sonderbund (Switzerland)—371, 373
South America — 22
Sovereignty— 18, 362, 363, 376, 377
Space— 163
Spain— 16, 20-23, 25, 31, 179, 399, 410,
438, 575
Spirits— 134, 421, 508
State, the— 187
— as a tool of the ruling classes — 62,
80, 90, 375, 486, 523, 525, 526-27
— bourgeois —28, 80, 318, 322-23,
324, 486, 488, 491, 510, 513, 526
— its transformation into simple man
agement of production under communism—
516
See also Absolute monarchy, Democracy,
Dictatorship of the proletariat. Monarchy,
Representation system
State property—322-23, 504-05
Stock exchange—61, 85, 86, 320, 375,
569, 570, 632
Students — 20, 30-32
Suffrage
— and bourgeoisie — S8, 61, 346,
375, 440, 526
— in England —308, 361, 449, 466,
467
— in France —62, 63, 76, 219, 363,
375-80, 386-87, 440, 526
See also Universal suffrage
Switzerland — 7, IT- 83, 270, 299, 356,
363, 367-74, vOS. 138, 5i:0-21, 523-25,
534, 539, 546, "19, 593, 646
See also Sonderbund (Switzerland),
Working class in Switzerland
T
Tax, taxes— 148, 328-29
— and bourgeoisie—195, 196, 329,
346
— progressive income tax — 56,
225-26, 228-30, 231
— and rent —203
— and wages —217, 225-26, 329
— and luxuries — 407
— and proletariat —329, 420, 425
— during transition from capitalism
to communism— 102, 350, 505
Ten Hours Bill in England—143, 456,
457, 493, 577
Terror— 253, 438
— revolutionary —5, 19, 319, 335
Theory and practice
— primacy of practice and secondary
nature of theory—124, 144, 162,
165, 194, 296-97, 303-04
— material practice as basis of theory
— 121-24, 296-97, 303-04, 337-38,
497-98, 515
— practice as criterion of truth —
162, 165, 169, 175-78
— dialectical relation of — 337-38
— discrepancy between — 48-50, 115-
16, 169, 175-78, 510-11
— criticism of the idealistic conception
of the relation between theory
and practice—162, 165, 169, 194
— leading role of practice in the
process of cognition — 337-38
— role of practice in changing reality
— 299
Thirty Years War, 1618-48—327
Thought— 164, 165
Tory—333
Town— 78, 179, 295, 328, 485
— separation from the countryside —
179
- - in the Middle Ages—15, 17, 269,
295, 326, 328, 343, 349, 485, 486,
524, 531, 533
— struggle against feudals — 486
— under capitalism — 346, 488
— abolition of antithesis between
town and country under communism—
351, 353-54, 505, 516
See also Burghers in Germany, Commune
(medieval), Country
Trade, crafts— 17, 79, 99, 133, 201, 342,
343-45, 380, 425, 628
Trade unions—209, 212, 491-92, 522
See also Workers' combinations
Trial by jury— 28, 29, 32, 66, 71, 88, 228,
250
"True socialism"— 3, 4, 8, 35, 36, 41, 43,
44, 74-78, 235-73, 300-02, 338-39,
510-12, 576, 590-91,597-98
Truth—43, 76, 171, 178, 301
Tunis — 471, 527
Turkey— 7, 31, 527
U
Unemployment— 433, 458
United Diet (Prussia)—64, 78, 92, 225,
227-28, 230, 520, 522
United States of America, the—40, 44,
167, 323, 329, 334, 335, 343, 409-10,
520, 526, 527, 539
See also American War of Independence,
National Reformers, New York, Working
class in the USA, Young America
Unity and struggle of opposites— 164, 168,
175, 195
Universal suffrage— 29, 233, 323, 361,
386, 449
Universities—30, 286, 439
Uprising of Silesian weavers—332
Use value— 111, 112-17, 119, 121, 124
Utility—116, 118, 121, 130, 133, 184
Utopian communism — 3, 41, 76, 77, 138,
141, 178, 209, 210, 254, 338, 404,
407-08, 515, 516, 538
See also Egalitarian communism, socialism,
Weitling's theory
V
Value— 111, 120, 123, 124, 126-32, 135,
13ß, 138, 144-45, 149, 150, 151, 154,
160, 166, 194, 204
See also Exchange value, Use value
Vendée—26
Vienna— 239, 533
Vienna Congress of 1814-15—23-26, 545
Voltairianism — 546
W
Wage labour— 99, 159, 183, 434, 436,
463, 495, 498-500, 514, 516
— and capital —58, 178, 288, 310,
435, 440
Wages
— as a component of cost of production—
118, 201, 217
— as price of labour—124-26, 128,
130, 289-90, 343, 415, 423, 426,
436, 462-63, 499
— as economic embodiment of the
worker's subsistence — 329, 434-35
— and competition—160, 206-07,
329, 415, 453
— fluctuations —419, 422-25, 427-28,
430, 453, 458, 491
— workers' struggle against reduction
of—206-11, 308-09, 311, 415
— real and nominal — 225, 424
— absolute and relative — 422
— minimum —305, 329, 415, 421,
425-26, 462-63, 492, 499
Wars of revolutionary France at the end of
18th century— 19, 27, 370
Wat Tyler's rebellion, 1381 — 295
Wealth—131, 132, 151, 159, 160, 174,
175, 176, 184, 196, 197, 345
Weitling's theory—11-13, 426, 576, 590
Will— 118, 119, 256
Women's question— 36-39, 50, 102, 144,
354, 491, 502
Worker
— in conditions of bourgeois production—
127, 133, 182, 185, 187,
188-90, 207, 329, 342, 419-20,422,
423, 426, 430-34, 442, 462, 490
— vital necessities for his reproduction—
124, 125, 160, 225-26,
289-90, 343, 419, 432, 463, 490,
499
— and the capitalist class — 126,
— 342-43,423-24,426,491
See also Competition, Labour, Labour
Power, Wages
Workers ' movement—495, 519
— prerequisites for rise of—30, 188,
296, 331-32, 389-90, 440-41,
491-92
— stages of development — 29, 43,
188, 491-92, 495, 515
— aims of—389-90, 494
— necessity of combining political and
economic struggle—178, 210, 211
— significance of unity — 390
— struggle for general democratic
demands —41-44, 59, 222-25, 228,
233, 295-96, 298-99, 306, 350-51,
355-56, 519
— internationalism as its highest principle—
6, 389-90, 497
— and the proletarian party — 493,
497, 519
See also Chartism, Communist movement,
Internationalism, proletarian, Proletarian
revolution, Uprising of the
Silesian weavers, Workers' movement in
various countries
Workers' movement in Belgium—538,
559-66, 569
Workers' movement in England—30, 207,
208, 307-11, 377, 440
See also Chartism
Workers' movement in France—29, 30, 76,
82, 345, 380-81
Workers' movement in Germany—30, 84,
331-33
Workers' combinations — 207-12, 415-19,
434-36, 441, 492, 496
Workhouses— 309, 434, 453
Working class—231, 341, 346, 490-95,
502
— as the only consistently revolutionary
class —231, 494
— world-historic role of—94, 178,
280, 345, 388, 436, 490, 494, 496,
508
— origin and formation of — 84, 175,
185, 186, 211, 296, 341-45, 346,
349, 353, 368, 389-90, 460,492-94,
528
— augmentation of, at the expense of
all other classes and sections of the
population —349, 350, 429, 491,
493, 509, 524, 528
— numerical growth of—176, 433,
492
— essence of, in the capitalist society
— 341, 343, 344, 352, 440, 482,
485, 490-91, 494, 495, 502
— condition of, under capitalism —
30, 94, 440, 461
— concentration of, in industrial
centres —345, 346, 429, 491-93
— industrial (factory)—175, 295,
349, 353, 389
— formation of, as a revolutionary
class —84, 95, 178, 211, 212,
332-33, 356, 372, 389-90, 491-95,
497, 505, 515, 516, 539
— class interests of — 58-59, 82, 95,
299, 389
— conditions for liberation of — 212,
344, 355, 389-90, 502, 505, 515,
528-29
— and revolutionary theory — 372
— theoretical and literary representatives
of—178
— community of condition and interests
of, in all countries — 6, 211,
389-90, 492, 497
— as leading class in the revolutionary
process —294-95, 350, 436, 468,
494
— and peasantry —294-95, 350, 494,
524-25
— and petty bourgeoisie — 82, 350,
380, 509, 512
— and struggle of bourgeoisie with
feudal reaction —71, 94, 332, 356,
372, 492, 504-05, 519, 528, 529
— role of, in bourgeois revolution—
29, 71, 95, 222-25, 233, 294-95,
319, 332, 350-51, 372, 492, 515,
519, 544, 557
— significance of a centralised state
for activity of—351, 372, 528
— and national liberation movement
— 3, 6, 388-90,449-50
See also Internationalism, proletarian,
Political domination of the proletariat,
Worker, Workhouses, Working class in
Austria, Working class in England,
Working class in France, Working class in
Germany, Working class in Prussia,
Working class in Switzerland, Working
class in the USA
Working class in Austria—533
Working class in England—58-59, 208,
222, 310, 322, 350, 389-90, 449, 451,
467, 528
Working class in France—29, 30, 75, 76,
83, 222, 227, 287, 345, 350, 377-78,
380-81, 390, 467, 468
Working class in Germany—30, 77, 80,
84-87, 93-95, 222, 228, 233, 332, 350,
390
Working class in Prussia—32, 69, 227,
229, 230
Working class in Switzerland—368, 528
Working class in the USA — 295, 329
Württemberg— 78
Y
Young America—41-42
Young England—77
Young Europe—11,13
Young Germany—243, 248
Young Hegelianism—T*>, 292, 293, 335,
336
Youth—236, 271
See also Students, Universities






MECW 7







A
Absolutism—see Monarchy, absolute
Academic Legion—503
Agitation— 239, 298, 423
Agricultural chemistry— 470
Agriculture— 3, 342, 363, 468-71
See also Agricultural chemistry
Alsace— 423
Analogy, historical—51, 351
Anti-Corn Law League—238, 299
Aristocracy, landed—55, 118, 119, 298,
299, 351, 354, 363, 373, 433, 520
Arming, arms—S, 73, 96, 180, 260, 437
Army
— its organisation after victorious
democratic revolution — 3
— as component part of state apparatus—
77, 437
— mercenaries — 25, 26, 165
— Austrian—11, 109, 257, 387, 395,
396
— Danish —42, 436
— Prussian—34, 43, 69, 85, 107-09,
227-28, 257, 258, 262-63, 264-65,
283, 355, 383, 400, 431, 433, 438
— of German states—42, 165
— of the Two Sicilies—25, 388
See also Arming, arms; Artillery;
Military, the; Military art
Articles of consumption—4
Artillery—161
Associations of workers— 297
Athens— 512
Austria— 92-93, 109
— political system — 350
— history —396
— national question — 11
— and Germany—11, 396, 400
— and Hungary—165
— and Italy—11, 92, 165, 167, 386,
387, 396, 397, 400, 403, 421, 487
— and Portugal—165
— and Russia — 350
— and Polish lands—11, 92, 350-51,
373
— and Slavs —91-93
See also Austro-Italian War of 1848-49;
Bourgeoisie, Austrian; Hungary, Revolution
of 1848-49 in Austrian Empire;
Working class of Austria
Austro-Italian war of 1848-49—109-10,
212, 305-06, 376, 385-89, 395-97, 400,
402, 421, 473
Autocracy—116, 363
B
Baden republican uprising (April
1848) — 68, 239, 245, 368
Banks— 4, 118, 470, 484, 485
Barbarism— 116, 351, 423
See also Feudalism
Belgium—165, 333-36, 404, 405, 423,
483-85
— social and political system — 333,
484-85
— economic conditions — 333-35.
483-84
— foreign trade —334
— pauperism — 333-35
— revolution of 1830-31—405
— before European revolution of
1848 — 333-35
— in 1848 — 404-06, 460-62, 484-85
— the press—187-88, 406, 461
— democratic movement, democrats,
radicals — 404-05
— home policy and situation—-283-
84
— political parties of ruling
classes — 485
See also Bourgeoisie, Belgian; Working
class of Belgium
Berlin—399-401
Bills of exchange—55, 470
Bohemia, Bohemians (Czechs) — 92, 93,
339, 457, 498, 504
See also Prague uprising in July 1848;
Slav Congress in Prague; Slovanskâ Lipa;
Svornost
Bonapartism—520, 522
Borders— 341, 348-49, 350-53
Bourgeoisie—4, 55, 465, 497
— general characteristics — 497
— struggle against feudal nobility—
262
— economic domination—299
— big bourgeoisie — 73, 166, 234,
279, 445
— industrial bourgeoisie — 299, 300
— political rule —262, 299, 300, 352-
53, 378, 444, 445, 495, 505
— republican bourgeoisie— 147
— democratic bourgeoisie — 74
— and absolute monarchy —495
— deals with reactionaries — 74, 402,
414-15, 458, 497, 500, 503-06
— and peasantry — 295, 519-22
— its theoreticians and ideologists—
378-79
— and national question—166, 349,
377
— "middle class" — 497
— "medieval"—245, 338, 344, 350,
372, 519
Bourgeoisie, Austrian—504, 505
Bourgeoisie, Belgian—334, 405, 484
Bourgeoisie, English— 150, 296-300, 377,
379, 381, 482, 497
Bourgeoisie, French— 133, 138, 139, 140,
147, 295,298, 300,378,379,380,401,
403, 481, 493, 494, 496, 504, 513, 519,
520
— establishment of military dictatorship
and massacres of the proletariat
in June 1848—125-26,
133, 135-44, 148-49, 161-62, 170,
378, 458
Bourgeoisie, German—53, 295, 300,
379, 380, 381, 425, 427, 431, 496, 500,
503-06
See also Burghers
Bourgeoisie, Italian—300, 380
Bourgeoisie, Polish—339, 350
Bourgeoisie, Prussian—245, 260, 295,
350
Bourgeoisie, Spanish— 380
Burdens imposed upon peasants—3, 117,
118, 291, 309, 328-29, 351, 363
See also Corvée; Dues
Bureaucracy—4, 74, 77, 104, 194, 202-
05, 209, 210, 236, 251, 259, 261.
274-76, 283, 342-43, 355, 366, 381,
383, 431, 445
Burghers— 79, 81, 150, 189, 235, 245,
338, 340, 349, 351, 352, 372, 381, 405,
423, 520
C
Capital— 573
Capitalists—521
Carbonari— 26, 386, 389
Castilia— 372
Censorship— 258
Centralisation of the state—51, 237, 273,
274, 339-40, 400-01, 440
Chartism—68, 113, 114, 129, 153, 297,
473, 478, 572
Cherusci— 290
Church—4, 85
See also Clergy
Civilisation—116, 212, 379, 423, 528,
573
See also Society, bourgeois
Classes— 556
— class contradictions—-299, 494-95
— in antiquity—153
— in feudal society—153, 351, 519
— class rule —73-74, 147-48, 293,
378, 414, 444, 482, 495, 497. 556
— exploiting classes—147, 300
— exploited, oppressed industrious
classes — 3 , 147, 171, 330, 520-22
—- middle classes, strata and estates—
166, 497
— conservative — 55
— reactionary, counter-revolutionary—
55, 108, 504-05
— revolutionary — 520-21
— progressive — 373
— class hatred — 298
— abolition of classes in future communist
society — 495
See also Bourgeoisie; Interests; Nobility;
Peasantry; Working class
Class struggle—152, 495
— in antiquity—130, 153
— in feudal society—477, 494, 520
— between proletariat and bourgeoisie—
147, 153, 265, 296-300,
324, 489, 495, 496, 522, 570
— and revolution—147, 152, 297
— as political struggle — 489
— abolition of classes as condition for
its cessation — 495
See also Chartism; June uprising of
Paris proletariat in 1848; Revolution;
Working-class movement (in Austria,
etc.)
Clergy— 4, 77, 348, 380, 519
Cologne Democratic Society—87, 562-65,
582-87
Cologne Workers'Association—4, 18, 178-
79, 384, 393, 394, 464, 465, 558,
579-80, 586-88, 595^97
Colonisation of Slav lands by Germans—
65, 338-41, 343-44, 347, 350
Commerce, trade— 65, 334, 338, 340, 341,
342, 344, 372, 379, 468, 469, 513
Committee of Public Safety in Cologne—
450, 582-88
Communist League—3-4, 11-12, 15, 271,
272, 533-34, 535, 542, 552, 558,
582-89
— tactical principles in 1848-49 revolution—
3-4
— critique of Stephan Born's tactics—
271-72
— critique of Gottschalk's sectarian
position — 542
— and petty-bourgeois democrats—
27-29, 48-52, 74-78, 82,
490-92
— associations in Belgium—406
— associations in Germany—535, 542
Competition— 573
Constitution
— constitutional issue in Prussia — 73,
74, 103, 431
— and division of powers — 204-05,
430-32
— constitutionalism of Prussian liberal
bourgeoisie — 87, 116
— constitutionalism of German
bourgeoisie — 289, 445
— constitutionalism of French
bourgeoisie—445
Contradictions, social—148-49
Convention of Jaroslawiec—346
Co-operation, co-operative movement—3
Corn Laws— 238, 281, 299
Corvée— 3, 245, 293, 308, 309,
328-29
Counter-revolution—108, 373, 377
Courts and legal procedure— 265, 325, 437
Cracow, Cracow Republic (1846)—166,
310, 339, 351, 374
Credit— 4, 224-25, 322-23
Crime— 334, 335
Crime, political— 96-97
Customs Union—236
D
Danish-Prussian war of 1848-50—34, 42,
43, 69, 107, 267-69, 389, 400, 421, 424
— and stand taken by Frankfurt
National Assembly —34, 72, 389,
414, 425, 439, 440, 577-78
— and policy of Prussian Government—
43, 44, 191, 265, 267, 411,
425, 442
— and European powers — 43, 69,
253, 268, 310-77, 378, 425
See also Malm'6, negotiations and armistice;
Schleswig-Holstein question
Danube principalities—311, 474
Democracy— 55, 73, 76, 87-88, 108, 116,
129, 149, 167, 288, 324, 352, 354, 355,
373, 375, 400, 421, 440, 473, 562-65
— East-European—351, 363, 373,
375
— bourgeois —27-30, 74, 75, 262,
365, 378, 403, 406
— petty-bourgeois —27-29, 403, 430
— revolutionary—119, 149, 403,
437, 453, 558, 564-65, 586-90, 592
—- as form of social order and political
system—167, 373, 400
— noblemen's — 363
— peasant—351, 363, 364, 375
Democratic congresses in Germany
— in Frankfurt am Main —288-89
— in Berlin —490-92
Democratic liberties—11, 73, 248-49
Democratic Society in Cologne—87-88,
384, 463, 556-57, 562-65, 582-88, 597
Denmark— 34, 42, 43, 422, 423, 424,
435, 446-47
See also Army (Danish); Danish-Prussian
war of 1848-50
Despotism—11, 71, 209, 251, 321, 358,
372, 400, 494
Dialect— 372, 524
Dictatorship
— in accordance with a system devised
by a single brain — 556
— military—125-26, 133, 135-44,
148-49, 161-62, 170, 234, 376,429,
459, 482, 497, 513
— counter-revolutionary—168
— revolutionary-democratic—4, 50,
205, 237, 431-33
Diplomacy— 165, 307, 308, 310, 481
Division of labour— 573
Doctrinairism, doctrinaires—39, 147
Dues—3, 117
E
Economic relations—51, 488, 494, 495
Economics and politics—329, 505
Education— 4
Emigration— 53-54, 65, 369-75, 408-09
England— 511
— English nation, national character—
300, 378, 405
— as leading capitalist power — 298,
379-80
— historical development, its
peculiarities —298, 299, 300, 477
— in 1848 — 68, 108, 113-14, 296,
297, 377, 424-25, 481
— industry — 469
— agriculture — 469, 470
— landed aristocracy—298-99
— finances, budget, taxes — 224,
468-70
— Parliament—61, 216, 227, 381
— the press—114, 129
— class contradictions — 488
— law on associations of workers
(1825)—297
— pauperism — 296
— workhouses (Poor Law Bastilles) —
296, 573
— foreign policy—108, 377
— and France —25, 372, 481
— and Germany—165, 377, 425
— and Russia —308, 379
— and Schleswig-Holstein question —
424-25
— and preconditions and prospects
for social revolution — 572
See also Anti-Corn Law League;
Bourgeoisie, English; Chartism; Corn
laws; English revolution of 1640-60;
Free Trade; London; Scotland; Trade
unions in England; Working class of
England; Working-class movement in
England
English revolution of 1640-60—49, 206,
237, 437, 439
Epoch, bourgeois—262, 304
Equality— 334, 556
Estates, social— 39, 111, 166, 203, 260,
274, 566
Europe— 51, 52, 165, 237
Exchange— 339, 496
Exploitation—147, 148
F
Family— 4, 324, 519
Fatherland— 130
Federal Diet— 18, 49, 72, 109, 232-34
Federalism— 51
Feudalism— 3, 89, 245, 260, 268, 373,
444, 504
— feudal law —292
— and monarchy — 494
— towns, townspeople — 520
— classes, class contradictions — 519
— feudal barons — 260
— bourgeoisified feudalism — 51
— its downfall—117-18, 290, 291,
292-95, 329-30, 350-53, 468
See also Aristocracy, landed; Burghers,
Estates, social; Guilds, guild system; Jurisdiction,
patrimonial; Knights; Landed
property; Liege money; Monarchy, absolute;
Nobility; Peasantry; Serfdom; State,
the
Flanders, the Flemish—406, 423
Foreign policy— 166, 167, 377, 481
France— 206, 236, 298
— territory, borders — 511-19, 524,
529
— natural conditions—511-18, 525-
29
— population —516, 524, 525, 528,
529
— formation of French nation — 372-
74
— national character — 92, 405, 519
— economy —330, 468, 469, 512,
513, 515, 519, 520, 521
— agriculture — 468, 469
— vine-growing—511-13
— legislation—68, 124, 148,251,252,
308, 314
— usury —330
— finances — 224
— taxes — 469
— social and political system — 216,
227
— classes and class struggle — 493-95
— in the Middle Ages —326, 347,
372, 520
— under absolutism in 17th and 18th
centuries—347, 520
— during Thermidorian reaction and
Directory—161, 520
— during Consulate and First Empire
— 209, 237, 250, 290, 308,
309, 396, 520, 521
— during Restoration — 96, 165, 178,
188, 262, 378-80, 493, 521
— foreign policy and diplomacy — 26,
110, 116, 165, 290, 308, 311, 377-
80, 396, 480-81, 524
See also Bourgeoisie, French; French
Revolution of 1789-94; French revolution
of 1830 (July); July monarchy in France
(1830); Napoleonic wars; Peasants,
French; Revolution in France. Second
Republic (1848-51); Working class of
France; Working-class movement in
France; Wars against Albigenses (1209-
29); Wars of First French Republic
Frankfurt am Main—49-50, 443
Frankfurt National Assembly—16-19, 48-
51, 72, 76, 92, 108, 109-10, 116, 232,
236-37, 239-41, 248, 249, 253, 288,
313, 383, 397, 472-73, 504-05, 565,
577-78
— and Imperial Regent —232, 253,
411, 413, 472-73, 504-06
— and democratic party — 27-29, 49-
51, 87, 288-89, 364-65, 421, 490-
92, 558, 582-85
— and petty-bourgeois democrats'
policy—27-29, 50-52, 74, 79, 82,
99, 179, 235-36, 288-89, 358-61,
371-81, 430, 439-40, 488, 490-92
— and democratic illusions — 248,
401, 488
— attitude to Mainz incident— 17, 50
— and stand on Polish question—
310, 337-81
— and armistice at Malmö— 413-15,
439-40, 421-25
— and Frankfurt uprising — 442-47
— and Vienna uprising — 457, 504
Freedom— 15, 20, 73, 92, 165-67, 209,
212, 248, 251, 260, 338, 375, 397, 496,
513, 564
— and the state—289
— political —73, 239, 366, 377
— of speech —436, 438
— of assembly —437, 443
— of association —73, 239, 288
— of the press —77, 239
— of property — 293
— personal —264, 293
— constitutional — 264
— social — 366
— and working class—74
See also Liberty, civil
Free Trade— 272, 298, 300, 334, 377,
378
See^also Anti-Corn Law League; Protectionism
French Revolution of 1789-94—26, 75,
147, 235, 376, 405-06, 495
— its character—130, 147, 205, 237,
327
— abolition of feudal landownership—
89, 118, 294, 520
— political groupings—161, 425
— role of masses — 49, 437
— and peasantry — 295, 519-20
— revolutionary wars, army, strategy
and tactics — 396
— national (constituent, legislative)
assemblies and their policy — 39,
49, 373, 438
— Convention —373, 432, 520
— and royal power—425
— and Germany—165, 309, 396
— and Switzerland — 26
See also Jacobin dictatorship, Jacobins
French revolution of 1830 (July)—26,
39-40, 128, 143, 147, 262, 311, 380,
430, 493
See also July monarchy in France (1830)
G
Galicia— 396, 500
German Confederation (1815-66) — 20,42,
64, 77, 109, 266-68, 349, 353, 367
— and Federal Diet—18, 49, 68, 72,
109, 232-34, 236, 249, 308, 312,
337, 408, 409, 413, 565
German Democratic Society (Paris) — 8
German philosophy— 29, 373, 375, 380
See also Hegelianism; Kantianism
Germans— 28, 64-65, 92, 110, 166, 212,
339-40, 344-45, 349, 362, 378, 422
German Workers' Association in Brussels
(1847) — 406, 572
German Workers' Association in
Paris— 572
German Workers' Club in Paris—9
Germany
— geographical situation and natural
conditions — 513
— peculiarities of social develop
ment —339, 340, 352, 556
— political development — 49, 51
— peculiarities of intellectual development
— 373
— German national character—166
— survivals of feudalism — 3, 51, 290-
95, 309, 331-32, 352
— serfdom—118, 245
— history —51, 99, 245, 290-91, 339
— and American War of Independence—
165
— French revolution of 1789-94 and
Napoleonic wars—165, 290, 308-
09, 396, 425
— between 1815 and early 1848 — 20,
235-36, 237, 308-09
— and July revolution of 1830 in
France — 311
— handicrafts — 339
— agriculture — 51, 274
— protective tariffs — 377, 378
— inland trade—338
— foreign trade — 51, 339
— German philistines — 79, 81, 150,
189, 235, 339, 340, 352, 381, 423
— political system — 351
— suffrage — 3
— and unification problem — 3, 49,
51, 73, 77, 116, 235, 237-38, 269,
308, 312, 352, 377, 400-01, 414,
425, 440
— and Prussia—286, 383, 392,
576-78
— political parties — 365
— bourgeois liberalism — 378
— democrats, democratic movements—
249, 365, 378, 462-65,
490-92, 558, 562-65, 570
— the press —270, 478, 575
— foreign policy—165-67, 237, 287,
308, 345
— national policy—92, 165-67
— and Denmark —422, 446, 577-78
— and England —165, 166, 377, 379,
424, 446
— and France—116, 237, 341, 377,
378
— and Greece—165
— and Holland—165
— and Italy—92, 166, 377, 396-98,
577
— and Poland —64-65, 92, 166-67,
338-59, 367, 577
— and Russia—51-54, 93, 116, 167,
212, 237, 307-13, 345, 350-53, 424,
446
— and Slavs —91-93, 338, 400, 577
— and Spain—165
— and Switzerland —165
See also Berlin; Bourgeoisie, German;
Frankfurt am Main; Frankfurt National
Assembly; German Confederation (1815-
66); Germans; Holy Roman Empire of
the German nation (962-1806); Literature;
Nobility (German); Peasants,
German; Petty bourgeoisie. German:
Prussia; Revolution of 1848-49 in Germany,
Schleswig-Holstein question;
Working class of Germany
Government securities—224-25, 580-82
Greece— 165, 307
Greece, ancient—512
Guilds, guild system—235, 331, 339
H
Handicrafts, handicraftsmen—235, 339,
349, 580
Hegelianism—156, 362-64, 487
History— 79, 372, 378
See also Analogy, historical
Holland— 165
Holy Alliance— 165, 308, 309, 350
Holy Roman Empire of the German nation
(962-1806)—50, 253
Home policy—166, 167
Humanism, abstract—493
Hungary— 54, 165, 457, 458
See also Pest; Revolution of 1848-49 in
Hungary
Huns— 387
I
Icarian communism (Cabet) — 8, 298
Icelanders—422
Ideas— 487, 494-95
Ideology, ideologists— 112, 375, 378, 496
Immigration— 339
Income— 282, 328-29
Industry— 296, 300, 334-35, 340, 342,
372, 379, 469, 482, 513
Insurrection of weavers at Lyons in
1834—130
Interests—3, 147, 345
— class —40, 55, 378, 494
— material— 166, 376, 377, 484, 522,
535
Internationalism—11, 12, 166-67
— proletarian—129, 444, 478, 572
Ireland— 68, 572
Italy— 388-89, 527
— economy—372, 400, 511
— industry — 372
— commerce — 372, 511
— lumpenproletariat — 25, 142
— struggle for independence and unification
— 41, 306, 385, 387, 388,
396
— revolutions of 1820-21 and
1831 — 165, 389
— the press—11-12
— the duchies of Tuscany, Parma and
Modena —387
— and Austria — 41, 165
— and France — 110
— and Germany—166, 167, 395-98
— and Switzerland — 305
See also Austro-Italian war of 1848-49,
Carbonari; Lazzaroni; Lombardy and
Venice; Revolutions of 1848-49 in
Italian states; Sardinia (Piedmont);
Sicilies, the Two (Naples)
J
facobin dictatorship, Jacobins—46, 130,
221, 376, 405-06, 495, 520
Jews, Jewish question—65, 197, 203, 338,
341-42, 347, 354, 371
July monarchy in France (1830) — 39-40
— its bourgeois character— 147, 262,
297, 513, 520-22
— industry — 513
— agriculture and agrarian relations—
469, 520-22
— finance —323
— commerce — 513
— home policy, internal situation—
38, 68, 111-12, 188
— Paris municipal guard—138
— corruption of ruling classes — 323
— Parliament, Chamber of Deputies—-
38, 111-12, 297
— the press—187-88, 216
— September Laws on the press
(1835)—15, 171, 250
— republican movement—133, 158
— bourgeois republicans (National
party)—144, 481
— Réforme party— 144
— dynastic opposition—147, 168
— party of Thiers— 168
See also Insurrection of weavers at Lyons
in 1834; Society of the Rights of Man
and the Citizen
June uprising of Paris proletariat in
1848—124, 125, 127-28, 130-31, 132-
33, 143-48, 149, 151-54, 157, 163, 164,
170, 297, 427, 458, 522, 572
— as first decisive battle of working
class against bourgeoisie—143
— causes of uprising—124, 148
— heroism of working class— 140-43,
163-64
— course of uprising—121, 124-27,
130-43, 157-64
— and petty-bourgeois democrats—
144, 478, 493-95
— and peasantry — 524-25
— and German bourgeoisie—151-54,
156, 297-98
— massacre of insurgents by bourgeoisie—
125-26, 132-33, 135-
44, 147-49, 161-62, 170, 235, 376,
458, 481, 496, 514
— role of national and mobile guards
in suppression of uprising—125-
26, 136-38, 140, 142, 143, 154, 505
— and the press—155-56, 478-79
— and the proletarian press — 479
— influence on revolutions in France
and Europe—234, 440, 444, 445,
458, 504-05
— significance of its experience for
development of art of warfare
— 164
— its evaluation in the democratic
press—149, 480
Jurisdiction, patrimonial—118
Jurists— 94, 103, 196, 210, 301, 339
K
Kantianism—487
King, royal power— 380, 429, 474, 477,
494
Knights— 370-73
L
Landed property—A, 274, 322, 347-48,
467-70, 518-23
See also Mortgage
Landowner—3, 4, 329
Landownership— 3
— petty peasant—295, 470, 520, 521
— big —55
Language— 65, 341, 372
Law, laws— 68, 94, 97, 118, 171, 177,
196, 203, 209, 239, 240, 248, 249-51,
257-58, 293, 331, 427, 429, 431, 437
— feudal—118, 292, 293, 295
— bourgeois —293, 330
— constitutional — 204, 428
— private—103, 104, 318, 520-21
— civil—103, 104, 292
— criminal—102-03, 178, 187,
208-11
— Prussian—183, 226, 250-52, 290,
318, 331, 342, 431
— public—103, 104
See also Right, rights
Lazzaroni— 325, 142, 259
Legislation—171, 299
Legitimism—147, 380
See also Monarchy
Liberalism— 28, 87, 289, 329, 378, 445,
483-84
Liberty, civil— 258, 264, 437, 503-04
Liege money—117, 293
Literature— 153, 372, 422
Loans— 280, 319, 320, 483-84
Logic— 59, 60, 113, 114, 243, 298, 302
Lombardy and Venice—377
London— 49
London Communist Educational Society of
German Workers (1840-1918) — 572
Lorraine—423
Luddites— 297
Lumpenproletariat—25, 142, 505
M
Machinery— 573
Malmö, negotiations and armistice—253-
55, 266-70, 287, 382, 411-14, 424, 425,
434-35, 439, 440, 442, 446-47, 577-78
Malthusianism—282, 573
Materialism, English—405
Material relations
— as economic relations — 51
— as basis of political system — 335
— material conditions of life — 495
Mercantile system—470
Military, the— 77, 197, 203, 261, 353,
376, 387, 430, 438, 445
Military art—161, 164
Mines, demand for their nationalisation— 3
Mode of production—495
Moldavia ( Moldova) — 311
Monarchy—116, 468
— bourgeois — 494
— bureaucratic — 36, 47, 205
See also Monarchy, absolute; Monarchy,
constitutional
Monarchy, absolute— 26, 39, 63, 165, 202,
205, 257, 262, 308, 353, 378, 386,
494
— in Prussia and Germany—32, 55,
74, 80, 115, 202, 205, 234, 257,
262, 345-46, 350-51, 401, 503-04
See also Despotism
Monarchy, constitutional—116, 204, 445,
476-77, 481, 484, 494
— in France — 481, 494
— in Prussia —37, 70, 74, 77, 116,
258. 401, 430, 476-77
Money, money circulation—4, 223, 225,
279, 322, 469-71
Monopoly
— political —298, 299, 473
— of capital —299
Morality, morals— 75, 81, 318, 324, 495
Moravia— 339
Mortgage— 467-71, 521, 523
N
Napoleonic wars— 42, 98, 131, 135, 308,
342-43, 380-81, 396, 425, 520
— and England —308
— and Germany—98, 290, 308-09,
425
— and Russia — 308
See also Vienna Congress of 1814-15
Nation, nationality
— distinct language —339, 372, 375
— national character — 344-45, 423
— revolutionary — 92
— absorption of weaker by stronger
nationalities — 372-73
— national feelings — 495
National debt— 54, 224, 319-20
National guard in France—124-27, 130-
31, 136, 140, 142-43, 153, 154, 161,
478
— in Naples —24-25
Nationalisation in programme of democratic
revolution— 3-4
Nationalism, nationalist ideology—504
See also Scandinavia, Scandinavianism
National liberation war of 1848-49 in
Hungary—503
National question—92, 166, 351
— national oppression, its social roots
and consequences — 92, 165-66,
196-98, 212-13, 350, 351, 353, 369
— fomenting of national hatred by
ruling classes — 65, 104-05, 165-
66, 212, 342, 400
— liberation of oppressed nations as
component part of struggle for
démocratisation—11, 92, 166-67,
212-13, 350-52, 363, 375, 387, 403,
424, 564
— independence and equality of
nations as condition for working
class' liberation— 166-67
— and bourgeoisie—166, 349, 402-
03
— and working class —166-67, 403,
565
— and proletarian party—11, 212
National workshops—4, 68, 148, 580
Natural science—488
Nineteenth century—299
Nobility— 153, 275, 343, 351, 353, 363,
369, 371, 373, 380
— its world outlook — 372
— in bourgeois society — 56, 380
— German —55, 56, 77, 118, 234,
262, 291-95, 425, 431, 445
— Prussian junkers — 74, 117, 327,
343-44, 351, 354, 368-70, 400, 412,
427, 448
— and Polish question — 343-45, 354
Normans— 372, 422
Norwegians— 422-24
P
Palatinate, the—330
Pandours— 109
Panellation— 343, 344, 468,521
See also Mortgage
Paris— 49, 142, 153, 465-67, 512-14
Parliament—?,, 49-50, 174, 187, 193,
204, 227, 322, 324, 381, 437-38
Parliament, British— 61, 193, 216, 227,
381
Party, political —27, 75, 81, 400
Party, proletarian—297, 575
Patriotism—116, 166, 167, 236, 242,
279-80, 286, 494-95
Pauperism— 116, 259, 296, 321, 333-35,
482, 483
Peasantry— 354, 396
— serfs —260, 328
— in feudal society — 3-4, 353
— in bourgeois revolution—119,
291-95, 444, 519-23
— under capitalism — 469
— peasant democracy — 363-65
— their conservatism — 519-23
— small peasants — 4, 330
— and bourgeoisie — 519-22
— and Bonapartist demagogy — 520,
522
See also Burdens imposed upon peasants;
Peasants, French; Peasants, German
Peasants, French— 294, 330, 351, 519-21,
522, 525
Peasants, German—3, 4, 51, 117-18, 275,
328-32, 342, 343, 344
Peasants' anti-feudal movements during
1848 revolution— 117, 118, 444
People, popular masses—79, 119, 375,
387, 564
— as decisive force in revolution—
16, 73-74, 77, 79, 89, 96,
97-100, 118, 128, 136, 144-45, 149,
166, 169, 180, 212, 238, 262, 294,
430, 437, 438, 444, 488, 496-97,
504, 570
— popular sovereignty, rule of the
people—11, 16, 62, 73, 103, 245,
312, 376, 428
Pest— 339
Petty bourgeoisie— 300, 339, 423, 432,
445, 518-19
— German —4, 73-74, 274, 339-40,
344, 443
— French — 513
Piedmont—see Sardinia (Piedmont)
Pits, demand for their nationalisation—3
Poland— 350, 351, 373, 375
— population —65, 339, 340
— Polish nation —350-51, 366, 372-
73, 499
— social and political system — 351,
363
— economy —339, 356, 357
— agriculture — 363
— handicrafts, manufacture — 340
— landownership—357
— serfdom — 356, 363
— aristocracy — 351, 355, 363
— nobility —342-44, 351, 353, 357,
363, 369, 373
— peasants —342, 343, 351,354, 357,
363, 364
— historical development — 339-40,
351, 373
— partitions of Poland — 64-65, 166,
196, 337-38, 340-41, 346, 348-54,
361, 363
— Constitution of 1791—351, 372
— and national question — 339-41
— classes, class struggle — 351, 375
— revolutionary, democratic movements—
312, 350, 351, 363
— participation of Poles in European
revolutionary movement — 499
— interconnection between national
and social questions — 350, 351,
352, 363, 366, 373, 375, 425
— agrarian revolution as precondition
for success of national movement—
351, 363, 364, 375
— upsurge of liberation movement as
a result of Prussia's defeat in
1806 — 342
— uprising of 1830-31 — 147, 196,
311, 351
— emigration — 375
— oppression and robbery by German
ruling classes — 92, 104-05,
166, 196, 212, 258, 337-53, 354-57,
367, 435
See also Bourgeoisie, Polish; Cracow,
Cracow Republic {1846); Polish question;
Posen
Police—111, 437
Polish question— 11, 166, 345, 350, 352,
363, 373, 379, 564
Politics— 148, 210, 363, 377, 381, 395,
444, 488
Portugal— 165, 311, 511
Posen— 47, 197, 338, 344, 356, 358, 361,
363
— Prussian colonisation — 342-43,
349, 357, 369
— Posen question in 1848-49 revolution—
64-65, 104-05, 195-98, 200,
201, 203-04, 210, 259, 311, 337-38,
339-43, 344-50, 352-76, 379-81
— uprising of 1848—65, 104-05, 107,
196, 200, 201, 215, 312, 320, 346,
351, 376
— reprisals of Prussian authorities
against Polish insurgents— 180-81,
196, 251, 312, 345
— reorganisation of Posen — 64-65,
104-05, 345, 348, 349, 354
— proletarian party's stand on Posen
question —212, 350, 352, 366
See also Convention of Jaroslawiec
Practice— 345
Prague uprising in July 1848—91-93,
107, 119-20, 212, 271, 313, 376, 421,
444
Preparliament—18, 68, 234, 239, 310,
408, 564
Press, the
— its essence and social role—187,
252
— freedom of—15, 20, 27, 73, 77,
248, 250, 251, 397, 437, 443,
486-88
— democratic—129, 147, 167, 314
— of proletarian party—575
— Neue Rheinische Zeitung, organ of
democracy—11-12, 129, 143-49,
163-64, 167, 271, 337, 364, 365,
496, 592
— police persecutions—186, 188,
208-11, 383-84, 390-94, 455, 456,
485-89, 554, 555, 560, 566, 576,
590, 592
Principles and practice—28
Privileges— 245, 260, 274, 275, 291, 293,
309, 321, 331, 477
Production—3
Production costs—477, 573
Progress— 293, 350, 423
Property—292-95, 297, 322-24, 329,
468-69
See also Landed property
Proprietors (small) in countryside—274
Protectionism—297, 299
Proudhonism, Proudhonists— 321 -24
Provence— 372-73
Prussia— 336, 424
— Prussianism —20, 70, 74, 78-79,
241, 258-59, 274, 275, 337-59, 361,
363, 367, 431, 435, 567
— history — 94
— during the French revolution of
1789-94 and Napoleonic wars —
94, 290, 342
— reforms of 1807-11 — 118, 328
— between 1815 and 1847—311,339
— survivals of feudalism—117-18,
262, 290-95, 327-32, 408, 409
— political system and constitution—
89, 170, 202, 203, 204-05,
235, 248, 261, 332, 350, 400, 409,
435
— rule of the military, militarism—
85-86, 258, 260, 262, 264,
284, 355
— legislation —73. 94, 97, 118, 171,
258-59, 274, 275, 318, 328, 332,
408, 409
— bureaucracy, officialdom — 74, 77,
104, 122, 200, 202-04, 209, 210,
236, 251, 259, 261, 274-76, 283,
342, 346, 354-56, 374, 383
— corruption — 122
— police system— 171, 248, 326, 392,
409
— finance, budget, taxes — 55, 219,
224-25, 296, 320, 326, 416
— District and Provincial Estates
(diets) —274, 275
— electoral rights — 408
— question of Constitution — 73, 205,
311, 474
— the press —73, 239, 309, 314
— petty bourgeoisie — 260, 274
— peasantry—117-18, 328-32, 343-
44
— and Germany —77, 235, 242, 286,
383, 400-01, 414, 425, 439, 477
— claims to hegemony in Germany—
235
— and Poland —92, 166, 259, 320,
337-51, 354-58, 361, 363, 367, 373,
435
— and Russia—115-16, 311, 350,
356, 446
See also Berlin; Prussian National
Assembly of 1848,Rhine Province; Schleswig-
Holstein question; Seehandlung
Prussian National Assembly of 1848
— Right —53, 59-60, 68, 85-86, 99,
182, 183-85, 187-88, 190, 191, 192.
207, 230, 233, 241, 427-29, 430
— Left Centre and Right Centre —
107, 111, 174, 179, 183-85, 188,
191, 193, 417-19, 436-38, 466
— Left —75, 76, 78, 99, 188, 193,
199, 233, 240, 417-19, 436-38
— Agreement Assembly, theory of
agreement with the Crown—36-38,
45, 53-57, 59-61, 65, 66-72, 73-75,
76, 78, 83, 89, 96, 97, 117, 170,
180, 189, 194, 195, 199, 200, 216,
223, 232, 250, 273, 301, 428, 429,
431, 432, 466
Publicity— 209, 270, 325
Punishment— 318, 404-06
See also Crime
R
Railways, demand for their nationalisation—
4
Reaction— 379, 387, 480
Red flag— 131, 133, 235, 432, 444
Reform— 3-4, 39, 324
Reformation (in Germany) — 339
Religion—324
Rent of land—3, 322, 329, 469
Repealers (in Ireland) — 68
Republic
— as form of state organisation— 149
— of nobles —372
— bourgeois, democratic — 3, 51,
116, 144-47, 149, 164,. 234-35, 386,
432, 469, 481, 484, 488
— proletarian ("red")—144, 440,
505, 586
— social —403, 522, 586
Republicanism, republican movement—
144-48, 444-45, 481, 488, 493, 495
Revolution— 118, 127, 237, 480, 523, 573
See also Revolution, agrarian; Revolution,
bourgeois; Revolution, permanent;
Revolution, proletarian; Revolution,
social
Revolution, agrarian—351, 363, 373
Revolution, bourgeois—16, 39, 90, 98,
233, 431, 444, 496-97
— significance — 494
— motive forces —73, 262, 494
— and working class — 3-4, 147, 403,
494, 522, 595
— task of proletarian party — 3-4,
535, 594, 597
— and the state—167
— and survivals of feudalism in countryside—
89, 117-18, 290-95, 327-
32
— need for uniting democrats — 556-
57, 592
— as preparation of conditions for
proletarian revolution — 4, 494
— and peasantry—117-18, 291, 295,
351, 519, 520, 522
See also Bourgeoisie; Class Struggle;
Revolution, social
Revolution, permanent—3-4, 73-75, 444
Revolution, proletarian—128, 147, 444
— its historical necessity—148-49
— proletarian uprising as highest
form of class struggle—152-53,
297
— its radical difference from
bourgeois revolution — 130-31,
147-48, 444
— as culmination of permanent revolution—
4, 444
— and need for revolutionary violence—
505
— its humane character—139
See also Class struggle; June uprising of
Paris proletariat in 1848; Revolution,
social
Revolution, social—152, 573
Revolutionary adventurism—8, 10, 404,
405, 487-89
Revolution in France. Second Republic
(1848-57) — 128, 147, 488
— February revolution of 1848—68,
117, 128, 131, 137-38, 143, 144,
148, 429, 493, 513, 521
— Provisional Government—124,
148, 202, 377-81, 473, 556
— Luxembourg Commission—124
— Executive Committee—144
— national guard — 121
— national workshops—124, 148,
517
— popular uprising on May 15,
1848 — 513
— mobile guard—125
— municipal guard of republic— 126
— dictatorship of Cavaignac (moderate
republicans) — 402, 440-41,
444-45, 458, 473, 513-14
— National Assembly —68, 69, 138,
148, 149, 440
— Odilon Barrot Ministry — 480
— National party (moderate republicans)—
168, 481
— Réforme party (Mountain of
1848) —375, 478, 493-95, 522
— petty-bourgeois Utopian socialist
trends —321-24
— bourgeoisie —68-69, 128, 378,
379, 479-81, 503-04
— and working class, its role in revolution—
403, 570
' — and peasantry —519-20, 520-23
— lumpenproletariat—142, 505
— foreign policy of Second Republic—
110, 402, 480-81
— influence on European countries—
403, 441, 443, 445
— and prospects for revolution's development—
440-41, 499, 505
See also June uprising of Paris proletariat
in 1848; Proudhonism, Proudhonists
Revolution of 1848-49 in Austrian Empire
— uprising in Vienna on March 13,
1848—13, 440, 491
— revolutionary action of Viennese
on May 15 and 26, 1848 — 79, 119,
120, 457
— revolutionary action of Viennese
on August 23, 1848 — 402, 477,
571
— camarilla —498-99, 504
— development of class contradictions
— 444
— bourgeoisie —442, 457, 496-97,
503-04, 570, 598
— peasantry — 505
— working class — 570, 572
— students — 503
_ army —91-93, 119-20, 376, 387,
396
— national guard — 503
— liberal Government — 92-93
— Imperial Diet—79, 503, 570
— national question —92-93, 119-20,
396, 503-06
— and Italy—41, 92, 136, 376, 385-
87, 395-97, 402-03, 427, 457, 487,
496
— and Hungary —457-58, 496, 498-
99, 503
— and Slavs —474, 498-99, 504. 505
— and Poles — 501
— and Czechs —91-93, 107, 119-20,
212, 271, 313, 376, 421, 444, 457,
498, 504
— and Russian Tsarism — 313, 505
See also Austro-Italian war of 1848-49;
Vienna Uprising in October 1848
Revolution of 1848-49 in Europe—441,
445
— its preconditions and character —
445
— its beginning—26
— conditions for its victory — 403
— and working class — 443-44
— counter-revolution and reaction—
376, 403, 443-45, 472-73,
503-05
— and Russia —93, 104-05, 107, 112,
115-16, 212, 307-13, 351-58
— and England—108, 377
— and world war —93, 116, 212-13,
237-38, 352-53, 421-22
— and shedding of democratic delusions—-
131
— and destinies of Utopian socialism—
147
Revolution of 1848-49 in Germany—
294
— its preconditions — 73-75
— March revolution—16, 117-18,
248, 253, 294, 377, 395, 407, 408,
409, 445, 474, 476, 489, 494, 504
— adventurist march of German legion—
8, 10, 487-89
— bourgeoisie's position — 40, 108,
262, 288-89, 293, 425, 444, 496
— big bourgeoisie's policy — 74, 77,
108
— liberals in power —28, 344-50, 414
— role of working class in its development—
47, 271, 272, 462-64, 535-
36, 572, 595, 596
— and peasantry — 294, 440, 441
— and peasant movement — 308,440,
441
— and liberals' agrarian policy — 441
-— and petty bourgeoisie—19, 273
— and national policy of German
governments —82, 166-67,212-13,
409-12
— and national unification of the
country — 3 , 51, 116, 233-38, 287,
399-400, 464
— and Poland —64-65, 92, 196, 212,
272, 339-80, 409-13, 419-23, 499,
562, 564-65
— and national movement in Schleswig-
Holstein—42, 253-55, 265-68,
419-23, 437
— influence of workers' June uprising
in Paris—152-56, 170
— influence of October uprising in
Vienna —458-59, 470-71, 473,
490-92, 496, 499, 504, 505
— and Russia —53-54, 90, 106, 110,
115-16, 212, 306-12, 350-52, 422
— and England — 422
— and Italy —92, 109-10
— and Prussia's role—115-16, 236,
266-67, 273-74, 285, 236-37, 382-
83, 398-400, 409-13, 419, 423
— counter-revolutionary offensive —
15, 16-18, 20-23, 28, 68, 240,
248-49, 287-88, 351, 353, 402,
425-26, 429, 441, 442, 443, 455,
470-71, 503
— causes for revolutionary forces' defeat—
294, 438, 441-43, 455
See also Baden republican uprising
(April 1848); Communist League; Federal
Diet; Frankfurt National Assembly;
Preparliament; Revolution of 1848-49 in
Austrian Empire; Revolution of 1848-49
in Prussia; Schleswig-Holstein question
Revolution of 1848-49 in Hungary—457-
58, 473, 496, 498-500, 503, 505
Revolution of 1848-49 in Prussia
— its preconditions — 73-75
— March revolution—16, 27, 31, 36,
39-40, 45, 71-78, 80-81, 89, 97,
179, 202, 209-12, 240, 294, 302,
307, 318, 399-404, 422, 463, 515
— Berlin uprising of March 18,
1848 — 399-401
— Mainz incident— 17-19, 20-23, 249
— storming of Berlin arsenal (June
14, 1848)—89, 96-100, 400
— bourgeoisie's position — 28, 40,
74, 80, 107, 108, 262, 294, 427,
431
— big bourgeoisie's policy—55, 73-
75, 77, 85
— liberals in power —30-33, 36-40,
42-45, 53-55, 66-67, 82, 85-86,
96-97, 107-08, 111-12, 118, 170-74,
176, 187-94, 199, 216-22, 226-31,
250-52, 256-65, 278-86, 290-94,
316-20, 329, 417-21, 427-33, 436-
38, 466
— Camphausen Ministry — 30-40,43-
45, 57, 62-63, 66-67, 73-75, 79-80,
89, 96-97, 104-08, 194, 202, 419,
. 431-32, 466
— Hansemann-Auerswald Ministry—
111, 112, 170-76, 179-85, 194-95,
199, 201-07, 216-22, 257, 259,
261, 265, 275-76, 277, 279-81,
284-86, 291-92, 317-18, 320, 382,
416, 417-19
— Pfuel Ministry —448, 466, 473,
476-77
— role of working class in its development—
46, 271, 272, 462-64, 535-
36, 572-95, 596
— and peasantry — 295, 320
— and peasant movement—118,291,
292, 293, 309, 432
— liberals' agrarian policy — 89, 117-
18, 290-95, 327-32
— nobility, junkerdom — 97-100,
107, 108, 262, 289, 425, 427, 431,
458
— and Rhine Province — 399-401,
567
— and Poland —47, 57-58, 92, 104-
05, 107, 195, 196, 197, 198, 200-03,
210, 212, 259, 311, 319-20, 341-81,
435
— and national movement in Schleswig-
Holstein—42-44, 266-69, 411-
15, 421-25, 435, 439
— influence of Vienna uprising —
390-91, 475, 477, 499, 500
— counter-revolutionary offensive —
15, 17-18, 20-23, 28, 45, 46-47,
68-71, 74, 94-95, 107-08, 112,
177-79, 186-88, 194, 208-11, 250-
52, 274, 275, 355, 383-84, 393-94,
420, 426-28, 430-33, 458, 473, 474,
499, 504, 505
— events in Cologne in September
1848 — 427-28, *450-55, 462-65,
591
— and the Prussian military—17-19,
20-23, 46, 47, 69-71, 104-05, 107,
166, 180-81, 183-84, 227-30, 257-
58, 400, 442, 443
— and demand for refusal to pay
taxes —286, 416, 477
See also Cologne Workers' Association:
Democratic Society in Cologne;
Prussian National Assembly of 1848;
United Diet
Revolutions of 1848-49 in Italian states
— tasks—11, 167, 387, 403
— and lumpenproletariat — 25, 143,
259
— in the Two Sicilies — 24, 26, 68,
473, 480
— in Lombardy and Venice—109,
110, 386, 397, 487
— events in Milan—130, 136, 376,
385, 387, 395, 396, 481
— and Charles Albert's policy — 41,
385-89, 395-96, 402
— in Tuscany—385
— in papal state — 385
— in Parma and Modena — 386-87
— and Europe —402-03
— and Austria—136, 376, 395-97,
402
— and England —402, 480, 481
— and Germany —92, 109-10, 167,
212, 395-98, 403, 421, 424
— and German people—11, 167
— influence of Vienna uprising in
October 1848 — 457, 473, 487, 496
— and France —25, 26, 110, 402,
403, 480, 481
See also Austro-Italian war of 1848-49;
Lazzaroni
Rhine Province— 71, 122, 290, 309, 317,
325, 330, 342, 367, 390-92, 401, 500,
558, 567
Right, rights
— feudal—118, 292, 293, 295
— bourgeois —293, 330
— historical—355, 370, 379, 380
— patrimonial — 4, 520
— right to property — 292-95, 520
— of citizenship — 407-09
— of historical evolution — 423
— of association —73-74, 239, 248,
288, 289
— electoral — 3 , 408, 424
— political — 257
See also Law, laius
Right to work— 321-24
Rome, ancient— 33, 75, 130, 142, 153,
235, 259, 304
Russia
— internal situation, home policy—
53, 312
— foreign policy, diplomacy — 308,
350, 505
— and Austria — 350
— and England —379, 424
— and Germany —34, 51, 68, 90,
104-05, 107, 110, 112, 166, 191,
212, 237-38, 307-13, 345, 351-53,
425
— and Prussia—115-16, 356, 425,
432
See also Holy Alliance; Napoleonic wars;
Slavs, Slavonic question; Tsarism
S
Sanfedists— 25
Sardinia (Piedmont) — 41, 385-89, 395-
96, 402
Scandinavia, Scandinavianism— 422-23
Schleswig-Holstein— 424
Schleswig-Holstein question—377, 424,
446, 577-78
Schools, educational system—357
Science— 3, 144, 152, 156, 323, 324
Scotland— 329-30
Seehandlung—54, 55-56, 229
Serfdom— 118, 153, 245, 260, 292, 293,
294, 328, 329, 330, 350, 363, 519
Sicilies, the Two (Naples) — 24, 26, 68-69,
473, 480
Silesia— 117, 328
Slav Congress in Prague—91
Slavery— 130, 153, 259
Slavs, Slavonic question—351-53, 373
— peculiarities of socio-economic development—
338, 375
— revolutionary-democratic movement—
91-93, 107, 119-20, 212,
271, 313, 376, 421, 444, 498
— conservative national movements—
474
— assimilation and centralisation —
93
See also Colonisation of Slav lands by
Germans; Poland
Slovanskâ Lipa—498
Socialism, Utopian— 147, 298
See also Proudhonism, Proudhonists;
Weitling's principles
Social relations—342, 363
— and production — 470, 495
— and property relations — 469
— and classes, relations between
classes — 495
— and family relations — 519
— and social consciousness — 494,
495
— their historical character — 468
— bourgeois —468-70, 494-95
Society, bourgeois— 108, 139, 147-49, 152,
153, 279, 297, 303, 444, 471, 506
See also Social relations
Society of the Rights of Man and the
Citizen—133
Sonderbund— 396
Sophistry— 196
Southern French, the—372
Spain
— geographical position and natural
conditions — 511
— finance — 224
— classes and class struggle — 380
— history—135, 166, 311
— and France—135, 166
— and Germany—165
— and Russia — 311
See also Castilia
Sparta— 512
Speculative ideas (speculative philosophy) —
486
State, the— 3, 4, 20, 73, 171, 229, 234,
248, 261, 279, 280, 281, 401, 410, 432,
437, 445
— and society — 471
— and class struggle—151
— and revolution —201, 204-05, 428,
444
— bourgeois state—151, 167, 202,
203-06, 279, 297, 330, 430-31, 477
State power— 204, 432
State property—3-4
Stock Exchange— 223-25, 279
Strikes and strike movement—297
Strikes as form of proletarian class
struggle—297
Svornost— 213
Swedes—422
Switzerland— 25, 26, 165, 235, 377, 527
See also Sonderbund
T
Tariffs— 299, 334, 377, 378, 573
Tax«—3, 118, 283, 286, 323, 416, 469,
477, 573
Tenant system, tenant farmers—3, 521
Ten-hour working day—299
Territorial question (dispute over frontiers)—
340, 346
Terror— 432
— revolutionary — 506
— in French Revolution of 1789-
94_376, 405-06, 520
— of ruling classes—138, 505
Theory of agreement (of Prussian liberals)—
62-63, 72-75, 77-79, 83, 107-08,
430-33
Thirty Years' War— 120, 202, 212, 237,
238, 346
Tithes— 3, 309
Town and country—46, 56, 65, 235, 268,
275, 339, 340, 353, 520, 527-29
Trades— 65, 331, 338
Trade unions in England—297
Transport, demand for its nationalisation—
4
Trier—171
Trieste— 109
Truth—156
Tsarism— 54, 166, 308, 311, 349-50
Turkey— 307
Tyrol— 397
U
United Diet— 32-33, 36-37, 39, 74, 220,
238, 311, 422, 429
Universal suffrage—3, 48, 424
Uprising, armed—144, 163, 164
See also June uprising of Paris proletariat
in 1848
Usury— 330
V
Vienna Congress of 1814-15— 338, 339,
343, 380, 565
Vienna uprising in October 1848—457-
58, 472-73, 477, 480, 487, 490-92,
496-505, 595, 598
W
Wage labour—573
Wages— 573
Wallachia— 311
Wars
— and bourgeoisie — 414-15
— and revolution — 237, 424, 444
— and working class — 421, 424
— revolutionary wars—147. 200,
237, 297, 352, 414, 421
— civil wars—147, 200, 237, 297,
352, 404, 405
— national liberation wars—352
— wars of conquest, aggressive
wars —339
— colonial wars—161
— and revolutions of 1848—47, 50-
51, 116, 237, 239, 352-53, 379,
424, 428, 432
See also Austro-Italian war of 1848-49;
Danish-Prussian war of 1848-50 \
Napoleonic wars; Wars of First French
Republic
Wars against Albigenses (1209-29) — 372
Warsaw— 339
Wars of First French Republic—42, 1'65,
396, 404, 425, 520
Weitling's principles—558-59
Wends— 82, 497, 500
Workers' Congress (Berlin, August-
September 1848) — 271
Working class—4, 518, 573
— monopoly of capital as main cause
of its struggle against
bourgeoisie — 299
— significance of its concentration in
industrial centres — 296
— as motive force of revolution — 73,
74, 143, 147, 444, 494, 521
— and national liberation movement—
11, 166-67
— and peasantry — 523
Working class of Austria—457
Working class of Belgium—334
Working class of Bohemia— 119
Working class of England— 296-98
Working class of France— 132, 133, 140,
141, 143, 148, 149, 163-64, 297, 493,
495, 513, 517
Working class of Germany—4, 73-74,
166-67, 271, 426, 573, 595
Working class of Prussia—84-86, 260,
274, 500
Working-class movement in Austria—401
Working-class movement in Bohemia—91-
93, 107, 119-20, 212, 271, 313, 376,
421, 444, 457, 498, 504
Working-class movement in England —
297-99
See also Chartism; Luddites; Trade
unions in England
Working-class movement in France—130-
31, 158, 298
Working-class movement in Germany—47,
89, 271, 289, 580
World market—224
Y
Youth, bourgeois— 144, 334, 335, 513







MECW 8







A
Absolutism—102, 262, 265, 317, 331, 355
See also Monarchy, absolute
Abstraction, abstract and concrete—233,
364
Agriculture
— in feudal society — 335
— in capitalist society—158, 262,
326, 336
— and industry —229, 326
— its progress with the development
of society — 229
Alsace— 376
America—207
American-Mexican war of 1846-48—365
Appearance, semblance
— and reality—275, 282, 284, 334
— as something external — 264
Appropriation—15
Aristocracy (nobility), Austrian—228-30,
235
Aristocracy (nobility), English—161
Aristocracy (nobility), French—161, 162
Aristocracy (nobility), German—see Nobility,
German
Aristocracy (nobility), Hungarian—228-
29, 399, 411
Armed uprising—25, 302, 351
See also June uprising of the Paris
proletariat in 1848; Revolution, proletarian
Army
— as a component part of the state
apparatus —262, 264, 265, 316,
335-36, 462
— mercenaries—216-17, 247, 252,
372-73, 439
— people's militia—41
— guerillas — 224
— revolutionary—224-25, 227-28,
237, 298-99, 402, 429, 467
Army, Austrian—94, 120-22, 229, 236,
237, 291-92, 298, 373, 375, 425-26,
432, 438, 459-60
Army, Hungarian—237', 293-94, 298,
406, 429, 457, 459
Army, Prussian—381
— as a weapon of the reactionaries—
157, 164, 219, 225-26,
296, 317, 334, 335
— and the King and country squires
(junkers)—262
— in the pay of the bourgeoisie —
168, 171-72
Army, Russian—372, 436
Army, Swiss— 85, 116, 117, 149
Association (as collective production)—
266
Austria—103, 227-32, 236, 298, 356, 374
— political system—229-30, 356,
374
— national question—227-36, 298,
375-76, 399, 440, 469-70
— in the period of the 1848-49
revolution—103, 356, 374-75,
461-62
— and England—211
— and France—431
— and Germany—228
— and Hungary—227-33, 235-38,
269-70, 367-70, 375-76, 394, 399
— and Italy—103, 213, 214, 236,
294, 372-73, 431, 439
— and Poland—229-30, 236, 373,
375, 377, 378
— and Prussia—211, 264-65, 269-70
— and Russia—52, 211, 212, 375-
76, 438, 440-41
— and the Slavs—103, 227-38, 298,
366-69, 373-78, 409-11, 416, 430
— and Turkey—228-29, 231-32
See also Aristocracy, Austrian; Army,
Austrian; Austro-Italian war of 1848-
49; Bourgeoisie, Austrian; Peasantry,
Austrian; Revolution of 1848-49 in the
Austrian Empire
Austro-Italian war of 1848-49—103, 214,
235, 372-73
— and prospects of the development
of revolution in Europe—103,
104
See also Revolution of 1848-49 in the
Austrian Empire; Revolution of 1848-
49 in Italian states
Austro-Turkish wars of the sixteenth and
seventeenth centuries—231-32
Avars—370
B
Baden republican uprisings
— in April 1848—67, 72
— in October 1848—74, 180
Bank
— Austrian—201
— Prussian (Seehandlung)—173
Barbarians, barbarism—438, 453, 457,
461
Basis and superstructure—254, 263, 264,
266, 327, 335
See also Law; Political system; State
Basques—235
Belgium— 138, 307
— social and political system, constitution—
173, 263
— revolution of 1830-31 — 173, 263
— home policy—189
— in 1848—189
— and France—376
See also Bourgeoisie, Belgian
Bohemia, Czechs—233-34
— specific features of its historical
development—367, 368
— German colonisation of—231-32
— oppression of Czechs by the Austrian
Empire—232, 367, 410
— and revolutions of 1848-49 in
Europe—235, 373-74, 443
— Right wing of the national movement
and pan-Slavist agitation —
364-67, 373-76
— revolutionary tendencies in the
national movement—416-17,
431
— and Russian Tsarism—377
See also Hussite movement; Prague
uprising; Slav Congress in Prague;
Svornost
Boundaries— 365
Bourgeoisie— 162-63
— its rise and development—337
— its role in the development of
productive forces — 263
— its struggle against feudalism,
against the feudal aristocracy—
161-62, 201
— material basis for the establishment
of its rule—158
— political domination—158
— and absolute monarchy—158-59,
161, 263-64
— and bureaucracy—158-59, 264
— agreements with reactionaries—
162-63, 266-67, 358-59
— irreconcilability of its contradictions
with the proletariat—21A
— and the peasantry—175
— and legislation and courts—158,
201
— its ideological exponents—158,
166
— and religion and Church—161
— and the national question—214-
15, 232
Bourgeoisie, Austrian— 201, 228-30, 232
Bourgeoisie, Belgian—266
Bourgeoisie, English— 215, 218, 219
Bourgeoisie, French—161-62, 168-69,
175, 256, 259, 263, 266
Bourgeoisie, German—15-16, 160, 162,
178, 219, 221, 229, 232, 266-67,
358-59
See also Burghers; Germany; Petty
bourgeoisie, German; Revolution of
1848-49 in Germany
Bourgeoisie, Hungarian—229, 232
Bourgeoisie, Italian—368, 371
Bourgeoisie, Polish—229-30
Bourgeoisie, Prussian—158-60, 162-63,
178, 219, 256, 265-67, 274, 276
Bourgeoisie, Slav—232
Bourgeoisie, Swiss—11, 12, 139, 141,243,
247
Bourgeois revolution in the Netherlands in
the sixteenth century—161
Bretons— 234
Budget (state)—337, 380
Bulgaria, Bulgarians—233
Bureaucracy
— as a prop of absolutism—172,
229, 262, 266, 317, 335, 336, 381
— as a prop of reaction—15, 134,
158, 164, 168, 172, 219, 229, 235,
262-64, 266, 275, 296, 316, 335-
36, 381
— feudal bureaucracy and industrial
bourgeoisie—15, 158-59, 265,
335
— its tutelage over industry—264-
65, 336
See also Officials
Burghers— 228, 229, 372
Byzantium— 228, 231, 234
C
California—365, 526
Capital—170, 173, 264, 266
Capitalists—120, 158, 262
Castes, the caste system—203, 259
Censorship— 33, 96, 316, 360, 433, 471
Centralisation, state—44, 240, 371
See also Switzerland
Chartism
— as an independent political movement
of the working class—215
— in 1848—101-02
Child labour—260
Church—161, 234
See also Clergy; Monasteries; Papacy;
Religion
Citizens' associations in Prussia—255
Civil code (Code civil)—261, 327
Civilisation—139, 252, 365, 367, 369,
438, 457
See also Society, bourgeois
Civil society—309
Class, classes—259, 288
— as a product of economic relations—
289
— and property—161, 262-63
— and production—266-67, 274
— class interests—161, 162, 229,
263-64, 271, 289, 336
— in feudal society—162, 229
— in bourgeois society—158, 259,
289, 336
— class contradictions, antagonisms
between proletariat and bourgeoisie—
214
— ruling, exploiter classes—215,
223, 249, 272
— middle classes—214
— reactionary, counter-revolutionary—
167
— exploited, oppressed working
people—170
— revolutionary—160-61, 289
— progressive—232
See also Aristocracy (nobility);
Bourgeoisie; Class struggle; Peasantry;
Petty bourgeoisie; Social relations;
Working class
Class struggle
— between proletariat and bourgeoisie—
101, 336
— as a political struggle—170
— and the national question—230
See also Chartism; Class; Social relations;
Working-class movement
Clergy— 70, 85, 244-45, 385, 469
See also Church; Papacy
Code d'instruction criminelle—464
Code Napoléon— 327, 399
Code pénal— 76, 80, 82, 171, 246, 304-07,
309-10, 311, 314,317,319,325,463,
514
Cologne Workers' Association—189-96,
483, 512-13, 522, 523-24, 525-26
Commerce, trade—174, 215, 263, 264,
266, 272, 326, 336, 365, 371
Communism
— material premises of the communist
transformation of society—
266
— abolition of private property—
262
— and the national question—215
— and law—154, 165-66, 197, 316,
342-43
Communist League
— during the revolution of 1848-
49—24, 46
— criticism of Gottschalk's sectarian
stand—513
— and petty-bourgeois democrats—
24, 46, 522
Competition—161, 261, 266, 335
Conquest—369
Const itution—3 28
— and division of powers—331
— constitutionalism, constitutional
government—279, 337
— constitutionalism of the Prussian
liberal bourgeoisie—32
See also Revolution of 1848-40 in
Prussia
Corruption— 256
Corvée system— 159
Counter-revolution—211, 278
See also Coup d'état; Coup d'état in
Prussia
Coup d'état—16, 135, 200, 264, 282, 336
Coup d'état in Prussia (November-December
1848)—16, 25-26, 31-33, 38, 50,
94, 134, 135, 154, 157-58, 177, 200,
264, 279, 323, 447
Courts, judiciary— 201, 203, 342-43
— feudal—203
— in bourgeois society—197, 201-
03, 317
— jury court, its class character—
188-89, 310, 318, 463-65
See also Jurisdiction; Jurisprudence;
Jurists
Cracow, Cracow Republic (1846)—373
Credit—95, 170
Crime— 325
Crises
— social—265, 285, 328
— commercial—261
Croatia, Croats— 94, 352, 373, 400, 409,
410, 417, 425, 430-31, 469-70
Culture—139
Czechs—see Bohemia
D
Dalmatia, Dalmatians—367, 431, 469
Danish-Prussian war of 1848-50—74,
223, 224, 457
— military operations—223
— negotiations and armistice in
Malmö—67, 71, 88, 157, 224,
296, 456
— and position of the Frankfurt
National Assembly—67, 157, 504
— and policy of the Prussian Government—
157, 223, 296
See also Schleswig-Holstein question
Democracy, democratic movement
— bourgeois—362
— petty-bourgeois—244-45, 362
— revolutionary—84, 103, 279
— proletarian—123-25
Democratic Congress in Frankfurt am
Main—190
Despotism, tyranny—219, 309, 333, 356,
372, 450
Dialect— 233
Dictatorship, military—356
Diplomacy— 391
Dissenters (dissidents)—31
Doctrinairism, doctrinaires—144, 354
Duel—114, 115, 118
E
East— 214
Economic crises—261
Economic relations—214
Economics and politics—158-60, 287, 289
See also Basis and superstructure
Education, instruction—159, 260
Egypt, Ancient—259
Eighteenth century—161, 169
Emigration, political—269-70
England (Great Britain)—19, 101-02,
214-16, 263, 338, 372
— peculiarities of historical development—
101-02, 338
— political system, constitution
—330
— rule of the bourgeoisie—215, 263
— courts, judiciary—307
— industry and finances—19,
337-38
-— trade and industrial monopoly in
the world market—101, 214,
215, 218
— electoral reform of 1832—338
— class contradictions—101, 214
— workhouses ("bastilles for the
poor")—-218-19
— preconditions and prospects of a
social revolution—262
— and revolution in Europe —
214-15
— in 1848—101-02, 214-15, 362
— foreign policy—101-02, 214-15,
265, 362
— and Austria—211-12
— and Ireland—214
— and Italy—372
— and Prussia—265, 266
— and Spain—70
See also Aristocracy, English;
Bourgeoisie, English; Chartism; English
revolution of 1640-60
English revolution of 1640-60—160-62,
263, 273, 325, 338
— alliance between bourgeoisie and
new nobility—161
— and the masses—15, 338
— Long Parliament—15
Enlightenment—161
Epoch
— of social progress—162, 327-28
— revolutionary—197
Equality—279
Estates, social— 327, 335, 336, 337
— in feudal society—164, 177, 259,
263-64, 266, 335, 338
— in bourgeois society—335, 337
— third estate—337
— judiciary—197, 201, 203
— estate system, hierarchy—257,
262, 263
— estate assembly—327
— distinctions between estates—33,
158, 177
Europe— 214, 215, 238
See also Revolution of 1848-49 in
Europe
Exploitation
— of labour power by capital—170
F
Family and marriage—161
Federal Diet in Germany— 52, 225, 297
Federation— 138, 362
See also Switzerland
Female labour—260
Feudalism—161, 259, 262-63, 326, 335-
36, 337
— big landed property as its basis
—326-27
— social relations, social system
— 161, 326-28
— primogeniture—161
— and absolutism—159, 262-64,
265, 327, 335-37
— towns, burghers—263
— estates—259, 263, 266, 335, 337
— classes, class antagonisms—229,
259
— feudal aristocracy—259, 262-65
— and the bourgeoisie—337
— rise of capitalist relations—337,
338
— collapse of feudalism—161, 168,
264, 337
— survivals of—219, 264
See also Burghers; Estates, social;
Guilds; Landed property; Middle Ages;
Monarchy, absolute; Serfdom; Serf
peasants; State
Fleet (German)—242, 381
Force
— in history—367, 370
— and revolution—338
— violent and peaceful means—38,
338
— reactionary, counter-revolutionary—
38, 338
— force must be opposed by every
kind of force—38, 338
See also Terror
Foreign policy—336
Fourier's socialism—260
France— 372
— population—160-61
— formation of the French nation
— 161, 372
— national character—141
— in the Middle Ages —228
— under absolute monarchy (seventeenth-
eighteenth centuries)—
198, 228
— parliaments—198
— during the Restoration—219,310
— legislation—190, 399, 445, 448-
49
— suffrage—399
— home policy, domestic situation
—66, 129, 307
— and Austria—431
— and Belgium—376
— and England — 215
See also Bourgeoisie, French; French
Revolution; Napoleonic wars; Peasantry,
French; Petty bourgeoisie,
French; Revolution of 1848 in France;
Wars of the First French Republic;
Working class in France
Frankfurt National Assembly—51-52, 99,
104, 240, 414, 421
— and imperial regency and ministry—
16, 65, 66-74, 82, 88-93, 99,
138, 179, 242, 297
— and Malmö armistice—157, 296,
504
— and coup d'état in Prussia—16,
65
— the Left, Left Centre—53, 54
Frankish Kingdom—369
Freedom— 332, 363-65
— political —159, 164-65, 330
— of speech—125
— of association—77, 159, 165, 195,
316
— of the press—see Press
Freemasons— 94
French Revolution
— its character and aims—160-62
— role of the masses—161
— and the bourgeoisie—161-62
— and workers—161
— revolutionary wars—237
— Constituent National Assembly—
18, 198
— National Convention—197
— and religion and Church—161
— and Germany—372
— and Switzerland—43
See also Jacobin dictatorship; Napoleonic
wars; Wars of the First French
Republic
G
Galicia— 229, 230-31, 264, -265, 373,
375, 399, 405, 434, 442, 466, 468, 469
— peasant uprisings in 1846—230
German Confederation (1815-66) — 269,
525
See also Federal Diet in Germany
Germany— 371-72, 390
— national character of the Germans—
372, 373, 376, 414
— in the Middle Ages—337
— and the French Revolution and
Napoleonic wars—88, 273, 372
— opposition movement in the early
nineteenth century—376, 377
— fragmentation of the country and
the task of its unification — 51,
228
— industry and trade—370, 372
— agriculture—174, 326
— philistinism—67, 168-69, 219,
260, 267, 356
— political system—178
— constitutions of the German states
—232
— legislation and courts—269-70
— bourgeois liberalism in the 1840s
—88, 158-59, 168, 172, 390
— democratic movement—376
— youth, the student movement—
376-77
— education, school—159, 171, 449
— press, press laws, censorship—
303, 433, 437
— foreign policy, diplomacy—372,
376-77
— and Argentina—66
— and Austria—228-29
— and England—265, 372
— and Hungary—270, 367-68
— and Italy—371-72
— and Poland—231, 372, 378
— and Russia—211-12, 372, 378
— and the Slavs—227-38, 366-78
— and Switzerland —55, 58-59, 63,
66-74, 98, 109, 116, 119, 136-37,
138, 179, 185
See also Austria; Baden republican
uprisings; Bourgeoisie, German;
Burghers; Communist League; Federal
Diet in Germany; Fleet; German Confederation;
Nobility, German; Peasantry,
German; Petty bourgeoisie,
German; Philistinism; Prussia; Revolution
of 1848-49 in Germany;
Working class in Germany
Gibraltar—70
Gold— 419, 526
Greece, Ancient—259
Greece, Greeks—250
Guilds, the guild system—259
— guildsmen—259
— and bourgeois revolution and the
bourgeoisie—161, 219
— as patriarchal survivals under
capitalism—219, 266, 335
See also Handicrafts
H
Handicrafts, craftsmen—266
Hegelianism—130, 234
"Hilf Dir" military association (Biel,
1848)—205, 208-09, 242
History, historical development—51, 104,
230, 234, 274, 316, 365-67, 370
Holy Alliance— 211-12, 362, 438
Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation
(962-1806)—65, 270
Humanism—213, 365
Hungary— 228, 230
— population—227, 236-37, 303,
370
— industry and trade—232
— political system, constitution
—232, 290
— the press—303
— in 1848-49—227-38, 270, 371,
378, 399
— and Austria—227-33, 235-38,
270, 367, 370, 375-76, 399
— and Germany—270, 367-68
— and Poland—230
— and the Slavs—227-38, 367-71
— and Turkey—230-31, 233-34
See also Aristocracy, Hungarian;
Bourgeoisie, Hungarian; National liberation
war of 1848-49 in Hungary;
Peasantry, Hungarian; Revolution of
1848-49 in Hungary
Hussite movement—231
I
Ideas— 163, 374
Ideology—166, 233, 235
Individual, person—263, 327
Industry (large-scale)—264-66, 328, 336
— machines as the basis of its development—
139
— its capitalist character—260-61,
326, 336
— its role in social progress—264,
327
— and taxes—337
— and commerce—214-15
— and agriculture—229, 326
— and classes and the class
struggle—272
— and formation of the proletariat—
260
— and the bourgeoisie's political
domination—263-64, 335, 336,
371
— its development as a material premise
of the communist transformation
of society—266
Internationalism, proletarian— 12
Inventions— 261
Ireland— 214
Italy—197
— Italian nation, national character—
414
— lumpenproletariat (lazzaroni)—
17
— struggle for the country's unification—
414
— duchies of Tuscany, Parma and
Modena — 456
— and Austria—103, 213, 214, 235,
294, 372-73, 431, 439
— and England—372
— and Germany—372
— and Russia—372
— and Switzerland—84-85, 216-17,
239, 251
See also Austro-Italian war of 1848-49;
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies; Lombardian-
Venetian Region; Papacy;
Revolution of 1848-49 in Italian states
J
Jacobin dictatorship, Jacobins—125, 161,
228
— revolutionary terrorism—161,
228
Jews, the Jewish question—32, 94, 232,
415-16
June uprising of the Paris proletariat in
1848—16, 23, 103
— and petty-bourgeois democrats—
213
— establishment of Cavaignac's
military dictatorship, suppression
of the uprising—23, 101-04
— consequences of its suppression—
23, 66-67, 104, 124-25,
213-14
— its influence on the workers' and
the national liberation movement
in other countries—12, 214
— its defeat and strengthening of
the European counter-revolution—
16, 23, 101-04, 168, 214,
438
Junkers, Prussian— 261, 273, 381, 385
Jurisdiction—79, 324-25
See also Courts
Jurisprudence— 129
Jurists—130, 198
K
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Naples) —
102, 183, 216, 239, 251, 252
L
Labour— 259-60
Landed property—161, 262, 326-27,
335, 399
See also Mortgage
Landowner—161, 262, 288
Language
— literary—233
— Albanian—233
— French—8, 139, 149
— German—68, 139, 233, 370
— German in Switzerland—68, 139
— Greek—233
— Hungarian — 233
— Italian—139, 233
— Romansh—139
— Rumanian —231, 233
— old Slav—233
— Sorbian — 369
Law, right—330
— as a superstructure — 328
— and production —328
— and revolution—154, 165-66,
197, 316-17, 325, 342-43
— might as the basis of right—6, 50
— international—69-70, 73
— civil—389
— criminal—310, 324-25, 335
— private—324-25
See also Courts; Jurisprudence; Laws;
Legislation; State
Laws— 278, 325, 327-28
Law safeguarding personal freedom—25,
78-79
Legislation
— its dependence on social and
economic relations—313, 318-19,
327-28, 335-36
— pre-bourgeois—335-36
— in bourgeois society—32, 158,
173, 310-11, 318-19
— civil—389
Liberalism, bourgeois—158-59, 168, 172,
248
Loans—173, 174
Logic— 69, 131, 272
Lombardian-Venetian Region—183, 216,
239
Lorraine—376
M
Machines— 266
Magyars— 228, 235-36, 370, 398-99,
412-13
Malmö negotiations and armistice—see
Danish-Prussian war of 1848-50
Material, the— 273, 288, 328, 400
— material interests — 336, 371
— material basis—158, 335
— social relations—326
— material needs — 336, 377
— production — 337
— material force—331
— material mode of production
—327
— material means — 266
Material conditions of the life of society—
327
— and political and juridical superstructure—
327, 336
Means of communication—371
Means of production—266
Mexico
— political system—365
— and the USA—365
Middle Ages, medievalism—31, 259, 327,
337
See also Feudalism; Monarchy
Military art— 102
Mode of production—158, 259, 327-28
Monarchy—161, 162, 336-37, 358, 370
See also England; France; Monarchy,
absolute; Monarchy, constitutional;
Prussia; Tsarism
Monarchy, absolute (absolutism)—6, 15-16,
33, 158, 159, 161, 162, 163, 178,211,
229, 262-64, 274, 317, 327, 331,
336-37, 358
— and the bourgeoisie—158-59,
161, 263-64
— and workers' struggle—215,
316-17
See also Despotism
Monarchy, constitutional—15-16, 151,
159, 161, 163, 178, 262-63, 330-31
Monasteries—109-10, 183
Money— 227, 261, 265, 419, 449
Moravia—232
Mortgage—288
N
Naples—see Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Napoleonic wars— 88, 175, 215, 372
— and England—215, 372
— and Germany—88, 372
— and Prussia—99
— and Russia—372
See also Vienna Congress of 1814-15
and Vienna treaties of 1815
Nation, nationality—17, 232, 234-36,
369-71
— origin—234-35
— role of economic relations in the
consolidation of nations—367
— community of territory—367
— language barrier—233, 368, 370
— national character—232, 234
— national culture—232, 233
— national feelings—367
— elimination of national isolation
under capitalism—232
— national assimilation — 369-70
See also National Question
Nationalism
— national prejudices—229, 372
— national narrow-mindedness—
229, 233, 246-47, 372
National liberation struggle
— as a component part of bourgeoisdemocratic
revolutions—371-72
— struggle of oppressed nationalities
for independence and the working
class—215, 238
National liberation war of 1848-49 in Hungary—
236-38, 270, 351, 362, 373,
375, 394
— military operations—225, 235-38,
270, 290-94, 298-99, 300-03, 347,
350-53, 360-61, 394, 404-08, 412-
13, 423-31, 432-44, 451-55, 457,
458-62, 466-68, 471-73, 477-80
— and prospects for the development
of revolution in Europe —
294, 431
National question
— national oppression, its social
roots and consequences—214,
371-72
— flaming up of national strife by
the ruling classes—229-30
— liberation of oppressed nations as
a component part of struggle for
democratic reforms—214, 371-
72, 375
— and the bourgeoisie—232
— and the working class and workers'
movement—214
— proletarian revolution as a means
for the complete abolition of national
oppression—215
Neuchâtel—7-8, 108, 244-45
Neue Rheinische Zeitung
— organ of the proletarian wing of
democracy—23, 366, 390, 421-
22, 509-10
— its persecution by the reactionaries—
48-49, 81-82, 182, 304-
22, 495, 496, 504, 510, 511, 516,
517, 518-20, 521, 527-28
Nobility, German— 33, 168, 262, 263,
267, 372, 449
— in the Middle Ages, knights—
228, 229
-— and the bourgeoisie—168, 229,
266
See also Junkers, Prussian
O
Officials
— as a component part of the oppressors'
state apparatus—26,
134, 170, 201, 263, 265, 288, 309,
313, 322, 383, 385, 464
— need for revolutionary destruction
of the old bureaucratic state
apparatus—38, 197, 275, 317,
342-43
See also Bureaucracy
P
Pan-Germanism—376
Pan-Slavism—231, 233-36, 238, 363-68,
371-72, 374-78, 438-39
Papacy—109, 213
Papal states—see Revolution of 1848-49 in
Italian states
Parcella, panellation—399
Parliament
— its role and class character—337
— and the masses—14-15
— and taxes—337
Parochialism, provincial narrowmindedness—
10, 12, 205-06, 229, 241, 249
Party, proletarian—215, 390
See also Chartism; Communist League
Pauperism— 217
Peasantry— 289
— in the bourgeois revolution—175
— peasant question in colonies—
232
Peasantry, Austrian— 229, 230, 405
Peasantry, French—175
Peasantry, German—175, 288, 289, 334,
449
Peasantry, Hungarian—299, 351, 399
Peasant uprisings, peasant movement—229,
302, 351
People, popular masses— 230, 233-34
— as a decisive force in the revolution—
14-15, 34, 102, 160-61,
167, 168-69, 176, 197, 275, 329,
342, 362
— its right to the revolution—165,
166, 339
People's sovereignty, people's government—
107, 328, 330, 331, 336, 337
Petty bourgeoisie—170, 266, 287-88
Petty bourgeoisie, French—125-27
See also Democracy
Petty bourgeoisie, German—67, 262, 266,
274, 287-88
See also Burghers; Democracy; Philistinism;
Prussia; Revolution of 1848-
49 in Germany; Revolution of 1848-49
in Prussia
Philanthropy— 218-19, 255
Philistinism—141, 161
Pietism, pietists—43, 526
Plebeians, plebs—161, 263
Poland— 375, 399
— Polish nation—367, 375
— feudal aristocracy, its alliance
with the oppressors of Poland—
229, 399
— nobility (szlachta)—229, 399
— peasantry, serfdom—229-30
— partition of—229, 369, 372, 438
— national question—230
— revolutionary and democratic
movements—229-30
— uprising in 1794—372, 438
— insurrection of 1830-31—270,
372, 399
— and the revolution of 1848-49—
213, 214, 230, 235-36, 374, 375,
439
— and religion—230
— emigration—224-25, 270
— its oppression and plunder by the
ruling classes of Germany—224-
25
— and Austria—229-30, 235, 373,
375, 377, 378
— and Germany—230-31, 372, 378,
438
— and Hungary—230-31
— and Prussia—224-25
See also Bourgeoisie, Polish; Polish
question
Police— 7, 157, 170, 172, 220-21, 256,
315
Police and judicial persecutions
— of democrats and workers' leaders—
7, 171, 315-16, 342, 396
— of the leaders of the Cologne
Workers' Association — 189-96,
319-21
— Lassalle's case—341, 344-46, 463-
65, 474-76
— prosecution of the press—315,
445
See also Courts; Neue Rheinische
Zeitung; Police; State of siege
Polish question
— and revolution in Europe—375
Political power
— and economic relations—158-59,
264, 327, 335
See also Class; Power, state
Political system
— as a superstructure—161, 262-63,
328, 338
— feudal—161,262-63,316-17,328,
341
— bourgeois—161, 262-63, 328
See also Economics and politics; State
Posen, Posen uprising (1848)—224-25
Possibility
— and probability—44, 285
— and necessity—285
Power, legislative and executive—325, 330-
31, 464
Power, state—170-71, 263, 265
See also Political power; State
Prague uprising (July 1848)—225, 230,
235, 374, 411
Pre-proletariat—161
Press, the
— its essence and social role—314,
316-18
— freedom of—159, 165, 195, 313,
316, 318, 330
— bourgeois—247
— workers'—317
— of the proletarian party—247,
477
See also Neue Rheinische Zeitung
Private property
— and law—161, 201
— feudal—15, 262
— of monasteries and Church—109
— bourgeois—161
— its monopoly as the condition of
the rule of the bourgeoisie—175
— as seen by bourgeois and pettybourgeois
economists—129
See also Communism; Landed property
Production—268, 328, 336
Progress—229
Protectionism—184, 251
Proudhonism—123, 127, 129-32
Prussia
— Prussianism—51, 223, 274
— history—274
— during the French Revolution and
Napoleonic wars—99, 100, 273
— reforms of 1807-14—273, 274,
276
— in 1815-48—159
— and the revolution of 1848 in
France—274
— survivals of feudalism—265
— industry—158, 264
— guilds, handicrafts, craftsmen —
266
— agriculture—265
— trade—158, 219, 267
— finances, budget, taxes—159,
171, 173, 261, 265, 273, 379-89,
418-20
— political and state system—3-4,
158, 160, 161-64, 172-73, 178,
262-64, 265-66, 270, 273-74, 280,
329-31, 335-36, 358, 449-50
— militarism—157, 223
— police system—7, 172, 173, 190-
91, 223, 315
— laws—25, 77-79, 157, 296, 304-
14, 333, 334, 381-83, 388, 389,
485-92
— factory laws—264
— judiciary—76, 79, 157, 170, 197-
203, 315, 317, 318, 344-46, 463-
65, 474-76
— Prussian Law—171, 296, 309,
315, 381-82, 388-89
— franchise—154,157,166,324, 328
— Constitution, constitutional question—
154, 177, 193-94,201,255-
57, 259-60, 261-67, 287-88, 296,
297, 313, 323-24, 328-29
— the press, press laws, censorship—
159, 313, 322, 347, 477
— home policy—171
— religion and Church—31, 171
— bureaucracy, officialdom—15,
26, 38, 134, 157-58, 164, 168,
170-72, 176, 197, 201, 219, 257,
262-65, 267, 275, 288, 296, 309,
312, 313, 317, 318, 322, 335-36,
342, 381-83, 385, 397
— clergy—385
— financial aristocracy—257, 262,
267, 288
— petty bourgeoisie—266
— peasantry—175, 274, 288
— foreign policy and diplomacy
— 171, 211
— and Austria—52, 211, 264-65,
269-70
— and Denmark—456
— and England—264, 266
— and Germany—51, 99
— and Poland—224-25
— and Russia—211-12, 265, 278
— conflict with Switzerland over
Neuchâtel—7-8
See also Army, Prussian; Bourgeoisie,
Prussian; Coup d'état in Prussia; Germany;
Junkers, Prussian; Prussian National
Assembly; Revolution of 1848-49
in Prussia; Rhine Province of Prussia;
United Diet in Prussia; Working class
in Prussia
Prussian National Assembly (1848)—3-4,
14, 15, 17-18, 19, 21, 32, 36-38, 39,
51-52, 99, 176, 200, 296-97, 331, 332,
335-36, 338-39, 355-56
— Right-wing groups—15, 30
— Left and Right Centre—278-80,
392
— democratic group—391
— the Left—29, 30, 174, 182, 295,
321-22, 390-91
— Agreement Assembly—75, 134,
154, 157, 165, 174-75, 176, 198,
296, 328, 333-35
R
Radicalism, radicals
— as the bourgeois and petty-bourgeois
political movement and
trend—125, 127, 248-49
— and the working-class movement—
125-27
Refugees
— Italian refugees in Switzerland—
61-62, 86, 112, 141-42,
144-45, 152, 216-17
— German refugees in Switzerland—
8, 12, 179-81
— Polish—375
Religion—31
Republic
— as a state system—289
— of the nobility—399
— bourgeois, democratic—138, 289,
358-59, 362
— proletarian ("red")—43, 52, 84,
123, 283, 285
Requirements, needs
— and production—158, 328
— and interests—159, 328, 336
— and the state—158-59, 337
— and law—314, 328
— material—377
— social—158-59, 16L314, 328, 337
— of the bourgeoisie and bourgeois
society—159, 336, 337
— their change and development
and appearance of new needs
— 158, 328
— and revolution—161, 328, 337
Reserve army of labour—218-19, 266
Revolution— 325, 373, 377
— and the state—38, 263-64, 316-
17, 336-37, 338, 341, 464
— and law—324-25, 327-28
— revolutionary initiative—374
— and "legal basis"—154, 165-66
— world revolution—230
— of the nobility—399
— in consciousness—374
See also Force; Revolution, bourgeois;
Revolution, permanent; Revolution,
political; Revolution, popular; Révolu*
Hon, proletarian; Revolution, social
Revolutionary movement, revolutionaries
—278, 373, 391
Revolution, bourgeois—161-62, 264, 327-
28, 335-36, 362-63
— its preconditions—264, 336
— its motive forces—14-15, 102,
160-67, 169, 175, 275, 329, 342-
43, 362
— its limited character—16, 161-63,
172-73, 278, 316-17, 362-63
— attitude to the old state
machine—172, 316-17, 342, 343
— and law—154, 165-66, 197, 317
— striving of the bourgeoisie to
compromise with feudal reactionaries—
164-65, 175, 279-80
— and the question of property—
161
— and the working class—161
— and workers' representation in
the government—124
— as a stage for the transition to
proletarian revolution—323
— need for revolutionary methods
of struggle to carry it through—
154, 165-66, 197, 228, 342-43
— and the national question—162,
214, 371-73
— and the peasantry—175
See also Bourgeoisie; Class struggle;
English revolution of 1640-60; French
Revolution; Revolution of 1848-49 in
Europe; Revolution, popular
Revolution of 1848-49 in the Austrian
Empire
— uprising in Vienna on March 13,
1848—16-17, 162, 201, 235
— people's actions in Vienna on May
15 and 26, 1848—102
— uprising in Vienna on October 6,
1848—12, 15, 16, 51, 88-93, 94,
101, 104, 157, 168, 177, 214, 225,
227, 228, 235, 297, 356, 362, 373,
375
— Court party—15, 103
— financial aristocracy—201
— bourgeoisie—17, 201, 256
— working class—17, 122, 201, 256
— students—17, 122
— army—120, 121, 372, 447
— national guard—17
— Imperial Diet—15
— national question—17, 230, 352,
373-75
— and Hungary—228, 230, 232,
235-38, 294, 356, 373, 467
— and Italy—103-04, 213, 235, 462
— and the Slavs—15, 94, 103, 225,
230, 232-38, 347, 348, 353, 363,
365, 366, 370, 372
— and the Poles—15, 230, 231, 233,
235, 373, 375
— and the Czechs—94, 225, 230,
235, 273-78
— and Russian Tsarism—233, 373,
437-38, 453, 461-62
— and the Frankfurt National Assembly—
88-93
— preliminary results—356
See also Austro-Italian war of 1848-
49; National Liberation war of 1848-49
in Hungary
Revolution of 1848-49 in Europe
— prerequisites and character—16-
17, 161-62, 227, 335-37
— its beginning—101, 213, 414
— condition for its victory—215
— and the working class—8, 12, 214
— and the bourgeoisie—23, 161,
214
— and national movements—214-
15, 227, 229-30, 238, 373-75,
377-78, 457
— development of the revolution in
France as its decisive factor—
16-17, 23, 101-04, 213-15, 227,
238, 284
— counter-revolution and reaction—
16-17, 23, 101-03, 277,
294, 362, 438 '
— and England—101-02, 214-15
— and Russia—157, 214, 373, 438
— and world war—215, 238, 294,
457
— and loss of democratic illusions—
104, 197, 213, 362-65, 414, 439
— preliminary results by the beginning
of 1849 and prospects—
213-15, 438-39
Revolution of 1848 in France. The Second
Republic (1848-49)—16-17
— February revolution—161, 203,
213
— Provisional Government—84,
124-25, 213
— people's action on May 15,
1848—101, 102, 125
— election of Louis Bonaparte as
President—18, 23, 104, 213-14
— Odilon Barrot Ministry—214,
278, 280
— National party (moderate republicans)—
66-67
— Réforme party ("Montagnards"
of 1848)—123-28, 131, 213,
362
— dynastic opposition—214
— petty-bourgeois Utopian socialist
trends—123-24, 126-28, 131-32
— and the bourgeoisie—124, 213-
14, 362
— and the petty bourgeoisie—124,
126-27
— and the working class and its
role in—84, 123-28, 214
— workers' clubs and secret societies—
125, 132
— its impact on European states—
84, 214-15, 238
— prospects of its development—
16-18, 214, 289
See also June uprising of the Paris
proletariat in 1848; Proudhonism
Revolution of 1848-49 in Germany
— its prerequisites —158-59, 326-29
— its character and specific features—
178, 197, 270, 316-17,
358-59, 362, 414
— March revolution—34, 102, 104,
159-67, 190, 213, 316-17, 342,
362, 414, 465
— and the attitude of the bourgeoisie—
15-16, 160, 162-78,266-
67, 357-59
— and the working class—162, 170,
174, 189-95, 266
— and the peasantry—47, 288-89
— and the petty bourgeoisie—262,
266-67, 288-89
— democratic movement and the
attitude of petty-bourgeois democrats—
52, 53, 54, 190, 315-16,
358, 376, 390-91
— and absolutism—158, 161, 178,
262-64, 358
— liberal professors as champions of
bourgeois interests—51, 52, 106-
07, 133, 267
— and struggle against the survivals
of feudalism—358
— and the revolution of 1848-49 in
Austria—88-93, 104
— and the revolution of 1848 in
France—16-18, 23, 214-15, 284-
85, 289
— and Hungary—269-70, 398-403
— and Italy—414
— and Prussia—51, 53, 65, 99, 104,
222-26, 269-70
— and Russia—211-12
— and the Slavs—214, 373-78
— and Switzerland—12, 67-74, 88,
138, 179-81, 246-47
— offensive of the counterrevolution
and reaction—104,
178, 277, 315-16, 320, 358, 362
See also Baden republican uprisings;
Communist League; Danish-Prussian
war of 1848-50; Federal Diet in Germany;
Frankfurt National Assembly; Neue
Rheinische Zeitung; Prussian National
Assembly; Revolution of 1848-49 in the
Austrian Empire; Revolution of
1848-49 in Prussia
Revolution of 1848-49 in Hungary—227-
28, 230-33, 235-38, 373, 436, 438
— revolutionary events in March
1848—235, 399
— anti-feudal agrarian reforms—
399
— landed aristocracy, top-rank officers—
348, 399, 410-11, 443-44
— peasant movement—237, 292-93,
299, 302, 351, 431
— national question and nationalities
policy—229-30, 233
— and the Slavs—225, 228, 230,
235, 236, 238, 352, 370-71, 373,
375, 377-78, 409-11, 416-17, 438,
469, 479
— sympathy with the revolution by
the oppressed peoples of the Austrian
Empire—231, 351, 373,
375, 425, 442, 469
— and the Vienna uprising in
October 1848—438
— its prospects and impact on the
development of the revolution in
Europe—238, 294, 431
— and Austria—227-28, 235-36,
294, 299, 375-76, 415-16, 431,
438, 478
— and Prussia—269-70, 438
— and Russian Tsarism—373, 402,
425, 430-31, 432-39, 440-41,
453-54
— and German liberals—394-95,
398-403
See also National liberation war of
1848-49 in Hungary
Revolution of 1848-49 in Italian states
— general description and aims—
101, 104, 213, 227, 373, 414,
439
— and lumpenproletariat (lazzaroni)—
17
— in the Kingdom of the Two
Sicilies—17, 102, 104, 213-14,
225, 362, 456
— in the Lombardian-Venetian
Region—372
— developments in Milan—101,
103, 104, 362
— in the Kingdom of Sardinia (Piedmont)—
103-04
— in the Duchy of Tuscany—101,
104, 213, 456
— in the Papal states—101, 103,
104, 213
— Roman Republic (1849)—414,
456
— and Austria—103, 213, 456
— and France—414
— and Germany—372, 414
— and Switzerland—216, 239-40,
251, 252
See also Austro-Italian war of 1848-49
Revolution of 1848-49 in Prussia
— its prerequisites—158-59, 223,
326-29, 335-36
— character and distinctive features—
16, 159-67, 168-69, 178,
197, 269-70, 274, 276, 313, 316,
317, 329-30, 334-37, 339, 358-59,
362
— "agreement theory" of the Prussian
bourgeoisie—3, 134, 135,
154, 157, 163-64, 165-67, 328,
331, 334
— drafting of a Constitution—328,
329
— March revolution—17, 34, 53,
134, 135, 159-67, 172, 175, 190,
222, 223, 264, 273-78, 296-97,
316-17, 321, 326, 329, 335, 342,
465
— attitude of the bourgeoisie—15-
16, 158-61, 162-78, 182, 188-92,
201, 219-21, 254-67, 273-80, 286-
89, 295-97, 315, 357-59, 392-93
— policy of the big bourgeoisie and
financial aristocracy—158, 257,
262, 267, 288
— liberals—390-91
— Camphausen-Hansemann Ministry—
30, 157-58, 163-67, 169,
296-97, 326, 446, 484
— Auerswald-Hansemann Ministry—
30, 157-58, 160, 167-69,
182, 192, 315, 316, 321
— Pfuel Ministry—7, 14, 17, 38,
175-77, 270, 321
— role of the working class in its
development—36, 47, 162-63,
164, 170-72, 174, 175, 189-96,
219-21, 255-61, 266, 288-89
— and the peasantry—47, 175,
288-89, 334, 335, 449
— and the petty bourgeoisie—
266-67, 288-89
— democratic movement and the
attitude of petty-bourgeois democrats—
24-25, 29, 41, 46, 47, 50,
52, 53, 172, 174, 177, 182, 190,
195, 279, 288-89, 321-22, 340,
346, 358, 391, 447-50
— and nobility, junkers—33, 134,
158, 160, 163, 164, 168, 173-77,
257, 262, 263, 267, 273, 275, 288,
315, 326, 335-36, 449
— absolutist feudal party—3-4, 15,
34, 134, 158-64, 171, 173, 178,
262-66, 274, 279, 326-27, 329,
335-37, 358-59
— bureaucracy—15, 26, 38, 134,
157-58, 164, 168, 170, 172, 197,
201, 219, 257, 262, 264-65, 275,
288, 296, 316, 335, 342
— jurists, judiciary—197-203, 267,
342-43, 465, 474-76
— army reserve (Landwehr)—19, 36,
75, 77-78, 102, 164, 171-73, 176,
296, 321, 333
— struggle against the survivals of
feudalism—32, 168, 171-75, 219,
262-65, 266, 279, 288-89, 334-35,
449
— and the Rhine Province—19, 38,
45, 65, 99, 160, 174, 296
— developments in Cologne (September
1848)—75-76
— offensive of the counterrevolution
and reaction—14, 19,
25, 30-34, 37-38, 46, 47, 53,
75-80, 94, 104, 134, 135, 154-58,
167, 170-73, 174-78, 182, 187,
197, 200, 266, 275-76, 277-79,
297, 315-16, 320-26, 333, 336,
339, 342-43, 362, 447-50, 483,
499, 500, 527-28
— Prussian militarism—17, 25, 157,
164, 168, 170, 172, 176, 187, 219,
223-26, 262, 265, 275, 279, 296,
316, 320, 332, 334-36
— Brandenburg-Manteufrel Ministry—
4, 14, 16, 18, 25-26, 31-32,
38, 46, 47, 50-53, 65, 75, 99, 106,
135, 158, 160, 177, 192, 198, 200,
297, 333, 445-50
— and the movement for refusal to
pay taxes—18-19, 21, 24, 26, 29,
34, 36, 38-41, 45, 47-48, 50-52,
65, 76, 107, 135, 325, 330, 332,
333, 337-41, 358, 391, 446-50
— Prussian Constitution of December
5, 1848 (imposed Constitution)—
134, 154, 177, 193-94,
201, 255-57, 259-67, 287-89, 296,
297, 313, 322, 323, 329, 346
— and Poland—31, 157, 193, 214,
224-25
— and the national movement in
Schleswig-Holstein—157
— and Austria—211-12
— and Hungary—394-95
— and Russia—211-12
— and Switzerland — 7-8
See also Cologne Workers' Association;
Coup d'état in Prussia;. Neue Rheinische
Zeitung; Posen; Prussian National
Assembly; United Diet in Prussia
Revolution, permanent—16, 123, 228
Revolution, political—328
Revolution, popular—316, 342-43
— as a form of carrying through the
bourgeois revolution—165-66,
316, 342-43
— and destruction of the old absolutist
state machine—197, 316-17,
342-43
Revolution, proletarian, socialist
— its historical prerequisites—266
— as the completion of the permanent
revolution—16
— its international character—214-
15
— need for revolutionary violence
—363
— proletarian party as the condition
for its victory—215
— solution of the national question—
214-15
See also Class struggle; Communism;
June uprising of the Paris proletariat
in 1848; Party, proletarian
Revolution, social—127, 215
Rhine Province of Prussia—38, 45, 65,
99, 174
— democratic movement—41, 46,
160, 522, 529-30
Riot—12
Roman state—see Revolution of 1848-49 in
Italian states
Rome, Ancient— 219, 224, 259
Royal power, royalty—4, 16-18, 33, 45,
106-07, 134, 159, 160, 163, 194-96,
263-64, 323, 327, 330, 336
See also Feudalism; Monarchy
Rumanians— 351, 352, 406-07, 436, 471
Russia
— foreign policy and diplomacy
— 119, 211-12, 456
— and Austria—211-12, 375-76,
437-38, 440-41
— and Germany—211-12, 372, 378
— and Hungary—438-39, 453
— and Italy—372-73
— and Prussia—211-12, 265, 456
See also Holy Alliance; Napoleonic
wars; Pan-Slavism; Revolution of 1848-
49 in Hungary; Slavs; Tsarism
Ruthenians— 230, 236, 303
S
Saint-Simon's socialism—260
Saxons in Transylvania—230, 232, 236,
429, 436, 437, 461, 472, 478
See also Transylvania
Schleswig-Holstein question—88, 223, 504
See also Danish-Prussian war of 1848-
50; Frankfurt National Assembly;
Revolution of 1848-49 in Prussia
Science—258-59
— and religion—31
— in bourgeois society—106-07
— "evil of privileged erudition" —
107
Scotland—234
Serbia, Serbs— 298, 352-53, 409-10, 416,
432, 438, 440-42, 469
Serfdom—159, 335
Serf peasants—106, 259, 335, 337
Silesia— 25, 160, 174, 265
Silesian weavers' uprising in 1844—257
Sixteenth century—161, 169, 371
Slav Congress in Prague—364-65, 366-67,
373-74, 376
Slav languages—231, 233
Slavs, the Slav question—15, 227, 229,
231-36, 370-71
— specific features of social and
economic development—231,
366-69, 371-72, 399
— German colonisation of Slav
lands—229, 231-34, 367-72
— Hungarian colonisation of Slav
lands—367-72
— revolutionary-democratic movement—
225, 230, 231, 234-35,
363-67, 374, 375, 377
— conservative national movements—
230-31, 234-38, 365-67,
377-78
— assimilation and centralisation
of—230-32, 235, 236, 366-72
— the Slav question and revolution
of 1848-49—371-73, 375-76
•.— prospect of the Austrian Slavs
participating in the revolution—
371-72
See also Bohemia; Croatia; Moravia;
Pan-Slavism; Poland; Serbia; Slovakia;
Slovenia
Slovakia, Slovaks— 293, 367, 368, 410,
411, 434, 435, 442, 469
Slovenia, Slovenes—367
Small countries and nations—230, 235-36,
238, 366-68
Small-scale production (agricultural)—335
Socialism (theories and trends)
— Christian—249
— of Louis Blanc—84, 123-24, 131
— French—123-27, 131-32
See also Proudhonism; Saint-Simon's
socialism
Socialist movement in France
— during the July monarchy—124
— during the Second Republic—
123-27, 130-31
Social question— 255-56, 262-63, 288-89
See also Revolution, social; Social
relations
Social relations, social system—326-27
— and production—259, 327
— and property relations—161,
259, 262
— and classes—161, 259
— and political superstructure—
161, 262, 326-28
— and the state — 327
— and law—327-28
— historical character of—259
— and social revolution—161-62,
259, 326-28
— feudal—161-62, 326-28
— bourgeois—161-62, 259, 327
— communist—248
Society, bourgeois—161, 335-36
— its rise—327, 337, 338
— and bourgeois revolution—327
— its economic basis—326-27, 335
— social relations and the social system—
161, 259, 326-27
— as a society founded on class
antagonisms—336
— classes and social strata—158,
259, 288-89, 335-36
— and class struggle—101, 335-36
— and the state—262-63, 266, 327,
328, 335-38, 358
— preconditions of its inevitable destruction
and premises for the rise
of a new society—268
See also Bourgeoisie; Capital; Capitalists;
Class; Class struggle; Social relations;
State; Working class
Society, feudal—see Feudalism
Sonderbund (Switzerland)—12, 84, 142,
144-47, 149, 152
Spain—15, 31, 70, 234
— first Carlist war of 1833-40—
234, 294
— and England—70
State, the
— as a superstructure—263
— and the mode of production—
158, 327
— its class essence as a weapon of
rule for the exploiters—265
— and antagonistic society—337
— state centralisation—44, 240, 371
— state machinery—170-71, 265,
316-17, 464
— and revolution—38, 263, 316-17,
336, 338, 340-41, 464
— bourgeois—173, 261, 263, 265-
66, 331, 337-39
— feudal—263, 335-38, 414
See also Despotism; Monarchy; Monarchy,
absolute; Monarchy, constitutional;
Republic
State of siege—25, 53, 75-76, 177, 276-77,
280, 316, 445, 448-49
Stock exchange—419
Styria— 228, 231, 369
Superstructure—see Basis and superstructure
Svornost (Bohemia) — 376
Switzerland—10-12, 44, 85-86, 138-41,
142-43, 246-47, 248-49
— territory and boundaries—55, 58,
63, 69-70, 109, 116, 139
— population—139
— the Swiss—139-45, 147, 148, 247
— in the Middle Ages—12
— and the French Revolution—43
— and revolutions of 1848-49 in
Europe—12, 85, 217, 240
— democratic movement in 1848-
49_7-12, 42-44, 83-85, 138-53,
244-45
— economy—8, 184, 243, 251
— patriciate—11, 12, 184, 205-06,
243, 247
— clergy and religion — 85, 109-10,
183, 244-45
— working class—12, 13, 59
— peasantry—217
— social and political system—9-12,
42-44, 84-87, 138-40, 151-52, 239-
41, 248, 249, 497
— Constitution—22, 42-44, 85, 86,
217, 240, 252
— Federal Assembly—57, 252
— National Council—10-11, 22, 56,
58-60, 95, 97-98, 108, 111, 112,
113, 138-53
— Council of States—22, 95, 97,
108, 113
— Federal Council—22, 57-59, 95,
97-98, 108,113,116,119,136, 204
— suffrage—42, 57-59
— legislation, courts—42, 97-98,
108, 113, 119, 242
— home policy—83, 86-87, 240, 253
— right of asylum and policy towards
refugees —22, 61, 86, 98,
112, 119, 136, 152, 179-81, 204-
05, 247
— political parties (conservatives,
liberals)—9-10, 43, 58, 59, 83-85,
113, 248
— radicals—9-12, 42-44, 56, 58, 85,
139, 206, 247-49
— the press —8, 43, 58, 86, 109, 1J 0,
137, 181, 183, 204-05, 246-50,
251, 252
— school, education—85, 108
— foreign policy—83-85, 86, 98,
119, 137, 248
— neutrality policy—83-85, 86, 152,
217, 248, 249, 252-53
— Swiss recruits—183, 216-17, 239,
251, 252
— and Austria—12, 86, 144
— and Germany—55, 58, 63, 66-74,
98, 109, 116, 119, 136-37, 138,
179, 185
— and Italy—84, 216-17, 239, 251
— and Prussia—244
— Prusso-Swiss conflict over
Neuchâtel—7-8
— and Russia—119
See also Sonderbund
T
Tactics of the proletarian class struggle—
390, 514
See also Party, proletarian; Revolution,
proletarian; Working-class movement
Taxes, the tax system
— as the economic basis of state
power—260, 261, 265, 337-41,
388
— demand for refusal to pay taxes
as tactics of the democrats—
337-38
See also Revolution of 1848-49 in
Prussia
Terror, terrorism
— revolutionary—122, 227, 375,
378, 461
— during the French Revolution—
161, 227
— of the ruling classes—120-21,227
See also Jacobin dictatorship
Thirty Years' War—297
Town and country—39-40, 335
Transylvania— 236, 298, 300, 348, 350-
51, 360, 402, 404, 406-07, 425, 426,
429, 430, 435-39, 453-55, 461, 468,
469, 471-72, 477-78
Tsarism—157, 211, 220, 362
Turkey— 233
— wars of conquest in the fourteenth-
sixteenth centuries—228,
232
— decline of the Empire—229, 232
— and Austria—229, 232
— and Hungary—229, 232
— and Russia—214
U
United Diet in Prussia—158-59, 164, 166,
168, 169, 296, 324-27, 339, 446,
449-50
United States of America—365
See also America; American-Mexican
war of 1846-48
Universal suffrage—256-57, 271-72
V
Vienna Congress of 1814-15 and Vienna
treaties of 1815—99-100
Vienna uprising in October 1848—see
Revolution of 1848-49 in the Austrian
Empire
Voluntarism
— and revolution—364
W
Wallachia, Wallachians—66, 214, 231,
236, 437, 441-42
War, wars
— and revolution and revolutionary
movement—215, 237-38
— and the working class and proletarian
party—215
— revolutionary—375
— guerilla—236, 237-38, 294, 301,
302, 407, 428, 429, 433, 434, 437,
442
— world—215, 238
See also American-Mexican war of
1846-48; Austro-Italian war of 1848-
49; Austro-Turkish wars of the sixteenth
and seventeenth centuries; Danish-Prussian
war of 1848-50; Napoleonic wars;
National liberation war of 1848-49 in
Hungary; Wars of the First French
Republic
Wars of the First French Republic (end
of the eighteenth and beginning
of the nineteenth centuries)—226,
237, 372, 438
Wealth
— its antagonistic character under
capitalism—267
— national—263-65
West— 214
Will—17, 271-72, 364
Working class—127, 259-60
— industrial proletariat—274
— as the only consistendy revolutionary
class—289
— and the petty bourgeoisie—127
— as the motive force in the revolution—
161
— and the national movement—
215
Working-class and socialist movement in
Switzerland—11-13, 185, 207-09,
249-50
Working class in France—123-28, 131,
132, 161
Working class in Germany—162, 219-21
Working class in Prussia—219, 274,
288-89
Working class in Switzerland—12-13, 59
Working-class movement—170, 215
See also Chartism; Class struggle;
Party, proletarian; Tactics of the proletarian
class struggle; Working class
Working-class movement in England—see
Chartism
Working-class movement in Germany—8,
11-13, 185, 207-09, 249-50
See also Revolution of 1848-49 in
Germany; Silesian weavers' uprising
in 1844
World market— 214, 224
— Britain's domination—101, 214,
215, 219








MECW 9







A
Absolutism—68, 371, 453, 498
See also Monarchy, absolute
Agitation and propaganda—50, 188, 326,
365, 372-73, 386
America—217
Aristocracy (nobility), French—80
Aristocracy (nobility), Hungarian—40,
186, 229-30, 299
Army
— Landsturm—172, 182, 334, 416
— revolutionary—181-82, 346, 349
Army, Austrian—148, 175-76, 231-33,
304, 349, 411
Army, English— 22-23
Army, French—170, 426, 463
Army, German revolutionary (in 1849) —
463
Army, Hungarian revolutionary (in 1848
and 1849)—181-82, 231-33, 319, 344-
45, 346, 406, 459-61, 463
Army, Piedmontese—150-51, 175
Army, Prussian—22
— as tool of reaction—69, 87-88, 195,
402, 411-12, 416, 432, 464-65
— civic militia (Bürgerwehr)—416,
423
— army reserve (Landwehr)—195-96,
297-300, 411, 412, 414-16, 423,
426, 434, 466
Artillery— 234, 245, 284, 316, 423, 435
Austria
— political system—47, 102, 105,
116, 148
— Constitution, constitutional question—
47-49, 105, 107, 149, 246
— finances, financial policy—94, 107,
275, 303, 315, 345, 355, 364
— national question—12, 105-07, 116
— during the 1848-49 revolution — 9,
12, 31, 47, 102-07, 368, 378, 456,
458
— peasant movement—117, 123-24,
289-90
— and England—351, 463
— and France—170
— and Germany—47-49, 461-62
— and Hungary, Hungarian national
liberation movement—9-11, 14,
15-16,107,133,178,254,352,353,
368-69, 391, 397-98, 411, 424-25,
455-62
— and Italy—107, 247, 461-62
— and Poland—461
— and Prussia—257, 382, 394-95,
419,421
— and Russia—17, 90, 94, 106, 113,
134, 154, 158, 162, 182, 188-90,
235-36, 237, 253, 279-80, 305,
319, 331, 345, 365, 369, 382, 391,
394, 398, 409, 414, 418
— and Slavs, Slav question—12, 107,
116-17, 124, 149, 246, 253, 307-09,
456
— and Turkey—73
See also Army, Austrian; Austro-
Italian war of 1848-49; Revolution of
1848-49 in Austrian Empire
Austro-Italian war of 1848-49—135, 148,
150-51, 156-57, 161, 164-66, 176,247,
280, 295, 296, 317
— battle at Novara—169-70, 171-75,
266, 295
— and Germany—176
— and prospects of revolution in
Europe—149, 151, 170, 171, 172,
173
See also Revolution of 1848-49 in
Austrian Empire; Revolution of 1848-49
in Italian states
B
Baden— 55, 416, 421, 465, 474-76
Banat, the— 97, 155, 183-84, 236, 243,
250, 279, 304-05, 313, 334, 337, 344,
406, 410, 425, 456, 461
Bank, banks—5
— of England—3, 5
— French—79
— Hungarian—303
— Prussian (Seehandlung)—420
Barbarians, barbarism—53, 228
Belgium—42, 198, 260
Bohemia, Bohemians (Czechs)—106, 161,
229, 382, 392, 394-95
Bourgeoisie—151, 191-92, 197
— French —79-82, 191, 197
— Hungarian—111
— Prussian—56, 69, 84-85, 108, 322-
24, 392, 445, 448, 453, 467
See also Capitalist; Class; Class struggle;
Petty bourgeoisie; Social relations; Society,
bourgeois
Bourgeois political economy—215, 222,
226
Bukovina, the—134, 159, 189, 334, 398
— revolutionary peasant movement
in 1849—289-90, 331, 425
C
Campaign for Imperial Constitution in
Germany— 378, 392, 399, 411-12,
416-17, 421, 426, 434-35, 447-49, 463,
465, 474-76
— uprising in Dresden (May 3-8,
1849)—411, 412, 416, 421, 426,
430, 435
— uprising in Rhine Province of Prussia—
412, 426, 428-29, 432-36,
447-49, 467
— uprising in Palatinate—411, 421,
474-76, 482-84
— uprising in Baden—421, 474-76
Capital
— definition—211-12
— prerequisites of—213
— wage labour as basis of and condition
for its development—198,
203, 213-16, 218-21, 225-28
— its movement as self-expanding
value—224
— its material content and social
form —211
— as social relation of production—
211, 212, 215, 220, 221
— as dominant social force of
bourgeois society—213
— and division of labour—222-28
— antithesis between capital and wage
labour—3, 198, 203, 213-16, 220-
21
— and wages—222-28
— as sum of commodities—212
— components of—212, 213
— concentration of—222
— migration of—3, 207-08
— historically transient character of—
212
— bourgeois economists' assertion on
community of interests of workers
and capitalists—214, 222, 227
Capitalist, capitalists
— interests and incentives—214
— as owner of conditions of labour—
202-03
— and worker—198, 203, 213-15
— and peasant—81-82
— and development of productive
forces of labour—223-24, 227-28
— big capitalists—227
— ruin of small capitalists by big
ones—227
— and rentiers—227
See also Capital; Exploitation
Causality
— necessary, inevitable consequence
— 191
— in history, historical causes—191
— in economics and political economy—
206
Cavalry—155, 268, 272, 284, 317, 424
Censorship— 51, 53, 70-71, 324,420,421,
432, 466
Centralisation of capital—227
Centralisation of the state—308-09
China—3, 7
Civilisation—216, 315
Civil society—52
Civil war—191-92, 403, 476
Class, classes
— as product of economic relations—
197
— class interests—214, 220-21
— class contradictions, antithesis between
proletariat and bourgeoisie—
191, 215, 220-21
— ruling, exploiter, propertied
classes—197, 325, 326
— middle classes, strata and estates—
198
— exploited, oppressed classes—327
— revolutionary—198, 326
— working class as the only consistently
revolutionary class — 198,
326
See also Class struggle; Peasantry; Petty
bourgeoisie; Social relations; Working
class
Class struggle
— and economic relations—197
— between workers and bourgeoisie
under developed class relations—
191, 197-98
— as political struggle—198
— and national question—197-98
— and revolution—198
See also Class; Political struggle; Social
relations; Working class
Code civil—52-54
Code penal— 52, 53, 125-26, 128, 129-31,
340-41, 372, 383-87
Cologne Workers' Association—494, 495,
498-500, 501, 502-03, 504
Commerce, trade
— and competition — 204
— and economic crises—5-8
— and revolution of 1848-49—5-7
See also Foreign trade; World market
Commodity— 212-13
— and its price—205-11
Communism
— international character of communist
transformation of society—
198
— and national question—197-98
Communist League
— the working out of tactical principles—
198, 492-93
— during revolution of 1848-49
—282, 494, 496, 498-500, 501,
502-03
— critique of Gottschalk's sectarian
position—498-500
— struggle to unite workers in a single
proletarian organisation—282,
494, 495, 501, 502-03
— and Neue Rheinische Zeitung—451-
54, 467
— and petty-bourgeois democrats—
143, 282, 494, 495, 502
Competition
— laws—223-25
— and division of labour—225, 227
— and development of productive
forces—222-25
— and wages—225-26
— among workers—225-26, 227, 228
— among capitalists—222, 224, 226
— and machinery—226-27
— between sellers and buyers—205-
09
— and price of commodity—205-09
Constitution—358, 387
— imposed Constitution in Austria—
47-49, 105, 107, 149, 257, 263-64
— imposed Constitution in Prussia—
47, 86, 135-37, 138, 139, 141, 257,
323, 370, 387, 430, 440
— German Imperial Constitution—
416, 417, 512
Consumption— 213
Corn Laws—4
Cost of production
— components of—208-09, 219
— factors changing it—222-23, 225
— of labour power—208-09
— and value of commodity—209
— and price of commodity—207-08,
219
— and labour productivity—220
— and profit—207
Counter-revolution—135-36, 173, 192,
198, 356, 359, 370, 377, 399, 426, 435,
453
See also Coup d'état; Coup d'état in
Austria; Coup d'état in Prussia
Coup d'état— 56, 105-07, 357
Coup d'état in Austria (March 1849)—
105-07
Coup d'état in Prussia (November-
December 1848)—48, 51, 87, 136,
137, 197, 326, 371
Credit— 227-28
Crises, trade—see Economic crises
Croatia, Croats— 75, 78, 106, 246. 292,
308, 363, 368, 410, 455
Czechs—see Bohemia
D
Danish-Prussian war of 1848-50—88,
295, 297
—' military operations—259-60, 295
— Malmö armistice—88
— and policy of Prussian Government—
88
See also Schleswig-Holstein question
Danube principalities—26, 162, 253, 345
See also Moldavia; Wallachia
Demand and supply—7, 205-09
— and competition — 205-06
— their proportionality—205-08
— law of demand and supply of
labour and wages—209
— and price of commodity—206-09
— and distribution of capital among
different branches of industry—
207-08
Democracy, democratic movement—84,
257, 282, 402
— bourgeois—498
— petty-bourgeois—502
— revolutionary—490-91
— proletarian—498, 502
Despotism
— as reactionary political rule—51,
126, 395, 418, 420
— military—53-54
Dictatorship, military ( "rule of the
sabre")—102-07, 127, 246, 327. 358,
416, 433, 441-46
E
East—475
Economic categories— 211-12
Economic crises
— their periodic character—228
— over-production as their main feature—
6, 8
— and position of working people—
228
— and prospects for revolution—6-7
— and development of productive
forces—227-28
— and trade — 5-8
— prosperity as phase of the cycle — 8
— trade crises—4-7
— crisis of 1846-47—4-5
Economic laws—226
— of capitalist production—224
— law of value—208-10
— laws of augmentation of value
(capital)—225
— law of the cost of production—225
— law of production's growth and
cheapening—225
— laws regulating wages — 209, 210,
219-20
— laws determining profit—219-21
Economic relations
— as material relations—197
— and classes, class struggle—197,
198
— and political relations, political
superstructure—197, 198
— in bourgeois society—197, 198
See also Civil society; Economics and
politics; Production relations
Economics and politics—197-98
Economy
— and rate of profit—206
Emigration, political—257-58
— German, in Switzerland — 55
Empiricism—197
England (Great Britain)—258, 385
— industry, trade and finance—3-8
— trade and industrial monopoly in
the world market—5, 198
— economic crises — 3-6
— political system, Constitution—22,
385
— legislation—22-23
— in 1848 and 1849—3-8
— and revolution in Europe—6-7,
258
— and China—3
— and India—3-4
— and Russia—197
— and USA—4, 7
See also Army, English
Estates, social
— peasant—198
— estates representation, assemblies
of estates—125, 127, 128, 130, 138
Europe—162, 198, 475-76
See also European war, Revolution of
1848-49 in Europe
European war—107, 163, 171, 455, 47G
Exchange
— and production — 211
— of activities — 211
— between labour and capital—213-
15
Exchange value—212-13
See also Value
Exploitation
— of labour power by capital—214,
226
— its growth with growth of production—
227
F
Family and marriage—52, 53
Foreign trade
— foreign trade balances — 5-7
— and England's monopoly of the
world market—5
See also Commerce; World market.
France
— during Consulate and First Empire—
53-54, 420
— during Restoration—80, 141, 323-
24
— during July 1830 revolution — 82,
414
— during July monarchy (1830-48) —
48, 51, 52, 80
— economy—7
— central representative institutions
—48, 51, 141
— legislation—52, 53-54
— September Laws on the press — 50,
52, 65, 127
— foreign policy—191-92
— colonial wars—155
— in 1848 and 1849—191-92
— and Austria—170, 414
— and Germany—414
— and Hungary—191
— and Italy—170, 191, 192
— and Poland—191, 192
— and Prussia—414, 420
— and Russia—414
See also Bourgeoisie, French; Code pénal;
French Revolution of 1789-94; June uprising
of Paris proletariat in 1848; Napoleonic
wars; Revolution in France. Second Republic
(1848-49); Wars of First French
Republic
Frankfurt National Assembly—36-37, 45,
47-49, 88, 193, 360, 377-78, 380, 421,
426, 438, 439, 465, 475, 476
— and coup d'état in Austria—106
— and coup d'état in Prussia—193-
94, 378
— imperial Constitution — 377, 378,
426, 465
— and question of Germany's unification—
138, 193-94, 377-78
Frankfurt uprising (September 1848) —
88, 377, 378
Freedom
— and right, law — 23
— personal—443
— political—445
— of speech—420, 443
— right of association and assembly—
50-51, 386, 389, 444, 445
— of the press — see Press
Free traders—4
FrenchRevolution of 1789-94
— role of the masses—172, 175
— revolutionary wars—173, 419
— and Austria—419
— and England—419
— and Germany—414, 419
— and Prussia—419
See also Jacobin dictatorship; Wars of
First French Republic
G
Galicia— 20-21, 106, 178, 186, 239, 253,
263, 289, 311, 313, 319, 337, 344, 401,
409
— peasant movement—345
German Confederation (1815-66)—296,
420
Germany
— population—56
— political system—8, 49, 453
— industry and trade—7, 8
— fragmentation and task of unification—
198, 378, 476
— democratic movement—84, 144
— bourgeois liberalism in 1840s—85,
321, 323
— opposition movement in early decades
of 19th century—420-21
— and French Revolution and
Napoleonic wars—414
— and July revolution of 1830 in
France—414
— and revolution of 1848-49 in
France—414
— the press, press laws, censorship—
13-18, 27-28, 33-35, 36-37, 38-40,
42, 55-56, 58, 59, 62, 70-71, 257,
326, 474, 476
— and Austria—47-49, 461-62
— and Denmark—88, 260
— and Hungary—378
— and Prussia—378
— and Russia—260, 313
— and Slavs—307-09
See also Baden; Palatinate; Prussia;
Revolution of 1848-49 in Germany,
Rhine Province of Prussia
Gold and silver—217
H
Hegelianism—421
Historicism
— historical character of labour—203
— historical character of production—
211-12
— historical character of economic,
production and social relations—
211-12
— historical character of capital
—211-12
History, historical development—5, 212
Holy Alliance—192
— its counter-revolutionary role—47,
48-49, 414, 419, 420, 464
— attempts to revive it in 1849—48-
49, 394-95, 414, 430-31, 462, 474
Hungary
— population—458
— industry, trade and finance—10,
31-32, 94, 107, 111, 133, 145, 178,
235, 248, 253, 255, 275, 303,
364-65
— peasantry—455
— political system, Constitution—
182, 230, 246, 369, 406
— abolition of feudalism—455, 456,
463
— national question, national liberation
movement—455
— in 1848 and 1849—187, 197,
455-63
— and Austria—93-94, 96, 100, 110-
11, 268, 391, 424-25, 455-62
—- and France—191
— and Galicia—21
— and Germany—463
— and Poland—461, 463
— and Prussia—394-95, 440
— and Russia—159, 182, 188-90,
235-36, 237, 248, 252, 268, 415,
455, 459
— and Turkey—145, 162
See also Aristocracy, Hungarian; Army,
Hungarian revolutionary; National liberation
war of 1848-49 in Hungary; Revolution
of 1848-49 in Hungary
I
Imperial Constitution in Germany—see
Campaign for Imperial Constitution in
Germany
Impoverishment of working class (relative)—
216-17, 219-21
Income
— of worker and his social position—
220-21
India—3, 4
Industrial reserve army—225-26
Industry (large-scale)
— machinery as basis of its development—
226, 227
— its capitalist character—226
— and competition—205
— and formation of proletariate—227
Instruments of labour—202, 208, 211-12
Interest, interests—214, 220, 221, 476
Ireland— 197
Italy
— struggle for unification—151, 169
— national movement—172
— in 1848 and 1849—56
— Savoy and Nice—170
— and Austria—107, 247, 461-62
See also Austro-Italian war of 1848-
49;Kingdom of Sardinia(Piedmont); Lombard")
and Venetian region; Revolution of
1848-49 in Italian states
J
Jacobin dictatorship, Jacobins—192, 384
Jews, Jewish question—112, 351, 360,455,
463
June uprising of Paris proletariat in
1848—81, 170, 453
— and petty-bourgeois democrats
—478
— establishment of Cavaignac's military
dictatorship, suppression of
uprising—80, 170, 370
— defeat of uprising and strengthening
of European counterrevolution—
170, 197-98,311,452-
53, 479
— and the proletarian press—108,
490
Junkers (Prussian)—54, 420
— and Polish question — 360-62
K
Kingdom of Sardinia (Piedmont)—see
Revolution of 1848-49 in Italian states
L
Labour— 203, 209, 213, 217, 225
— in class, bourgeois society—202-
03, 225
— as commodity—201-03
— estrangement of labour—226
— free labour as wage labour under
capitalism — 203
— as source of wealth — 215
— as source of value — 209, 218
— remuneration of compound,
skilled labour—227
— tendency to substitute simple labour
for compound labour
—224-26
— as function of labour power under
capitalism—201-03, 213-16
— surrender of labour to capital—
214, 218, 220
— demand and supply of labour—
209
— female labour—227
— child labour—227
Labour power
— as commodity—202-03
— costs of its production and reproduction
—208-09
— "labour-commodity", "value
(price) of labour"—201-03, 209-10
— labour as its function—201-03,
213-14
— and precapitalist modes of production—
203
See also Exploitation; Labour; Wages;
Worker
Labour time—201
— as measure of value—208
Landed property—81
Law, laws
— general and special—209, 210,219
— criminal—127
— Prussian—54, 127, 128, 129
See also Economic laws
Liberalism, liberals— 84-85, 137-38, 149,
456, 474
See also Frankfurt National Assembly;
Prussian National Assembly
Lombardy and Venetian region—66, 150,
151, 157, 280, 461
Lumpenproletariat— 43-44
M
Machines, machine production
— under capitalism—211, 222
— and accumulation of capital—224
— and growing competition among
workers—226, 227
— and division of labour—222-24
— and wage labour—225-26
— and productivity of labour—222
— and workers — 225-26
— and wages—217, 224-27
— and employment of female and
child labour—226-27
— and growth of industrial reserve
army—225-26
— invention and improvement of
machines—222-28
— bourgeois economists on employment
of machines in capitalist production—
226
See also Instruments of labour; Means of
production
Malmö negotiations and armistice—see
Danish-Prussian war of 1848-50
Man, individual, personality
— his activity—211
— and nature—211
— and society, social relations—211-
12
— and production, relations of production—
211-12
— and classes—203, 209, 210
— in bourgeois society—203, 210
Market— 3, 6, 7, 205, 220, 228
See also World market
Material, the— 212
— material foundation—197
— economic relations as material
foundation of class struggle—197
Materialist conception of history—211-12
See also Class ; Class struggle ; Economics
and politics; Historicism; Production;
Production relations; Productive forces
Means of production
— and instruments of production—
224
— material—212
— and mode of production — 224
— and productive forces — 212, 228
— and relations of production — 211-
12
— and division of labour—223, 224
— and society, social relations — 211-
12
— under capitalism—223-24, 227-28
— and economic crises—227-28
— their development—212, 223-25
— and cost of production — 223-25
Means of subsistence
— in social reproduction process—
213-15
— their production and consumption
under capitalism — 214
— and wages—217-18
— and reproduction of labour
power—214-15
— and growth of prices under
capitalism—217
Military art—181, 185
— and revolution — 346, 349
— strategy—159, 186, 189, 231-36,
335-36
— tactics—156-57, 174-76
Military Border area, borderers—99, 107,
246-47, 304, 308, 425
Military science
— material basis—211-12
— and social relations—211-12
Mode of production—224
Moldavia—159, 239, 311
Monarchy—7, 49, 171-74
See also Absolutism; England (Great
Britain); Monarchy, absolute; Monarchy,
constitutional; Prussia
Monarchy, absolute—141
— and working-class struggle—197,
326, 498
See also Despotism
Monarchy, constitutional—138, 141, 171,
198, 326-27, 453
Money
— as social and production relation—
211
Moravia—106, 161, 404-05, 409, 424
N
Napoleonic wars—149, 176, 261, 419-20
— war with third European coalition
(1805)—419
— war with fourth European coalition
(1806-07)—139, 419, 464
— war with sixth European coalition
(1813-14)—149, 419, 464
— war with seventh European coalition
(1815)—149, 176, 420
— war on Iberian Peninsula (1 SOSIS)—
171
— and England—419
— and Prussia—419-20
— and Russia—419
See also Vienna Congress of 1814-15
and ViennaTreaties of 1815
National liberation struggle—197
— and class struggle—197-98
— as component part of bourgeois
democratic revolutions—197, 455,
463
— and revolutionary war—171
— struggle of oppressed nationalities
for independence, and working
class—197
See also National liberation war of
1848-49 in Hungary; National question
National liberation war of 1848-49 in
Hungary—17, 57, 120, 135, 148-49,
162, 171, 241, 395, 412, 455-63, 474
— military operations on central front
(on the Theiss)—14, 15-16, 28, 63,
123, 152-54, 160, 185-86, 232-35,
238, 244, 253
— battle at Kapolna—9, 13-14, 19-20,
24-25, 26, 27, 29, 76, 110
— defence of Komorn — 30, 112, 114,
149, 161, 180, 187, 190, 236, 238,
245, 248, 253, 256, 285, 288, 303,
314, 330, 331, 333, 336, 337, 342,
344, 346, 350-51, 352, 354, 381
— military operations in Transylvania—
9, 17,25,26,31,61,62,94,
112, 113-14, 134, 146, 158-60,168,
182, 188-89, 235-36, 242-44, 248,
252-53, 256, 262, 270, 278, 279,
319
— military operations in Voivodina
and Banat—26, 31, 97, 114-15,
123, 159, 161, 182, 236, 242, 250-
51, 255, 262, 278, 285, 294, 304,
319, 334, 337, 344-45, 406, 410,
425
— Hungarian counter-offensive in
spring 1849—261, 262, 267, 268-
70, 271-75, 277-78, 279, 283-84,
286, 288, 292-93, 300-01, 302-14,
307, 330, 335-37, 343-44, 346, 349,
350, 352, 354, 356, 381, 390-91,
396-97, 400-01, 406, 409, 424-26,
459-62
— and prospects for revolution in
Europe—163, 311, 352, 356, 379,
426, 454, 461-63
See also Hungary; Revolution of 1848-
49 in Hungary
National question—197
— class character—197-98
— liberation of oppressed nations as
component part of struggle for
democratic reform -i-151, 455-56,
461-63, 476
— and bourgeoisie—151
— and working class and workers'
movement—197
— proletarian revolution as way to
complete abolition of national oppression—
197-98
Nature— 211, 219
Navy (German)—259-60
Necessity and chance—208
Needs— 216, 219, 228
Neue Rheinische Zeitung—37, 467
— organ of proletarian wing of democracy—
36-37, 84-85, 108, 198,
449, 452-54, 467
— its programme during 1848-49 revolution—
170-71, 172-73, 197-98,
258, 282, 313, 326-28, 352, 356,
378, 392-93, 399, 402-03, 409, 417,
422, 426-27, 448, 449, 452-54, 461,
462-63, 474-75, 502-03
— defence of workers' interests—80-
81, 191, 197-98, 215, 216-21, 225-
28, 326-27, 392-93, 402-03, 413,
415, 434, 449, 453, 467, 502
— solidarity with Paris proletarian
uprising of June 1848—108, 452-
53, 479, 510
— and struggle against counter-revolution—
47-54, 56, 65-69, 84,
102-07, 125-32, 191-92, 325-26,
357-58, 359, 370-71, 377-78, 380,
389, 394-95, 402, 411-12, 417,
418-20, 430-31, 435, 440-44, 464-
66, 479
— critique of liberals' agreement policy
and petty-bourgeois democrats'
vacillations—33-35, 84-85, 143,
191-92, 291, 322-23, 377, 402,
438-39, 477-79
— exposure of the counter-revolutionary
press — 55-56, 65-69,
70, 108, 109, 149, 158, 176, 268,
275, 294, 306, 314-15, 336-37, 343,
426-27, 450-51, 474, 476
— and campaign for imperial Constitution—
378, 416-17, 443-49,
474-76
— attitude towards national liberation
movements—151, 162, 170, 171,
172-73, 175, 181-82, 197, 295-98,
305, 307-10, 346, 349, 356, 359-62,
378, 395, 411-12, 426, 461-62, 463
— persecution by reactionaries—451-
54, 480, 487-88, 492-93, 496-97,
509-12, 517-22, 524
Nobility, German—131
Nobility, Italian—151
P
Palatinate, the—412, 474-76
Pan-Slavism—12, 105, 106, 308
Papal states—see Revolution of 1848-49 in
Italian states
Parliament
— its role and class character—136,
137, 138, 141-42, 281
— parliamentary tactics of revolutionaries—
54, 67-69, 71, 136,
137-38
See also Frankfurt National Assembly;
Prussian Diet; Prussian National Assembly
Party, proletarian—327, 479
See also Communist League
Peasantry
— serfs—203
— in bourgeois revolution—80-81,
197
— under capitalism—198
— as commodity producer—203
Peasantry in Hungary—455
Peasantry in Poland—463
Peasantry in Prussia—326
Peasant uprisings, movements—see Bukovina;
Galicia; Revolution of 1848-49 in
Austrian Empire
People, popular masses— 326, 378, 427
— as decisive force in revolution—
175, 422
— people's right to revolution—49,
56
Petty bourgeoisie
— French —79-80
— German—378
— Hungarian—94
Philistinism—55, 114, 159, 358
Poland
— population—359-60
— nobility—360-62
— peasantry, serfdom—463
— landownership—360, 361, 362
— and army—296-98
— partitions of—370, 371, 418-19,
441, 463
— national question—359-60
— insurrection of 1830-31 — 18, 87,
169, 286, 420, 463
— and revolution of 1848-49—197,
311, 371, 461, 463
— oppression and plunder by German
ruling classes—359-62, 418-
20, 441
— and Austria—360, 461, 463
— and France—191
— and Germany—313
— and Prussia—359-62, 441, 463
— and Russia—18. 311-12, 360, 441,
462
See also Galicia; Posen
Police and legal persecution
— of democrats and workers' leaders—
50-51, 66-68, 69, 376, 389
— Lassalle's case—337-39, 372-74,
383-87
— of the press—50-54, 70-71, 125-
32, 451-54, 466
See also Neue Rheinische Zeitung
Political struggle
— economic relations as material basis
of—197-98
— as form of class struggle—197-98
See also Working-class movement in
Germany; Working-class movement in
Switzerland
Posen, Posen uprising (1848)—88, 195-96,
296-98
Possibility and necessity—223
Press, the
— reactionary, its role as mouthpiece
for counter-revolutionary forces
—22-23, 31, 38-39, 55-56, 58-60,
62, 65-66, 68, 109, 166, 182, 187,
190, 335-37, 343, 437, 476
— liberal, its narrow-class and greatpower
tendencies—13-18, 33-35,
108, 149, 152, 158, 176, 194, 243,
257, 266, 268, 275, 280, 294, 306,
309, 315, 316, 436, 450, 465
— revolutionary—36-37, 323, 326-
27, 447, 449, 452-54, 467, 509-10,
511-12, 513, 523
— freedom of—18, 84, 125, 131,323,
327, 386, 444, 445, 466, 512
See also Neue Rheinische Zeitung
Price, prices
— definition—201, 205-10, 213, 218
— average—219
— of necessaries—218
— influence of labour productivity
on value and price of commodities—
219-20
— and competition — 205-09
— and cost of production—207-09,
219
— and wages—209, 217
— and demand and supply—206-08
Production
— as man's relation to and influence
on nature—211
— as basis of society, of history—211-
12
— and social relations, social system
—211-12
— and military science—211-12
— and exchange—211
— its historical character and development—
211-12
See also Means of production; Mode of
production; Production relations; Productive
forces
Production relations
— and production as relation of man
to nature—211
— society, social relations, social system
as sum total of production
relations—212
— and productive forces—211-12
— and means of production—211-12
— and social relations of production—
211-12
— their historical character, changeability
and transformation—212
— in slave-owning society—212
— in feudal society—212
— in bourgeois, capitalist society—
212
— capital as production relation—
212
Productive and unproductive labour—202,
222-23
Productive capital—214-15
— form of capital in production
process—215
— and worker—215, 216, 221, 227
— and wages—216, 221-28
— and reproduction and accumulation
of capital—215
See also Capital
Productive forces
— people, workers, labour power as
productive force—226
— worker as mere productive force
under capitalism—226
— means of production as productive
force—211-12
— and production relations—211-12
— and military science—211-12
— their development—212
— under capitalism—223-26
See also Means of production; Production
Productivity of labour—224
— significance of its rise for individual
capitalists and capitalist class as a
whole—224
— its growth as expression of capitalism's
progressive role in history as '
compared with feudal society—
224
— and value (price) of commodity
— 220, 222
— and production costs—220
— and division of labour—222-26
— and machines, inventions, discoveries—
222, 224. 225
— and workers' condition — 225
Profit
— source and condition of formation—
218, 220
— its laws—219-21
— and price of commodity—218
— and wages—218-21
— and economy on production
costs—207
— net profit of capitalist—219, 221
See also Exploitation
Proletariat—see Working class
Propaganda—see Agitation and propaganda
Prussia— 281, 291, 440-41
— Prussians, Prussianism—50, 54,
298, 395, 413, 444, 467
— history—418-19, 440-41
— during French Revolution and
Napoleonic wars—419, 441
— between 1815 and 1848—360,
395, 420-21
— and July revolution of 1830 in
France—420
— landownership—360-62
— finances, budget, taxes—361-62,
420, 421
— survivals of feudalism—52, 139
— peasantry—326
— political and state system—51-52,
54, 68, 138, 141, 327, 418-20, 453
— rule of the military, militarism—
392, 420
— bureaucracy, officialdom—23, 52,
54, 142, 326, 327, 419, 420, 430,
444
— police system —52, 126-27, 325,
329, 420
— legislation—22-23, 50-54, 291
— Constitution, constitutional question—
22, 47, 48, 86-87, 131, 135-
41, 143, 295, 321-23, 357-58,
370, 387, 420, 430-32, 441-46
— judiciary, judicial system—67, 88,
373, 384, 420, 432, 433, 451
— laws—52, 54, 65, 125-32, 384
— electoral law, suffrage—140, 142,
358, 370, 392
— the press, press laws, censorship—
13-18, 50-54, 65, 70-71,
125-32, 257, 306, 320-29, 358,
419-21, 432-33, 436-37, 466
— as a bulwark of counter-revolution—
47, 48, 55-56, 88, 257,
370-71, 380, 411, 416, 418-19,
430-31, 440-41, 463, 464
— as an obstacle in the way of uniting
Germany democratically—88, 138,
193-94, 377-78, 420, 465-66
— and attempts to revive Holy Alliance
in 1849—48-49, 394-95,
414, 419, 420, 430-31, 432, 441,
462, 474
— foreign policy and diplomacy—
421
— and Austria—257, 394, 419, 421,
430, 440, 441, 474
— and England—419
— and France—418-19, 441
— and Germany—395, 417
— and Hungary—394-95, 440, 462
— and Poland —359-62, 418-20, 441
— and Russia —394, 418-19, 430,
440-41, 464, 474
— and Sweden—418
See also Army, Prussian; Bourgeoisie,
Prussian; Germany; Junkers (Prussian);
Prussian Diet (1849); Prussian National
Assembly; Revolution of 1848-49 in
Prussia; Rhine Province of Prussia;
United Diet in Prussia; Working class in
Prussia
Prussian Diet (1849) —65, 66-68, 71,
357-58, 441
— First Chamber—56, 358
— Second Chamber—54, 86-89, 135-
43, 281, 291, 295-98, 320-29, 357-
58, 394, 417, 440
— the Left—136-37, 140, 142, 143,
320-23, 370, 371
— the Right—136, 137, 139-40, 141,
322, 326-27, 394
— the Centre—320, 394
— dispersal of Chambers—370-71,
386-87, 394, 430, 440, 441, 462
Prussian National Assembly—33, 65, 135,
136, 141, 357, 374, 385, 387, 430,441,
465
See also Coup d'état in Prussia
(November-December 1848)
Q
Quality and quantity
— labour, commodity, value—213
R
Railways—3, 7
Raw materials—202, 208, 212
Relativity— 206, 216
— the absolute and the relative—220-
21
— of needs—216
— relative impoverishment of proletariat—
216-17, 219-21
— relative and absolute wages—216-
21
Rentiers— 227
Republic
— bourgeois, democratic—7-8, 42,
191-92, 197, 198
— proletarian ("red")—100, 191,
448, 452, 454, 490
Revolt— 392-93
Revolution
— and class struggle—197-98
See also Revolution, bourgeois; Revolution,
permanent; Revolution, popular;
Revolution, proletarian
Revolution, bourgeois
— motive forces—175
— bourgeoisie's striving to compromise,
a deal with feudal reaction—
47-49, 56, 67-69, 84-85, 86-
89, 135-43, 295, 322-24, 325-27
— and working class—191-92, 197,
449, 467
— as a step to proletarian revolution—
449
— need for revolutionary methods of
struggle to carry it through —171
— and national question—151, 197-
98, 462, 476
— and peasantry—80-81
See also Class struggle; French Revolution
of 1789-94; Revolution of 1848-49
in Europe; Revolution, popular
Revolution of 1848-49 in Austrian Empire
— uprising in Vienna on March 13,
1848—108, 149, 455
— uprising in Vienna on October 6,
1848—47, 197,296,311,313,377,
441, 456, 461
— Court party—105, 456, 457
— bureaucracy—149
— bourgeoisie—111, 299
— working class—368, 378
— peasantry—106, 117, 299
— army—7, 148, 149, 456, 457, 462
— Imperial Diet—48, 105, 457
— liberal Government—456
— Constitution, constitutional question—
48, 49, 105-07, 149, 230
— national question—12, 73, 98, 99-
100, 105-07, 116, 123, 146-47, 155
— and revolution in Europe—352
— and Hungary—102, 105, 106, 148-
49, 352, 357, 378, 455-63
— and Italy—105, 148-51, 456,
461-62
— and Czechs—105, 296, 392, 456
— and Poles—361, 461, 463
— and Slavs—102-06, 148, 149, 229,
246, 296, 452, 456
— and Russian Tsarism—107,311-13,
455, 462
— and Frankfurt National Assembly_
47-49, 106, 377-78
— and appraisal of revolution, prospects
in 1849—107, 352, 357, 378,
392, 461-63
See also Austria; Austro-Italian war of
1848-49; National liberation war of
1848-49 in Hungary
Revolution of 1848-49 in Europe—102,
140
— and bourgeoisie—197
— and peasantry—197
— and working class—197-98
— and national movements—197
— development of revolution in
France as decisive factor—414-15,
426-27, 454, 463
— and struggle for Germany's democratic
unification and revolutionary
transformation as its component
part—378, 463, 476
— national liberation movement in
Hungary as its important element—
106, 162, 197, 356, 455,
461-62, 463
— and revolutionary struggle for national
liberation in Italy—106,
170-71, 197
— and possibility of a European
war—106, 163, 169, 197-98, 454,
455, 463, 475-76
— and world war—198, 454
— and counter-revolution and reaction—
169, 172-73, 356, 414, 426-
27, 453, 463
— and Austria—107, 197, 352, 356,
475
— and England—197, 463
— and Germany—197, 463, 475-76
— and Prussia—426, 475
— and Tsarist Russia—197, 414-15,
454, 455, 474, 476
— and disillusionment of democrats—
103
— preliminary results by beginning of
1849, appraisal and prospects—5-
8, 102, 162, 197-98, 356, 454,
475-76
Revolution in France. Second Republic
(1848-49)
— February revolution of 1848—79,
197, 453, 455, 479
— Provisional Government—79-81,
191-92
— popular uprising on May 15,
1848—81
— election of Louis Bonaparte as
President—170
— National Assembly—479
— Odilon Barrot Government—170,
191-92, 414
— National party (moderate republicans)—
79, 192, 197, 478
— New Mountain party (bloc of
democrats and socialists)—477-79
— Bonapartists—192
— legitimists—80, 81, 82, 192
— Orleanists—80, 82
— and bourgeoisie—78-82, 191, 197
— and petty bourgeoisie—79-82
— and working class, its role in revolution—
80, 81, 82, 197, 479
— workers' associations, secret
societies—170, 478
— petty-bourgeois democrats' action
on June 13, 1849—477-79
— and big landowners—80-83
— and peasantry—80-83
— its impact on European countries—
135, 170, 426-27, 452-53,
454, 463
— and prospects for development of
revolution—57, 135, 149, 170
— foreign policy of Second Republic—
173, 191-92
— and Italy—170-71, 191-92
— European counter-revolution —
170, 414, 415
See also June uprising of Paris proletariat
in 1848
Revolution of 1848-49 in Germany —
392-93, 399
— March revolution—52, 55, 69, 84,
108, 109, 125, 127-29, 139, 194,
197, 399, 475-76
— and attitude of bourgeoisie—68-
69, 108, 197, 313,325,327,402-03,
426, 446, 448, 453, 467
— and working class—56, 197-98,
282, 324, 326, 329, 392-93,402-03,
413, 434, 447-49, 467, 494, 495,
498-500, 501, 502-04, 506-07
— and peasantry—197, 326, 378
— and petty bourgeoisie—378
— liberal professors as champions of
bourgeoisie—48-49
— democratic movement and attitude
of petty-bourgeois democrats—
36-37, 65,84-85, 136, 137-42, 143,
282, 322-26, 370, 371, 374, 389,
392, 402, 490-91, 494, 498, 502
— and absolutism—371, 453, 498
— and struggle against survivals of
feudalism—52, 139
— fragmentation of the country and
tasks of unification — 85, 88, 138,
193-94, 257, 295, 371, 377-78,465,
476
— Schleswig-Holstein question—88,
257, 296, 298
— national question, policy towards
oppressed nationalities—298, 476
— and national liberation of Poland—
296-98, 359, 362, 371, 378,
418-19
— and revolution of 1848-49 in Austria—
108, 441, 452
— and revolution of 1848-49 in
France—57, 108, 135, 414, 426,
443, 463, 474-75
— and revolution of 1848-49 in Hungary—
56, 257, 357, 371, 378, 412,
426, 440, 461-63
— and revolutionary struggle for national
liberation in Italy—57, 296
— and Austria—378, 412
— and Poland—88, 296-98, 359-62,
371, 378, 419
— and Prussia—88-89, 193-94, 257,
377-80, 394-95, 411-15, 421-22,
430-31, 438-40, 464-66
— and Russia—135, 311-13, 394-95,
412, 414-15, 430, 440, 441, 464,
474, 476
— and Slavs—452
— counter-revolutionary offensive
—54, 55-57, 69, 86-87, 135-36,
3IS, 325-26, 327, 357-58, 360,
370-71, 377-80, 386-89, 392-93,
402, 411, 414, 421, 426, 430-31,
432, 438-46, 452, 464-65
— results and appraisal of revolution
—54, 109, 371, 426, 449, 453, 476
See also Baden; Campaign for Imperial
Constitution in Germany; Cologne Workers'
Association; Communist League;
Danish-Prussian war of 1848-50; Frankfurt
National Assembly; Frankfurt uprising
(September 1848); Neue
Rheinische Zeitung; Palatinate; Prussian
Diet (1849); Prussian National
Assembly; Revolution of 1848-49 in
Austrian Empire; Revolution of 1848-49
in Prussia ; Rhine Province of Prussia
Revolution of 1848-49 in Hungary
— position on the eve of revolution—
455
— revolutionary events in March
1848—455
— anti-feudal agrarian reforms —
351, 390, 456, 463
— landed aristocracy, magnates, toprank
officers—40, 186, 456, 457
— peasant movement—351
— national question, nationalities policy—
77, 98, 148, 390, 456, 461-62
— and Slavs—148, 162, 456
— sympathy with revolution on the
part of oppressed peoples of
Austrian Empire—93-94, 123-24,
150, 351, 390, 409, 459-61, 463
— and uprising in Vienna on October
6, 1848—456, 461
— Constitution, constitutional question—
369, 452
— proclamation of Hungary's independence—
397, 407-08, 425, 461
— prospects for revolution, its influence
on development of revolution
in Europe—57, 135, 352, 356, 357,
371, 378, 412, 426, 454, 455,
461-63
— and Austria—148, 352, 356, 368,
397-98, 412, 426, 440, 455-57,461,
462
— and Prussia—371, 394-95, 414-15,
440, 462-63, 475
— and Russian Tsarism—311, 313,
395, 412, 440, 454, 459, 462, 463,
474
— and German liberals—149, 474
— results and appraisal of revolution—
171, 395, 414-15, 455,
461-63
See also Aristocracy, Hungarian; Army,
Hungarian revolutionary; Banat;
Bukovina; Croatia; Galicia; Military
Border area; National liberation war of
1848-49 in Hungary; Serbs of the Voivodina
; Transylvania ; Voivodina
Revolution of 1848-49 in Italian states
— general characteristic and tasks
— 7, 57, 135, 148, 149, 151,
169-70, 171-77, 197, 461
— in Lombardy and Venetian region—
148, 150, 151, 172, 175,
461
— in Kingdom of Sardinia (Piedmont)—
148, 149, 151, 169-70,
171-72, 173-75, 177
— in Tuscany—148, 149, 170, 172,
173
— in Papal states—148, 149, 170,
172, 173
— Roman Republic (1849)—170,
172, 426
— in Parma and Modena—150, 173
— and prospects for revolution in
Europe—170-71, 197
— and France—170
— defeat of revolution, causes—148,
169-73, 175, 197-98
See also Austro-Italian war of 1848-49
Revolution of 1848-49 in Prussia
— March revolution—69, 108, 109,
125, 129-30, 139, 194, 360, 387,
415, 440, 441, 443, 452, 465
— attitude of bourgeoisie—108, 325-
27, 392, 446, 448, 453, 467
— policy of big bourgeoisie, of financial
aristocracy—68-69
— liberals—85
— drafting of Constitution—140,
357, 430-31
— Camphausen-Hansemann Government—
138, 359, 380
— Auerswald-Hansemann Government—
138
— Pfuel Government—138
— role of working class in its development—
392-93, 402-03, 413, 434,
449, 467
— and peasantry—326, 378
— and petty bourgeoisie—378
— democratic movement, attitude of
petty-bourgeois democrats—84,
136-37, 143, 282, 402, 498
— and nobility, junkers—69, 325-27,
362, 430
— and absolutism, absolutist feudal
party—68, 371, 430, 453
— and bureaucracy—52, 325-27,
430, 444
— and jurists, judiciary—67-68, 339-
41, 372-76, 383-88
— and the Prussian military—88,
357, 392, 433, 442-45
— army reserve (Landwehr)—195-
96, 414-15, 416, 423, 426, 434,
466
— civic militia (Bürgerwehr)— 374,
375, 416, 423
— and Rhine Province of Prussia—
54, 195, 386-89, 392-93, 416-
17, 426, 434, 435, 454
— events in Cologne (September
1848)—389, 393
— offensive by counter-revolution
and reaction—47, 50-54, 69, 86-
87, 135-36, 325-27, 357-58, 370-71,
386-89, 402, 411, 430-31, 432-33,
440-46, 464-66
— Brandenburg-Manteuffel Government—
56, 65, 86, 125, 129-31,
380, 421
— and movement for refusal to pay
taxes—67-68, 69, 125-26, 136, 137
— Prussian Constitution of December
5, 1848 (imposed Constitution)—
47, 86-87, 135-36, 139-40,
357, 387, 430, 432, 440-41
— and revolution in Europe—357,
371, 378, 454
— and revolution of 1848-49 in Austria—
108, 378, 412, 441, 453
— and revolution of 1848 in France
—57, 135, 426, 427, 453
— and revolution of 1848-49 in Hungary—
57, 135, 257, 371, 378, 394-
95, 412
— and national liberation of Poland—
88, 296-98, 359-62, 371,
378, 419
— and national movement in Schleswig-
Holstein—88, 195, 257
— and France—414, 474-75
— and Italy—57
— and Russia—135, 311-13, 412,
414-15, 440-41, 464, 476
See also Cologne Workers' Association;
Coup d'état in Prussia (November-
December 1848); Neue Rheinische
Zeitung; Posen; Prussian Diet (1849);
Prussian National Assembly; Rhenish
District Committee of Democrats; Rhine
Province of Prussia; Working class in
Prussia
Revolution, permanent—449
Revolution, popular—399
Revolution, proletarian, socialist—198,
467, 490
— peaceful and non-peaceful ways of
carrying it out—453, 454
— and liberation of oppressed nations—
197-98
See also June uprising of Paris proletariat
in 1848; Revolution, permanent; Uprising,
armed
Rhenish District Committee of Democratic
Associations—282, 502
Rhenish District Committee of Democrats—
375
Rhine Province of Prussia—52, 54, 125-
32, 195, 370, 389, 392-93, 394-95,
402-03, 412, 416-17, 423, 428-29, 436,
465-66, 467, 506-10
— legislation—54, 131
— Congress of Democratic and Workers'
Associations—506-07
— and Prussia—131, 360, 395, 465,
467
Right
— bourgeois—127, 360
Romanians—155, 319
— in Transylvania—25-26, 159, 190,
230, 319, 457
Royal power, royalty—42, 137, 171, 362
Russia
— and Austria—186-87, 394, 414,
415
— and England — 7
— and France—414
— and Germany—311, 313, 414-15
— and Hungary—17-18, 26, 114,
173,186-87, 188-90, 248, 253,262,
415, 455, 459
— and Poland—18, 311, 420
— and Prussia—394-95, 414, 420-21,
430, 441, 474
— and Turkey—253, 263
See also Holy Alliance; Napoleonic wars;
Pan-Slavism; Revolution of 1848-49 in
Hungary; Tsarism
Ruthenians—294, 456
S
Saxons, in Transylvania—25, 112, 114,
159, 248, 287, 457
See also Transylvania
Schleswig-Holstein question—88, 195-96,
257
See also Danish-Prussian war of 1848-
50- Frankfurt National Assembly: Revolution
of 1848-49 in Germany; Revolution
of 1848-49 in Prussia
Scholastics—48
Separatism—see Sonderbund (Switzerland)
Serbs of the Voivodina— 78, 97-100, 106,
112, 114-15, 123-24, 133, 146, 155,
183-84, 190, 229, 236, 244, 246, 254,
262, 279, 286, 294, 304, 313, 351,
409-11, 425
Serbs, Turkish—99, 117
Silesia— 87, 88, 361, 401, 409, 416
Slav Congress in Prague—308
Slavery, slaves—203, 211
Slavonia, Slavonians—124, 307-10
Slavs, the Slav question
— in Austrian Empire—148, 149,
296, 456
— prospects for Austrian Slavs' participation
in revolution—26
— conservative national movements—
307-09, 452
Slav question in 1848-49 and revolution—
229
See also Banat; Bohemia; Croatia;
Morttvia; Pan-Slavism; Poland; Revolution
of 1848-49 in Austrian Empire;
Revolution of 1848-49 in Hungary; Serbs
of the Voivodina ; Slavonia ; Slovakia
Slovakia, Slovaks— 61-62, 93-94, 100,
120, 162, 235, 241, 299, 319, 351,390,
397, 401, 409
Small countries and nations—18, 171
Socialists in Germany—198
Social relations, social system—211-12
— and man's relation to nature—211
— and society—212
— and man, individual—211
— and production—211-12
— and productive forces—211-12
— and means of production, instruments
of labour—211-12
— social production relations—211-
12
— historical character of—211-12
— and social revolution—463
— in slave-owning society—212
— in feudal society—212, 463
— in bourgeois society—211-12
— and categories of bourgeois
economics—211-12
— and military science—211-12
Society, bourgeois—212
— economic basis—208, 212, 222
— social relations in—211-12
See also Capital; Capitalist; Class;
Class struggle ; Social relations ; Working
class
Society, feudal—212
— social relations in—212, 463
Society, slave-owning—212
Sonderbund (Switzerland)—42, 44, 45,
106
Sovereignty of the people—68
Spain—171
Speculation—3, 7
State, the—68
— bourgeois—198
— feudal, absolutist—7, 68
See also Absolutism; Monarchy; Monarchy
absolute; Monarchy, constitutional
State power
— as tool of bourgeoisie's class domination—
211, 212
Stock Exchange—5, 145, 161, 316, 395
Strategy (military)—228-35
Supply and demand—see Demand and
supply
Switzerland— 42-46, 198
— and revolutions of 1848-49 in
Europe —55, 198
— and working class—42-44
— and peasantry—44
— social and political system—44,
198
— Federal Council (Government) —
44
— policy towards refugees—45
— Swiss recruits—45
— political parties—43-44
— the press—44-45
— and Italy—45
— and Prussia—45
See also Sonderbund
Szeklers—9, 17, 25, 61, 94, 114, 154, 158,
159, 331
See also Transylvania
T
Terror, terrorism
— revolutionary—173, 187, 190,235,
453
— during French Revolution—173,
382
— counter-revolutionary—190, 235,
453
See also Jacobin dictatorship
Trade balance—5-7
Transylvania—21, 25-26, 97, 115, 122,
124, 134, 154, 190, 230, 237-38, 279,
287, 289, 294, 313, 331-32, 337, 346,
366-67, 369, 409. 456, 457, 458-59
Tsarism, Tsarist autocracy (as bulwark of
reaction in Europe)— 391, 394-95, 398,
414-15, 419, 421, 440, 441. 462-63
Turkey— 52, 73, 162
— and Austria—74
— and Hungary—162
— and Russia—162, 253, 262
U
United Diet in Prussia—87, 125, 143,
358, 387, 421
United States of America—4, 6-7
— and England—4
— Oregon conflict—4 
See also America
Uprising, armed— 49, 57, 140, 151, 157,
170, 171, 173, 175, 198, 234-35, 370
See also Campaign for Imperial Constitution
in Germany; June uprising of
Paris proletariat in 1848} Revolution,
proletarian
V
Value— 218
— and productivity of labour—219-
20
— and cost of production — 208
See also Exchange value
Vienna Congress of 1814-15 and Vienna
Treaties of 1815—127, 191, 192, 360,
395, 525
Voivodina, the— 40, 98, 116, 147, 161,
244, 289, 307, 319, 332, 410
See also Serbs of the Voivodina
W
Wage labour— 203
— as basis, condition and result of
development of capital—198, 203,
213-16, 218-20, 226, 228
— conditions for its existence—203
— distinction from previous forms of
labour—203
— as formally free labour—203
— antagonism between capit.il and
wage labour—198, 203, 213-15,
220-21
See also Exploitation; Labour
Wages
— as form of value (price) of labour
power—202-04, 209-10, 217, 227
— and reproduction of labour
power—209-10, 227
— laws of—209-10, 219-22
— minimum—210, 227
— as component of cost of production—
209-10, 218
— as income of worker—220-21
— nominal and real—217-18, 220
— absolute and relative—216-21
— pay for compound, skilled labour
—227
— and price of commodity—209, 217
— and money—217
— and profit—217-18, 228
— and demand and supply of
labour—209, 216
— and employment of machinery—
217, 225-27
— and capitalist competition—225
— and competition among workers—
225-26
— and means of subsistence—217-18
Wallachia, Wallachians—\89, 229, 237-
38, 242, 252-53, 263, 287, 311, 346
War, wars—173
— and bourgeoisie—191-92
— and revolution, revolutionary
movement—151, 170, 171, 172,
197, 198, 454, 461-63
— revolutionary—162, 171, 173,455,
476
— people's, national—171-73, 175,
475
— national liberation—151, 171, 172,
197, 461-62
— guerilla—117, 151, 155, 159, 162,
171, 176, 241, 458
— civil—191-92
— colonial—4, 155
— world—198
See also Austro-Italian war of 1848-49;
Danish-Prussian war of 1848-50;
Napoleonic wars; National liberation war
of 1848-49 in Hungary; Wars of First
French Republic
Wars of First French Republic (end of
18th-beginning of 19th centuries) —
80, 139, 173, 419, 441
Worker— 202-03, 213-15, 225
— as owner of "labour power" commodity—
202, 203
— separation, estrangement of workers
from means and products of
labour and production—202
— his interests—220, 221, 449
— his income—220-21
— his wages—202
— competition among workers—225-
28
— and capitalist—198, 203, 213-15
— and productivity of labour—224
— and machines—226, 227
— "free" worker—203
— wage worker—203, 215
— conditions of his labour—202
See also Labour; Labour power; Machines;
Wage labour; Wages; Working
class
Working class—467
— its augmentation at the expense of
other classes and sections of the
population — 227
— its numerical growth—214, 221
— its condition—221
— economic dependence on the
capitalist—203, 213-15, 219, 221
— use by bourgeoisie of competition
among workers—227
— as the only consistently revolutionary
class—198, 326
— as motive power in revolution—
197-98
— and national liberation movement—
197-98
See also Class; Class struggle; Working
class in Prussia ; Working-class movement
in Germany
Working class in France—80-81, 191-92,
197, 453, 479, 490
See also June uprising of Paris proletariat
in 1848; Revolution in France. Second
Republic (1848-49)
Working class in Germany—56-57, 197-
98, 326, 378, 392-93, 402, 403, 423,
434, 448-49, 467, 502-03
Working class in Prussia—56-57, 326,
392-93, 402-03, 413, 467, 495, 501,
502-03, 506-07
Working-class movement in Germany—
326-27, 494, 498-500, 504
See also Revolution of 1848-49 in Germany;
Working class in Germany
Working-class movement in Switzerland—
42, 44
World market—3
— England's domination of—198







MECW 10








A
Agricultural workers— 280, 284-85, 375,
502, 503
Agriculture—120, 121, 255, 284-85, 335,
401, 502-03
A Ibigenses— 413-14
Anabaptists— 420, 425, 452
Anarchism, anarchists—334, 486-87
Anarchy (political)—131, 142, 486, 522
Ancient Rome—244
Ancient world, antiquity—244, 265, 512,
590
Antagonism—47, 69, 86, 95, 125, 441-43
— of interests—58, 116
— of classes—47, 57, 387
— between proletariat and bourgeoisie—
86, 177, 308
— elimination of as a result of communist
transformation of society—
307-08, 387
Appropriation
— of means of production—78
Arbitrariness (in antagonistic class societ
y)_567-68, 569-70, 577
Aristocracy— 48, 294, 331, 342, 512
— and bourgeoisie—273, 294
— financial—48-52, 60, 95, 114-15,
118, 331, 342
— and working class—294
Aristocracy, English—115, 254-55, 293,
296, 443, 512
Aristocracy, German—see Nobility, German
Aristocracy, Hungarian—438-40
Armaments, weapons—400, 403, 556
Arming of the people—284-85
Army
— and economy—11-12, 550-54
— as a tool of reaction for suppressing
revolutionary movements—118,
130, 580
— under feudalism—407, 551-52
— under capitalism—548-50
— and proletariat—554, 555
— and peasantry—551, 554, 555
— and bourgeois, bourgeois-democratic
revolution—172, 550, 553,
554
— and proletarian revolution, transformation
of armed forces after
victory of proletariat—376, 550,
553-56, 560, 561-63
— revolutionary—560-63
— national, regular, irregular army,
militia—206, 548, 552, 560
— personnel—180-81, 544, 547, 549-
51, 554-56, 561, 562
— Austrian—11-12, 15, 173, 268,
547-49, 551, 552-53, 557, 559
— Belgian—557
— Danish—375-76, 557
— Dutch—557
— English—549, 551
— French—25, 32, 34, 58, 62, 65, 76,
81, 98, 103, 104, 106, 118, 124,
128, 130, 137, 143-44, 341, 517,
523, 543, 544-46, 549-52, 555, 556,
559-61, 579, 580
— German—173-74, 178, 180, 192,
551, 557
— Hungarian—552-53
— of Italian states—553, 558
— Polish—507, 508-09
— Prussian—15, 159-60, 161, 166,
167, 173, 208, 267, 376, 547-54,
557, 558
— Russian—15, 268, 548, 549, 551,
552, 556-57
— Spanish—400
Asceticism— 421-23, 428-29
See also Plebeians, plebs
Association, communist—78, 281, 285
See also Communism (social formation)
Australia— 501, 502, 504, 505, 506
Austria—11-12, 259, 268, 552
— during 1848-49 revolution—248,
259, 481-82
— finances—11-12, 14-15, 259
— political system—11, 115, 248,
259, 526
— and Germany—7-9, 526
— and Hungary—8, 369
— and Italian states—76, 369, 513-14
— and Poland—8, 50, 369
— and Prussia—500, 507, 525-28,
583
— and Russia—8, 527, 528
— and Slavs—259
— and Western powers (Britain and
France)—15,75-76,93,513-14,542
See also Army, Austrian; Bourgeoisie,
Austrian; Revolution of 1848-49 in
Austria
Austro-Italian war of 1848-49—16, 93,
547-49, 552-53
See also Revolution of 1848-49 in Austria;
Revolution of 1848-49 in Italian
states
B
Bank, bankers— 49-50, 60-61, 114, 134,
252, 292, 363, 494-96, 508, 586
See also Bank legislation; Bank of England;
Bank of France; Credit
Bank of England— 252, 494-95
Bank of France— 60-61, 133-34, 508-09
Bank legislation—134, 495-96, 508-09,
512
Bank-notes— 60, 133, 587, 590
Bankruptcy— 49, 52, 59, 60, 495-96
Barricades, barricade fighting—see Uprising,
armed
Basis and superstructure—95, 127, 246,
387
Belgium— 374, 393, 394, 401, 434, 492
Blanquism, Blanquists
— as representatives of pre-Marxian
revolutionary communism—97,
127, 319-20, 322, 537, 615
— their voluntaristic attitude—35,
316
— Société des saisons (Society of the
Seasons), mutiny of 1839—48,
312, 315, 316, 320
— and Communist League—377,
484, 614-15
— during 1848 revolution in France
—27, 88, 97, 127, 128, 323, 576
— in 1850s—27, 377, 484, 537-41,
613-15
See also Conspiracy; Voluntarism
Blocs and agreements in the revolutionary
struggle of the proletariat— 280-87', 298,
373-74, 376-77
Bohemia, Czechs—414, 415
See also Hussite movement
Bonapartism— 80-81, 521, 579-80
See also Revolution of 1848 in
France
Bourgeoisie— 56, 69-70, 156, 310, 360,
501-02, 577-78, 585, 590
— feudalism — 360
— industrial—56-57, 275, 288-99,
310, 360
— financial—48, 50-51, 56-57, 116,
151, 264, 294, 297
— factions of, struggle between
them—49-50, 95, 115-17, 140,
151, 273, 291-94
— and state power—49, 50, 151, 275,
310, 333, 487
— as a hindrance to historical development—
500
— class struggle with proletariat—see
Class struggle
— and peasantry—69, 122, 156, 280;
284
— its theoreticians and ideologists—
48, 72, 96
— and religion — 254, 296
See also Bonapartism; Class, classes;
Democracy, bourgeois; Petty bourgeoisie;
Revolution, bourgeois, bourgeois-democratic;
Society, bourgeois; State, bourgeois
Bourgeoisie, Austrian—115, 577
Bourgeoisie, English—116, 254-55, 293,
296, 511-12
— in 16th-18th centuries, alliance
with bourgeoisified nobility—115,
252, 254-55
— and aristocracy—293, 296
— industrial—254-55, 292-96, 298,
501-02, 510, 512, 583
— financial—114-15, 252, 294, 512
— Free Trade—116, 271, 296, 510,
582
— factions of and struggle between
them—116, 273, 291-94
See also Corn Laws; English bourgeois
revolution of 17th century
Bourgeoisie, French—56-57, 150, 151, 577
— financial aristocracy (as the big
bourgeoisie)—47-52, 53-54, 56-59,
60, 95, 107, 114-18, 125-26, 133,
252, 263, 294, 342, 508, 525
— during the French revolution of
1789-94—550
— in first half of 19th century (before
1848-49 revolution)—48-53, 54-
55, 56-57, 95, 116-17, 263, 316
Bourgeoisie, German—7, 13, 151, 156,
170, 172, 236, 267, 278-79, 280, 410,
482
See also Burghers, German; Revolution
of 1848-49 in Germany
Bourgeoisie, Prussian—12, 13, 156, 157,
257, 258, 267, 488, 577, 583
Bourgeois political economy—272, 274
Budget (state)—49, 60-61, 115-17, 259
Bundschuh (peasant conspiracies in Germany
in 15th-16th centuries)—431-
36, 438, 440, 441
Bureaucracy—151, 152, 172, 182, 188,
208, 237, 333, 481, 488, 504, 552
See also Officials
Burghers— 405, 407, 408, 409, 410, 413,
414, 416-17, 427, 433, 437, 441, 453,
461, 465, 469, 480, 481, 482, 527
Burghers, German—149, 405-10, 413,
427, 429, 480, 481, 482, 527
C
California—132, 265, 502, 504-07
Canals— 265, 504-06
Capital— 78, 273, 300, 308
Carinthia— 439-40, 475, 476
Carniola— 439-40, 475, 476
Catholicism—124, 254, 416-17, 421, 512
See also Jesuits; Papacy
Causality, cause and effect— 115, 121, 135,
142, 253, 254, 417, 480, 481, 482,
490-91, 510, 549, 550, 564
Cavalry—403, 549
Central Bureau of United German Emigration—
373, 619-20
Central Committee of European Democracy
(1850s)—373, 528-32, 536, 537,
541
Centralisation of capital—49-50
Chartism— 289, 301, 377, 514-16
Child labour— 274, 288-91
Chiliasm— 415, 420
China— 268, 275, 339, 400
Christianity— 244, 412-18, 422
Church—155, 403-05, 412-15, 422
— burgher and plebeian opposition to
feudal church—412-27
— Anglican—511, 512, 513
— Catholic—513
— expropriation of—415, 416, 479
See also Clergy; Papacy
Civilisation— 80, 265-67, 289, 501,
551-54
Civil society—248
Civil war between proletariat and
bourgeoisie— 68-69, 70, 142, 522
See also June insurrection of Paris proletariat
in 1848
Class, classes— 56, 254, 292, 585, 586,
590
— as product of economic relations—
62, 126, 170, 176, 243, 272
— and industrial revolution — 255,
290, 291
— and production—96, 127, 470
— class relations—57, 62, 77, 170,
251, 263
— class interests—53, 57-58, 68, 80,
95, 116-17, 141,286,290,316,318,
412, 468, 479, 527
— class antagonisms, contradictions—
47, 58, 127, 255, 281, 288, 299,
306, 333, 387, 415, 470, 486, 553,
589, 591
— in feudal society—402-10, 412-13,
415, 428
— in bourgeois society—65, 67, 156,
255
— class distinctions between pro
letariat and bourgeoisie—57-58,
67, 69, 86, 95, 116-17, 156, 176-77,
255, 288, 299, 307, 481, 486,
529-30
— ruling classes in antagonistic
societies—49, 54-57, 68, 70, 76-79,
95-96, 116, 131, 141, 151, 156,237,
263, 272, 273-76, 278, 281, 307,
310, 425, 428, 451, 470, 486, 487,
522
— intermediate, transitional—110,
124
— exploiter, propertied, upper—58,
65, 68, 122, 243, 283, 294, 307,
331, 340
— conservative, reactionary—172,
190, 274, 292-93, 297
— middle classes, strata, and estates
in bourgeois society—64-65, 69,
78, 99, 108, 125-26, 151, 329
— lower, exploited, propertyless, oppressed—
67-68, 122, 243, 307,
310, 333, 530-31
— revolutionary—56, 57, 82, 87, 96-
99, 125, 127, 190, 225, 237, 277,
297, 429
— proletariat's coming to power—
237, 276, 280, 286, 300, 387
— and the state—66, 253, 331, 486
— and religion—254, 272, 412, 513
— abolition of classes and class distinctions
in communist society—
127, 280, 299, 333, 387, 486,
553-54
See also Aristocracy; Bourgeoisie;
Craftsmen, handicrafts; Nobility; Peasantry;
Petty bourgeoisie; Working class
Class struggle— 56, 67-68, 127, 243, 412,
470, 529-30
— in feudal society—412, 428-29,
432-33, 481
— and religious struggle as reflection
of class struggle in Middle Ages—
412, 428
— between proletariat and bourgeoisie—
56-57, 64, 67-68, 169-
70, 243, 387, 428-29, 529-30, 634
— as political struggle—412
— and revolution—56, 67, 178, 390,
412, 529-30
— classes and class struggle during
transition period from capitalism
to socialism—127, 553, 614
See also Chartism; Revolution, proletarian,
socialist; Working-class movement
Clergy—102, 118, 272, 274, 404-05, 407,
479
— place of in social hierarchy of
feudal society— 118, 272, 274,404,
409, 451, 478, 480
— as representative of ideology of
feudalism—155, 272, 402-05, 412-
14, 415
— lesser—405, 441
— in bourgeois society—118, 274
— and lay education—22-23, 262,
404, 412
See also Church; Papacy
Communism (social formation), communist
transformation of society
— prospects of proletarian revolution
and building communism—70,
116-17
— material prerequisites for communist
transformation of society—56-
57, 266, 299, 429, 500
— international character of communist
transformation of society—
56, 70, 116-17, 281, 553
— transition period from capitalism
to communism (socialism)—127,
275, 281, 298-99, 300, 331, 553,
614
— abolition of private ownership of
means of production—78, 281,
331, 422, 553
— production—268, 501-02, 553-54
— labour—299, 553, 554
— social relations, social system
— 127, 281, 298, 387, 422
— elimination of class distinctions,
classless society—127, 281, 297,
331, 385,420,484, 551-52
— communist transformation of society
and the state—57-58, 281-87,
302, 333, 422, 486
— social consciousness—127, 387
See also Dictatorship of the proletariat;
Revolution, proletarian, socialist
Communism, scientific—127, 277, 387
Communism, Utopian, of Münzer—409,
413, 414, 422, 423, 432, 461
Communist League
— fundamental principles, documents—
127, 277, 281-86, 387,
626, 627
— tactical principles—280-86, 374-
77, 469-70
— organisational principles, Rules—
277, 372, 374-76, 626, 627, 634-37
— during 1848-49 revolution—224-
26, 277-78, 371
— after defeat of 1848-49 révolu- .
tion—277-86, 349-52, 371-77,483-
85, 535-37, 596-601, 608-23,
630-37
— struggle against Willich-Schapper
sectarian group—483, 484, 535-
36, 625-29, 633
— and workers' educational societies—
376, 483, 535-36
— and petty-bourgeois democracy—
3-4, 277-86, 345-47, 372-74
— its communities—277-78, 371,
374, 375, 376-77, 626, 633
Communist party—see Party, proletarian
Community
— village or peasant—409, 451, 478,
480
— urban—406-07
— and the state—177, 280, 285
— disintegration of under capitalism—
285
— in Ireland—569
— in Scotland—567-69
— in Switzerland—177, 286
Consciousness— 69-70, 127, 244, 275,
387, 487
Conspiracy— 314-21, 322
See also Blanquism, Blanquists
Constitution, bourgeois—77, 78, 85-86,
101, 130, 141, 157, 237, 257, 522, 526,
567-80
See also Democracy, bourgeois; Parliament;
State
Contradiction— 58, 68, 85, 238, 248, 255,
288, 292, 306, 322, 330, 333, 553
— between productive forces and
production relations—135, 510
— class—58, 238, 255, 281, 288, 298,
306, 333, 415, 470, 486, 554
— between labour and capital—300
— contradictory theories, views—79,
514-15, 577-78
— elimination of social contradictions
as a result of communist transformation
of society—281, 298, 300,
553-54
Corn Laws, repeal of— 34, 52,-264, 273,
274, 275, 293, 296, 307, 340, 502,
510-12, 515
Corvée—120, 403-04, 409, 451
Counter-revolution—70, 89, 101, 107-08,
110, 132, 151, 239, 279
Courts, judiciary system—274, 409
— feudal—404, 409, 412, 447, 448,
451
— in bourgeois society—74, 79, 156,
258, 274-75, 317, 577
— military—347, 568, 569
Craftsmen, handicrafts—293, 400, 408,
429, 466, 485, 584
Credit— 49, 59, 60-62, 74, 363, 364, 365,
503
See also Banks, bankers; Bank of England;
Bank of France
Crusades—439
Cult of heroes, of genius— 245, 246, 302,
306-08
Cult of nature—244-45
D
Danish-Prussian war of 1848-50—395-94,
507, 511, 526-27
Day labourers—407, 408
See_also Farm-labourers
Democracy (political and state system)—
280, 442-43, 580
Democracy, bourgeois
— as form of dictatorship of
bourgeoisie—280, 282-83
— illusory character of bourgeoisdemocratic
order—78-79, 567-79
— as political trend—285, 577-78
Democracy, petty-bourgeois (movement)
—81-82, 98-104, 163-64, 169, 190,
225, 279-87, 372, 373
Demography—see Population
Denmark— 392-94
See also Schleswig-Holstein question
Despotism, military; dictatorship, military—
8, 10, 11, 25, 76, 107, 124,
154-55
See also Bonapartism
Development— 68, 97, 288, 299, 306,413,
553
— of productive forces—135, 263-66,
292, 295, 299, 429, 509-10, 554
— social—156, 297-99, 553
— and class struggle—69, 288
Dictatorship, bourgeois— 67, 77, 122, 123,
125, 131, 577-78
Dictatorship of the proletariat
— historical necessity and tasks
of—69, 237, 275-76, 281, 293, 298,
300, 387
— as the state in transition period
from capitalism to socialism—127,
614
— state centralisation of industry—
281, 300
— role and significance of proletarian
party—634
— and abolition of classes-—127, 281,
387
— and peasantry—122, 284-85
— use of the term "dictatorship of the
proletariat"—69, 122, 127, 387,
614
See also Communism (social formation);
Party, proletarian; Revolution, proletarian,
socialist; Working class
Dictatorship, revolutionary-democratic—
122, 283, 286
See also Jacobin dictatorship, Jacobins
Division of labour—120, 316, 404, 591
E
Economic crises—135, 234, 264-65, 275,
294, 299, 490, 500, 509, 584, 586, 589
— overproduction as basic phenomenon
of—264-65, 275, 338-39, 490-
91, 493-94, 501-02, 584, 585
— in industry and other branches
of economy—52, 58-60, 263-64,
296-97, 338, 340, 341, 492-93,495,
497-98, 585, 587
— forecasting of—263-65, 275, 296-
97, 340, 501
— periodical character of (industrial
cycles)—134, 275, 294, 296-97,
299, 497, 501
— prosperity as phase of cycle—134,
135, 263-64, 272, 296, 297, 299,
490-91, 497, 499, 500, 502, 503,
507-10
— depression—134, 339, 490, 509
— and condition of working
people—134, 273, 275-76, 296,
297, 509
— and prospects of revolution — 52,
59, 134-35, 264, 265, 275, 299,
340-41, 497, 503, 510
— crisis of 1846-47^52-53, 263-64,
491-97
Economic laws— 295-96, 305-08, 502
Education— 307, 404, 412
Electoral system (in bourgeois state)—294,
577
Emancipation—549-50, 553-54
Emancipation of working class—57, 276,
298, 360, 363, 553
— as workers' own task—275
— and petty bourgeoisie, peasantry
—27-28
— and struggle for national independence
in Europe—369
See also Revolution, proletarian, socialist
Emigration— 378-79, 385-86, 392, 533,
596-97, 598
— bourgeois-democraçic, petty-bourgeois—
372-74, 528-32
— proletarian—378, 386, 485, 597-
601, 608-10, 617-19
— German—15-16, 196-97, 226, 240,
260, 349-53, 370, 372-74, 376-79,
381-86, 390-91, 504, 506, 520-22,
533-34, 596-601, 608-10, 612-13,
616-23, 631-33, 637
— Hungarian—240, 376, 385
— Italian—385
England—116, 251-56, 272-73, 293-94,
297-98
— population—298
— Irish immigration—309
— Wars of the Roses—443
— in 16th century, Reformation—
254
— in 17th century—252, 273-74
— coup d'état of 1688 (Glorious Revolution)—
252-54
— in 18th century—253, 291-92
— industrial revolution—254, 292-94
— as leading capitalist country of 19th
century, its industrial monopoly in
world market—56, 116, 134, 254,
255, 265, 293-94, 295, 509
— in first half of 19th century (before
1848)—292, 491-92, 500
— in 1848—58, 263, 338-39, 496
— after 1849, industrial and commercial
boom—263, 264, 272-73, 296,
299, 338, 339, 401, 497, 498-503,
507-09
— industry—253, 254, 263, 272-73,
288, 291, 293, 297, 335, 339, 492,
498-501
— finances—252
— transport—273, 295, 491, 492,
494, 496-97, 498
— towns—443, 503
— landownership, agriculture—254,
335, 443, 493, 502-03
— trade—134, 264, 295, 296, 340,
509
— economic crises—52, 132, 134,
135, 264, 295, 296, 338-40, 359,
491-94, 496, 509
— classes, class struggle—255, 273,
274-75, 412
— social and political system—251-
56, 272-73, 274-75, 292, 293, 295-
96, 379, 382, 511-12, 572
— Parliament—252-53, 255, 510
— legislation—34, 63, 264, 272-300,
310
— electoral system—255, 292-95,
298, 310, 340
— ruling classes' political parties—
125, 292, 340, 510, 512
— bourgeois-democratic movements
in England—116, 251, 264, 273.
291-92, 293-97, 298, 511-12,
612
— revolutionary movements and
prospects of revolution—255, 264,
299
— science, literature—302, 513-14
— religion, church—254,414, 512-13
— colonial policy—265, 266, 295,
491, 505-07, 512-13
— foreign policy—56, 76, 252, 259-
60, 379, 382
— and Austria and other European
states—76, 252, 260, 340, 394,
511, 514
— and USA—501-02
— and Central Europe—394
See also Aristocracy, English; Army,
English; Bourgeoisie, English; Chartism;
Corn Laws; Labour movement in
England; Petty bourgeoisie, English;
Tories; Whigs; Working class in England
English bourgeois revolution of 17th century—
252-55, 429
English philosophy—252
Epoch— 99, 301-02, 306, 411, 478, 517,
542, 549, 551
Equality
— as demand of masses in Middle
Ages—413-15, 422, 428-29, 438-
39, 471
— as demand of bourgeoisie—567
— bourgeois—589
— as understood by Utopian socialists
and Utopian communists—422-23
— as interpreted by Christian religion—
413-15, 471
Estates, social—118-19, 431, 444, 586,
588-89, 591
— in feudal society and under preservation
of feudal survivals—151,
402-05, 409-12, 431, 437, 441
— burghers—149
— nobility—406, 442, 443-44
— knights—403, 479
— clergy—402-05, 413, 479
— princes,—480
— peasantry—461
— judiciary—404
— assembly of estates, representation
of estates—402, 431, 527
— tiers état (third estate)—76
— and bourgeois revolution—101
Europe— 237, 358-59, 360, 363, 393,
394, 482, 554
— prospects of revolution during
reaction (after 1848-49)—16, 70,
116-17, 134, 252, 279, 340, 369,
377
See also Revolution of 1848-49 in
Europe
Exploitation—272
— pre-capitalist forms—272, 292
— usurious—57, 122, 361
— capitalist—57, 121-22, 272, 288-
89, 293, 295-96, 361
— of labour-power by capital—271-
72, 273-74, 276-93
— of female and child labour—288,
291
— of peasants—57, 121-22
— of petty bourgeoisie—57
— attempts at justification of by ideologists
of propertied classes—
272
See also Child labour; Female labour;
Ten Hours' Bill; Wage labour; Women's
question; Working day
F
Family and marriage—106, 118, 130, 567
Farm labourers—375
See also Agriculture; Agricultural workers;
Day labourers
Female labour—245, 274, 288-91
Feudalism
— agriculture as key branch of production—
401
— division of labour, handicrafts,
trade—265, 266, 400, 401, 403,
404, 408, 429, 465
— taxation—330-31
— feudal hierarchy, feudal privileges
—402-03, 407, 419, 443
— military system, feudatory system—
402-03, 404, 551-52
— legal system, lawyers—403-04,
406, 409-10, 412
— classes, class struggle—402-10,
412-13, 415, 428, 481
— feudal lords, nobility, aristocracy,
knights—403, 404, 443
— bourgeoisie—406-07
— origin of proletariat—408, 409,
422, 461
— vagrancy and laws of 13th-16th
centuries—407-08, 433, 478
— science, education, invention—
400, 412
— ideology, world outlook—404
— religion, church, clergy—403-06,
412, 414, 512-13
— origin of capitalist relations, decay
and collapse of feudalism—120,
155, 284-85, 407, 408, 414, 419,
461, 471
— survivals of feudalism—173-74,
280, 307, 550, 551
See also Burghers; Estates, social;
Guilds; Middle Ages; Peasantry;
Plebeians, plebs; Serfdom; Society, feudal;
Town, medieval; Village
Flagellants—414
Foreign trade— 259, 265, 268, 401,
504-05
See also Trade, commerce; World market
Fragmentation of land, parcellation—120,
121, 155, 254, 262, 335, 336, 503, 514,
551
— small-plot peasants—550,551,552
France—18-19, 54-55, 120, 544, 553,
554, ,555, 563
— formation of French nation, national
character—133, 329, 410,
507, 508, 561
— economy—50, 52, 59-60, 115, 116-
17, 118-22, 125, 132-34, 254-55,
329, 492, 507-09
— taxation—17-18, 117-19, 121-23,
133, 262, 327-29, 509
— social and political system—443
— state apparatus—115-16
— classes, class relations—116-17,
412
— in Middle Ages (up to 17th century)—
130, 328, 402, 413, 443
— in 17th-18th centuries—118-19,
252, 253, 254
— French Revolution of 18th century
—see French revolution of 1789-94
— during Thermidorian reaction and
Directory—22-23, 122
— during Consulate and First Empire—
52, 118-19, 155, 329
— during Restoration (1815-30)—22-
23, 61, 95, 114-15, 118-19, 122,
124, 128-29, 263, 316
— July revolution of 1830—54, 55,
68-69, 294, 316, 578
— July monarchy (1830-48)—49-52,
54-55, 57-58, 60, 66, 95, 108,
114-15,117-18,124,131,251,252,
253, 294, 354-59, 360, 364
— economic development in 1830-
48—49, 50, 52-53, 56-57, 59, 60,
357-58, 492, 496-97, 508
— internal policy of July monarchy—
50-53, 320-21
— Chamber of Deputies—48-50
— bourgeois liberals (dynastic opposition)—
48, 53, 116
— bourgeois republicans (National
party)—53, 72, 76, 95, 316
— petty-bourgeois democrats (Réforme
party)—53, 316, 320, 322
— republicans, their insurrections in
1830s—48, 315-17, 320
— political crisis of 1846-47—51-53,
321-22
— foreign policy of July monarchy—
51-52
— and other European states—51,
52, 155, 156, 252, 546-47
See also Bourgeoisie, French; June insurrection
of Paris proletariat in 1848; Petty
bourgeoisie, French; Revolution of 1848
in France. Second Republic; Socialism,
socialists in France; Uprisings of Lyons
weavers in 1831 and 1834; Working class
in France; Working-class movement in
France
Franconia—426, 452, 468, 471,472,473,
475
Fraternal Democrats—637
Freedom, its illusory nature in bourgeois
society—333, 530, 567-70, 572, 577-
78, 591
— right of assembly and association—
90-91, 569, 577-78
— use of bourgeois-democratic freedoms 
by working class and
masses—79, 275-76, 298
Freedom of trade—116, 271-73, 295-96,
298, 307
See also Corn Laws; Manchester school
Freemasons— 306
French revolution of 1789-94—68-69,
253-54, 285, 327-29, 412, 549-50
— abolition of feudal landownership
and feudal obligations—61, 120,
439-40
— and bourgeoisie—68-69, 549-50
— role of masses—555
— and peasantry—21-22, 61, 364,
549-50
— and embryonic proletariat—554
— revolutionary wars—542, 543,
544-47, 549-50, 555, 556, 560-61
— Convention—94, 103, 285, 542,
544-47
— counter-revolutionary mutinies,
Vendée—130-31, 543, 544, 563
— terror—22, 105
— and counter-revolutionary European
powers—155-56, 242, 254-55,
479, 542
See also Girondists; Jacobin dictatorship,
Jacobins
G
Genoa—265
German Confederation (1815-66)—393,
527, 557
— Federal Diet—7, 258, 525-26
Germanic tribes—244, 443
- German philosophy— 248, 422, 487-89
See also Hegel, Hegelianism
German Workers' Society in Brussels—374
German Workers' Educational Society in
London (1840-1918)—42, 226, 370,
374, 483, 533-36, 598-602, 610, 618,
623, 626, 630, 633
German Workers' Society in Paris (1840s
and 1850s)—631
Germany— 242, 243, 246, 392, 394, 395,
410, 411, 478, 480, 487-88
— in Middle Ages—399-482
— and French revolution of 1789-94
and Napoleonic wars—155, 156,
242, 412, 479
— survivals of feudalism—155, 285,
551
— oppositional movement in early
19th century—150, 157
— fragmentation of country and task
of its unification—8, 258-59, 347,
395, 401-02, 411, 432, 442, 455,
461, 480-82, 528
— industry—155-56, 170, 176, 246,
400, 401, 403, 411, 479, 480, 507
— handicrafts—248, 400, 406, 485
— guilds—155, 406-07
— transport—155-56, 401
— agriculture and agricultural relations—
155, 401, 479
— finance, taxation—13, 402-04,
405-06, 409, 414
— trade—155-56, 176, 339-40, 400-
02,406,411,479,480,507
— estates, classes—402
— princes—7, 402-03, 404-05, 409,
410, 414, 415-19, 421, 435,441-45,
447, 449, 478-82, 526
— bureaucracy—151, 152, 172, 182,
187, 188, 237, 280, 406, 409, 48T
— clergy—155, 402-07, 409, 410,
415, 417, 419, 442, 478-80
— craftsmen—177, 280, 403, 407,
408, 481, 485
— intelligentsia—224
— philistinism—175, 179, 187, 188,
192, 242, 243, 246, 417
— political system—285, 419, 481
— legislation, court—7, 13, 409,
450-51
— bourgeois liberalism of 1840s—13,
152, 157, 159, 278, 279, 407, 415,
416, 418, 488, 489, 525, 596
— democrats, democratic movement—
8, 149-50, 225, 258, 279-
86, 345, 372, 408, 486-87, 536, 595,
605
— prospects and character of revolution
in Germany in 1850s—8, 13,
16, 279, 302, 394, 482, 553-54
— religion and church—155, 405,
412-19, 422, 441, 478, 479
— education—404
— press, press legislation, reactionary
censorship—7, 388, 487-89
— literature—177, 246, 302, 441, 489
— and Austria—7-8, 10
— and Denmark—393-94
— and England—340
— and Prussia—7-8, 10, 16, 526
— and Russia—259, 260
— and Switzerland—177, 268-69
See also Bourgeoisie, German; Peasants,
German; Petty bourgeoisie, German;
Prussia; Revolution of 1848-49 in
Germany; Working class in Germany;
Working-class movement in Germany
Girondists— 544
Gold, discovery of in Australia and California—
265, 504-05
Gotha Party (Germany, 1849)—525, 526
Government securities—49, 60
Greece—511
Guilds—155, 400, 406-08, 465-66,
550
H
Hanseatic League—400
Hegel, Hegelianism—248, 267, 302, 422,
487-89, 530
Heresy, heretics— 413-16, 418-20, 423-
24
See also Albigenses; Anabaptists;
Flagellants; Lollards; Taborites; Waldenses
Hesse— 469, 471-73
Hesse-Cassel— 507, 526-28
Historiography
— as expression of ideology of ruling
classes—307, 471
— idealistic background of before
Marx—251, 255-56, 306, 411
— bourgeois, in 19th century—253-
58, 285, 301, 310, 428, 471
— petty-bourgeois (democratic and
socialist)—221, 247-50
History—126, 255, 271, 306, 311, 399,
413, 485, 489
Holy Alliance—14, 15, 16, 28, 369, 392,
394
Holy Roman Empire of the German nation
(962-1806)- 7, 155, 402, 405, 406,
415, 442, 481
Hungary—8, 394, 433, 438-39, 482
— national liberation war of 1848-
49—97, 101, 152, 162, 190, 196,
200, 547-48
See also Peasant war in Hungary under
leadership of Dôzsa (1514); Revolution
of 1848-49 in Hungary
Huns—244
Hussite movement—413-15, 420, 428
See also Taborites
I
Ideas—127, 387, 411, 427, 470, 489
Ideology (as an idealistic conception of
reality)—411
Imm igration— 5 04
Industrial exhibition of 1851 in London—
499-500
Industrial revolution—293
Industry, capitalist—288-89, 295, 404,
408, 490-91
— and social progress—238, 299,
300, 485, 500-01, 554
— and exploitation of female and
child labour—288-89
— and science—245
— and trade—116-17, 264, 265,
295
— and agriculture—254-55
— and taxes—330, 331, 335
— and classes, class struggle—237-38,
299-300
— and political supremacy of bourgeoisie
— 293-94
— development of as a material prerequisite
of communist transformation
of society—266, 299-300
500-01, 554
Inquisition—109
Instruments of production—121, 273, 554
Insurance— 329, 330
Ireland— 292, 327, 492, 512
Italy— 254, 265, 316, 394, 401, 413, 514,
547
See also Austro-Italian war of 1848-49;
Revolution of 1848-49 in Italian states
J
Jacobin dictatorship, Jacobins—57-58, 81-
82, 103, 156, 275, 285, 545
Jesuits—118, 124, 128
July monarchy—see France, July
monarchy
July revolution in France—see France, July
Revolution of 1830
June insurrection of Paris proletariat in
1848—25, 34, 57, 67-70, 71, 93,
98-100, 106, 149, 237, 356, 362, 368-
69, 390
— causes of—66-70, 87, 104, 368
— heroism of working class—67
— and petty bourgeoisie, pettybourgeois
democrats—27, 57, 68,
69, 71, 74-76, 98, 106, 322-23, 366
— and peasantry—57, 69, 368
— role of National and Mobile
Guards in suppression of—67-68,
76, 97
— establishment of military dictatorship
of Cavaignac, bourgeois reprisals
against insurgents—68, 71,
108, 261-62, 368, 568, 578
— its defeat and strengthening of
European counter-revolution—70,
368, 369
— and proletarian press—68-69
Jurisprudence, lawyers—272, 296, 404,
412
See also Chartism; Luddism
Labour productivity—553-56
Labour time under communism—299-300
Land, as instrument of production
— 120-21
Landed property—120-21, 191, 254, 264,
284, 294, 327, 335-36, 443, 461, 503,
515
Law—122, 125, 136, 156, 280, 328,
404-05, 517
— and communist transformation of
society—57-58
See also Jurisprudence, lawyers; Legislation
Legislation— 86, 107, 155, 274, 322, 409,
569
See also Law; Napoleonic code
Liberalism— 73, 83, 159, 278-79, 407,
595
Literature— 299-300, 310, 489
— folklore—149, 203
— American—312
— Ancient Greek—258
— English—206, 300
— French—135, 137, 138-39, 203
— German—242, 245-46, 301, 302,
441
— Italian—413
— Spanish—63
Loans (state)—11, 15, 49-50
Lollards—414
Lombardy—93, 514
London— 265, 294, 401, 506
Luddism—292
Lumpenproletariat—51, 62, 165, 168,
317, 358, 365, 407-08
Lutheranism— 411-20, 423-27, 441-42,
446
See also Protestantism; Reformation
K
Knights— 246, 402-04, 438, 442
Knights' insurrections of 1522-23 in Germany—
442-45, 481
Labour aristocracy—295-96, 513-14
Labour movement in England—288, 292,
293, 294, 298
M
Man, individual, person—99, 148-49,
245, 305-06, 333, 469-70, 486, 523-24,
562
Manchester school—271
See also Bourgeoisie, English, Free
Trade
Market— 295, 503-04
See also Foreign trade; Trade, commerce;
World market
Mazzinism, Mazzinists—513-14, 529, 532
Means of communication—266, 411, 504-
07, 553
See also Railways
Mexico—132, 260, 507
Middle Ages—412-13
See also Feudalism
Military art, military science—154, 403,
543, 545, 550-56
See also Army
Monarchy— 65-67, 114, 443
— absolute—77, 237, 248, 253, 267,
279, 412, 419, 443, 481, 512, 552
— constitutional (bourgeois)—54, 57,
65, 66-67, 70, 114, 131, 251-56,
269, 413, 443
— based on social estates—253, 443
— and religion—412
Monasteries, monks—405, 407, 413
See also Church; Clergy
Monetary system—587, 588, 589
Money as means of circulation—11-12,
584, 586, 587, 590
— metal (gold, silver)—11, 587, 590
Mortgage (in bourgeois society)—57,
120-22, 158, 502
— and working-class party programme—
97, 190
See also Usurious capital
Mühlhausen— 424, 469-73, 480
Mysticism—see Religion, mysticism, religious
N
Napoleonic code (Code Napoleon)—155
Napoleonic wars— 260, 545, 547, 548,
550, 555, 560
Nation— 51, 237, 356, 394, 406, 411,
480, 500, 561, 626
National debt— 49, 60, 115, 116, 252,
286, 526
Needs— 69, 255, 266, 401, 403-05, 410,
414, 442
— of bourgeoisie—255
— of proletariat—69
— and revolution—69, 266
— under communism — 266
Netherlands— 394, 400, 492, 499, 506
Neue Rheinische Zeitung—5, 68, 156, 171,
181, 187, 202, 351, 388, 605
See also Revolution of 1848-49 in Germany
New York— 265, 506
Nineteenth century—501
Nobility—125, 155, 414, 442-43
See also Aristocracy; Feudalism; Nobility
(in different countries)
Nobility, German—151, 152, 155, 172,
237, 404, 410
— in Middle Ages, knights—401-06,
409, 410, 433, 442-45, 479, 480
— and Reformation—415-17, 431,
434, 437-38, 441-45, 447, 448,451,
452, 454-55, 461-62, 478-81
— in 1850s—7
— and bourgeoisie—237
— and peasantry—443-44, 445
See also Revolution of 1848-49 in
Germany
Nobility, Italian—548
Nobility, Polish—443, 444
O
Officials—118-19, 409, 575-76
See also Bureaucracy
P
Pacific Ocean— 265, 266r 499, 504, 505
Panama—265
Pantheism—305, 421
Papacy— 92, 405, 413, 480, 513-14
Paris— 24, 52-53, 316, 359, 564
Parliament (in the bourgeois state)—118,
123
See also England
Party, political— 53, 97-99, 163, 263, 372,
427, 441-42, 469-70, 525, 530
— party point of view—530
Party, proletarian— 279, 280, 320, 345-46,
354, 371, 394
— vanguard role of—227, 280, 416
— necessity of organising proletariat
into independent political party—
282
— as necessary condition for victory
of proletarian revolution—634
— programme demand of socialisation
of means of production—78
— tactics—280-86
— and masses—374-76
— and petty-bourgeois democracy
—280-83, 286, 374
— party discipline—635
— propaganda, agitation—634
— party point of view—530
See also Communist League
Patriotic War of i812 (Russia) —260, 546,
550-51
Peasantry
— in feudal society—409-10, 414,
478, 488
— and usury—57, 121, 122, 282
— in bourgeois-democratic revolution—
57, 61, 80, 96, 119, 123, 150,
262, 284, 482, 515
— under capitalism—122
— sluggishness of—134, 245, 263,
509
— and bourgeoisie—69, 122, 156,
280, 284
— and working class and workingclass
movement; as ally of proletariat—
29-30, 57, 69, 96, 122,
125, 285, 361
— and proletarian revolution and
proletarian state—57, 122, 285
Peasants, French— 49, 52, 54, 78, 80,
118-23, 125, 134, 263, 264, 286, 335,.
509, 551
— during French revolution of
1789-94—80, 120, 155, 284, 550
— and 1848 revolution — see Revolution
of 1848 in France. Second
Republic
Peasants, German—13, 177, 190, 280,
409-10, 429, 478-79
— in Middle Ages—401,402-06, 408-
10, 414-19,425,427,429,431,441,
446, 447, 459, 461-62, 465, 466,
469, 478, 479, 480-81, 482
— serf peasants and bondsmen
—402-04, 409, 410, 415, 478
— liberation from serf bondage
—282, 444, 446-47, 451, 461
— agricultural workers, farmlabourers—
280, 375
— and nobility—403-04, 443-44, 447,
449, 454
— and bourgeoisie—280, 437, 481
— and working-class party—375-76
— peasant movements—410, 415,
428-29, 430-38, 439-40, 441
See also Peasant War in Germany in
1524-25
Peasants, Swiss—127-28, 129, 221
Peasant War in Germany in 1524-
25—399, 405-08, 409-10, 411-19, 425-
28, 431, 439-40, 441, 442,444-45, 446,
448, 451-52, 459, 461, 468, 469-71,
478-82
— causes of—402,403,404,405,406,
409-10, 428, 468, 475
— peasants' demands, Twelve Articles—
446, 447, 448, 450, 451, 461,
475
— radical wing of peasant-plebeian
movement—405, 407, 408, 409,
410,411,413,414,415,416,417,
418, 419, 420, 421, 422, 424, 425,
427, 432, 441, 451, 461, 465-66,
468
— and burghers, Heilbronn programme—
406, 407, 408, 411, 413,
414, 415, 416, 417, 418, 419, 420,
421, 424, 425, 426, 427, 441, 460,
461, 465, 471, 479
— in Swabia and Franconia—426,
432, 440, 446-68, 469, 471, 472,
473, 475
— in Thuringia—408, 418, 421, 423,
425, 426, 452, 469, 471, 473, 475
— in Alpine lands of Austria—475-77
— repressive terror—419, 425, 448,
453, 460, 462, 463, 464, 465, 469,
472, 474, 476
— causes of failure, consequences,
lessons—399, 401, 410, 413, 429,
435, 447, 450, 454, 455, 458, 459-
60,461,462,465,466,476,478-82
Peasant war in Hungary under leadership
of Dôzsa— 433, 437-40, 482
Petty bourgeoisie—150, 177, 361
— in feudal society—246
— in bourgeois society—28, 30-31,
57, 79, 126, 361
— and bourgeoisie—151
— in bourgeois-democratic revolution—
119-20, 150-51, 164-66, 178,
280-87, 408
— and peasantry—150-51, 176, 280,
284
— and working class, working-class
socialist movement—27, 30-31, 56,
69, 71, 96, 103, 125, 150-51, 176,
287, 361
— as proletariat's ally — 30-31, 57, 69,
96, 125, 150-51, 281, 282
— and proletarian revolution—27-
28, 30-31, 57
— world outlook—30-31, 126, 177,
292
See also Democracy, petty-bourgeois
Petty bourgeoisie, English—150, 151, 292,
514
Petty bourgeoisie, French—49, 51, 100,
103-07, 110, 116, 117, 120-21, 124,
135-37, 144, 150, 151, 263, 279, 316,
507, 516-17, 525
Petty bourgeoisie, German—149-50, 156,
176-79, 237, 246, 277, 279-87, 408,
410, 481, 527-28
Philanthropy— 78, 272, 298, 415, 419
Philistinism— 246, 429, 529
Philosophy— 267, 272, 412, 413
See also English philosophy; German
philosophy; Hegel, Hegelianism
Pietism, pietists— 165
Plebeians, plebs (in Middle Ages)—266,
399, 405, 407-08, 414-18, 422, 426-27,
432-33, 434, 435, 441, 457, 478, 480
— as predecessors of proletariat—
408, 415, 422
— plebeian asceticism—428-29
See also Asceticism; Pre-proletariat
Poland, Polish question—8, 15, 58, 196,
394, 442, 443
Political struggle—5, 150, 412, 470, 634
Poor Konrad (peasant alliance in Germany
in 16th century)—431, 433,
436-38, 440
Poor Laws— 294, 310
See also Workhouses
Population—401, 554-55
Portugal— 254, 270
Preconditions—305-08
— of proletarian revolution—553
Pre-proletariat— 408, 409, 414-15, 422,
461, 470-71
See also Plebeians, plebs
Press, the—5, 137, 518
— reactionary laws on; censorship
of—14, 39-40, 107, 136-38, 517,
518-19, 568-69, 571
— freedom of—14, 57, 125, 569, 577
— bourgeois — 503
— democratic—150
— proletarian — see Neue Rheinische
Zeitung
Principles—577-78
Private property—137, 285, 517
— transformation of feudal property
into bourgeois—56-57
— feudal—284
— bourgeois (capitalist) — 57, 96, 118,
330-31, 414-15, 531-32, 567
— abolition of as condition for emancipation
of proletariat—78, 92,
130, 281, 286, 300, 331, 387, 422,
553
— and theories of bourgeois and
petty-bourgeois economists—286,
330, 331, 336, 415, 422, 531-32
Production—49, 96, 115, 118, 127, 266,
273, 553, 555
— and social intercourse—96, 266,
470, 475
— and social relations, social system—
96, 127, 363
— and classes—96, 127, 470
— and the state — 49
— and military science — 552-55
— and social consciousness—470
— spiritual production—118
— and social revolution—266, 363,
509-10
— under communism—266, 501
See also Instruments of production; Production
relations; Productive forces
Production relations—59, 470, 510
— and classes, class struggle—127,
387
— and the state, political relations—
127, 387
— and forms of social consciousness—
127, 387
— contradictions between them and
productive forces as basis of proletarian
revolution—135, 510
— in bourgeois society—55-56, 59,
78, 127, 387, 510
— and proletariat, communist transformation
of society—56, 59, 127,
387, 510
See also Basis and superstructure
Productive forces—135, 264-66, 286, 292,
295, 299, 429, 510, 554
— and classes—281, 292
— under feudalism—479
— under capitalism—135, 255, 264-
65, 286, 292, 295, 299,429, 500-01,
510
— contradictions between them and
production relations under capitalism—
135, 295, 299, 510
— contradictions between them and
production relations as basis of
proletarian revolution—135, 510
— development of as material precondition
of communist transformation
of society—266, 299, 429,
500
— under communism—266,281,286
Progress— 292-93, 297, 300, 404, 418,
461, 482, 485
Proletariat—see Working class
Property— 56, 78, 336, 422, 517
See also Private property
Protectionism— 57, 116, 252, 295-96
Protestantism—253-55, 415-20, 441-42
See also Church; Lutheranism; Reformation
Proudhonism— 487, 508, 541, 585, 588
Prussia
— and French revolution of 1789-
94__155( 156
— 1815-early 1848—277
— in 1850—7-9, 12-13, 14-16, 267-
68, 583
— industry—526
— railways—15, 155
— finances, budget, taxation—14-15,
259, 267-68, 526
— trade—155
— agriculture and agrarian relations—
155-56
— political system and constitution
— 14, 237-38, 248, 267-68, 526
— bureaucracy—12, 208-09, 237,
488, 552
— nobility, aristocracy—12, 583
— law, legal procedure—9, 12-13,
157, 257
— foreign policy—7-9, 268, 269-70,
369, 382, 527
— and Austria—499-500, 507, 525-
28, 583
— and England—252
— and France—16, 252, 268
— and Germany—7-9, 10, 16, 526-27
— and Poland—51
— and Russia—3, 8, 528
See also Army, Prussian; Danish-
Prussian war of 1848-5&; Germany;
Revolution of 1848-49 in Germany;
Working-class movement in Germany
Prussian-Swiss conflict over Neuchâtel—15-
16, 260, 261
Q
Quantity and quality—592
R
Radicalism, radicals—330
Railways— 50, 155, 338, 491, 506, 554,
558
Reform— 80, 261, 298, 330, 331, 513-16
— and revolution, permanent revolution—
285-86
Reformation— 254, 412, 413, 481, 482
See also Lutheranism; Protestantism
Reformation in Germany—411-27, 441-
46, 469-72, 475, 476, 478-83
Reformers, bourgeois and petty-bourgeois—
101, 110, 126, 310, 419, 424
Religion— 94, 98, 118, 130, 244, 272,
412-14, 417, 421-22, 512-13
— in slave-owning society—244
— in feudal society—411-15, 512
— in bourgeois society—94, 98, 118,
253-54
— and science, philosophy—412
— mysticism, religious—413, 414-15,
420, 441
— history and significance of criticism
of—421-22
— deification of nature—245, 246
See also Sects, religious
Rent of land—120, 409, 443, 586, 589
Republican movement—70, 71, 74-75, 78,
79, 107, 110, 315, 316
Republic, bourgeois— 56-57, 67-68, 69, 71,
74-75, 79-81, 87-89, 91, 97-98, 101-03,
111, 114-15, 123, 131, 139, 177-78,
253-54, 261-62, 413, 503, 519
— parliamentary—103, 106, 110,
113-14, 122, 123, 129-31
— federative—177, 279, 285, 482
— and class struggle—66-68, 69, 516
— and working class, working-class
movement—56-58, 65, 66, 67, 69,
131, 252, 285-86, 313
— and peasantry—82-83, 121-23
— and universal suffrage—56, 57,
67-68
See also Democracy, bourgeois; France;
Revolution of 1848 in France. Second
Republic; Switzerland
Republic, social, social-democratic (demand
for)—109, 122, 579
Reserve and insurance fund—62, 134,
494-96, 508-09
Revolution— 56, 135, 314, 529
— as driving force of historical progress—
122
— prerequisites, causes of—135, 251,
253-54, 471, 482, 509-10
— and economic crises—135, 275,
299, 509-10
— and class struggle—127, 178, 388,
412, 492, 529-30
— and role of masses—69, 410, 418
— and the state—125, 172, 279-80,
283-86
— criticism of voluntaristic views on
revolution—314, 317-19, 372-74,
470, 530-31
Revolution, bourgeois, bourgeois-democratic—
254
— limitedness of—68-69, 278-79,
284-85, 286
— attitude towards old state apparatus—
192-93
— bourgeoisie's inclination towards
compromise—236-37, 278-79
— and problem of property—178-79
— motive forces, role of masses—69
— and working class—55-57, 66, 67,
81, 99, 225-26, 277-78, 281-86,
298, 419
— question of workers' representation
in government—470
— tasks of proletarian party—277-78,
280-86
— as step towards proletarian revolution—
57, 117, 238, 281, 282-83,
286, 298
— necessity of revolutionary methods
of struggle to bring it to completion—
283-84
— and agrarian question—61, 80, 96,
118-20, 481
— and petty bourgeoisie—69, 100,
150-51, 164-66, 178, 179, 279-86,
408, 481-82
— religious form of—252
See also Bourgeoisie; English bourgeois
revolution of 17th century; French revolution
of 1789-94; Revolution of 1848-49
in Europe
Revolution, permanent—117, 127, 237-38,
281-86, 298, 614
— workers' political clubs as organs of
revolutionary power—282, 284
Revolution, proletarian, socialist—103-04,
116-17, 127, 135, 266, 273, 274-76,
299, 320-21, 510
— prerequisites for—56-57, 135,
255, 275-76, 299-300, 429, 470,
509-10
— proletarian party as condition of
victory—634
— necessity of workers' political and
theoretical preparation for revolution—
485
— transformation of proletariat into
ruling class, establishment of dictatorship
of proletariat—274-76,
293, 298, 300, 320-21, 387, 553-54,
634
— as highest form of proletarian
class struggle with bourgeoisie—
529-30
— as culmination of permanent revolution—
237-38, 281, 283, 614
— simultaneous accomplishment in a
number of countries—56, 69-70,
117, 286, 553-54
— peaceful and violent methods of
accomplishment—487
— fundamental difference from
bourgeois revolution—69, 276
— and universal suffrage—517
— abolition of private ownership of
means of production—300, 387,
553
— solution of national question—70,
266, 561
— and peasantry and agricultural
proletariat—57, 122, 285
— and petty bourgeoisie—27, 30-31,
57
— necessity of winning over army
to proletarian revolution—551
See also Class struggle; Dictatorship of
the proletariat; Party, proletarian
Revolution, social
— as bourgeois revolution—253-54
— as form of transition from capitalism
to socialism—69-70, 78, 255,
266, 273, 275-76
Revolution of 1848-49 in Austria—58,70,
151-52
Revolution of 1848-49 in Europe—132,
237, 482, 497
— democratic illusions—243-44,
531-32
— and bourgeoisie—69-70, 237
— and petty bourgeoisie—529
— and national movement—70
— role of in European events—64,
70-71, 91-92, 94, 369
— and England—263-64, 497-98,
509-10
— and Russia—70
— and possibility of European
war—70-71
— counter-revolution—94, 97, 101,
110, 132; 369, 547
— causes of defeat—132, 135, 637
— results of—5, 244, 275, 503
Revolution of 1848 in France. Second
Republic— 47, 53-62, 64, 65-73, 76-77,
79-80, 81, 83-84, 85-88, 91, 92, 94-97,
98-101, 105-07, 109-10, 112-15, 122,
125, 129-30, 138-39
— preconditions and causes of, revolutionary
situation in 1847-
48—48-53, 132
— periods in development of revolution—
105-07, 109-10, 112, 129-30
— decline of revolution—47
— February revolution of 1848—20,
47, 52-58, 60-63, 66-69, 71, 87-89,
91, 108-09, 116-18, 127, 128-29,
136, 149, 251, 263, 294, 311, 314-
15, 322-24, 338, 354, 359, 360,361,
362-64, 412
— Provisional Government—21, 27,
53-55, 57-66, 71, 73, 106, 319-21,
360, 365
— Luxembourg Commission—55,
56, 57, 58, 63, 360
— intensification of class struggle in
March and April 1848—64-65, 71,
73
— Executive Commission, its antiworking-
class policy—63-64, 66,
68, 71, 72, 87, 106
— National ateliers (workshops)—63-
64, 67-68, 87
— events of May 15, 1848—67, 73,
77, 88, 97, 323, 575-77
— after-effects of June insurrection,
prospects of further development—
41, 70, 71-74, 77-78, 122,
131, 144, 263, 279, 334-35, 362,
368, 369, 486-88, 525, 577-80
— absence of conditions for victorious
proletarian revolution—56-57, 68-
70, 116-17, 135
— National (Constituent) Assembly—
18, 20, 23, 26, 30, 33, 35, 40,
65-67, 71-78, 79-94, 97-99, 101-03,
107-14, 117-18, 119, 123, 124,127,
128, 129, 139, 140, 144, 364, 367,
520, 525, 567, 568, 571, 572, 578,
579, 580
— Constitution of 1848—77-80, 84-
85, 89-91, 94, 101-02, 103, 105-09,
110, 130, 136, 141-42, 522, 567-79
— preservation of old state apparatus—
57, 78, 83, 116, 118
— election of Louis Bonaparte as
President—79-80, 84-85, 89, 95,
96, 111-14, 123-25, 127-28, 572
— Legislative Assembly (from May
28, 1849), struggle of parties
in it—18, 19, 79, 94, 96, 99,
101-05, 106-13, 118, 119, 122-25,
127, 129, 136, 137, 139-42, 143,
144, 262, 263, 516-21, 524, 525,
568-72
— clashes of Legislative Assembly
with government—82-87, 91-93,
98, 99, 111, 114, 118, 123, 127-29,
137, 139-40, 143-44, 262
— economic development—49-53,
58-61, 114-18, 119-22, 132-35
— financial policy, finances, taxation—
17-20, 22, 39, 58-62, 73-
76, 84-85, 111-12, 114-21, 133,
329, 363-64, 365, 508
— industry—116-17, 132, 134, 137,
507, 509, 517
— agriculture and agrarian relations—
20, 116, 327, 335
— trade—19, 132-34, 137, 507-09,
517
— joint-stock companies, banks—
125, 132-34, 507, 508
— Stock Exchange, stock-exchange
speculation—19, 114, 115, 342-44
— usury—21, 122, 509
— military legislation—25, 576
— and army—25, 30, 32, 34, 35, 58,
62, 65, 76, 77, 81, 98, 103-07, 118,
124, 127-30, 137, 139, 142-44,343,
365, 517, 523, 551, 579, 580
— and National Guard—53, 62, 64,
65, 67, 87, 104-07, 365, 366, 576
— and Mobile Guard—62-63, 67, 76,
81, 87, 90, 365, 366
— and press—30, 31, 32, 38, 39, 107,
110, 126, 129, 135-40, 263, 343,
344, 516-19, 520, 568-69
— and clergy—23, 569, 570
— and bourgeoisie—22, 49, 51-58,
61-70, 71-83, 87-91, 94-97, 101,
107, 114-18, 121, 124-27, 129-31,
139, 141-44, 261-62, 314-15, 359,
578-80
— and financial aristocracy—114-16,
117-18, 127, 133, 263, 342, 508,
525
— and big landowners—55, 61, 65,
79, 95, 96, 115, 125
— and middle strata, intermediate
classes—64, 65, 69, 99, 108, 110,
125, 126, 366, 367, 368
— and petty bourgeoisie—27-28, 30-
31, 53, 54, 57, 59, 63-65, 69, 71,
74-76, 78, 80, 81-82, 96-100, 103-
04, 106, 107, 110, 117, 125-28, 130,
135, 136, 144, 263, 359, 515-17
— and working class, its role in revolution—
21, 27-28, 30-31, 34, 35,
53-57, 58-59, 62-64, 67-70, 73-75,
78-81, 86-91, 94, 95, 96-100, 103-
04, 106-10, 116, 120, 121-22, 124-
29, 135-37, 315, 319-20, 359, 569,
576, 578
— demand of right to work—55-56,
78, 360, 567-68
— and peasantry—21-22, 28, 39, 54-
55, 57, 61-62, 65, 69, 71, 76, 79-80,
84, 92, 96-99, 118-23, 125, 262-63,
364
— alliance of workers and peasants—
22
— alliance of petty bourgeoisie and
proletariat—27-28, 34, 368
— lumpenproletariat—62, 365
— dynastic opposition—53, 68, 82-
83, 97, 116
— Legitimists—22, 25, 36, 40, 54, 65,
68, 72, 78-79, 80-81, 83, 89-90, 92,
94-97, 101, 108-16, 123, 124, 125,
129-30, 138, 139, 140-41,262,367,
519-22
— Orleanists—25, 36, 41, 65, 67, 72,
81, 83, 89, 90, 92, 94-97, 101,
108-16, 125, 127, 138-42, 262, 367,
519, 521, 522
— Bonapartists, Society of December
10—40, 90, 96, 111, 113, 124,
139-43, 262, 520, 521, 523
— party of Order—28, 31, 32, 33,
95-96, 99-101, 105, 107, 108, 113-
19, 122-31, 135-44, 344, 516, 517,
518-25
— bourgeois republicans (National
party)—20, 40, 53, 54, 57-59, 65-
66, 69, 71-84, 85, 87-92, 95, 97-99,
103, 105-06, 110, 114, 125, 128,
140, 141-42, 315, 322,367, 521-22
— petty-bourgeois democracy, La Réforme
newspaper, Mountain
party—34, 35, 55, 60, 66, 70,
74-75, 84, 314, 321-22
— bloc of democrats and socialists
(New Mountain)—90, 97, 98-
101, 103-05, 107, 125, 126, 127,
128-29, 135-37, 138, 141-42, 279,
320-21, 343, 515-18, 522
— Utopian socialist views—57, 70-71,
99, 100, 105, 122, 126-27, 128-29,
138, 263
— workers' clubs, secret societies
— 83, 89-93, 99, 100, 104, 105, 110,
125, 138, 322-24, 569
— events of June 13, 1849, and their
consequences—85, 94, 101-10,
127-30, 184, 238, 262, 523, 576
— elections of March 10, 1850—56,
127-31, 135-36, 324, 516
— repeal of universal suffrage on
May 31, 1850—26, 28, 32, 33, 34,
35, 38, 56, 57, 67-68, 79, 81,
130-32, 136, 137, 139-40, 141-42,
263, 360, 367, 516-18, 522, 571,
572, 577
— foreign policy—53-54, 58, 60, 72-
73, 78-79, 82-83, 93-96, 99, 101,
103-05, 108-12, 131, 151-53, 549,
567
— expedition to Rome—93-94, 103,
104, 109-12, 567
— colonial subjugation of Algeria—
524
— and other European powers—11-
12, 15, 16,58,60, 103, 116-17, 189,
262, 268, 511, 547
— causes of defeat—132-35
— influence on European peoples—
60, 72-73, 103, 116-17, 279
— prospects of revolution—16-17,
20, 21, 23, 24, 26, 28-29, 32, 34
See also June insurrection of Paris proletariat
in 1848
Revolution of 1848-49 in Germany
— Germany on eve of revolution
—481-82
— March revolution—58, 64, 156-57,
243-44, 248, 278, 419
— and absolutism, survivals of feudalism—
173-74, 180, 237-38, 248,
267-68, 481-82
— and counter-revolutionary forces
(nobility, junkers, aristocracy and
bureaucracy)—151, 152, 172, 179,
187, 188, 190, 192-93, 208, 237,
278
— position of bourgeoisie—151, 152,
157-58, 163-67, 168, 169, 172,
236-37, 278-79, 399, 406, 407,
415-19, 481-82
— petty bourgeoisie—149-51, 157-
61, 163-71, 172, 175-80, 183, 184,
190-92, 237, 279, 281, 408-09,
481-82
— peasantry—150, 151, 154, 159,
167, 169, 172, 173, 177, 178, 180,
184, 191, 238, 481
— working class and working-class
movement—13, 150-51, 157, 160,
161, 162, 163, 165-71, 176, 184,
192, 225-26, 237, 238, 277, 278,
374, 388, 419, 481-82
— intelligentsia—172, 224, 237
— army—101, 151, 152, 159-62, 166,
167-69, 170, 172-75, 178, 180,181,
184, 192, 206, 208, 209, 238, 605
— civic militia—160, 161, 166-69,
179, 181, 193-94, 196-97
— United Diet in Prussia (1847,
1848)—258, 268
— Prussian National Assembly—7,
12, 279, 417-18
— coup d'état in Prussia and movement
for non-payment of taxes in
November 1848—279
— Prussian Constitution of December
5, 1848—257
— Chambers of Prussian Diet—257,
417
— democratic movement, position of
petty-bourgeois democrats—4,
147-50, 162, 163, 172, 175, 186,
190-92, 225-26, 247, 277-80, 285,
286, 388, 409, 487
— Neue Rheinische Zeitung, persecution
of editorial board—156-57,
171, 181, 187, 353, 388, 605
— and Communist League—165-66,
186, 201, 225-26, 277-78, 371, 374
— Cologne Workers' Association
—226
— and ways of unifying country—
247
— national question—70
— Frankfurt National Assembly, Imperial
Regency and Ministry—150,
157, 159, 173, 238, 247-50, 258,
259, 279, 388, 417
— Imperial Constitution—150, 151,
166, 178, 237-38, 248-49
— campaign for Imperial Constitution—
97, 101, 149-52, 170, 177,
186, 190, 237-48, 248-50, 278,
279, 285, 374, 543, 605
— Dresden uprising (May 3-8,
1849)—154, 157, 162, 169, 190
— uprising in Rhine Province—154-
72, 174, 178, 190-92, 196, 605
— uprising in Palatinate—155, 157,
162, 170, 172, 179-81, 184-214,
249
— uprising in Baden—110, 157, 162,
170, 171, 172-84, 187-91, 213-39,
249, 277-78, 285
— and Hungary—162, 182, 184,200,
205
— and Rhine Province—156-71
— and revolution of 1848 in
France—64, 182, 184, 238
— offensive of counter-revolution
and reaction—108, 110, 151, 152,
171, 236-37, 239, 279, 481-82,
597
— and Austria—248, 482
— and France—189
— and Prussia—10, 13, 101, 157,
158, 189, 248, 482
— Marx's and Engels' participation in
— 168, 180-83, 186-87, 192, 200-37
— results of—149-52, 237-39, 278,
399, 411, 417, 455-56, 470,481-83,
489, 490, 637
Revolution of 1848-49 in Hungary—58,
70, 97, 101, 108, 110, 152, 184, 197,
200, 205, 214
Revolution of 1848-49 in Italian states
—58, 64, 76, 91-94, 97, 101-03,
108-12, 151-52, 547-48, 553, 567
Rhenish Federation—547
Rhenish Hesse—155
Rhine Province—155-72, 191, 507
Russia (Russian Empire)—8, 12, 13, 14,
15, 259-62, 269, 369, 393, 394, 527-28,
550, 553, 554
See also Patriotic war of 1812; Tsarism,
tsarist autocracy
Russo-Turkish war of 1787-91—548-49
S
Saint-Simonism—306
Savings banks—59-60
Saxony—156, 426, 469, 471-74
Schleswig-Hobtein question—392-94, 526-
27
Sectarianism—98
Sects, religious— 413-15, 420, 426, 428-30
See also Anabaptists
Seehandlung (Preussische Seehandlunggeselbchaft)—
259, 267-68
Serfdom—419, 439, 443, 451
Serf peasantry— 402, 403, 405-07, 409,
415, 478, 551, 578
Seven Years' War of 1756-63—546, 550
Social-Democratic Refugee Committee (late
1840s-early 1850s)—349-52, 600-01,
608-10, 616-23, 631-32
Socialism (theories and trends)
— reactionary—488
— bourgeois (conservative)—125-26,
263, 326, 331, 337, 419, 488
— petty-bourgeois —30, 31, 125-26,
127, 128-29, 488, 531-32, 585, 588,
589, 590
— doctrinaire —67-68, 97, 98, 125-
26, 127, 128-29
— sentimental — 31, 537
— eclectic—126, 127
— Louis Blanc's—63, 125-27, 128,
537, 541
— proletarian (revolutionary) — 30,
127
See also Communism, scientific
Socialism, socialists in France—35, 125-
27, 255, 319-20
— social-democratic party of 1840s—
88, 97-98, 125-27, 129, 279, 518-19
— during revolution of 1848—57-58,
63-64, 67-69, 88, 97-98, 110, 118-
19, 122, 125-27, 128-29, 133, 263,
279, 507, 518-19
Socialism, socialists in Germany—3-4, 177,
282, 416, 419-20, 488, 489, 596
Social labour under capitalism—56, 500
Société des saisons (Society of the Seasons)
(Paris, 1839)—48, 312, 314, 320
Societies, secret, revolutionary, proletarian—
110, 277, 311-22, 371, 633, 634
See also Anarchism, anarchists; Blanquism,
Blanquists
Society— 54, 55-57, 67, 71, 333, 414, 443
See also Civil society; Communism (social
formation)
Society, bourgeois—51, 55, 57-58, 59, 65,
67, 91, 156, 255, 271-73, 275, 331,
363, 387, 408, 415, 509-10, 531
— and economic crises—134, 509
— classes, class struggle—57, 65, 68,
156, 254, 363, 384
— and the state—54, 76-77, 78, 118,
125, 156, 251, 254-56, 296, 330-33,
522
— and religion—92, 96, 118, 254
— prerequisites for inevitable destruction
of bourgeois society and
rise of new society—134, 275, 299,
363, 500
Society, feudal—7, 54, 407-09, 412-13,
414-15, 419, 461, 480
Soil fertility—121
Sonderbund— 51, 261, 358
Spain—132, 266, 400, 507
Speculation— 49, 51, 115, 338-39, 342-
44, 358, 482, 490-92, 494-95, 502, 503,
506-07
See also Stock Exchange, Bourse
State, the
— origin — 72
— and classes—65, 253, 333, 486
— class essence of, instrument of
domination by exploiters—50-51,
331, 486
— and society, social system — 54, 65-
68, 71, 91, 115-16, 125, 280, 285,
331, 422
— alienation of—422
— apparent independence of—54,
333
— state centralisation—125, 285, 399,
443, 461, 480
— state machine—61, 172, 296
— and abolition of classes, withering
away of the state under communism—
333, 422, 486
— critique of anarchist views on
—334, 486-88
See also Monarchy; Republic, bourgeois
State, bourgeois— 54-57, 65-66, 68, 69, 71,
76-77, 78-79, 101, 118, 126, 130-31,
151, 156, 251, 254-56, 278, 308, 330-
33, 486, 522
State, feudal—401
See also Feudalism
State, proletarian—see Communism (social
formation); Dictatorship of the proletariat
Stock Exchange, Bourse—49, 60, 114,
115, 292, 342-44, 363, 504
Styria— 439, 475, 476
Suffrage (in the bourgeois state)—65, 79,
131, 263, 296
— and Bonapartism — 80
— and peasantry and agricultural
workers—54, 65, 78, 79, 122
— significance for working class—79,
137, 275, 298, 517
Superstructure—see Basis and superstructure
Switzerland—177-78, 261, 268-70, 279,
285, 393, 413-33, 435-36, 477
— and revolution of 1848-49 in
Europe—260-61, 392
— and France—52
— and Germany—15-16, 177-78,
267-70
See also Peasants, Swiss; Prussian-Swiss
conflict over Neuchâtel; Sonderbund
T
Taborites—414, 415
Taiping rebellion—266-67
Taxation—49, 61, 78, 84, 116, 118, 122,
126, 262, 292, 324, 325, 327, 328-29,
331, 508
Ten Hours' Bill— 271-76, 288, 297-98
Terror
— revolutionary—57-58, 109, 173,
471-72
— counter-revolutionary—22, 70, 85,
109, 122, 263, 368, 437
See also Violence
Teutonic Order—454
Theology— 411-12, 420, 422
Theory and practice— 77-78, 91, 127, 471
Thirty Years' War (1618-48)—478-79
Thuringia— 408, 418, 421, 426, 469,
471-73, 475
Tories— 255, 273, 291-93, 511, 512
Town, medieval— 401, 402, 406, 407,
408, 412-14, 443, 465
— patricians—155, 406-07, 409, 410,
414-15, 435, 452-53, 457, 461,465,
467,469,478,479,480
See also Burghers; Craftsmen, handicrafts;
Guilds; Plebeians, plebs
Trade, commerce— 265-66, 295, 401-02,
490, 504-06, 584-90
— world —393, 585
— money—294
— and economic crises—264, 295,
490, 584
— trade wars—252
— and revolution of 1848-49—263
— merchant navy and merchant shipping—
401, 505-07
Traditions— 47, 320, 399, 560
Tsarism, tsarist autocracy—259-60,
546-47
Turkey—15, 259, 268, 270
U
Ulster— 9
United States of America—265-66, 285,
333, 341, 486, 501-02, 503-06
Universal Society of Revolutionary Communists—
484, 613-15
Uprising, armed—106, 154, 172, 173-74,
282-84, 413
See also June insurrection of Paris proletariat
in 1848; Uprisings of Lyons
weavers in 1831 and 1834
Uprisings of Lyons weavers in 1831 and
1834—48
Usurious capital— 57, 98, 121-22, 191,
280, 406, 431, 509
Utopianism—126, 331, 336
V
Vagrancy— 407, 409, 433-34, 478
Venice— 265, 477
Village— 406, 408
See also Peasantry
Violence—279
See also Terror
Voltairianism—124, 125
Voluntarism, voluntaristic attitude towards
revolution— 318, 372-73, 470, 530
See also Anarchism, anarchists; Blanquism,
Blanquists
W
Wage labour— 56, 78, 308, 490, 502
See also Exploitation, of labour-power
by capital
Wages— 275, 295, 331
Waldenses—413
War, wars— 56, 252
— methods of conducting wars—
548-50, 553-55
— and revolution, revolutionary
wars—56, 70, 117, 395, 542, 555,
556, 560
— popular, guerrilla—197, 552
— wars of conquest—268, 549
— world — 70
— trade —252
— threat of war in 1850s-60s—117,
260, 268, 269, 542
See also Army
Wars of First French Republic (late 18thearly
19th centuries)—236, 542, 543,
544-46, 552, 560
Wat Tyler's rebellion (1381)—414
Whigs— 255, 293, 299, 340, 510
Women's question— 245, 274, 288-91
Worker, workers— 271, 272, 273-76, 280-
86, 501-02, 503
Workhouses— 63, 288, 366
Working class— 55-57, 69, 281, 361-62,
485, 585, 590, 591
— forming in process of development
of large-scale industry—288
— industrial (factory) proletariat
—56, 121, 156, 272-73, 360
— organising as class—274-75, 387
— the only consistently revolutionary
class—55-57, 81, 96-97, 125, 225,
237, 277, 429, 502
— world-historic role—31, 299
— historical necessity to win political
power, to become ruling class—69,
237, 274-76, 281, 293, 298, 300,
387
— conditions of emancipation—55-
57, 274-75, 276, 298, 553-54
— class consciousness, its growth
— 176-77 238, 271, 275, 286-87,
320
— as leading class (hegemony)—126,
282-83
— and peasantry—28, 57, 58, 69,
96-97, 122, 125, 285, 361
— and petty bourgeoisie — 28, 30-31,
57, 69, 71, 96-97, 103, 104, 125,
150-57, 177, 279-86, 361
— as driving force in bourgeois
revolution—55-56, 57, 66, 67, 81,
225-26, 277-78, 281-86, 298, 419
— disappearance of proletariat as a
result of communist transformation
of society—387
See also Class struggle; Dictatorship of
the proletariat; Party, proletarian; Revolution,
proletarian, socialist; Worker,
workers; Working-class movement
Working class in England—255-56, 274-
76, 287, 298
— handweavers—293
— significance of struggle for universal
suffrage—275, 298
— labour aristocracy—295, 513-14
See also Chartism; Labour movement in
England
Working class in France—53, 54, 55,
68-69, 98-100, 104, 116-17, 127, 136-
t37, 261-62, 315-16, 507, 515-16, 517-
l18, 553-54, 555, 576-77, 578-79
— Paris proletariat—55, 317, 319-20
See also Working-class movement in
France
Working class in Germany—13, 156, 165,
168, 177, 277, 279-81, 286, 388, 410,
412, 481, 537, 553-54
— and bourgeoisie, petty bourgeoisie—
177, 279-81, 286, 481
— and peasants—481
— lumpenproletarjat—165,407,408,
450
— agricultural proletariat—280, 375
See also Working-class movement in
Germany
Working-class movement
— stages of development—127, 291-
94, 428-29, 515
— immediate and ultimate aims
—293-94
— necessity to combine political and
economic struggle—274-76
— and revolutionary theory—127,
318-19, 415
— and proletarian party—634
See also Chartism; Class struggle; Communist
League; Party, proletarian; Working
class
Working-class movement in France—48,
52, 105, 312, 313, 315-18, 319-20, 321
See also June insurrection of Paris proletariat
in 1848; Uprisings of Lyons
weavers in 1831 and 1834
Working-class movement in Germany—13,
277, 482
Working day— 272-76, 288, 297, 300
World market— 56, 255, 295, 299, 361,
501-02, 585
— Britain's monopoly—56, 116, 134,
254, 255, 265, 291-95, 340, 495,
496
See also Foreign trade; Market
Württemberg—10, 11, 435-36, 438, 448,
450, 455, 456, 457
Würzburg— 428, 455, 464-66, 480