MECW VOL 11

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A
Adventurism (political)
— "export of revolution"—286, 355
— voluntarist attitude towards revolution,
"playing at revolution" — 259,
260, 274-75, 284, 287, 293-94,
297-98, 305, 311-12, 325, 389-90,
443-44, 449
See also Bonapartism; Revolutionary
phrase-mongering
Agitation Union (1850s) —321-23,
325-26
See also Democracy, petty-bourgeois
Agriculture— 44, 328, 333, 530-31
See also Peasantry
Ancient Greece—530
Ancient Rome—104, 201, 212, 344, 416,
530
Ancient World—530
Anti-communism (its criticism and exposure
by Marx and Engels)
—- of ruling classes, persecution of
Communists—378, 384-86, 388,
390, 393, 408, 453-55, 457, 621
— of petty-bourgeois ideologists—
288, 293, 318, 323-24, 402-03
Aristocracy—109, 127, 170, 206, 330-31,
389
Aristocracy (nobility), Austrian—26, 28-
30, 31, 33, 39, 54
Aristocracy (nobility), English—206, 328-
30, 335, 462, 487, 493, 502
— and bourgeoisie in 18th-19th
cent.—330-31, 334, 464, 473
— landed—328-31, 463
— finance —329-31
Aristocracy, German—see Nobility, German
Armed uprising, insurrection — 51, 86,
536
Arming of the people— 40, 51, 58, 213
Army— 7, 27, 36, 50-52, 65, 88, 91,
118-20, 131, 185, 191, 193, 201, 212,
312-15, 334, 518
— Austrian—27-28, 48, 50, 81
— English—199, 202, 205, 499, 518
— French—52, 91, 109, 110, 112,
114, 116, 118-19, 122, 123, 126,
131-33, 136-37, 144-46, 150-51,
158-61, 164, 178-86, 188-89, 192-
93, 214, 217, 221
— German—8, 21, 44, 50, 85, 90, 95
— Prussian—25, 35, 45, 50, 51-52,
63, 66-67, 81, 83, 87, 90, 95, 199
Australia— 358, 359, 362, 483, 500
Austria— 23, 26-31, 515, 538
— feudal relations, their survivals —
26, 28, 29, 34, 38
— in 1815-47—26-31, 76
— industry, agriculture, trade, finances—
26-31, 33, 55
— classes—29-31
— bureaucracy—27-31, 39, 54
— political system —26-30, 34, 39-40,
42, 54, 72, 74, 76, 79
— constitution, law (right), suffrage—
28, 30, 32, 54-56, 299
— the press, literature, education—
28-30, 31, 54
— the clergy, Church —24, 28, 31, 39
— national question — 26-27
— and England—533, 538
— and Germany—12, 13, 22, 23, 39,
75, 537
— and Hungary—26, 28-29, 31, 48,
60-63, 71, 75
— and Italian states—26-27, 31, 50,
75, 119, 355-56, 508, 513-14
— and Poland—26, 47
— and Prussia—13, 23, 282, 293,
294, 537
— and Russia—85, 300
— and the Slavs—47-49, 70-72
See also Aristocracy, Austrian; Army
(Austrian); Bourgeoisie, Austrian; Peasants,
Austrian; Revolution of 1848-49 in
Austria; Working class in Austria
B
Bank of England— 359, 361-62, 482, 484,
486-87, 499, 500, 502
Bohemia, Czechs— 43-44, 46-49, 70-72
See also Czech working-class movement
Bonapartism—149, 172, 176, 182, 184-
87, 191-97, 215, 217-21
— maneuvering between contending
classes—191-97, 215, 217-21
— and bourgeoisie—182, 184, 194-
95, 217, 221
— and peasantry—187-96, 216-17,
221
— and working class—218
— and lumpenproletariat—143, 149,
182, 194-95, 217
— and army—150-52, 193-94, 203,
217, 221 
See also Society of December 10
Bourgeoisie—157:, 161, 173-74, 328, 365
— its role in development of productive
forces—365
— industrial—10, 200, 208, 333, 389,
472
— different groups and struggle between
them—10, 112, 128-29, 164-
68, 188, 333
— and political power—8, 10, 139-43,
188, 200, 333-34, 389
— and absolute monarchy—134, 166,
334
— deals with feudal reaction — 38, 39,
160, 334
— and peasantry—18, 38, 190-91
— its theoreticians and ideologists—
170, 173, 375
See also Bonapartism; Bourgeoisie, Austrian;
Bourgeoisie, English; Bourgeoisie,
French; Bourgeoisie, German;
Bourgeoisie, Italian; Bourgeoisie, Prussian;
Class, classes; Class struggle; Democracy,
bourgeois; Dictatorship of the
bourgeoisie; Revolution, bourgeois; Society,
bourgeois; State, bourgeois
Bourgeoisie, Austrian—26-28, 30, 31-34,
39, 54
Bourgeoisie, English— 7-9, 10, 62, 199,
200, 205-08, 330-35, 359, 365, 458,
473, 478, 498, 507, 525-26
Bourgeoisie, French—5, 7, 8, 10, 16, 109,
110, 112-14, 120, 128-29, 139, 163,
171-74, 181-84, 187, 194, 195,216-18,
221, 335, 446, 457
Bourgeoisie, German—7-10, 13-16, 17-25,
38, 39, 44, 95, 244, 446
Bourgeoisie, Italian—354, 532
Bourgeoisie, Prussian—9, 17-20, 22-23,
25, 29, 34-36, 38-39
Bureaucracy
— as a pillar of absolutism—16, 18,
24, 27, 36, 39, 193
— as prop of reaction—16, 39, 127,
185, 192, 221
— as characteristic feature of the
bourgeois state—36, 548
— origin of military-bureaucratic
state machinery—185, 193
See also Officials
Byzantium—64, 76
C
California— 79, 156, 362, 483, 500
Capital punishment—495-97
Censorship—15, 28, 30, 213
Central Bureau of the United German
Emigration (1850s) —260, 274, 280
Central Committee of European Democracy
(1850s)—5, 281-84, 290, 293, 295,
302, 303, 402
Centralisation of the state (political) — 38,
51, 185, 193
Chartism, Chartist movement—50, 200,
206, 327, 335-36, 338-40, 343, 346,
374-77
China—26
Civilisation— 28, 47, 71, 88, 111, 142,
496, 530
Civil society
— and the state—139, 187
Civil war— 49, 104, 203
— as form of class struggle between
proletariat and bourgeoisie—51,
110, 335, 403
Clan— 488, 491, 493, 532
Class, classes— 128, 187, 389, 602-03
— as product of economic relations—
7-12, 128, 200, 201
— and property—128, 165, 328
— and the state—26, 120, 183, 186-
87, 334
— class contradictions—32, 58, 201,
389
— in bourgeois society—111, 472,
532
— and industrial revolution—30, 532
— ruling classes in bourgeois society—
33, 110, 111, 129, 142, 165,
185-86, 201, 208, 333-35, 389,400,
446, 457
— class contradictions between proletariat
and bourgeoisie—130,
133, 142, 195, 199, 201, 216
— middle classes or strata in
bourgeois society—13, 88, 110,
194, 345, 446
— working class as the only consistently
revolutionary class—88-89,
603
— proletariat becoming the ruling
class—335-36
— intermediate, transition—9, 120,
133
— revolutionary—30-31, 88-89, 95,
156, 189, 206
— abolition of classes in communist
society—201
See also Aristocracy; Bourgeoisie; Class
struggle; Dictatorship of the proletariat;
Interests (class); Lumpenproletariat;
Peasantry; Petty bourgeoisie; Working
class
Class struggle—200, 201, 215-16, 603,
611
— between workers and bourgeoisie
in the period of developed capitalism—
32, 51, 56, 142, 146, 153,
200-01, 215-18, 389
— political struggle as a form of class
struggle—127, 388
— unity of workers' economic and
political struggle—505
— and revolution—33, 201
— conditions for its cessation—216
See also Class, classes; Revolution, proletarian
Clergy— 24, 28, 31, 141, 182, 188, 192
Cologne communist trial
— its tendentious character, reactionary
role of the Prussian state—
231, 386, 388, 393, 400-01, 444,
453, 455, 457, 621, 623
— class nature of the jury—211, 385,
393, 400, 457, 621, 623
— and the bourgeois press—97, 369-
71, 453
— and the Willich-Schapper group—
223, 385, 390-91, 402-04, 406-21,
445-52, 455
— exposure by Marx and Engels of
provocative methods of its organisers,
their defence of the accused
and aid to the latter's families—97,
210-12, 223, 378-81, 384-87, 535-
36, 621-24
— its historical significance and consequences
for international workingclass
movement—437, 457, 621
See also Anti-communism; Communist
League
Communism, scientific—456-57
Communism (theories and trends)—20-
21,23,25,111,113,269,288,314,456
Communist League
— its programme fundamentals and
principal documents—25, 388-89,
403-05, 445, 449
— tactical principles—38, 84-88, 389-
90, 403-05, 445-49
— organisational principles, Rules—
388-90, 404, 445, 449
— before 1848—11, 20-21, 446
— during 1848-49 revolution—37-38
— after defeat of 1848-49 revolution—
97, 210-11, 223, 378-81,
384-93, 399-403, 446-51, 621-24
— struggle against the sectarian Willich-
Schapper group, split of the
League—223, 385, 390, 402-03,
446
— and petty-bourgeois democracy—
37-38, 86-87, 92-93, 389, 402, 404,
446
See also Cologne communist trial
Conservative Party (England)—369-71
See also Tories
Conspiracy, plots— 231, 388-89, 446, 455,
514, 536
Constitution—13, 14,20,21, 114-18, 122,
135
Co-operation, co-operative movement
— its principles and aims—573-74,
587
— illusions of co-operators and their
reformist tendencies—582-87
— conditions necessary for success of
co-operative movement, importance
of nation-wide cooperation—
579-81, 587-89
Corn Laws, repeal of (England)—327,
328, 330, 333-35, 347, 364, 370-71,
458, 459, 463, 525
Corruption
— as a typical feature of bourgeois
society—156, 337, 342-47, 370
Counter-revolution—6-7, 43, 50, 51, 56,
72, 111, 114, 126, 182, 328
See also Bonapartism
Country, the
— antithesis between town and country—
128, 191, 348, 531
Courts, legal system—17, 20, 32, 35, 182,
210-11, 384-87, 391-93, 399, 400, 453,
456-57
Credit— 614
Crime— 359, 495-97
Cuba—519
Czechs—see Bohemia
Czech working-class movement— 11,21
D
Danish-Prussian war of 1848-50—42,
49, 53, 204
Democracy, bourgeois (political movement)—
76, 79-80, 287
Democracy, bourgeois (state and political
system)—114-15, 193, 374
Democracy, petty-bourgeois (political movement)—
9-10, 23, 36-38, 67, 79, 82,
87-90, 95-96, 124, 130-33, 249, 388,
403, 446
See also Agitation Union; Central
Bureau of the United German Emigration;
Émigré Club
Despotism, tyranny
— as exploiter minorities' reactionary
political power—25, 30, 34, 42, 58,
71, 79, 111, 132, 185, 193
— military—42, 215, 519
See also Bonapartism
Dictatorship, counter-revolutionary—118,
182, 186, 198
Dictatorship of the bourgeoisie—111, 157,
174
Dictatorship of the proletariat—201, 218,
389
Dissenters— 340, 526
Doctrinairism, doctrinaires—110-11, 142,
156
E
Economic crises—173-75, 221, 357-63,
377
Education—140, 182, 187
Electoral system (in the bourgeois state)—
114, 117, 144-47, 205-08, 336, 342-47,
466
Emigration
— as social phenomenon—359,
528-32
— political—5, 97, 284, 286, 293-94,
305, 310-11, 516, 524, 538-39
— English—359, 493-94, 502, 528-29
— Hungarian—224-25, 246, 354-56,
465, 531-32, 534
— from Ireland—529-30
— Italian—354-56, 465, 532-33
— German refugees in Belgium —
274, 325
— German refugees in England after
defeat of 1848-49 revolution — 97,
103, 223, 257-62, 264, 274, 279,
289, 290-95, 296-306, 307-12, 315-
26, 402-03, 407, 624
— German refugees in France—269,
288, 325
— German refugees in Switzerland—
288, 325
-— German refugees in USA—103,
290, 293, 325, 621-24
— Polish—260
— French—260, 294-96, 311, 509
Émigré Club (1850s)—318, 321-24
England (Great Britain)
— historical development, its
peculiarities—199, 218, 328
— population—201-03, 328, 359,
502, 531-32
— industrial revolution and its social
consequences—200, 531
— trade and industrial monopoly in
the world market—8, 200, 333
— in the first half of the 19th cent,
(up to 1848)—200, 334, 358, 361
— industrial and commercial boom in
mid-19th cent.—359-60, 362-65,
369, 478-82, 502
— finances, budget, taxation—190,
360, 459-64, 467, 499
— landownership, agriculture — 206,
328-31, 335, 364, 459, 462, 494,
530, 533
— trade, commerce—328, 359-60,
362, 528
— economic crises—174, 200, 358,
360-61, 363-64, 500
— classes—199-201, 206, 218, 345
— social and political system—5, 7,
128, 200, 208, 329-31, 334, 473,
493, 527
— pauperism—357-59, 365, 484-85,
529
— electoral system (general characteristics)—
205-08, 335-37, 342-47,
349-50, 366-67, 466, 475, 523,
533-34
— electoral reform and demand for
universal suffrage—205-06, 335-
36, 375
— electoral reform of 1832—330,
344-45, 512, 525
— bourgeois-democratic electoral reform
movement in 1840s and early
1850s—205-09, 335, 345, 375-76,
475, 499-500, 505-07, 511, 516
— political parties of ruling classes
(general characteristics)—327,
333, 337, 338, 345, 352, 373
— Peelites—327, 331, 333, 348-50,
, 351-52, 368-71, 458-59, 472-75
— disintegration of ruling parties —
369-76, 458, 469-72
— Free Traders as party of industrial
bourgeoisie—327, 363-64, 345,
348-50, 367, 375
— radicals—375-76, 475
— colonial wars—198-99
— religion—128, 327-29, 334, 342,
344, 462, 525-27
— preconditions and prospects for
social (proletarian) revolution; possibility
of its peaceful development—
200-01, 329, 335-36, 532
See also Aristocracy, English; Army (English);
Bank of England; Bourgeoisie,
English; Chartism; Corn Laws; Emigration
(English); Lancashire; Liberal Party;
London; Manchester School; Parliament,
British; Peace Society; Petty bourgeoisie,
English; Tories; Whigs; Workhouses;
Working class in England; Working-class
movement in England
Europe— 44, 47-48, 71, 531
F
Family and marriage
— in bourgeois society—28, 35, 111,
143, 194
Farmers— 335, 364, 459, 462, 530
Feudalism— 26, 45, 104, 185, 331, 389
— abolition of—7, 11, 38, 104
— survivals of—7, 8, 25, 28-29, 34
Feuerbachianism— 247, 265, 270, 273
Foreign trade—8, 19, 362, 479-80, 483,
528
See also Trade; World market
France—52, 55
— population—190, 216
— national character of the French —
112-13, 187, 190, 215-16
— economics—8, 104, 140-41, 173-
76, 187, 190-93, 195, 2.15-16, 221
— taxation—140, 191, 195
— towns—185, 190
— social and political system, state
apparatus—112, 116, 127, 139,
140, 185-87, 190-93, 197,216,221,
457, 550
— classes, class relationships, class
struggle—127, 217, 218, 222
— prior to 18th-cent. revolution—16,
125, 188, 195-96
— during Consulate and First Empire—
103-04, 179, 186, 188, 191,
199, 215
— during Restoration (1815-30)—
104, 120, 128, 141, 186, 187, 200,
497-98
— July monarchy (1830-48)—108,
110, 112-15, 119-20, 127, 128, 141,
159, 166-67, 169-70, 186-87, 217,
221
— and Austria—355, 541
— and Egypt—519
— and England—198-99, 355, 497,
517-20
— and Germany—7, 14, 287
— and Greece—519
— and Hungary—355
— and Italy—287, 356
— and Russia—541
— and Switzerland — 519
— and Turkey—519
— and the USA—519
See also Army (French); Bonapartism;
Bourgeoisie, French; Emigration
(French) ; French Revolution; June insurrection
of the Paris proletariat in 1848;
Literature (French); Paris; Peasants,
French; Petty bourgeoisie, French; Revolution
of 1848 in France; Society of December
10; Working class in France
Freedom
— its illusory character in bourgeois
society— 114-15
— right to assembly and association —
35, 51, 114, 137, 213, 388, 445
Freedom of trade— 330, 333-34, 357-59,
464, 478, 499, 506, 525-26
See also Corn Laws; Manchester School
French Revolution (18th cent.)—11, 15,
104-06, 124, 188, 497
G
German Confederation (1815-66)—12, 22,
40, 81
— Federal Diet—12, 13, 22, 40, 64,
76, 83, 261, 533
German philosophy—14-15, 21, 247, 282,
404, 496
See also Feuerbachianism; Hegel; Young
Hegelians
German Workers' Educational Society in
London (1840-1918)—406, 413, 416,
427, 451
Germany—7-9
— Germans—12, 13, 45, 71, 299
— in the Middle Ages—9, 43-44, 331
— 1815-earIy 1848—7-25
— division of Germany and the task
of her unification—8, 12, 23-24,
41-42, 51, 63, 75-76, 537
— industry—8, 10
— agriculture—7, 9, 11-12
— social estates, classes—7-10, 24, 25,
249, 254-55, 266, 268, 274, 305,
311, 402-03
— political development, political system—
7, 8, 13, 15, 22-23, 25, 82
— right, suffrage—7, 35-38
— bourgeois liberalism of 1840s—9,
11, 13-16, 17-25,29-31,35,39,46,
76, 81, 95-96, 244, 270
— democrats, democratic movement—
25, 243, 247, 249, 255, 258,
260, 268, 272, 273, 281-84, 287,
311
— young people, students, student
movement—32-33, 50, 88, 317-18,
321
— science, education, school—15, 21,
28, 40, 44, 244
— the press—18, 21, 244
— religion—23-24
— and Hungary—71
— and Poland—43-45, 71
— and Russia—13, 23, 45-46
— and the Slavs—43-47, 70-72
— and Switzerland — 25
See also Army (German); Bourgeoisie,
German; Cologne communist trial; Emigration
(German); German philosophy;
Holy Roman Empire of the German
Nation; Literature (German); Nobility,
German; Peasants, German; Petty
bourgeoisie, German; Prussia; Revolution
of 1848-49 in Germany; Rhine Province;
Town (in Germany); Working-class
movement in Germany; " Young
Germany"
Gold— 79, 361-62, 483, 487-88, 501, 528
H
Handicrafts, handicraftsmen— 9-11, 25,
27, 29, 249, 314
Hegel, Hegelianism—14, 103, 239, 244,
265-67, 277, 284, 404, 496
Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation
(962-1806)—18, 24, 76
Hungary— 26, 28-29, 31, 41, 46-49, 51,
56, 60-63, 71-72, 355, 513
See also Emigration (Hungarian); National
liberation war of 1848-49 in
Hungary; Revolution of 1848-49 in
Hungary
I
Idealism—402, 496
See also Hegel
Interests
— material—8, 130, 131, 139, 173,
328, 364
— class—8, 15, 31-32, 89, 95, 111,
130, 133, 146, 160, 165-66, 172-73,
213, 216, 218, 221, 328, 330, 337,
346, 364, 389, 506, 519, 603
— material interests as the basis of
class struggle—216
— and the state—139, 165, 171, 186,
334
— their expression in ideology and
theory—128, 130, 143
— opposing interests and struggle between
them—12, 128, 133, 164,
166, 168, 187, 191, 216, 221
Ireland— 201, 349, 352, 357, 366, 462,
474-75, 477, 486, 493, 503-04, 524,
528-30
7ta/;y—26-27, 50, 287, 354-56, 508, 513-
15, 532, 536-37
See also Bourgeoisie, Italian; Emigration
(Italian); Literature (Italian); Revolution
of 1848-49 in Italian states; Working
class in Italy; " Young Italy"
J
Jesuits—121, 141
Jews— 30, 44, 257, 512, 522-23
June insurrection of the Paris proletariat in
1848—51, 53, 68, 110, 111, 113, 118,
120, 124, 134, 136, 180, 213, 214
L
Lancashire—208
Landed property— 7, 11-12, 26, 104, 128,
166, 190, 192, 195, 216, 488-94
Landowner—7, 26, 128, 165, 213, 328,
525
Land rent—26, 128, 327-28
Legislation, bourgeois— 115, 185, 346, 493
See also Power, legislative and executive
Liberalism— 9-10, 20, 39, 96, 112, 142-
43, 388, 446
Liberal Party (England)
— its foundation—349, 351-52, 373-
74, 376, 464, 499, 500
Literature—14, 28, 30
— French—196, 260, 269
— German—14, 229-30, 237-39,
240-41, 243-45, 256, 266
— Italian —274, 310, 315, 326, 539
See also Poetry
London—8, 12, 208
Lumpenproletariat—110, 143, 149, 155,
182, 193-95, 217, 313
M
Machines, machine production—29, 200,
360-61, 365, 479-80, 525, 529
Manchester School, the— 327, 333-34,
367, 372, 375, 379, 474, 478, 499, 506,
525, 526
Material conditions of the life of society—6,
10-11, 29, 128, 187, 189, 200-01, 446,
496
Materialism
— its opposition to idealism — 402
Migration of peoples— 531
Monarchy— 5, 9-10, 166, 185
— absolute—15, 16, 18,23-24,26-27,
35, 39, 127, 134, 166, 185
— constitutional (bourgeois)—13, 14,
82, 110, 127, 129, 134, 166-67, 186,
278
Mortgage
— as form of capitalist exploitation of
small peasants—141, 190, 195,
216, 564
N
Nation—6, 12, 27, 42, 46, 51, 71, 88,
109, 185, 200, 215, 334, 337, 389, 403,
514
National liberation movement—45, 536
National liberation war of 1848-49 in
Hungary— 48-49, 56, 59, 61-64, 70,
83, 85, 90, 300
National question—26, 44-45, 49-50, 536
Nineteenth century—10
Nobility (aristocracy), German—7, 13, 44,
331, 400, 457
o
Officials—7, 29, 31, 36, 113, 116, 139,
185, 191, 221
See also Bureaucracy
P
Pan-Slavism— 47-49, 71-72
Panellation— see Smallholding
Paris—8, 12, 160
Parliament (in the bourgeois state)—79,
81, 116-17, 123, 134, 142, 155, 161,
172, 178, 184, 345-47
See also Electoral system; Suffrage
Parliament, British— 345, 347-48, 350-
51, 367, 371, 474-75, 502-04, 516, 522
Party, political—6, 32, 38, 109-11, 128-
29, 186, 327-36, 388, 445-46,
623
Party, proletarian— 37, 110-11, 124, 131,
201, 214, 218, 388-90, 446, 622-24
Peace Society (England, 1816)—205, 366,
367, 386, 499, 533
Peasantry—11, 23
— free from feudal bondage—190
— in bourgeois and bourgeoisdemocratic
revolution—12, 18, 38,
87, 88, 189-91
— as ally of bourgeoisie—11, 38
— as ally of proletariat—190, 193
— and the small-holding system—
187-88, 190, 193
— its ideologists—189
See also Country; Farmers; Mortgage;
Peasants, Austrian; Peasants, French;
Peasants, German; Peasants, Prussian
Peasants, Austrian— 26, 28-30, 34, 38, 56
Peasants, French—141, 187-95, 216-17
Peasants, German—9, 11, 23-25
Peasants, Prussian—18, 20-21, 25, 38
Petty bourgeoisie—9-10, 88-89, 130, 134,
388-89, 445
— and bourgeoisie—136
— and peasantry—88
— and working class—9-10, 37, 129,
389
— in bourgeois-democratic revolution—
10, 37, 82, 88-89, 92-93,
130, 136
— its world outlook—9-10, 37, 95-96,
130, 134
See also Democracy, petty-bourgeois
Petty bourgeoisie, English— 203, 206-07
Petty bourgeoisie, French—108, 113, 130-
34, 144, 181
Petty bourgeoisie, German—9-10, 23-25,
82, 88-89, 92-93
Philistinism— 92, 239, 254-55, 266-68,
304-05, 312
Poetry—14, 266, 268-69, 274, 310, 315,
326, 514
Poland— 43-45, 47-49, 58, 533
See also Emigration (Polish)
Population—44, 328, 502, 527-32
See also Country; Town
Power, legislative and executive—115-18,
134-35, 139, 155, 159, 162, 165, 171-
72, 177-78, 180-81, 185-88, 191, 194,
213, 216, 334
Press, the—17
— in bourgeois society—21, 28, 35,
51, 114, 137, 141, 182, 213, 366,
446, 540-41
— freedom of—17, 20, 23, 32, 35,
114, 141, 445-46
— proletarian—213, 445
Proudhon, Proudhonism—110-11, 604-14
— criticism of Proudhon's political
and economic views on the causes
of social revolution—545-70
Prussia—16-25, 29, 35-36, 38-39, 42, 44,
50, 66, 68, 72, 81-82, 84, 127, 210-11,
378-79, 385, 393, 400-02, 404, 424,
440, 455, 457, 533, 537-38, 621, 623
See also Army (Prussian); Bourgeoisie,
Prussian; Danish-Prussian war of 1848-
50; Peasants, Prussian; Revolution of
1848-49 in Germany
Punishment—495-97
R
Republic, bourgeois—109-11, 119, 129,
161, 184, 213, 334
— parliamentarian (constitutional)—
123, 129, 134, 142-43, 165, 176,
181-86, 188
— federative—25, 38
— and working-class movement—25,
37, 109, 217
— democratic republic as a form
transitional to working-class rule—
111, 181
See also Democracy, bourgeois; Revolution
of 1848 in France; United States of
America
Republican movement
— petty-bourgeois—37, 112-13, 297
— bourgeois—14, 79, 112-14, 119-
20, 126-27, 129
Revolution— 6, 33, 68-69, 85-86, 104,
514-15
— as driving force of historical progress—
33, 106, 602
— its prerequisites—6, 221
— and class struggle—33, 201
— as a process—5, 403
— and the state—185-86
— and armed uprising—85-86
— political—404
— national—536
— criticism of voluntarist views on
revolution—275, 389, 403, 514-15
— "improvised" revolutions—514-15
See also Adventurism; Revolution,
bourgeois; Revolution, proletarian; Revolution,
social
Revolution, bourgeois, bourgeois-democratic—
7, 88, 103-06, 185-86, 211,
389, 618-19
— possibility of its development along
ascending or descending line—124
— its prerequisites—5-7, 33
— its limited character—17, 35, 81,
104, 106, 146
— bourgeoisie's striving for compromise
with feudal reaction—81,
146
— attitude towards old state machinery—
35-36, 185-86
— necessity of revolutionary methods
of struggle to carry it to the
end—62
— as definite stage to proletarian
revolution—5, 10, 88-89, 185, 388
— its driving forces, role of the
masses—6, 9, 39, 88, 104, 106
— and working class—6, 32, 37, 84,
88-89, 92, 95, 208
— tasks and tactics of proletarian
party-^-37, 389, 404
— and peasantry—38, 88, 189-91
— and petty bourgeoisie—23, 82, 87-
89, 92, 130-31, 181
— and the national question—44-45,
47, 62, 186, 536
See also Revolution of 1848-49 in
Europe; Revolution of 1848-49 (in different
countries)
Revolution, permanent—88-89, 185, 389
Revolution, proletarian, socialist
— its essence and tasks—68, 86, 106,
109, 618
— its historical necessity—88, 531
— prerequisites for—6, 110-11,
200-01
— as highest form of proletarian class
struggle against bourgeoisie—
201
— as culmination of permanent
revolution—88, 184, 389
— its fundamental difference from
bourgeois revolution—106-07, 186
— need for breaking up the old state
machine—185, 193, 337
— implementation of bourgeois democratic
reforms—88, 106, 208,
463
— need for preparing workers for
revolution—403
— alliance between working class
and peasantry as a condition for
its victory —193
See also Dictatorship of the proletariat;
Party, proletarian; Revolution, permanent
Revolution, social— 88, 106, 201, 329,
335, 617-18
Revolution of 1848-49 in Europe (general
characteristics)—5, 6, 9, 38, 45-46,
50-51,95, 111, 114, 126, 185,199-200,
221, 389, 446, 499, 513-14, 518
See also Revolution of 1848-49 (in
different European countries)
Revolution of 1848-49 in Austria
— prerequisites and causes — 26-31
— uprising in Vienna on March 13,
1848—32, 33, 34, 39, 49, 54, 58,
62, 297
— revolutionary actions in Vienna on
May 15 and 26, 1848—34, 49, 51,
54-55, 58
— popular action in Vienna on August
23, 1848—56
— popular uprising in Vienna on October
6, 1848—48, 53-56, 68-70,
271-72
— Prague uprising of 1848—49, 72
— and Austria's economic position —
33, 55
— counter-revolutionary Court party—
33, 54-58, 71
— aristocracy (nobility) — 32-33, 54
— bureaucracy—39, 41, 54-55
— finance aristocracy—32-34
— bourgeoisie—32-33, 39, 42, 54-58
— petty bourgeoisie—32-34, 58
— peasants—34, 38, 56
— working class—31-34, 56-57
— students—33, 54-55, 57-60
_ army —50, 54-55, 57, 59, 81
— Committee of Public Safety—33,
58-61
— National Guard — 33-34,54-57, 58-
59, 299
— liberal government—45, 50, 54-55
— Imperial Diet—34, 41-42, 48-49,
54-59, 61-62, 70, 72
— Constitution—54, 72, 82, 299
— national question—44-50, 70-72
— and Hungary—49, 51, 56, 59-63,
70, 72, 85, 300
— and Italy—41, 49-50, 56, 58, 72,
119
— Slav peoples of Austrian Empire
used by reaction to fight revolution—
48-49, 55-58, 60, 63, 70-72
— and the Czechs—45-49, 58, 71
— and the Poles—48, 58, 60
— and Frankfurt National Assembly—
42, 62, 64-65, 70, 73-74, 76
— results and assessment of Austrian
revolution—15, 54, 60, 72-73, 75,
81
Revolution of 1848 in France. Second
Republic—106-08, 124-25, 617-19
— stages in its development—108-10,
114, 119-20, 124, 180-81
— from February to June 1848—6-7,
31, 35, 50-51, 106, 108-11, 113-14,
118-19, 124, 130, 135-36, 145, 150,
180-81, 216, 218, 295
— National (Constituent) Assembly,
its policy—83, 107-09, 112, 113,
116, 118-27, 129-32, 134-35, 137-
40, 143-44, 147-48, 154-64, 168,
171, 172, 177-81, 185
— election of Louis Bonaparte as
President of the Republic, increase
of his power—105, 119, 147-48,
153-60, 162-63, 165, 169-72, 176-
81, 186-89
— Second Republic (general characteristics)—
108-11, 114, 119-21,
124-25, 135, 137, 165, 180-86,213,
216
— Constitution of 1848—107, 114-
19, 122, 131-34, 144-47, 164-66,
168-69, 172-73, 176, 180-81
— preservation and perfection of old
state apparatus—114, 139-40,
185-87
— Legislative Assembly (from May
28, 1849), its policy, struggle of
parties—108, 115-17, 120-27, 131,
132, 134-48, 152-65, 168-69, 176-
78, 180-81, 212, 216-17, 519
— elections on March 10, 1850—143-
46
— policy of Odilon Barrot Ministry—
121-23, 125, 136-40, 181
— policy of d'Hautpoul Ministry—
139-40, 142-43, 151-55, 163
— universal suffrage, its abolition on
May 31, 1850—108, 114, 125, 134,
145-48, 153, 159, 161, 163, 169,
176, 178, 180-81, 188, 193, 213,
216, 593-94
— army—52, 109-11, 114, 116, 118-
19, 122-24, 126, 132-33, 136-37,
144-46, 150-52, 157-60, 164, 178,
180-89, 193-94, 214, 217, 221
— National Guard—109, 125, 132-
36, 151, 158-59, 182, 184, 196
— the press—120, 131, 136-37, 145,
148, 151-52, 158, 172, 175-76, 182,
213
— economic development—162-63,
170-76, 189-90, 215, 221
— finances, taxation—174, 190-92,
195-96
— industry—146, 160, 163, 173-76,
215
— trade—146, 160, 162, 172-75,214,
594
— finance aristocracy—135, 140, 170
— big landowners—127, 138-39, 165-
66, 197, 213, 593
— bourgeoisie—50, 109-10, 113, 115,
119-20, 128, 131, 134, 136, 139-43,
145-46, 149, 152-53, 156-57, 159,
161, 163, 165-67, 170-74, 176,
179-84, 187-88, 191, 193-96, 213-
14, 216-17, 219, 221, 446, 593
— petty bourgeoisie—50, 109-10,
119, 129-33, 146, 181-83, 203
— working class and its role—51,
109-11, 113, 119-20, 124, 129-33,
136, 146, 156, 164, 173, 180-82,
184-85, 191, 213-18, 221-22, 446,
593, 619
— peasantry—109-10, 119, 126, 141,
188-93, 195, 216-17, 221
— lumpenproletariat—110, 114, 143,
149-50, 155-57, 182, 191-96, 217
— dynastic opposition—108-09, 120-
21
— Legitimists—108, 117, 120-23,
125-30, 137, 138, 141, 144, 148,
160, 165-70, 176, 180, 182, 187,
213, 216, 592
— Orleanists—108, 114, 120, 122-23,
125-30, 137-38, 141, 144, 160,
164-68, 176, 180, 187, 213, 216,
592, 594, 596
— Bonapartists—105-06, 113, 117-
19, 123-25, 135, 137-40, 143-44,
148-53, 156-57, 159-60, 162-65,
171-72, 176, 178-79, 187-97, 212-
13, 215, 217-18, 596-97
— Party of Order (class nature, policy)—
120-24, 126-27, 129-31, 134-
35, 137-39, 141, 143-45, 147-48,
150-53, 155-72, 178, 180-81, 519
— bourgeois republicans (National
party)—50, 108-10, 112-15, 117-
20, 122-24, 126, 129, 148-50, 160,
164-65, 169, 176, 180-81, 216, 592,
594
— petty-bourgeois democracy in 1848
(La Réforme newspaper, Montagne
party)—103, 108-09, 113, 120,
124, 130, 132, 171, 216
— petty-bourgeois democracy in 1849
(bloc of democrats and socialists,
new Montagne party)—95, 103,
107, 123-27, 129-35, 138, 143-46,
158-62, 164, 169, 171, 178, 181,
216
— events of June 13, 1849, defeat of
petty-bourgeois democrats—90-
91, 131-32, 134-36, 144, 146, 151,
161, 169, 181
— Utopian socialist trends and
views—109-11, 113, 120, 129-30,
150, 156-57
— workers' clubs, secret societies—
108-10, 117, 124, 129, 130, 150,
184
— foreign policy of Second Republic
(general characteristics) —112-13,
119, 131, 134, 519
— Roman expedition—119, 121, 123,
131, 133, 135, 138
— and England—175-76, 198-99,
213
— coup d'état of December 2, 1851
("18th Brumaire of Louis
Bonaparte")—103, 105-08, 112,
117-24, 129, 135-36, 163, 165, 173,
176-77, 179-84, 186-89, 193-94,
198, 212-18, 221, 512, 519, 593-94,
601-02
— position of various parties during
coup d'état on December 2—592-
94, 601, 615-17
— assessment of December 2 coup
d'état by bourgeois and petty bourgeois
writers—592-614
— absence of conditions for victorious
proletarian revolution—107,
109, 182, 185, 214-15
— impact of revolution in France on
European nations—21, 31-32, 35,
51, 111
See also June insurrection of the Paris
proletariat in 1848; Society of December
10
Revolution of 1848-49 in Germany
— Germany on eve of revolution—5-
25
— March revolution—31, 34-39, 43,
68, 80
— republican uprising in South Germany
in April and September
1848—53, 63, 262
— uprising in Frankfurt on September
18, 1848—52-53, 63
— absolutist-feudal party—36, 39,
42, 51-52, 66-68, 73
— nobility, Junkers, bureaucracy—
36, 39, 42, 50, 52, 66
— bourgeoisie—20, 34-36, 38-42, 45-
46, 50-52, 66-67, 73, 81-82
— petty bourgeoisie—9-10, 37-38,
50, 73,80-82, 88-91, 92,95-96, 255
— peasantry—12, 20, 38, 66, 83, 87,
89, 95, 253
— working class and working-class
movement—11, 21, 35-38, 84, 88-
90, 92, 95
— students, professors—14, 40, 88
— jurists, Prussian judiciary—14, 25,
40, 42
— army—36, 45, 50-52, 63, 66-67,
81, 83, 85, 90, 95
— Federal Diet—40, 64, 76, 83
— National Assembly in Frankfurt—
22, 37, 39-42, 53, 62, 64-65, 69-70,
72-87, 91-96, 259, 271
— German Central Authority (Imperial
Regency and Ministry)—41, 52-
53, 62, 64, 69, 73, 75, 84, 86-87,
91-94
— Prussian National Assembly—36,
42, 66-69, 259
— democratic movement, position of
petty-bourgeois democrats—37-
38, 49, 52, 64-65, 69, 73, 79-80,
81-87, 91-93, 95-96, 258-59, 271-
73, 278, 307-09
— ways of Germany's unification—^
41-42, 63-64, 75-76, 80-81, 271
— national question—43, 45-46,
49-50
— and Schleswig-Holstein question—
41-42, 49, 52-53
— coup d'état in Prussia, Prussian
Constitution of December 5,
1848—69, 72, 81-82
— Chambers of Prussian Diet — 69,
72, 82, 259
— Imperial Constitution—73-75, 76-
83, 85, 259
— campaign for Imperial Constitution
(uprising in South-West Germany
in May-July 1849)—75, 80-
86, 252, 259, 272, 308, 309, 312
— Dresden uprising (May 3-8,
1849)—85, 87, 90, 97, 272
— uprising in Rhine Province—85-
87, 90
— Palatinate uprising—85, 87, 90-91,
253
— Baden uprising—85, 87, 90-91, 94,
253, 261, 263-64, 272, 275, 308-09
— and 1848-49 revolution in Austria—
53-54, 60-61, 63-67
— and 1848 revolution in France—
21, 35, 37, 41, 51, 53
— and 1848-49 revolution in Hungary—
41, 49
— onslaught of counter-revolution
and reaction—41, 66-68, 72-73, 81
— and Austria—72-73, 75-76
— and Italy—41, 49-50
— and Poland, Polish question—41,
44-45, 49-51
— and Prussia—70, 72-75, 82, 84-86
— and Slav peoples of Austrian Empire—
46, 70-71
— results and assessment of—7, 9,
12-13, 32, 34-40, 63, 68, 70, 80,
94-96
Revolution of 1848-49 in Hungary—49,
51, 56-57, 61-63, 70, 83, 85, 90, 300
See also National liberation war of
1848-49 in Hungary
Revolution of 1848-49 in Italian states—
31, 41, 49, 50, 56, 119, 121, 131, 133,
135, 138, 508-09
Revolutionary phrase-mongering—243,
268, 403, 533-34
Rhine Province—11, 17, 25, 457, 621
Russia—13, 23, 45, 47, 72, 79, 85, 300,
488, 516, 533, 541
S
Schleswig-Holstein— 41, 49, 289
Scotland— 207, 377, 487-91, 493, 528-30
See also Clan
Silesian uprising of weavers (1844)—11,
21, 35
Slavs (Central and South Europe)—43-
45, 47-49, 55-56, 58, 70-72
Smallholding—104, 186-93, 553, 564
See also Mortgage; Peasantry
Socialism (theories and trends) — 21, 35,
110-11, 141
Societies, secret—133, 162, 184, 388-90,
404, 446, 449
See also Conspiracy
Society—186-87, 193, 496, 553-54
Society, bourgeois—104, 111-12, 128, 192,
215, 333, 359, 404, 472, 496-97, 532,
602-04
Society of December 10, Bonapartist—112,
119, 149-51, 153-55, 157, 161-62, 164,
177, 180, 182, 186, 193-94, 196, 217,
221, 498
Society, slave-owning—see Ancient World
Speculation (in money, in stock)—27,
175, 195, 362, 483, 486
State, the—25, 28, 36, 52, 106, 120, 139,
182, 184-88, 191-93, 216, 328, 338,
463
See also Bureaucracy; Centralisation
of the state; Civil society; Power, legislative
and executive; State, bourgeois
State, bourgeois
— its class nature, instrument for
exploiting working masses— 111,
119, 139, 183-86, 334
— and society—111, 118, 139, 182-
87, 191, 193, 239
— division of powers—116-17, 139,
.148, 153, 185
— and taxation—191-92, 463
— break-up of bourgeois state
machine during proletarian revolution—
186, 193, 337
See also Bonapartism; Bourgeoisie
Statistics— 359, 496
Suffrage— 23, 37, 114, 144-47, 153,206,
208, 213, 216, 336, 605-06
Switzerland— 275, 503, 519, 533, 537
T
Tories (England)—128, 200, 327-31,
333, 337, 342, 347-49, 351-52, 364-68,
370, 472, 473, 477, 517-18
See also Conservative Party
Town
— antithesis between town and country—
128, 191, 348, 531
— in the Middle Ages—331
— in Germany—7, 9, 10, 18, 23, 88,
331
Trade, commerce— 8-9, 328, 357-61, 463,
483-84, 552-53
See also Foreign trade; World market
Trade balance— 362-63, 479, 500, 528
Transition period from capitalism to communism
(socialism) — 88, 92, 106-07,
200-01, 389, 403
See also Dictatorship of the proletariat
U
United States of America—111, 206, 329,
519
See also California
Usury, usurers— 11, 25,44, 190, 216, 522,
564
V
Venice— 201, 356, 503
Vienna Congress of 1814-15—13, 22, 113
W
Wars—8, 45, 61, 79, 85, 91, 104, 201,
203, 216, 315, 334, 499
See also Army; Civil war; Danish-
Prussian war of 1848-50
Whigs (England)—198, 206, 208, 329-
31, 335, 337, 349-51, 374,458,473-75,
477, 517
Workhouses— 359
Working class—10, 335, 446
— its formation in the process of
development of large-scale industry—
201
— industrial proletariat—10, 23, 200,
201, 389, 531
— the only consistently revolutionary
class—88-89, 603
— historical necessity of the proletariat
becoming the ruling class—
201, 218
— growth of class consciousness—11,
402
— and the peasantry—12, 190
— and urban petty bourgeoisie—9-
10, 37, 130, 389
— its disappearance as a result of
communist transformation of society—
10
See also Class struggle; Czech working-class
movement; Dictatorship of the proletariat;
Party, proletarian; Revolution,
proletarian; Working class in Austria;
Working class in England; Working class
in France; Working class in Germany;
Working class in Italy; Working-class
movement in England; Working-class
movement in Germany; Working-class
movement in Switzerland
Working class in Austria—28-30, 59
Working class in England—12, 199, 208,
332, 335-36, 502, 530
Working class in France—10, 12, 113,
133, 144-45, 163, 173, 191, 213, 214,
218, 221
Working class in Germany—10-11, 20-21,
23-25, 37-38, 402, 446
Working class in Italy—-514, 536
Working-class movement—10, 11, 38, 110-
11, 206, 208, 218, 335-36, 338, 388,
446
See also Chartism; Class struggle; Communist
League; Czech working-class
movement; Party, proletarian; Working
class; Working-class movement in England;
Working-class movement in Germany;
Working-class movement in Switzerland
Working-class movement in England—206,
335-38, 346-47, 502, 524-25
See also Chartism; Working class in
England
Working-class movement in Germany —11,
20, 23, 35, 38, 388, 446, 621
See also Working class in Germany
Working-class movement in Switzerland—
20, 288
World market—175, 200, 393
See also Foreign trade
Y
" Young Europe" (1834-36)—287-88, 290
"Young Germany"—14, 287-88
Young Hegelians—14-15, 18, 244, 265
"Young Italy"—387







MECW VOL 12






A
Abstraction— 370, 397, 401
Adventurism (in the working-class movement)—
502-04
Afghanistan, Afghans—444
Agitational Association—488
Agriculture in the East—218-19
Aim and Means—496
Albania, Albanians (Arnauts)—7, 8, 16,
34, 229
Alchemy— 48, 55, 77
American literature—40, 80
Analogy—125, 214, 222, 453, 507
Anglo-Afghan war of 1838-42—14, 151,
180
Anglo-Burmese wars—155, 180, 201-02,
282-83, 419
Anglo-Sikh wars—14, 151
Antagonism—169
Anti-colonial struggle—93, 221
Anti-Corn Law League—448, 596-97
Appearance—510, 511
Arabs— 218
Aristocracy—148-49, 189
— British—3, 72, 139, 154-55, 189,
218, 312
Arithmetic—55
Armenia, Armenians—7, 14, 24, 26, 112,
356, 430-31
Army— 23, 29, 88, 90, 159, 336, 349-50,
425-27, 432-33, 519, 557
— as component part of state apparatus—
159
— Austrian—421-22, 557
— British—188, 217, 218, 349-50
— Prussian—556, 557
— Russian—335-36, 425, 427-28,
478, 520
— Turkish—7, 336, 340,408, 427-28,
433, 457, 478, 520
See also Artillery; Cavalry; Fortification,
field
Artillery—34
Asceticism—126
Asia—132
— Asiatic community—132
— mode of production—127,131,215
— importance of irrigation—127
— form of landed property, rent of
land—215
— and the state—127, 215
— penetration of capitalism—217-18,
283
See also Asia Minor
Asia Minor—7, 94
Assimilation, national—218
Astronomy—93
Atom— 220
Australia— 253, 328, 410
— discovery of gold in—94, 95, 326,
436
Austria—7, 19, 95, 100, 308, 330, 568-
69, 586-87, 602
— finances—330, 418, 568-69, 586-
87, 602
— agriculture—215
— political system—19
— home policy—19
— clergy, church—576
— national question—9, 586
— and Hungary—330, 529, 554
— and Italy—39, 330, 554-55, 557,
568
— and Poland—362, 529, 568
— foreign policy, diplomacy—23,
193, 257-58, 321, 524, 529-31, 544
— and Britain—3, 4, 25, 26, 59, 74,
175, 260
— and France—108, 175, 554, 555
— and Prussia—503
— and Russia—165-66, 174-75, 193,
227-29, 321-22, 339-40, 355-56,
408-09, 417, 554-57, 569, 581-82
— and Switzerland—87, 90-92, 107-
08, 115, 302
— and Turkey—7, 19, 23, 193, 211,
278-79, 417, 616
See also Army, Austrian; Austro-Turkish
wars of sixteenth-seventeenth centuries;
Crimean war of 1853-56; Revolution of
1848-49 in Austrian Empire
Austro-Turkish wars of sixteenth-seventeenth
centuries— 7
B
Balkans, the— 33-36
Balta-Liman, Convention of 1848—144,
239, 269, 312
Bank notes— 297-98, 409
Bank of England—118, 295-300, 304,
314, 330, 409
Banks, banking legislation—295-300, 304-
05, 314, 330, 409
See also Bank of England
Barbarians—132
Basis and superstructure—131, 217, 219-
20, 222
Basle— 88
Bavaria—371
Belgian revolution of 1830-31—5, 368,
369
Belgium
— economic system — 287
— social and political system—376,
384
— home and foreign policy—308,
399
— in 1848—421
— neutrality—86, 91
— and Britain—371
— and Holland—371, 599
— and Luxembourg—371
Belgrade—10
Bengal—123, 125, 131, 151, 201, 214-
15, 221-22
Bills of exchange—297-98
Birmingham—273, 352
Black Sea, the—13, 15-16
Blanquism, Blanquists—504-07
Bohemia, Bohemians (Czechs)—102
Bombay—316
Bonapartism—20, 540-41
See also Coup d'état of December 2, 1851
in France
Bosnia—8, 11, 35, 229, 339
Bosphorus—13, 15-16, 25
See also Eastern question
Bourgeoisie— 221 -22
— rise and role in development of
productive forces—169, 221
— struggle against feudalism—149
— industrial—188-89
— financial—149
— political domination—169
— liberal—149
— and progress—221
— and national question—221
See also Bourgeoisie (of various countries);
Colonies
Bourgeoisie, British—70, 149, 188-89,
196, 200, 221, 312-13, 347, 437
— industrial—69, 155, 218, 220-21
— financial—149, 189, 312-13
— Free Trade—72-73, 135, 161-62,
196, 202, 312-13, 346, 437, 460,
594-96
— liberal—187-88, 437
— groups of—200
— and proletariat—413, 437
Bourgeoisie, French—70, 148-49, 308,
540-41
Bourgeoisie, Greek—26-27
Bourgeoisie, Jewish—9, 313
Bourgeoisie, Prussian—38
Bourgeoisie, Slavonic—26-27
Brazil—155
British North America—411
Bucharest—18, 34
Budget
— class nature—48, 59, 63-66, 76, 81
— and national debt—44-46, 48, 63,
102
— and taxes—59-62, 64-66, 68-73,
75, 81, 178-79, 213-14
Bulgaria, Bulgarians—11, 339-40
Burma, Burmese— 201-02, 419
See also Anglo-Burmese wars
Byzantium— 230-31, 371, 614
C
California— 94, 95, 326, 436
Canada— 49-50, 52, 56, 281
Capital— 64-65, 154, 190-91, 218-19,
222
Capitalist— 220-22
Capitalist mode of production—168-69,
222
Castes, caste system—217
Catholicism—510, 576
Caucasus, uprising of Caucasian mountaineers—
146, 406, 422, 455-56, 476,
532, 550
Causality— 32, 93, 188-89, 327, 460,
486, 524, 541, 543, 545
Cavalry— 432
Chartism, Chartists
— as independent political movement
of working class—436
— People's Charter—-188
— and radicals—189
— and 1842 strike—436
— in 1848—226
— in 1850s—135-37, 169-73, 196,
226, 282, 448-49, 462-63, 612
— and "Labour Parliament"—470,
513-14, 525, 612
— Chartist press—500
Child labour— 461, 469
Chile—155
China
— economic system—94-95
— foreign trade—94-98, 439, 465
— as object of colonial expansion—
96-98
— silver as means of circulation—94
— opium trade—93-94, 99, 438
Church— 38, 350-51
— of England—188-89
— Catholic—615-16
— Greek Orthodox—9-10, 32, 105,
615-16
Civilisation
— level in different nations—26-27
— Byzantine—231
— bourgeois—6, 221, 231
Classes— 20, 70, 169, 196, 249, 607
Class struggle— 99, 169, 437, 438
See also Working-class movement
Clergy—189
Cologne communist trial (1852)—29-30,
481-82, 501-04,
Colonial wars—201
See also Opium wars
Colonies, colonial system—126, 131-32,
197-200, 220-22
— ways of liberating colonial countries—
221
Commerce, trade—13, 15, 94, 96-99, 222,
332
Communism
— premises—221, 222
— and winning of political power by
working class—81
— and the state—159
— production—222
Communist League, the
— elaboration of tactical principles—
498, 507-08
— after defeat of 1848-49 revolutions—
40-41, 481-508
— struggle against Willich-Schapper
sectarian group, split in Communist
League—489-508
— and workers' educational
societies—488, 507
— and petty-bourgeois democrats—
487-88, 497-98, 507
See also Cologne communist trial (1852)
Community—128, 129, 218, 220
Conquest— 217-18
Consciousness—106, 132, 481-82, 487,
511
Constantinople— 8-9, 11, 13-17, 34, 212,
231
Corn Laws— 348, 436, 461
See also Anti-Corn Law League
Corruption— 74, 147, 149, 181, 281, 512
Counter-revolution—101-02, 530
Coup d'état of December 2, 1851 in
France—245, 540-41, 545, 615
Courts and legal procedure—85, 158
Cracow, Cracow Republic (1846)—362,
367, 369, 397, 529
Cracow insurrection of 1846—280, 366
Crimean war of 1853-56—553-58, 568,
587-88
— causes—116, 615
— character of war, aims of belligerent
countries—430, 454, 524, 553-
58, 590
— and prospects of revolution—17,
36, 539-40, 554, 558, 568
— preparation for war, armed forces
of belligerent countries—335-36,
407-08, 416-17, 424, 425, 428,
430, 432-35, 455, 472-73, 521,
564-65, 569-70, 572, 597, 614
— and diplomacy of European powers—
407, 417-18, 435, 454, 528-
32, 551, 553-62, 568, 575-77, 582,
607-08, 613-14, 615-16
— military operations on Danube—
336-40, 408, 417, 424, 425-30,
435, 445, 450-54, 457-59, 471-75,
516-22, 520-23, 531, 551-53, 572-
73, 579, 581, 585-86, 589, 610
— battle of Oltenitza (November 4,
1853)—450, 458, 471-72, 474-75,
516, 517-18, 521, 552, 580, 591
— operations in Caucasus—430-35,
446, 455-56, 476, 531, 547,550-
51, 557, 572, 583-84
— operations on Black and Azov
seas—339, 408, 428, 536-37, 547-
48, 551, 553-54, 556-57, 562, 568,
569, 571, 575, 584-86, 588,609-10
— battle of Sinope (November 30,
1853)—536-37, 544, 547-50, 560-
62, 565, 570-71, 575, 584, 589-90,
610
— operations on Baltic Sea—555-56,
569, 609
— and Britain—537, 556, 569, 571,
606-07
— and British foreign policy and
diplomacy—523, 527, 529, 531-
33, 537-38, 545, 554, 560, 577,
. : 588,594,615-16
— and stand of British bourgeoisie—
408-09, 435, 437, 527, 528, 530-
32, 545-58, 562, 574, 589-90, 594-
97, 601, 614-15
— Britain's preparation for war, its
army—570, 608-09, 614
— and Turkey—210-11, 282-83,
325, 340, 407-08, 416-17, 435,
523-24, 529, 532, 560-61, 575-77,
587-88, 614-16
— and France—425, 538-39, 553-57,
569, 594, 613, 615
— and French foreign policy and
diplomacy—407-08, 435, 554,
560-62, 568, 575, 589
— France's part in war, its army —
570, 610, 614
-r- and Russia—517, 523, 544, 573-
74, 589-90, 601-02, 609, 613,
614-16
— and Piedmont—425
— and Austria—339-40, 407, 524,
527, 530, 544, 554-57, 568-69,
577, 586-88, 602, 609, 614, 616
— and Prussia—527, 555-57, 562,
569, 574, 576, 584, 602, 609, 614
— and Denmark—555, 569, 574,
588, 594, 608, 613
— and Hungary—554, 557
— and Italian states—554-55, 557,
568
— and Poland—568
— and Slavonic peoples of Balkan
Peninsula—339-40, 424, 523-24,
544, 574, 586
— and Sweden—555-56, 569, 574,
594, 613
Croatia— 10
D
Dalmatia— 10
Danube, the— 391-92
Danubian Principalities—185, 269, 271,
395
Dardanelles, the—13, 15-16, 118, 381,
382, 391, 529
See also Eastern question
Demand and supply—297
Democracy, petty-bourgeois (political
trend)—507
Denmark
— landownership—445
— Constitution—227, 241-42, 421,
444-45, 605
— electoral rights, Parliament—67,
241-42, 421, 604-05
— political parties—237, 445
— foreign policy—574, 594, 613
— succession to throne and European
diplomacy—67, 101, 237-38,
241-42, 444-45
— and Britain—237, 259, 594
— and France—594
— and Russia—67, 101-02, 227, 237-
38, 241-42, 259, 444-45, 574, 594,
613
— and Sweden—574, 613
See also Peasantry, Danish; Schleswig-
Holstein question
Despotism, despotic governments—20, 126,
135
— military—540
— Asiatic—126, 132
Development—132, 221, 222, 247, 388
Dialectic— 503
Diplomacy— 6-7, 33-34, 523, 528, 553
Diseases, epidemics (as. social phenomena)—
216, 226, 287, 419
Dissenters— 350
Division of labour—221
E
East, ancient—127
Eastern question— 5-8, 24-27, 33-36, 163
— end of eighteenth-first half of
nineteenth centuries—5, 33,
164-65
— as knot of international contradictions—
5, 22-26, 32-34, 212-13,
355-56
— aggravation of in early 1850s—4,
5, 18-21, 24-26, 39, 105-07, 109-
10, 112, 115-16, 137, 138, 142-47,
163, 165-67, 174-75, 185, 187,
192-95, 202, 209-12, 227-28, 233-
35, 240-41, 245-46, 257, 259-76,
292, 293, 309-14, 321-26, 329,
382, 392, 416, 527-30, 553, 568,
577, 589, 606, 607, 615-19
Eastern war—see Crimean war of 1853-56
East India Company (Dutch)—126
East India Company (English)—94, 96,
123, 139-41, 148-55, 178-84, 196-97,
213, 220, 223, 233, 281
— role in conquest of India—149-52,
179-83, 197-98
— methods of colonial plunder—94,
96, 149-51, 152-54, 178-79, 183,
197, 213-16, 221-25
— colonial administration—103-04,
120-21, 123, 126, 139-40, 150,
178-84, 196, 213
— colonial expansion in Asian countries—
201
Economic crises
— and prospects of revolution—99,
306, 557-58
— their periodic character—98,
168-69
— overproduction as origin of—327,
524
— prognostication of—95-96, 97-98,
213, 327
— and development of productive
forces—327
— and trade—96-100
— and prosperity as phase of cycle—
96, 306, 326-27, 525
— depression—410, 439
— and general commercial crises—
98
— industrial—306, 524, 540
— commercial—305, 306, 327, 329,
540
— financial—540
— and condition of working people
— 168-69, 326-27, 333-34, 524
Economic laws— 222, 248, 332
Economics and politics—70, 127-32, 168-
69, 188, 307-08, 525
Education— 218, 468-69
Egypt— 7, 127, 203, 372-76, 377
Egyptian crisis of 1831 -33— 371-80
See also Treaty of Unkiar-Skelessi
(1833)
Egyptian crisis of 1839-41—5, 195, 384,
523, 529, 607
Electoral system—74, 137, 147
Electricity— 34, 113, 218, 578
Emigration— 246, 349, 504
— from Britain—225, 246, 332, 460
— from France—90, 504-07, 540
— from Germany—41-42, 90, 487-
88, 503, 623
— from Hungary—42-43, 57
— from Ireland—226
— to USA—332, 623-24
Émigré Club— 488, 489
Encyclopedias— 5 9
England (Great Britain)
— historical development, its
peculiarities—189
— in Middle Ages—103
— Magna Carta Libertatum — 24
— in sixteenth-seventeenth centuries—
148
— revolution of 1688—149, 189,
349
— in the eighteenth century—148,
150, 153, 189
— and French Revolution (1789-
94)_44, 60, 222
— industrial revolution—188-89
— in first half of nineteenth century
(until 1848)—60, 255, 332
— in 1850s—3, 4, 58, 282, 325-27,
333, 410, 411-14,435-37,439-43,
447, 462, 467-68, 524, 543-46,
578, 590-92, 601
— population—246, 247, 275
— pauperism—253
— as leading capitalist power—274-
75, 436, 467
— industrial and commercial boom in
mid-nineteenth century—95-96,
99-100, 225, 305-06, 326, 327,
467-69
— industry—154
— finances, budget, taxes—44-49,
52-56, 59-66, 68-73, 75-81, 102,
118-19, 146-47, 175-77, 202, 253,
297, 347
— transport—274-75, 303, 304
— landlords, landlordism—157-62,
188-89, 251, 351
— protectionism—148, 152-54
— home trade—306, 461, 465
— foreign trade—13-15, 153-54,
247-49, 388-89, 465-68
— crisis of 1845-48—225
— signs of crisis in early 1850s—95-
96, 98, 306-07, 331, 333-34, 438-
43, 467-68, 524
— social and political system—179
— constitutional monarchy—149,
199-200, 254, 591
— Constitution —78, 88, 137, 543
— oligarchic rule—103-04, 139, 150-
51, 155, 184, 189, 591
— local government—188, 512
— bureaucracy, officialdom—182-84
— class contradictions—413-14, 437,
438
— social contrasts, morals—179,
221, 346, 512
—- limited nature of bourgeois
democracy—351-52
— legislation—50-51, 70, 72, 436
— factory legislation—135, 249-50,
282, 347-48
— Poor Laws—188
— electoral system—74, 137, 147,
304, 352-53, 436, 512-13, 597-99
— political parties of ruling classes—
73-74, 81, 100, 140, 152, 281
— two-party system—188, 606-07,
611
— Peelites—282, 534, 535
— Free Traders—436, 594
— Radicals—73, 188, 250, 254, 282
— "Irish Brigade"—58, 73, 119,
157, 560, 611
— Coalition Ministry of all talents—
20, 50, 51, 56, 58, 59, 73, 74,
103-04, 139-40, 157, 188, 225,
280, 281, 527, 537, 543-45
— education, science—51-52
— clergy, church—50-51, 67,
188-89, 350-51, 576
— colonial policy—126, 150, 221-22
— and Ireland—125, 157-60, 234,
250-52, 282, 382
— and Canada—49, 50, 52, 56, 281
— foreign policy, diplomacy—24,
280-82, 345-47, 353-54, 370-71,
379-85, 388-92, 397-98, 401-07,
523, 527-35, 544-45
— colonial expansion in China—94-
98, 153, 438-39
— and Eastern question—13, 14-15,
17, 23-25, 32, 36, 137-38, 143-46,
185, 210, 240, 254-55, 261-64,
309-12, 321, 325, 327, 538, 543-
45, 576
— and Danubian question — 282
— foreign policy programme of Free-
Trade bourgeoisie—15, 151-52,
202, 283
— and Austria—3, 4, 59, 74, 260
— and Belgium—371, 376, 384
— and Denmark—67, 236-37, 259,
349
— and Egypt—375, 377
— and France—20, 59, 254-55, 261,
262, 365, 367, 371, 384, 538,
545-46, 607
— and Greece—347, 354, 392
— and Holland—368, 369
— and Persia—112
— and Poland—280
— and Portugal—254, 370, 371,
376
— and Russia—13-15,24-25, 151-52,
165-66, 186-87, 192-94, 196, 202,
254-55, 259, 264, 280, 282, 312-
13, 353-56, 363, 365, 368, 369,
377, 381-90, 392, 393, 396-98,
399-406, 437, 438, 527, 530, 532-
33, 535, 537, 543-44, 595
— and Spain—353, 376
— and Turkey—13, 265-76, 360,
373-74, 377, 385, 419, 531-33,
538
See also Anglo-Afghan war of 1838-42;
Anglo-Burmese wars; Anglo-Sikh wars;
Anti-Corn Law League; Aristocracy,
British; Army, British; Birmingham;
Bourgeoisie, British; British North
America; Chartism; Corn Laws; Crimean
war of 1853-56; Eastern question;
English revolution of 1640-60; Free
trade; India; Leeds; Manchester; Parliament,
British; Reformation (in Britain);
Scotland; Tories; Trade unions in Britain;
Wales; Whigs; Working-class movement
in Britain
English literature— 79, 184, 188-90, 226,
303, 360, 373, 385
English revolution of 1640-60—148
Epirus—10
Epoch
— historical—247, 371
— bourgeois—34, 222
Europe
— population—98
— in nineteenth century—5, 86, 89-
91, 99-100, 135, 196, 213, 308
— revolutionary and democratic
movement—5, 89-91, 93, 101, 308
— international relations and
diplomacy in nineteenth century
—5,86,212
— Western—5
— prospects of revolution and
danger of war—17, 106, 174,212,
282, 318, 557-58
Evolution—247
Exchange rate— 296-97, 299-300, 304-07
Expropriation in colonies—129, 132, 221
F
Factory legislation—187-88, 190
Famine— 73, 419, 465-66
Fanariote Greeks—22
Farmers—160
Female labour—461, 469
Feudalism—103,169
Flanders—127
Foreign policy—13-16, 93-94, 98-99, 128-
29, 152-55, 300, 312-13
Fortification, field— 425-26, 520
France
—in sixteenth century—412
—in seventeenth-eighteenth centuries—
70
—during Consulate and First Empire—
539-40
—during Restoration—203, 540
—foreign policy and diplomacy—23,
32, 203, 367, 380
—and Britain—361, 380
—and Italy—554
— and Poland—361
—and Russia—24, 194, 203
—and Switzerland—90-91, 108
—and Turkey—372
See also Bourgeoisie, French; France
during Second Empire (1851-70); French
Revolution (1789-94); July Monarchy in
France (1830-48); Napoleonic wars;
Revolution in France. Second Republic
(1848-51); Wars of First French Republic;
Working class in France
France during second Empire (1851-70)
—economic system—540, 541, 570,
587,599
—state apparatus—99-100
—industry—570, 587
—agriculture—215, 541
—trade—418, 540, 541, 570, 587
—finances—234, 287, 308, 418, 540,
570
—internal situation, home policy—
308,421,539-40
—monarchists—539-40,574
—corruption of ruling circles—100
—bourgeoisie—308, 540-41
—working class—308, 541
—peasantry—540
—aggravation of class contradictions—
540
—growth of opposition — 540-41,
554-55
—republican movement—539-40
—foreign policy and diplomacy—209,
259, 361, 554, 575, 576
—and Austria—554
—and Britain—538, 574
—and China—97-98
—and Germany—29
—and Hungary—554
—and Russia—5, 108, 145-46,165-66,
193, 209, 227-28, 538, 539
— and Switzerland—108
—and Turkey—209, 530
See also Bonapartism; Coup d'état of
December 2, 1851 in France; Eastern
question
Freedom—17, 170, 358
Free trade— 72-73, 80, 135, 161-62, 332,
460, 464
See also Anti-Corn Law League
French literature—412
French Revolution (1789-94)—17, 34, 44,
222, 626
See also Jacobin dictatorship
G
Galicia—9, 240, 366
Geneva—88
Geographical environment—34-35, 127-
^S, 229
Geology— 222
Georgia— 391, 392, 431
German literature—132-33
Germans, ancient—221
German Workers' Educational Society (London
)—488, 493, 497, 499-500
Germany
—in 1850s—510-11
— fragmentation and task of unification—
511
—foreign trade—391
—legislation, courts—421
—bourgeois liberalism—30
—opposition movement in early
nineteenth century ("demagogues")—
490
— religion and church—510-11
—education—38
—and Italy—230
—and Netherlands—26
—and Switzerland—87, 90-91
See also German literature; Germans,
ancient; Prussia; Revolution of 1848-49
in Germany
Gibraltar— 16
Gold and silver— 94, 128, 296-97, 304
See also Australia; California
Government securities—45-49, 53-55, 102
Greece, Greeks
— Greek population of Turkey—7, 9,
24, 26-27, 32, 269-70
—struggle for independence—8, 22-
23, 32-33, 617
—and policy of European powers—
23-24, 27, 32-33, 86, 91, 163, 356,
370, 392, 394-95
See also Bourgeoisie, Greek; Insurrection
of 1821-29 in Greece
Greece, Ancient—19, 169, 221
H
Hegel, Hegelianism—93, 481, 487
Herzegovina— 8
Hinduism—125-26, 132, 178, 221-22
Historicism— 247, 332
Historiography, bourgeois— 22, 161, 220-21
History— 33-34, 222, 452
—tragical and comic in history—275-
76
Holy Alliance—5, 106, 353, 355-56
Hong, the— 98
Housing question—462
Hungary
—population—9, 10
—in 1850s—330
— trade—391
—political system—88
—and national question—539, 554,
557
— and Austria—330, 529, 554
— and Britain — 391
—and France—554
—and Russia—194, 240
—and Slavonians—10
See also Crimean war of 1853-56;
Revolution of 1848-49 in Hungary
I
Ideas—11, 17
Ideology, ideologists—274
Imeretia—391
Income—71-72
India—125-32, 139, 198-99, 217-22
— natural conditions—125,127
— stagnation, its causes—127-28,
218-19
—mode of production—128-32
—social system—125-30, 153, 155,
217-18
—castes—132, 217, 221
—slavery—132
— landownership, Zemindari, Ryotwari
and village systems—121,
214-16, 218
—village communities—128-32, 218,
219-20
—landed property—121, 213-16,
218, 221
—agriculture and its merger with
handicrafts—127-28
—handicrafts, handicraftsmen,
domestic industry—128-31
—importance of irrigation—127, 219,
419-20
—cotton—154
—trade—13, 128, 153-54
—sea routes—13
—colonial subjugation by Britain,
methods of British colonial administration—
94, 99, 103-04, 120-
24, 138-41, 148, 150-56, 178-84,
196-200, 213, 217-18, 221-22, 233,
282, 411
—ruining of local industry by British
competition—94-95, 127-29, 131,
154-55, 218, 222
—development of capitalism — 218-21
— means of communication — 218-20,
316
— army— 1%, 217-18
— press—218
—aristocracy—197-99
— intelligentsia— 218
—peasants (ryots)—214-15
—religion—125-26, 132, 178, 217,
221-22
—prospects and ways of liberation
from colonial oppression—221
See also Bengal; Bombay; Hinduism;
Punjab; Sind
Individual, personality, the—17, 93, 132,
222, 347, 358
Industrial Exhibition in London (1851)—
502
Industrial revolution—34
Industry, large-scale—169, 188, 220, 222
Insurrection of 1821-29 in Greece— 22-23,
33, 163, 617
Intelligentsia—445
Interests— 66, 131, 154, 213
— and politics—33, 135
—and law—89
—and religion—35
— and principles—81
— private—135, 224-25
—antagonistic—99, 160-61
—unity, identity of—154
—of the people—33, 81, 214, 445
— national — 20, 91
—of different countries—13, 17, 20-
21, 24-25, 33-36, 67, 99, 309, 353-
54, 399-400, 423
— parochial — 89
—class—20, 135, 160-61
—of landed proprietors—65-66, 68-
71, 161, 213-14
—opposition of interests of landed
proprietors and urban bourgeoisie—
70-71
—of nobility—20
—of peasants—214, 445
—of bourgeoisie—46, 53, 64-65, 69-
71, 154, 189-91, 218-19, 399
—opposition of interests of proletariat
and bourgeoisie—135
—of political parties—40, 607
—of democracy—17
—of revolution—17
Ireland
—as British colony—125, 159-60, 282
— landlordism—158-60, 162, 251-52
—agrarian relations—157-62, 215
—potato blight and famine—73
—agrarian laws—234, 250-52, 282
—trade—154
—tax and credit system—70-71
—pauperism—158, 226, 351
—Litchfield-house Contract of 1835
—611
—(Irish Brigade, Irish quarter)—58,
73, 611-12
—Catholic Emancipation movement—
351
See also Peasantry, Irish
Irrigation and melioration—127, 219,
419-20
Islam—8, 125-26, 211, 231, 408
Italy—125, 127
—peculiarities of historical development—
125
—economic system—307-08
—industry—307-08
—trade, commerce—287
— national liberation movement—17,
28, 30, 91, 511, 539, 554, 557, 568
—revolution of 1820-21 and 1831—5
— Milan insurrection of 1853—17, 28,
30, 39, 511
—home policy—307-08, 511
—and Austria—307-08, 511, 554,
555, 557, 568
— and France—539, 554-55, 568
—and Germany—230
—and Prussia—30
—and Switzerland—90-91
See also Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
(Naples); Lombardy; Papal States (Roman
State); Revolution of 1848-49 in Italian
states; Venice
J
Jacobin dictatorship, the—468
Java— 126
Jews—9, 313
July monarchy in France (1830-48)—148-
49, 540
—foreign policy and diplomacy—32,
203, 361, 367, 380
K
Kiev— 230
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Naples)—307
L
Landed property
— private monopoly of land—64
—separation of land from direct producer
and capitalist tenant—160
—and tenancy legislation—250-51
—in colonies—121, 213-15, 218, 221
—Asiatic form—213-15, 218
—in India—122, 213-16, 218, 221-22
—theories of classical political
economists on—160-61
See also Asia; India; Tenancy
Landowner— 64, 70-71, 160-61, 213-14
Language— 8-11, 23, 221
Law, laws— 93, 218, 222, 247, 332
—international—311-12
Law of unity and struggle of opposites—93
Lawyers—103
Lebanon—7
Leeds— 352
Legislation—159, 188-89
—pre-bourgeois—242
—bourgeois—66, 72, 170, 188, 225,
253, 288
Liberalism, bourgeois—188, 437, 445
Literature
—satire, irony, humour—412
See also American literature; English
literature; French literature; German literature
Loan capital—297-98
Lock-outs—447
Logic— 253, 260
Lombardy—92, 308, 330
London Convention of 1840—312, 365,
523, 607
London Convention of 1841—145, 203,
238, 264, 312, 523, 529-30, 561
Luxembourg— 371
M
Machines, machine production— 189-91,
461
Malthusianism— 247, 460-62
Manchester— 352
Manchester School—see Free trade
Material conditions of life—221, 222
Mazzini, Mazzinists—91, 511-12
Means of communication and intercourse—
222
Means of subsistence— 307, 332, 447-48
Merchant—14
Merchant marine—400
Military art—426, 427, 430, 520, 523,
550-52
Moguls— 218
Moldavia— 8-9, 11, 24, 33, 142, 144-45,
164, 202, 235, 240, 269, 277,279, 313,
336-37, 340, 391, 538
Monarchy—6
—absolute—6, 17
—constitutional—149
Money, money circulation—296-300
Monopolies— 215-16
Montenegro, Montenegrins—11-12, 19,
339-40, 616-17
Morality— 520, 521
—class character—224, 304
—and class struggle—169
—and politics—511
—and the state—95, 304
—and law—224
—bourgeois—215, 303-04, 460
—proletarian—304
—in warfare—458
N
Napoleonic wars—5, 20, 106, 337, 349,
426-27, 452-53, 557, 609
—and Britain—151, 347-49, 368, 427
—and Prussia—555, 569
—and Russia—368
National debt— 44-49, 52-53, 102
National liberation movement—221-22
See also Cracow insurrection of 1846;
India; Ireland; Poland; Revolution of
1848-49 in Hungary; Revolution of
1848-49 in Italian states; Taiping
uprising
National question—34-35, 221-22
Nation, nationality— 9-11, 33-35, 86, 92,
332
Nature—132, 222, 438
Navy— 428, 556, 602
Needs, requirements—3, 11, 35, 90, 189,
215, 220, 299
Netherlands, the— 26, 126, 368
Neutrality— 86, 89-92
Newton's discovery—93
O
Opium trade—99
Opium wars—94-95
Organisation of social labour and production—
168-69, 222
Owenism, Owenites—612
P
Pacifism—346
Palestine—7
Pan-Slavism—11, 17
Papal States (Roman State)—307-08
Paris— 540
Parliament, British—72, 178, 187, 226,
256, 281, 312-13
—House of Lords—256, 282
—House of Commons—74, 149, 178,
256, 597-98
Party, political—606-07
Party, proletarian—40-41
Peasantry, Danish—237, 445
Peasantry, French— 215, 245, 308, 540
Peasantry, Irish—158-60
Peasantry, Swiss—84, 87-88
Peasants' duties—215
People, popular masses— 81, 149, 220, 351
Persia—13, 94, 127, 587
—and Britain—444, 560, 573, 587
—and Russia—114, 194, 355-56, 390,
408, 444, 560, 573, 587
Peru—155
Petersburg—34
Petty bourgeoisie, English—188, 411
Poland
— Polish nation—10, 568
—nobility—366
— peasantry—366
— partitions of—25, 529
— revolutionary, democratic movements—
568
— and European war—539
—and Tsarism—114, 362, 378
—and Austria—529
— and Britain—194, 358-61
—and France—568
—and Turkey—194
See also Cracow, Cracow Republic
(1846); Polish insurrection of 1830-31;
Polish question
Polish insurrection of 1830-31—5, 358,
363, 378, 386
Polish question— 358-68, 378
Political economy, bourgeois—70-72, 80-
81, 103-04, 177-78, 202, 213, 247,
436-37, 625-29
Political power—70
Population—247, 460-62
Portugal— 254, 370-71, 376, 384
Possibility and reality—370, 460-62
Power, legislative and executive—351
Pragmatism— 487
Preston strike of 1853-54—331, 412-13,
437, 447, 462-63, 469
Price of corn— 306-07, 315-16, 442-43
Principles— 397, 401
Private property—39
Production—169, 215, 222, 247
Productive forces— 221, 222, 247, 388
—under capitalism—154, 219, 247,
328, 388
—their development as material prerequisite
of communist society—
221, 222
Progress—6, 26-27, 34-35, 87-89,221-22,
231
Protestantism— 510
Prussia
—and French Revolution (1789-94)—
555, 569
—police system—28-31
—in 1850s—37-38, 308, 509-10, 555,
569, 599
—aristocracy—29
— bureaucracy, officialdom—29, 510
—Diet—509-10
—religion and church—38, 510-11,
569
— foreign policy and diplomacy—509
— and Austria—503
—and Italy—29-30
—and Poland—362
—and Russia—166, 193, 509, 555-56
—and Switzerland—87, 108
See also Army, Prussian; Bourgeoisie,
Prussian; Napoleonic wars
Punjab—14, 152, 444
Q
Quality and quantity—72
R
Race— 7-9, 11, 34
Railways— 35, 218-21
Rate of interest—118, 295, 298, 300,
304-05,314
Reason—132
Reform— 51-52, 78, 81
Reformation (in Britain)—189
Religion— 7-8, 217, 221-22, 430
—criticism of—510-11
See also Catholicism; Protestantism
Republic, bourgeois—212
Reserve and insurance funds—296-300,
304-05, 330, 409
Revolution— 99, 189, 247, 557
See also Revolution, agrarian; Revolution,
bourgeois, bourgeois-democratic;
Revolution, proletarian, socialist; Revolution,
social
Revolution, agrarian—221
Revolution, bourgeois, bourgeois-democratic—
34, 93, 99, 557
Revolution, proletarian, socialist—81, 99,
221, 222, 557
—its historical necessity—247
—and winning of political power by
working class—81
Revolution, social—159, 222
Revolution in France. Second Republic
(1848-51)
— Provisional Government—505, 539
— Luxembourg Commission—612
—National Assembly—540
—economic development—540-41
—bourgeoisie—540-41
—working class, its role in revolution—
541
—and peasantry—540
— Legitimists, Orleanists, Bonapartists—
539
— foreign policy of Second Republic—
90, 421, 615
Revolution of 1848-49 in Austrian Empire—
90, 95, 102
Revolution of 1848-49 in Europe—21, 89,
99, 193
Revolution of 1848-49 in Germany—285,
501
Revolution of 1848-49 in Hungary—9, 42,
494
Revolution of 1848-49 in Italian states—
90, 511, 554
Revolutionary movement, revolutionaries—
57, 92
Revolutionary phrasemongering—42
Ricardian school in political economy—160-
62, 448
Right, rights
— of ownership—214
—of inheritance—64
Rome, Ancient—8, 169, 197, 230
Russia
— territory, population—229-30
—economic system — 35
— foreign trade—35, 212
— finances, banks—117, 240-41, 368-
69, 602-04
—social and political system — 36
— home policy—230, 404, 603
—officialdom, bureaucracy—36
— religion —230, 408
— and Central Asia—444
— incorporation of Caucasus—391-93
—and Poland—362, 378
— foreign policy, diplomacy—24-25,
113-18, 163-67, 227-30, 282, 379-
81, 385-88, 391-93, 397. 417, 523,
538-39, 544-45, 576, 615-17
—and Austria—165-66, 174-75, 193,
227-29, 321-22, 339-40, 355, 409,
417, 554-57, 569, 586
—and Britain—13-15, 17, 19, 24, 36,
145-46, 152, 165-66, 175, 187, 192-
94, 196, 202, 227-28, 254-55, 259,
261, 264, 266, 280-85, 312, 389,
393-97, 399-402, 404, 406, 441
—and Denmark—67, 118, 167, 237-
38, 241-42, 444, 574, 584, 594
—and France—5, 108, 145-46, 165-
66, 194, 203, 209, 227-28, 538-39
—and Greece—356-57
—and Holland—368-69
—and Persia— 114, 355-56, 560, 573
—and Prussia—166, 555, 594
—and Sweden —114, 444, 574
—and Turkey—5, 7, 9, 11, 23-25,
32-33, 105-06, 113-14, 142-46, 163-
65, 174, 228-30, 261-62, 322, 332,
340, 356-57, 371-74, 378-80, 389,
400,406,531,550-51,561,576,616
— prospects of revolution against
Tsarism—34
See also Army, Russian; Crimean war of
1853-56; Eastern question; Napoleonic
wars; Slavs; Tsarism
Russo-Persian war of 1826-28—355-56
Russo-Turkish war of 1768-74— 105, 195,
229, 404, 416, 528-29, 575
Russo-Turkish war of 1787-91—339
Russo-Turkish war of 1828-29—1, 33,
105, 112, 142, 143, 164-66, 195, 229,
337-39, 356-57, 371, 380-81, 387,
392-97, 399-400, 401, 404, 406, 426,
43 433, 529, 575
S
Samnite war, second (324-304 B.C.)—196
Satire— 184, 226
Schleswig-Holstein question—101 -02, 118,
242, 421-22
Science— 35, 160, 218, 597
— and production—128, 222
— in bourgeois society—160, 162
— in Britain—128, 162
—under communism—222
Scotland— 414-15
Second Empire—see France during Second
Empire (1851-70)
Serbia, Serbs—35-36
— oppression bv Turkey—8. 11, 35,
339, 530
— political development and system —
35, 340
— religion — 35
—and Austria—278-79
— and Russia—8, 11, 33, 35, 228-30,
269, 339, 548, 573-74
Serbian uprisings (1804-13, 1815-17)—
23, 33, 36
Seven Years' War (1756-63)—149
Sind—14, 152, 180
Slavs
—and Tsarism—11, 23, 24, 35-36,
269, 340
—in Turkish Empire—7, 9-10, 23-24,
26, 34-36, 269, 340
—revolutionary solution of Slav question—
36
See also Pan-Slavism; Poland, Serbia
Social-Democratic Refugee Committee—
492-93
Socialism (theories and trends)—72
Socialism, Utopian—72, 169
Socialist movement in France—540
Social relations—159, 247
Social system—91
Société des proscrits démocrates et socialistes
(B lanquists)— 540
Society—90, 99, 125-32, 159, 217-22
Society, bourgeois—81, 91, 169, 218
See also Bourgeoisie; Class struggle;
Social relations; State; Working class
Solar system—93
Sonderbund—84, 89
Space and time—495
Spain
— history—353, 376
—and Britain—353, 367, 371, 376
—and France—367
Speculation— 298, 329
Speculation (speculative philosophy)—93
State, the— 45, 99-100, 159
—bourgeois—45
—Asiatic—127
See also Despotism; Monarchy; Republic,
bourgeois
State loans—45
Stock Exchange—329
Strikes and strike movement—134, 168-70,
224-25, 330-34, 435-38, 448, 525
See also Preston strike of 1853-54
Sweden—114, 613
Switzerland— 84-92, 115, 599
—population—87-88, 90-92
—industry, transport—88-90
—trade—88-89, 391
—clergy, religion—85
— social and political system — 87, 89-
90, 92
—Constitution—89-90, 91
—political parties—90
—right of asylum—87, 90, 92
— mercenaries—88, 90
—foreign policy—86, 89-92
—and Austria—87, 90-92, 107-08,
115, 302
—and Britain—89
—and Denmark—613
—and France—87, 89-91, 108
— and Germany—87, 90-91
—and Italy—90-91
— Prusso-Swiss conflict over Neuchâtel—
87, 108
See also Sonderbund
Syria— 372
T
Taiping uprising— 93-98, 438, 465
Tartars—see Moguls
Taxes—Ab, 60-62, 64-66, 68-73, 76-81
Tenancy, tenants—157-62
Thessaly—10, 16
Thinking, thought—59, 88
Tories, the^-S, 44, 51, 75, 188, 405,
591-92
Trade balance—94, 152-55
Trade unions in Britain—135, 334, 448
Transylvania—9, 240
Treaty of Adrianople (1829)— 33, 112,
144, 187, 357, 372, 380, 381, 387,
392-96, 399-401, 404, 406, 529, 565,
575-76
Treaty of Unkiar-Skelessi (1833)—195,
372-73, 377-85, 390, 523, 529, 562,
576, 601
Truth, historical—291
Tsarism—36, 231
Tunisia—7, 408
Turkey—6-8, 26-27, 35, 51, 62
—decline of Ottoman Empire—5-6,
17, 22, 26, 36, 371-72
—finances—388
—multinational population—7-11,
24, 27, 34-36
—Religious contradictions, position of
Christians—576
— Turkish feudals—8, 36
— Rayahs—8, 11
—bourgeoisie—27
—trade—13-15, 26, 387-88, 391
—and Wallachia and Moldavia—8-9,
531
—and struggle of Greece for independence—
8, 22-23, 27, 33, 617
—and struggle of Serbia for independence—
8, 11, 23, 33, 35-36, 602
—and uprisings in Egypt against Turkish
Sultan, Turko-Egyptian wars—
7, 195, 265, 360, 372, 375-76
— and Tunisia—408
—and European powers—6, 22-23,
529
—and Austria—616
—and Britain—24-25, 261, 529
—and Persia—408
—and Russia—5, 7, 9, 11, 23-25,
32-33, 105-06, 113, 114, 142-46,
163-65, 174, 227-30, 231, 261-62,
322, 332, 339-40, 356-57, 371-74,
378-80, 389, 400, 406, 532, 550,
561-62, 616
See also Army, Turkish; Balkans;
Crimean war of 1853-56; Eastern question
U
Ukraine, the, Ukrainians—9
United States of America, the—88-89, 190
—agriculture—154
—colonisation of West—88
—foreign trade—154
— foreign policy—97-98, 231, 242-44,
258
—and Austria—258
—and China—97-98
—and Turkey—237, 243-44
—political economy—625-29
Urquhartism, Urquhartists—312, 325,
387-90, 545, 562-63
V
Vatican—615
Venice—183
Vienna Congress of 1814-15—6, 86, 359,
362-63, 367-69, 394-97, 529
W
Wages—168-69, 331-32, 447-48
Wales— 598
Wallachia, Wallachians— 8-9, 11, 24, 33,
142, 144-45, 164, 194, 235, 240, 269,
277-78, 313, 336, 337, 339, 340, 391,
395, 538, 573
Wars— 99, 127, 282, 336, 337, 490
See also Anglo-Afghan war of 1838-42;
Anglo-Burmese wars; Anglo-Sikh wars;
Army; Austro-Turkish wars of sixteenth-seventeenth
centuries; Colonial wars; Crimean
war of 1853-56; Napoleonic wars;
Russo-Persian war of 1826-28; Russo-
Turkish war of 1768-74; Russo-Turkish
war of 1787-91; Russo-Turkish war of
1828-29; Samnite war,, second (324-304
B.C.); Seven Years' War (1756-63)
Warsaw—34
Wars of First French Republic—555, 557,
558, 569
Whigs, the— 45, 139, 148, 281, 347, 357,
405
Working class
—its conditions—465
—industrial (factory) proletariat—
221, 525
—emancipation of workers is the
cause of workers themselves—169
— and national liberation struggle—
221-22
—and education—461, 468
—according to bourgeois ideologists—
460-62
Working class in Britain—168-70, 172-73
Working class in France—308, 541
Working-class movement—168-70
Working-class movement in Britain
—in 1830s-1840s—413-14, 436
—in 1850s—282-83, 413-14, 435-38,
446-47, 592
— for nine-hour and ten-hour day—
187-88
—strikes in 1850s—134, 168-69, 224-
26, 239, 282-83, 287-88, 326-27,
330-34, 412-14, 437, 447-48, 524-25
See also Chartism; Preston strike of
1853-54; Trade unions in Britain
Working day—185, 187, 190, 461
World market— 222, 274-75
Y
Yemen—127
Z
Zurich—88







MECW VOL 13






A
Afghanistan, Afghans—41,556,562, 572'
Albania, Albanians (Arnauts)—32, 36,
38, 91, 471, 472
Alienation of labour
— abolition of—58
American War of Independence, 1775-83
— new mode of warfare — 531
Anglo-Sikh wars, 19th cent—337, 534
Arabs, Moors
— Moorish rule in Spain—393, 396,
404, 424, 657
Armament— 211-13, 515-16, 532
See also Artillery
Armed uprising—338
Army—127-28, 309-10, 408, 419, 473,
531, 541, 565
— and bourgeois, bourgeois-democratic
revolution —309-10, 338-39,
408, 419
— guerrillas—420-23
— discipline and morale—234, 237,
338, 419, 472-73, 475-76
— Austrian—47, 127, 525, 532,
550-53
— English—11, 203, 206, 208-13,
234, 250, 327-28, 337, 382, 476,
508, 514, 525-26, 532, 534, 553,
556, 557, 564-67, 634-35
— French—126, 206, 212, 232-33,
250, 337, 382, 472-73, 475, 514,
525, 526, 531, 534, 551, 558, 566
— Prussian—531
— Russian—124-27, 244-45, 248-49,
250, 335, 382, 498, 501-04, 511-
12, 525, 531-34, 537, 547, 551,
553, 557, 558-59, 610-13, 618-19
— Spanish—309-10, 408, 418-23,
428, 440, 444, 450, 458, 658
— Turkish—205-06, 244-45, 253,
338, 471, 475, 526
See also Armament; Artillery; Cavalry;
Infantry; Navy
Artillery—193-94, 209, 385, 479, 508,
531-32, 537, 565
Artisans—59, 61
Art of war— 67, 125-27, 204, 209, 211,
234, 237, 253, 331, 382, 419, 475,
506, 533, 534, 535, 558, 612-13
— and socio-economic development
of society—128, 531, 533-34, 558
— strategy and tactics—129, 163-65,
181, 246, 336-37, 470, 495, 503,
504, 511, 513, 525, 526, 528, 531,
533-34, 537, 541-42, 549, 558,
597, 612-13
See also Fortifications
Athens, ancient—442
Australia— 572, 573, 576, 585, 588
Austria
— population—48, 552, 553
— finances, taxation—43-49, 288-89,
304, 325-26, 455-56
— classes—see Bourgeoisie, Austrian;
Nobility, Austrian; Peasantry,
Austrian
— army—see Army, Austrian
— national question—48-49, 157,
321
— and Hungary, oppression by—29,
47-49, 216, 304, 321, 549, 551
— and Italian states, oppression by—
28, 47-49, 216, 292, 321, 325-26,
455-56, 551
— and Poland, partitions and oppression—
29, 47, 216
— Slav population—48, 255
— prospects for revolution—255,
325
— foreign policy and diplomacy—
43, 183, 246, 255-57, 535
— and England—183, 255
— and France—35, 45, 183, 255
— and Germany—271
— and Greece—159
— and Montenegro—38, 183, 336
— and Prussia—47, 147-49, 154, 167-
68, 215-16, 269, 286, 295-96, 358
— and Russia—145-47, 176-77, 216,
247-49, 251, 252-56, 268-69, 270,
286, 325, 358
— and Serbia—33, 38, 159, 183,
296-98, 325, 365
— and Spain—450
— and Turkey—94-95, 252, 255,
269-71, 297, 318, 323-25, 336,
358, 465
See also Crimean war, 1853-56
Austro-Italian war, 1848-49—AT, 152,
287, 494, 550-51
B
Balance of payments—56
Banks— 43-45
— Bank of England—577
— Crédit Mobilier—43
— Bank of France—51
— National Bank (Austria)—43-47
Barricades, barricade fighting—see Uprising,
armed
Berbers, Berber States—102
Bessarabia— 66, 262, 463
Bill of exchange— 55, 184-87, 639
Blanquists— 491
Bokhara—41
Bonapartism
— and army—472-73
See also France, Second Empire,
1852-70
Bosnia—575
Bourgeoisie— 44, 122, 338, 396, 664-65
— Austrian—44
— English—59, 61, 122, 556, 585-
86, 663-65
— French—51, 472
— Italian—157
— Prussian—83
— Spanish—393-96, 402-05, 436,
445, 658
Buddhism—41
Bulgaria— 91, 222-23, 575
Byzantium— 33, 71-72, 160
C
California—576, 586
Campaign of 1812—123, 503, 512,
547-48
Capitalist mode of production
— and primitive accumulation—196-
97
— growth of prerequisites for its
overthrow—59-60
Catholicism, Catholics— 33, 105-07, 435
— and Protestantism—405
See also Inquisition; Jesuits
Caucasus
— Tsarist policy in the Caucasus—
125-26, 262
See also Crimean war, 1853-56, military
operations in the Caucasus
Causality
— in history—46, 177-78, 309, 375,
400, 473, 587-88
Cavalry—126, 127, 511, 512, 524-25,
552
Chartism, Chartist movement—51, 228,
354-56
See also Labour Parliament
China.
— Taiping rebellion—-41-42, 589
Christianity—see Catholicism; Church;
Protestantism
— position of Christians in Turkey—
33, 71-72, 105-08, 131, 295; see
also Turkey
Church—14, 71-72, 106-07, 395, 435,
591
See also Christianity: Religion
Civilisation— 642
Civil society— 395-96, 408, 426
Class, classes
— in bourgeois society—50-51, 59,
70, 665
See also Bourgeoisie; Nobility; Peasantry;
Working class
Class struggle in bourgeois society—59-61,
665
See also Revolution of 1848-49 in
Europe; Working-class movement
Communism
— prerequisites for communist transformation
of society—58
Communist trial in Cologne, 1852—365
Constantinople—102-03, 573, 589
Corn laws (England)
— repeal of—586, 588, 663, 664
See also England, Free Traders
Cracow, insurrection of 1846—47, 190
Crimean war, 1853-56
— general characteristics—227, 338,
503-04, 534-35
— causes—86-87, 337, 575; see also
Eastern (Oriental) question
— preparations for war, military
power of belligerent parties—3-6,
39, 40, 53, 66, 68, 133-34, 202-03,
222-23, 237-38, 248-49, 280, 290,
319,327-28,334,336-37,349,498-
504, 511, 538, 540-42, 544, 545,
598, 609-12, 615-19, 627, 640
— character and aims of, mode of
warfare—24, 34, 118-19, 195,
205, 215, ,227-28, 336-38, 462,
474-75, 481, 534-37, 555-56, 573-
74, 612-13
— and European diplomacy—3-4,
6-7, 27, 31-32, 34, 35-41, 130-31,
143-49, 157-58, 183, 195, 215-17,
223-24, 246-49, 250, 258, 266,
318, 320, 323-25, 357, 358, 365,
366, 377, 465, 481, 490, 546, 547,
554-56, 579-84, 598, 599, 600-02,
609, 613-14, 624, 625, 646
— and prospects for revolution—14,
34, 97, 206-07, 255, 338, 460,
504, 549
— battle of Oltenitza, November 4,
1853—24, 67, 92, 254, 302, 334,
506, 523, 558
— battle of Sinope, November 30,
1853—12, 16, 24, 32, 204, 329-
30, 546, 624, 646
— military operations at Danubian
theatre of war, 1853-54—5-7, 16,
39-40, 65-69, 92, 129-30, 150-53,
160, 163-65, 181, 182, 205, 206,
211-12, 220-23, 237-39, 246, 249,
250, 253, 254, 258, 268-69, 276,
277, 279-81, 291, 292, 298-99,
302, 303, 314-15, 323, 324, 327-
29, 334-38, 350, 351, 357-61, 365,
382-83, 461, 463, 470-73, 475-76,
486, 500, 506, 541-42, 544, 545,
557, 558, 566, 567, 596, 609,
616-17, 635
— battle of Chetatea, January 6,
1854—5, 67, 92, 244, 254, 302,
538
— siege of Silistria, 1854—221, 229,
234-39, 241-47, 249-54, 258, 268,
276-80, 302, 329, 334, 335, 358,
380, 382, 471, 472, 475, 506, 523,
537, 538, 558, 580, 597
— military operations in the Caucasus
—204-05, 234, 251, 252, 254-55,
314-15, 382-83, 463, 486
— military operations in the Crimea
— 251-52, 337, 347-49, 360, 383,
461, 470, 473-74, 481, 483-87,
488, 489, 496-98, 505-09, 510-18,
527, 534, 537-45, 557, 560,
564, 567-68, 593-97, 600, 601,
606, 612-13, 618, 626, 627, 631,
633-35
— battle on the Alma, September 20,
1854—477-81, 483, 484, 486,
488, 489, 492-96, 505, 512-13,
515, 521, 526, 539, 557
— battle of Balaklava, October 25,
1854—511, 521-27, 537, 539,
558, 600
— battle of Inkerman, November 5,
1854—518, 528-39, 543, 558, 559
— naval operations—5-6, 18, 24,
28, 31-32, 35-37, 109, 131, 142,
143, 151, 161, 164, 165, 173, 175,
181-83, 192-95, 201-06, 225, 234,
251, 290-92, 298, 299, 303-04,
314, 317, 319, 321, 326, 328-31,
347-48, 360-61, 376-77, 379-87,
462, 476, 485, 514-15, 534,
540-41, 575, 581, 593
— and England, foreign policy and
diplomacy—3, 13-15, 23-24, 30-
34, 35-39, 100-01, 109, 118-19,
132, 144, 157, 167, 190, 195, 205,
206, 223, 256-57, 304-05, 314-15,
329, 338, 358, 510, 518, 542,
546-47, 555, 556, 563, 573-74,
584, 589, 613, 623-25, 646-47
— and crisis of British military system—
208-14, 327-28, 557, 564-69
— and France, ^ foreign policy and
diplomacy—3, 13, 33-34, 35-39,
100-01, 133, 144, 167, 182, 205,
206, 212, 217, 223, 227-28, 305,
315, 338, 473, 510, 518, 546, 594,
613-14
— and Turkey—13-16, 24, 31, 32,
34, 35-36, 38, 101, 134, 144, 160,
161, 164-65, 183, 215, 250, 252,
269-71, 275, 297, 323-25, 358,
365, 387, 573, 587
— and Russia, Tsarist foreign policy
and diplomacy—3-4, 83, 130-31,
144-47, 164, 171-72, 195, 206,
216, 246, 252, 294-96, 301, 304,
338, 357-58, 503-04, 534, 537,
575, 580, 584, 601-02, 609-10,
613, 619
— and Poland—38, 167, 216, 361,
549
— and Austria—43, 68-69, 145-49,
154, 157-58, 167-68, 176-77, 183,
206, 215-17, 228-29, 237, 246,
251, 252, 253-58, 268-71, 274,
280, 286, 287-88, 290, 295-98,
301, 321, 323-25, 335, 357-60,
365, 465, 471, 487, 490, 535, 538,
542, 545-47, 549, 580, 609, 611,
613, 619
— and Hungary—156, 216, 227,
321, 549
— and Germany—31, 146, 148-49,
176, 183, 217, 298, 301, 535, 547,
549, 613
— and Prussia—8, 9, 83, 130, 144-
49, 154, 168-69, 179-80, 183, 206,
216-17, 223, 286, 295-96, 301,
358, 377, 547, 549, 609
— and Denmark—28, 145, 223, 298,
301, 352, 362
— and Holland—301
— and Italian states—156, 216, 321
— and Piedmont—156-57, 292, 627
— and Slav peoples in the Balkans—
36, 38, 297-98, 324, 365
— and Sweden—28, 144, 203-04,
223-24, 251, 298, 301, 331, 362,
377, 387
— and the USA—572
D
Danish-Prussian war, 1848-50—194,
237
Danubian Principalities—23, 36, 38, 91,
94, 270-75, 289-91, 323-25, 328, 365,
459-60, 463-65, 575
See also Crimean war, 1853-56; Moldavia;
Wallachia
Democracy, bourgeois—331, 332, 640-41
Denmark— 298, 352-53, 362, 364, 378,
460, 489, 556
Despotism— 33, 343, 396
Despotism, oriental (Asiatic)—396
Division of labour—396
E
East India Company
— and British Colonial Government
in India—624, 642
Eastern (Oriental) question, the
— nature of—101-08
— as source of international discord—
96-98, 337
— in the first half of 19th cent.—73-
76, 79, 134-36
— its exacerbation in early 1850s—3-
4, 22-24, 52-53, 71, 76-80, 83,
84-99, 129-31, 160, 185, 624, 625
Economic crises— 571-78, 585-89, 628
Economics and politics—396
Education
— in bourgeois society—663-64
Emancipation of the working class ( "emancipation
of labour")—57-58
Emigration
— and condition of working
people—665
— Hungarian—26
— Italian—167, 455
— Polish—26, 125, 167
England (Great Britain)
— English nation, national character—
552
— before the mid-19th cent.—59-60,
61, 555, 556, 642
— industry—60, 120, 229, 468-69,
571-74, 578, 586, 588-89
— trade, commerce—15, 229, 468-
69, 571-78, 586, 588-89
— finances, budget, taxation — 53-56,
117-18, 184-91, 304, 317, 563,
577, 589, 620, 623, 625, 638-40;
see also South Sea Company
— signs of crisis in English trade and
industry in 1854-55—225, 229,
571-78, 585-89, 628
— social and political system, class
relations—59, 61, 122, 331, 332,
338, 640-41, 663-64, 665; see also
Bourgeoisie, English; Chartism;
Democracy, bourgeois; Labour Parliament;
Nobility, English; Parliament,
British; Preston strike, 1853-
54 ; Scotland; Trade unions (in England);
Working class, in England;
Working-class movement in England
— oligarchic character of Administration—
212, 556
— crisis in political parties, the
1850s—603-08, 620, 627-37, 642-
46; see also Tories; Whigs
— Peelites—228, 603-04, 620, 638,
643, 646
— Mayfair Radicals —213, 601, 638
— Free Traders—149, 468, 585-88;
see also Manchester school
— legislation, Parliamentary Acts
and Rills—29, 52, 101, 117, 119,
121, 122, 190-91, 555, 585-86,
593-94, 621, 622, 623-29, 639-40,
647-48, 664
— Coalition "Cabinet of All the Talents",
1852-55—26, 29-32, 34,
36, 38-39, 98-99, 117-18, 135,
184-85, 228, 259, 306-07, 583-84,
620-27, 631, 638-41, 643, 646-47
— military system, its reform — 203,
209-11, 213, 220, 228, 327, 514,
557, 564-67, 568-69, 607, 616,
625, 628-29, 633-34, 647; see also
Army, English
— church and religion — 591, 599
— colonial policy—41-42, 555, 572;
see also Anglo-Sikh wars, 19th cent.;
East India Company; Kaffir wars
— and Ireland—120, 190, 196-97,
640
— foreign policy and diplomacy—
30-31, 52, 96-98, 138, 274-75,
465, 556, 586
— and the Eastern question—13,
15-17, 21-24, 30-31, 33-34, 36,
38-39, 52-53, 71-72, 73-74, 84-91,
93, 95-99, 133-34, 337, 586, 624,
625; see also Eastern (Oriental)
question
— during Crimean war—19, 30-33,
37, 38-39, 338, 556; see also
Crimean war, 1853-56
— and France—30-31, 35, 40, 52,
97, 154, 267, 313-14, 555, 562
— and Greece—39, 70, 154, 217,
262, 459, 635
— and Russia—12, 15, 19, 21-23,
35, 53, 73-83, 84-99, 132, 134-37,
190, 260-63, 468, 547, 556, 561,
562, 575, 580, 587, 623-24, 625
— and Spain—40, 41, 267, 305,
313-14, 343-44, 367-69, 404-05
— and Turkey—24, 31-34, 36, 39,
70-71, 154, 274-75, 459, 556
— and the USA—15, 572, 573, 588
Epoch
— historical—59
— revolutionary—338, 419
— Renaissance—393
Europe— 576, 584
— prospects for revolution after
1848—97, 131, 338-39, 460, 535
Exchange—574, 584
F
Factory legislation—119, 576-77
Feudalism, feudal monarchy—393, 395,
428
Finland—-251, 262
Foreign policy
— its interrelation with home policy—
33, 118
See also Austria; England; Prussia;
Russia
Fortifications
— permanent—113-14, 238, 240-41,
347-48, 380-82, 474-75, 514-15
— strategic importance of fortresses
— 106, 152, 163-64, 234, 503
— siege and defence of fortresses—
109-16, 163, 245, 335, 348-49,
380, 382, 384-85, 387, 508, 514-
16, 537, 593
— field—67, 205, 238, 382, 479,
506, 558
France
— national character of the
French—470
— in the Middle Ages—104, 341,
393, 413
— in 18th cent.—104, 627, 633; see
also French Revolution, 18th cent.;
Jacobin dictatorship; Wars of First
French Republic
— during Consulate and First Empire,
1799-1814, 1815—33-34,
105; see also Napoleonic wars; Wars
of First French Republic
— during Restoration, 1815-30—
230, 231
— July 1830 revolution and July
monarchy, 1830-48—30, 35, 41,
158, 230-31, 265, 337, 474
— revolution of 1848 in France,
Second Republic—see Revolution
of 1848 in France. Second Republic,
1848-52
— Second Empire, 1852-70—33, 35,
43, 51-52, 149, 304-05, 338, 472-
73, 491; see also Crimean war,
1853-56
— and England—41, 52, 97-98, 154,
267, 313-14, 562
— and Germany—9, 35
— and Greece—30-31, 196, 217, 491
— and Italy—8-9
— and Russia—217, 227, 400, 408
— and Spain—40-41, 52, 267, 313-
14, 456
— and Turkey—39, 91, 104
See also Army, French; Bonapartism;
Bourgeoisie, French; French philosophy
of 18th cent.
French philosophy of 18th cent.—403
French Revolution, 18th cent.
— Constitution of 1791—429-31,
433
— Constitution of 1793 — see Jacobin
dictatorship
— and Spain—401, 403
See also Wars of First French Republic
G
Galicia— 29, 47, 216, 549
Genoa—160
Geographical environment, its role in development
of society—396
See also Nature
German Confederation, 1815-66—8, 298
Germany—225, 547
See also Austria; Crimean war, 1853-
56; Napoleonic wars; Prussia; Revolution
of 1848-49 in Germany
Gold
—- significance of its discovery in
Australia and America—576, 586
Goths— 393
Greece— 71, 460
— insurrection for national liberation
and war of independence,
1821-29; formation of an independent
state—17, 70-71, 154, 158,
178, 262
— and Turkey—159, 178, 304,
314-15
— Greeks in Turkey—70-71, 155-
56, 159-60, 178
— insurrection in Greek provinces of
Turkey, 1854—30-31, 32-33, 36,
38-39, 70-71, 130, 154, 159-60,
177-78, 182, 304, 314-15
— and policy of European states—
30-31, 32-33, 36, 38-39, 70-71,
90-92, 154-55, 159-60, 177-78,
182, 196, 217, 262, 304, 314-15,
459, 491, 635; see also Turkey
H
Historical science— 123-24, 164-65, 227,
286
History
— "irony of events"—474-75, 481
— role of personality in history—
340, 343
Hungary— 48-49, 156, 227
— and Austria—47-49, 216, 321,
549, 551
— and Italy—157
— and Russia—49, 227, 361
See also Revolution of 1848-49 in
Hungary
i K
Income-tax— 48, 53-54, 55, 117-18
India— 553, 570
See also Anglo-Sikh wars, 19th cent.;
East India Company
Industry
— its role in social development—60
Infantry—126-27, 516, 537, 552
Inquisition— 395, 404, 412, 413, 428,
432, 435-36, 439
Interests
— state as a tool of ruling classes —
556
— and law —396, 413
— common (general), particular and
private—43, 146-49, 255-56, 424,
561
— opposed interests and struggle between
them—97, 404, 405, 424,
659
— of political parties—435
— of peasantry—657
— of bourgeoisie—556
Inventions—576, 586
Ionian Islands—33, 71
Ireland—see England, and Ireland; Parliament,
British, Irish M.P.s
Islam— 33, 41, 71-72, 101-03, 105, 107,
131
Italy— 8-9, 292-93, 325-26, 338, 393
— Austrian rule—47-49, 156-57,
216, 292, 321, 325-26, 551
See also Bourgeoisie, Italian; Crimean
war, 1853-56, and Italian states, and
Piedmont; Revolution of 1848-49 in
Italian states
Jacobin dictatorship—627, 632
— Constitution of 1793—429
— Committee of Public Safety—417
— and counter-revolutionary terror
— 658
Jerusalem—105-08
Jesuits— 410, 439
Jews—107-08
Jurisprudence, lawyers—413, 428
Kaffir wars— 337
Khiva—41
Koran— 71, 101-03, 105
Labour
— emancipation of labour—57-58, 61
Labour conditions of workers—51, 57, 61,
663-64
See also Factory legislation
Labour Parliament— 50-51, 57-58, 61-64,
119
Labour time (Working hours) — 577
Landed property
— transformation of feudal into
bourgeois landed property—428-
29
Laws—577
Liberalism, bourgeois—498, 549
Literature— 132, 663-64
— English—132, 591, 628, 663-64
— French—132
— Spanish—405, 411
Loans, state—44-45, 190, 288-89, 586
M
Machines, machine production
— and export—571, 576
Man
— and nature—58
— and society—58
Manchester school—576, 643
See also England, Free Traders
Market— 576, 586
Material conditions of life of society
— of various social phenomena—
403, 419, 508
— as prerequisites for communist
transformation of society—58
Means of communication—576, 586
Merchant steam navigation—576, 586
Mexico
— conquest by Spain — 395
Moldavia— 38, 66, 221, 262, 271-74,
328-29, 366, 463
See also Crimean war, 1853-56; Danubian
Principalities
Monarchy, absolute—393-96
— enlightened despotism—409
Monarchy, oriental (Asiatic) — see Despotism,
oriental
Money circulation—43-44
Montenegro—26, 70, 99, 178, 180
N
Napoleonic wars
— general characteristics—126, 204,
217, 266, 504, 531
— and diplomatic negotiations—408
— and development of military art
and technique—67, 126-27, 204,
382, 531, 533-34
— wars against European coalitions,
1804-15—67, 96, 209, 279, 400,
472, 475-76, 480, 487, 496, 503,
512, 525-26, 528, 537, 548, 558,
569, 616
— treaty of Tilsit, July 7, 1807—400
— and liberation struggle against
Napoleonic rule—400-03, 405-08,
411, 414, 418-23, 444
— war of 1812—see also Campaign
of 1812
— Prussian war of independence,
1813-14 and 1815—179
— Peninsular war, 1808-13—67, 204,
209, 212, 215, 227, 234, 309,
400-02, 405-08, 415-20, 422, 532,
569; see also Spain, first Spanish
revolution of 1808-14 and struggle
against Napoleonic rule
Nationalism—157
— national prejudices—403-04
Nationality, nation— 70-71, 106, 309-10
Nature
— and society-—58, 396
Navy— 5, 116, 202, 204, 382, 593
— art of naval war—109-10, 116,
182, 202, 234, 348, 593
— British —5, 11, 109, 203, 210,
328, 385-86
— French—203
Neutrality (in international relations)
— armed neutrality, 1780—362
Nobility, aristocracy—664-65
— Austrian—47-48
— English—197; 200, 556, 664-65
— Hungarian—48
— Russian—664
— Spanish —393-95, 401-06, 409,
431, 439, 658
Northern war, 1700-21—527, 548, 558-59
O
Opposition, antagonism
— opposed interests—97, 405, 435
— class antagonisms—394, 404, 665
Organisation of social labour—50
P
Pacifism—577
Pan-Slavism— 255
Paper-money— 43-47
Parliament (in a bourgeois state)—331
Parliament, British— 219, 331, 605, 643,
644
— two-party system, its role—136
— House of Commons—259, 632
— Irish M.P.s (Irish Brigade)—119,
144, 620, 622, 624, 638
Party, proletarian
— as an indispensable condition for
victory of proletariat—50, 58
Peasantry—57, 61
— Austrian—45, 47
— English —57, 61
— Spanish—403, 445-46, 657, 658
People, race (ethnograph.)—106-07
See also Nationality, nation
Persia—41
Peru— 341, 395
Piedmont—see Crimean war, 1853-56,
and Piedmont
Poland
— population — 548
— partitions of Poland by Russia,
Prussia and Austria, 18th cent.—
38, 126
— Polish question at Vienna Congress,
1814-15—190
— Polish question—361-62, 549
— and Austria—216
— and England—18
— and Prussia—38, 216
— and Russia—123, 125-27, 164,
262, 361-62, 504, 548, 549 .
— and Turkey—38
See also Cracow, insurrection of 1846;
Crimean war, 1853-56; Galicia; Posen
Popular masses
— role in bourgeois and bourgeois-democratic
revolution—157, 309-
10, 340, 403-04
Portugal— 40, 265, 375, 391-92
Posen— 216, 549
Premium (under bimetallism)—46
Prerequisites for communist transformation
of society—58
Preston strike, 1853-54—119-22, 200,
665
Price
— prices of grain—149, 225, 574-75,
586-87
Private property—57, 61
Productive forces
— development of, as material prerequisite
for communist transformation
of society—58
— and art of war—128, 553
Productivity of labour—58
Protestantism
— and Catholicism—404
Prussia— 8, 9, 168, 305
— Prussian statesmanship, its reactionary
character—178-79
— home reaction—168, 364-65
— foreign policy and diplomacy—8,
9, 148, 168-71, 179-80, 364
— and Austria—47, 147-49, 154,
168-69, 215-16, 269-70, 286, 295,
358
— and Denmark—194, 237, 364
— and Poland—38, 126, 216
— and Russia—83, 130, 145, 148,
169-71, 216, 358-59
See also Army, Prussian; Bourgeoisie,
Prussian; Crimean war, 1853-56, and
Prussia; Danish-Prussian war, 1848-50;
Napoleonic wars; Revolution of 1848-49
in Germany
R
Railways— 576, 586
Reaction—343
Religion— 33, 70-72, 105-08
See also Catholicism; Christianity;
Church; Inquisition; Islam; Jesuits
Revolution—340, 374
See also France, July 1830 revolution;
French Revolution, 18th cent.; Revolution
of 1848-49 in Europe; Spain,
bourgeois revolutions in Spain, 19th
cent.
Revolution of 1848-49 in Europe—338,
443, 572
Revolution of 1848 in France. Second
Republic, 1848-52
— from February to June 1848—50,
51, 313, 338, 344, 391, 450
— Second Republic, 1848-52—13,
14, 230, 232, 472, 491
— coup d'état of December 2,
1851—472
Revolution of 1848-49 in Germany—147,
271, 331
Revolution of 1848-49 in Hungary
— and Austria—29, 47, 49, 551
— and Russia—49, 123, 124, 127,
248-49
Revolution of 1848-49 in Italian states—
29, 47, 326, 551
Revolution of 1854-56 in Spain—see
Spain, fourth Spanish revolution,
1854-56
Revolution, proletarian, socialist
— its prerequisites—51, 57-58, 61
Rome, ancient— 285, 393, 600
Russia
— geographical position, territory,
population—504, 547, 548, 549,
553
— history—537, 559, 613
— economics—267, 468
— social and political system—71,
72, 172, 611-12; see also Army,
Russian; Nobility, Russian
— foreign policy and diplomacy—
29-30, 73, 75, 134, 262-63, 367-
68, 613; see also Crimean war,
1853-56; Danubian Principalities;
Eastern (Oriental) question;
Napoleonic wars
— annexation of the Caucasus—264
— Tsarist policy in Poland—38,
123, 126, 127, 262, 362, 548,
549
— and Austria—145-47, 177, 216,
247-48, 251, 252-56, 268, 286,
325, 358, 547
— and Denmark—362, 489
— and England—12-13, 15, 19, 21-
23, 35, 73-80, 84-99, 134-37, 260-
63, 468, 547, 575, 587, 624, 625
— and France—91, 262-63; see also
Campaign of 1812
— and Greece—38, 71, 177, 217
— and Hungary—49, 127, 227, 361
— and Persia—41
— and Prussia—83, 130, 134, 145-
47, 216, 217, 358-59, 547
— and Spain—40, 367-69, 400,
444-46
— and Sweden—144, 362; see also
Northern war, 1700-21
— and Turkey—3, 14, 15, 20, 33,
73-79, 84^96, 98-99, 104, 130-31;
134, 262, 269-75, 294-95, 556,
575; see also Russo-Turkish wars
— and the USA—28, 29, 367, 445
Russo-Turkish wars—126, 575
— war of 1735-39—337
— war of 1768-74—38, 276; see also
Treaty of Kuchuk-Kainardji, 1774
— war of 1787-91—276, 337
— war of 1806-12—163, 240, 575
— war of 1828-29—19, 69, 89, 123,
127, 163, 164, 237-41, 244, 245,
249, 260, 264, 471, 575; see also
Treaty of Adrianople, 1829
See also Crimean war, 1853-56
S
Scotland
— clearing of estates—196-99
Serbia (Servia)—33, 70, 159, 183, 296-
98, 325, 365-66, 575
Seven Years' War, 1756-63—45, 67, 512
Slave trade and its abolition—429
Slavs
— Slavonic provinces of Austria—
48, 255
— Hungarian colonisation of Slav
territories—549
Social relations—103
Society
— laws of—659, 664-65
— and nature—58
— and classes—57, 61
— and state—395-99, 418, 428
— and religion—71-72, 103
Society, bourgeois
— classes, social strata—57, 61
— and church—591
South Sea Company—56, 118, 185, 187,
' 623
Spain
— general characteristics—285-86,
309, 310, 376, 391-99, 402-04,
418, 657
— geographical position and conditions—
393, 396
— Spanish nation—309-10, 402-03,
444, 659
— economics—286, 375-76, 398,
411-12, 416, 438-39, 445-46, 449-
50, 458
— social and political system—285-
86, 294-95, 373, 375, 376, 391,
393-401, 403-06, 407-20, 422,
424, 429-33, 449-50, 458
— legislation, laws—294, 372-73,
396, 413-15, 424-39, 443-44, 447-
48, 458, 654, 658
— classes and class struggle—393-
96, 402-04, 416-17, 438-39; see
also Bourgeoisie, Spanish; Nobility,
Spanish; Peasantry, Spanish; Working
class, in Spain
— popular masses—285-86, 309, 375,
394, 401-03, 405-06, 409, 410,418,
420, 431, 436, 437, 443-45, 457,
652, 653, 658
— towns—376, 393, 396, 434
— army, its role in social and national
movements—309-10, 394, 401,
404-05, 408, 418-23, 428, 440,
441, 444, 445, 450-51, 458, 651-
53, 658
— guerrilleros, guerrillas—420-23
— church and clergy—395, 401-03,
405, 410, 416, 431, 435-36, 439,
654, 658; see also Inquisition
— Spain under Moors and during
the Reconquest (8th-15th cent.) —
391-94, 396, 403, 424, 657, 659
— under absolutism (16th-18th
cent.)—314, 392-99, 403, 413,
431-39, 458, 559, 657
— bourgeois revolutions in Spain,
19th cent.—285, 309-10, 374,
391, 411, 417-18, 445, 449, 450,
458, 659
— first Spanish revolution of 1808-
14 and struggle against
Napoleonic rule—67, 309, 374,
391, 392, 399-406, 416, 434-36,
438-39, 445, 651-52
— Cadiz Cortes of 1812—373-74,
403, 418, 422, 424-38, 443
— Cadiz Constitution of 1812 — 310,
367, 369, 404, 424-33, 436-39; see
also Napoleonic wars, Peninsular
war, 1808-13
— political reaction, 1814-19—436,
439, 440, 445-46
— second Spanish revolution, 1820-
23—309, 367, 374-75, 391, 425,
441-45, 654-59
— first Carlist war, 1833-40—40,
374, 658-59
— third Spanish revolution, 1834-
43_309, 374, 391, 425, 658-59
— Constitution of 1837—294, 305,
310, 373
— pronunciamento of 1843 — 309,
310, 466
— fourth Spanish revolution, 1854-
56—40, 52, 267, 282-86, 293-94,
304-07, 309-14, 338, 367-75, 391,
392, 447-52, 456-58, 466, 489,
573, 588-89
— Cortes of 1854—372-74
— Spanish colonial empire, colonial
policy—341, 395, 407, 424, 429,
434, 435, 438, 440, 444, 445, 449,
457
— and Austria—450
— and England—40, 52, 267, 305-
06, 314, 345-46, 367-69, 404, 407,
417-18, 432, 569, 588-89
— and France—40, 52, 267, 314,
344, 392, 399-407, 412, 413-17,
418, 420-24, 432, 434, 444, 456,
658
— and Portugal—375, 392
— and Russia—40, 368-69, 400,
444-46
— and Sweden—401
— and Turkey—400, 451
— and the USA—267, 367, 369, 445
Speculation (econ.)
— and economic crises—556, 574,
588
State, the— 50, 71-72, 122, 395-96, 418,
428
State securities— 118, 184-87, 639
Strikes—see Preston strike, 1853-56
Sweden— 28, 159, 362, 401
See also Crimean war, and Sweden;
Northern war, 1700-21
Switzerland
— war against Sonderbund, 1847
—338
Syria— 106
T
Taxes, taxation—47-49, 54-56, 117-18,
189, 589
Theocracy—72
Thibet— 41
Thirty Years' War, 1618-48—559
Tories (England)—184, 604, 620, 640,
663
Town— 393, 395-96
Trade, commerce—586-88
See also England, trade, commerce
Trade unions {in England)—50, 663-65
Transylvania—48
Treaty of Adrianople, 1829—261-64,
271-72, 317, 613
Treaty of Balta Liman, 1849—TIA
Treaty of Kuchuk-Kainardji, 1774—20,
105
Treaty of Unkiar Skelessi, 1833—263
Turkey
— peculiarities of historical development—
71-72, 102-03, 285, 324,
396
— and Byzantium—33, 71-72, 102
— wars of conquest, 14th-16th
cent.—102, 227
— decline of Ottoman Empire—17,
22, 34, 38, 74, 88-89, 131, 227,
240, 262, 285, 395-96
— social and political system — 22-23,
96-97, 105-06, 107, 285, 396
— army—see Army, Turkish
— prospects for revolution — 36,
459, 460
— national and religious question—
102-08, 134; see also Danubian
Principalities; Moldavia; Wallachia
— Albanians (Arnauts) —36, 38, 160,
264, 471, 472
— Armenians—105, 106
— Greeks—see Greece
— Jews—107-08
— Slavs, their oppression — see Bosnia;
Bulgaria; Montenegro; Serbia
— and Syria—105-06
— role of religion and church in
social and political life—33, 71-
72, 101-04, 106, 107, 130-31, 161
— Moslems, their privileged position—
33, 71-72, 102-04, 107, 131,
134; see also Islam
— Christians (rayahs)—14, 20, 21,
33, 38, 70-73, 86, 101-08, 130-31,
134, 157, 160
— question of European countries'
protectorate over Christian subjects
of Turkey, dispute over Holy
Places—13, 21, 24, 71, 74-75, 79,
86, 93, 98-99, 101-08, 130, 294-
95, 366
— capitulations (privileges enjoyed
by subjects of European powers in
Turkey)—104-05
— and European powers—38, 39,
96-98, 101, 103-05, 131, 144, 154,
158, 160-61, 262, 315, 324, 400,
624
— and Austria—94, 252, 255, 256,
269-71, 296-97, 318, 323, 325,
336, 358, 465
— and England—24-25, 31-34, 36,
39, 70, 71, 73-83, 84-90, 93,
95-98, 101, 274-75, 459, 556
— and France—39, 91, 104
— and Russia—3, 14-15, 20, 38,
73-79, 84-95, 98-99, 104-05, 130-
31, 134, 262, 270-75, 294-96, 575;
see also Russo-Turkish wars
— and Spain—400, 450
See also Constantinople; Crimean war,
1853-56; Eastern (Oriental) question
U
United States of America
— industry—572, 573
— and England—15, 572, 573, 588
— and Russia—29, 369, 445
— and Spain—267, 367, 445
See also American War of Independence,
1775-83
Uprising, armed—338
Urquhart and his followers—228, 325
V
Venice— 47, 608
Vienna—181
Vienna Congress of 1814-15; Vienna
treaty, 1815—96, 157, 190, 228
W
Wallachia, Wallachians—38, 65-66, 70,
221, 241, 246, 262, 269, 271-75, 298,
329, 366, 458-59, 463, 465
See also Crimean war, 1853-56; Danubian
Principalities
War of Spanish colonies in America for
independence, 1810-26—Ml, 440, 444
Wars
— and politics—234
— guerrilla (partisan) warfare—182,
420-22
— defensive—37, 238
See also Art of war
Wars of First French Republic
— war against first European coalition,
1792-97—401, 627
— Napoleon I's expedition to Egypt,
1798-1801—534, 559
— new mode of warfare—531
Whigs— 592, 604, 607, 620, 624
Worker
— divorce of property from
labour—61
Working class—57-61, 665
— in England—57-61, 122, 663-65;
see also Working-class movement in
England
—- in Spain—445-46
Working-class movement
— its immediate and final aims—57,
61, 122, 664-65
Working-class movement in England—
120-22, 663-65
See also Chartism; Labour Parliament;
Preston strike, 1853-54
World market—576, 586
— British monopoly in the world
market—588







MECW VOL 14






A
Albania, Albanians (Arnauts)—454, 456
American War of Independence, 1775-
83 and European powers—584-86
Ancient Rome— 269, 340
Ancient world—531
See also Ancient Rome
Anglo-Afghan war of 1838-42—17, 513
Anglo-American war of 1812-14—405
Anti-Corn Law League—187, 209, 259,
389
See also Corn Laws; Free trade
Aristocracy (nobility), English
— general characteristics—21, 54,
194, 303, 387
— new nobility, its alliance with the
bourgeoisie—51, 54, 389
— and the bourgeoisie in the 18th-
19th cent.—54, 56, 61, 187, 192,
242, 258, 259, 310, 369, 389
— and political power—21, 53-54,
60, 194, 322
— its domination in the army and
navy—51, 54, 422
— landed aristocracy, landlords—53-
54, 387, 389
— financial—51, 53, 311, 321, 387,
389
Armaments, weapons—408, 411, 420,
426, 436, 447, 458, 462
Armenia, Armenians—589, 625, 634
Army
— general characteristics—288, 404-
07
— and economy—406, 441, 469
— and social relations—406, 416-17,
447, 453, 469
— under capitalism—403-04
— and exploiter classes—51, 54, 60,
411, 421, 503
— and peasantry—144, 145
— irregular volunteer and guerrilla
armies—453, 469
— militia—140, 144, 300, 417, 418,
461-62
— discipline and moral qualities—
288, 414-15, 418, 423, 427, 433,
446-47, 469, 501-02, 526, 532
— soldiers —4, 404-06, 411,418,433,
435, 455, 465
— non-commissioned officers—35,
43
— officers—421-24, 426, 427, 434,
435, 589-90
— generals—443-45
— Swiss mercenaries—405, 460-62
— Landsknechte—405, 434
— recruits—429, 432, 441-42, 575-
77
— Belgian—412, 458, 466
— Danish—420, 464-65
— Dutch —412, 462-64
— of German states — 5, 447-49
— Hungarian —407, 426, 427
— of Italian states—5, 460
— Neapolitan (of the Kingdom of
the Two Sicilies)—460-61
— Norwegian—463-65
— Portuguese—466
— Sardinian (Piedmontese)—5, 10,
407, 457-60
— Spanish—5, 405, 467-69
— Swedish—463-65
— Swiss—405, 461-62
— of the USA—404, 407, 467
— miscellanea—432-33, 434, 569
See also Armaments, weapons; A&ny (in
different countries); Artillery; Cavalry;
Engineering troops; Infantry; War, wars
Army, Austrian—405, 413, 415, 418,
420, 424-29, 433, 444, 497, 501
Army, British
— general characteristics—516, 542,
547
— composition, organisation, armament—
41-42, 144, 294, 396-97,
399, 405-08, 412, 414, 502
— its domination by aristocracy—54,
60, 503, 542
— selling of officers' commissions
and corruption of high officers—
51, 63-64
— as mercenary army—140, 418,
434
— corporal punishment—10, 33,
418-19, 501-03
— military art, military qualities—3,
5, 6, 10, 314, 316, 396-98, 405,
419-24, 445, 447, 465, 511, 549,
551, 571, 573
— shortcomings in its organisation
and administration—34, 53, 59,
125-26, 128-31, 300, 416, 422,
423, 517
— poor officer cadres—34, 41, 42,
130-31, 421-24, 427, 590-91
— reorganisation in—25-27, 34, 131
— militia volunteers—140, 144, 300,
417
— miscellanea—320, 326, 524
See also Navy, British
Army, French
— composition, organisation, armament,
military expenditures—144,
407-13, 426, 427, 429, 434, 441,
576, 603, 617-18
— as support of Bonapartism during
the Second Empire—213, 366,
415, 602, 617, 619
— corruption of its commanders—
601, 618
— revolutionary and oppositional
moods—110, 602-03, 620
— its art of warfare, training, fighting
qualities—3, 5, 314, 315, 405,
407, 410-11, 413-17, 424, 433,
510, 571, 579
— system of finding substitutes—
411
— miscellanea—418, 501
Army, Prussian
— composition, organisation, armament,
military expenditures—411,
429-32, 433, 435, 436, 451, 452
— as a weapon of the reactionaries —
433
— position of soldiers, drilling—433
— military art, training, military qualities—
405, 413, 415, 420, 427,
433-36
— universal compulsory service and
its realisation—432, 433
— Landwehr (army reserve)—429-
34, 436, 454
— Landsturm (people's militia)—430
— miscellanea—418, 446, 501
Army, Russian
— composition, armament, organisation—
3, 5, 407, 436-47, 575-79
— and socio-economic backwardness
of tsarist Russia—447
— its fighting qualities—405, 413,
433, 444-46, 526, 532, 552, 569-
74, 580
— its art of warfare—3, 316, 443-44,
447, 510, 56*9-70
Army, Turkish— 33, 136, 446, 451-56,
565, 570, 571, 588-90, 605, 613, 614,
631, 677, 695, 696
Artillery— 263, 408, 409, 413, 415, 417,
421, 431, 434
Asia Minor—453, 633
Assimilation, national— 159
Australia—55, 61, 64-66
— riot in Ballarat—62-64
See also Working class in Australia
Austria
— in the Middle Ages—425-26, 453
— during the 1848-49 Revolution —
160, 425
— railways—496
— political system—161
— national question — 89, 157-61,
427-28
— and England—108, 223, 481-83,
498-99
— and France—597
— and Galicia—157
— and Hungary—39, 108, 160-61,
428, 596
— and Italian states—161
— and Poland—157, 161
— and Prussia—107
— and Russia—39, 160, 425, 495
— and the Slavs—39, 157-62, 425,
428
— prospects of revolution—89
See also Army, Austrian; Austro-
Italian war of 1848-49; Crimean war
of 1853-56; Peasantry
Austro-Italian war of 1848-49—4-5, 10,
160, 425, 427-28, 457, 459-60
B
Bank of England—166-68, 198-200, 535,
557
— bank restriction acts of 1797-
1821 — 166-67, 388
— Bank Act of 1844-45—198-99
Bank of France— 534, 536, 557
Banks—198-200, 310, 534, 535, 555,
557, 620, 657, 658
See also Bank of England; Bank of
France
Bills of exchange— 200, 293, 534
Bohemia, Bohemians (Czechs)—157-60,
690-91
Bonapartism—50, 617-19
See also France during the Second
Empire
Bosnia—453, 454, 456
Bourgeois political economy—54-55,
60-61
Bourgeoisie— 54, 61, 143, 168, 187,
389, 658
See also Bourgeoisie (in different
countries)-
Bourgeoisie, English
— general characteristics — 31, 53,
54, 60, 143, 168, 195, 290
— alliance with the nobility which
became bourgeois—51, 54, 389
— and aristocracy—54, 56, 187, 261,
369
— industrial—389
— financial—51, 54, 311, 321, 387,
389
— commercial—146-48, 189, 191-95,
208, 240-41
— free trade—60, 258-59
— foreign policy of Free Traders,
their cosmopolitanism — 96, 120,
144, 195, 224, 227, 231, 246, 258,
369
— and the Crimean war of 1853-
56—15, 142-44, 145, 168, 231,
246, 258, 368
— its factions—54, 168, 187, 389
— miscellanea—61-62, 187, 303
Bourgeoisie, Prussian—659-61
Bulgaria, Bulgarians—157, 158, 160,
690, 692
Byzantium—231
C
California—55, 61
Canada—368
Carinthia, Carinthians—157, 159, 690
Caucasus—19
Cavalry—136, 263, 406-07, 414-15,
420-21, 426-27, 436, 445, 464
Chartism, Chartist movement
— People's Charter, the Chartists' political
programme—47, 209, 242
— People's Charter as a programme
of establishing political rule of the
proletariat—243
— and bourgeois radicals—47, 243
— in the 1850s—99-100, 121, 168,
195-97, 240-41, 304-07, 333, 334,
395, 524
— London Workers' Association—
243
— and the Polish question—478
Child labour— 369-70
China as an object of colonial expansion—
55-61
Church— 51-52, 64, 95, 160, 302-03,
310, 384, 391-92, 660, 692
See also Clergy, the
Civilisation—3, 158, 160, 243, 268,
278, 294, 405, 447, 453, 689, 690
Class, classes— 53-54, 56, 61, 168, 303,
304, 656, 660
Class struggle—304, 656
Clergy, the—79-80
Communism— 656
Constitution
— class limitations of bourgeois constitution—
379
Corn Laws
— general characteristics—16, 387,
389
— struggle against Corn Laws—60,
166, 209, 388, 389
— their repeal in 1846—51, 54, 385,
390, 391, 392
See also Anti-Corn Law League; Free
trade
Corruption as a typical feature of bourgeois
society—190, 378
Courts, judiciary system—16, 102, 190,
340, 661
Cracow, Cracow Republic—478, 497
Crimean war of 1853-56
— general remarks—32, 87, 91, 156,
201, 234, 275, 278-79, 284-89,
360, 403, 474, 484-85, 528, 570,
595-96, 598, 623
— and the working class and popular
masses in European states—
28, 70-71, 144, 303-04
— and the national question—233,
596
— and prospects of revolution—89,
145, 271, 278, 596
— preparations for war, armed
forces of belligerent countries—
32-38, 41, 42, 82-83, 110-12, 135,
138, 181-83, 204, 250-52, 254,
259, 299, 318, 350, 351, 359-61,
364, 365, 440, 476, 487, 520,
522-23, 531-34, 558, 572, 575,
577, 608, 609, 611-13, 628, 674
— and diplomacy of European powers—
28, 32, 41, 50, 68, 102,
104-07, 132, 136, 141, 142, 170,
174, 214, 223, 224, 229, 230,
235-36, 246, 248, 275, 277, 341,
367, 595, 596, 601, 603
— war operations on the Danube in
1853-54—4, 9, 74, 75, 87, 136,
146-47, 212, 298, 454, 485, 526,
528, 532, 570, 596, 609, 628, 694
— battle of Oltenitza, November 4,
1853—456, 526, 532, 571
— battle of Citate, January 6, 1854—
444, 456, 523, 532
— siege of Silistria in 1854—75, 134,
135, 445, 456, 482, 498, 564, 571,
577, 590, 695
— war operations in the Caucasus—
35, 269, 288, 454, 456, 473, 485-
86, 565-67, 588, 589, 591-93, 597,
610, 612-13, 623, 627, 628, 632,
641-43, 646, 647, 650-53, 695-96
— capture of Kars by Russians in
1855—486, 563, 565-67, 571, 585-
93, 595, 597, 600, 605-14, 623-37,
639-41, 644-54, 676, 679, 680,
694-96
war operations in the Crimea in
1854-56—3, 6, 9-11, 32-33, 59,
60, 70, 75, 81-90, 109, 111-12,
124-27, 130-33, 135-38, 146-49,
150, 180-85, 201-07, 211, 212,
215-17, 229, 249, 251-53, 264,
275, 278, 280-81, 293, 296, 298,
316-19, 349-51, 355, 356, 360,
363-66, 408, 411, 412, 416, 417,
422-23, 447, 456, 470, 482-87,
491, 492, 494, 498-99, 516, 519,
521-23, 527, 530, 533, 537-41,
552, 563-64, 571-74, 592, 594, 597,
601, 613, 615, 618, 619, 627, 628,
633, 645, 646, 654, 685-86, 694
— battle of Alma, September 20,
1854—3, 5, 71, 411, 444, 446,
565, 571, 685
— battle of Balaklava, October 25,
1854—12, 40, 70, 87, 102, 335,
417, 424, 445, 456, 507, 549, 685
— battle of Inkerman, November 5,
1854—71, 87, 102, 126, 326, 358,
363, 419, 420, 424, 446, 465, 502,
508, 511, 526, 532, 550, 564, 571,
597, 685, 695
— battle on the Chernaya, August
16, 1855—487, 490-91, 509-11,
520, 526, 527, 532, 564, 571, 573,
687, 695
— defence of Sevastopol in 1854-
55—4, 5.6, 9, 81, 82, 84-85, 87,
88, 110-17, 126, 127, 130, 133-35,
136-39, 148-49, 151-55, 170-76,
205-07, 219, 249-51, 253-55, 260,
261, 263-65, 287, 292-93, 297-98,
313-18, 334, 335, 349, 351, 356,
358, 359, 363, 364, 419, 446, 486,
491, 492, 502, 519-23, 525-29,
531-32, 542-44, 546-52, 558, 571-
73, 583, 594, 595, 597, 598, 614.
635, 648, 651, 684-86
— heroism of the defenders of
Sevastopol—116-17, 135, 174,
175, 250, 254, 445-46, 552, 597
— war operations on the sea—87,
91, 180-81, 202, 211, 216, 247-48,
254-55, 259, 265, 268, 272, 273,
278, 287, 288, 291, 293-95, 308-
09, 319, 349, 361, 362, 473, 487-90,
493-94, 515-18, 527, 533, 563-65,
594, 596-98, 631, 654, 697-702
— and the development of military
equipment and military art—3,
413, 511, 528
— Paris Congress and Paris Treaty
of 1856—623
— and Britain, its foreign policy and
diplomacy—9, 53, 69, 137, 144-
45, 223-25, 228, 235-36, 238-39,
245, 269, 366-68, 470, 483, 498-
501, 614, 654, 678, 680
— and the crisis of British military
system—42-43, 124-31, 418-19,
421-22, 484
— and the attitude of the British
bourgeoisie—120, 142-44, 166-69,
231, 258-59
— and Russia, and the foreign policy
and diplomacy of tsarism — 39,
156, 269-71, 288, 495, 536-38,
574, 595-98
— and France, its foreign policy and
diplomacy—69-70, 86-89, 91-93,
112, 120, 136, 142, 146, 220-21,
267-72, 278-79, 285-86, 289, 316,
484, 595-96, 601, 602, 617-20
— and the French military system,
influence of Bonapartism on the
conduct of war—4, 34-36, 87-93,
109-12, 319, 617-20
— and the French bourgeoisie—88,
142, 293
— and Austria—37-39, 89, 142, 251,
267, 271, 278, 289, 361-62, 473,
476, 481-83, 495-500, 598, 628,
689
— and Germany—76, 89, 236, 271,
278, 497-500, 596
— and Hungary—39, 89, 271, 278,
474, 596
— and Italian states—89, 271, 278,
475, 476, 596
— and Piedmont—4-5, 10, 111, 138,
180, 182, 219, 253, 269, 458, 473,
476
— and Poland—89, 474-78, 575, 596
— and Prussia—39, 94, 186, 233,
271, 289, 497
— and Slavonic peoples of the Balkan
Peninsula—39, 89, 271, 278,
596
— and Sweden—598
— and Turkey—33, 37, 269, 368,
451, 453, 456, 474, 566, 588, 589,
609, 610, 611, 628, 653, 654, 675,
680
— miscellanea—405, 408, 558
See also "Eastern question"
Croatia, Croats—157, 425, 690
Cuba— 467
D
Danish-Prussian war of 1848-50—420,
465
Danubian Principalities—143
Dardanelles—18, 142, 300
Democratic Polish Association (Polish
émigrés' organisation, 1832-62)—
477-79
Denmark— 395-96
See also Danish-Prussian war of
1848-50
Drunkenness (as social phenomenon) —
369
£
"Eastern question"—160-61, 229, 248,
294
See also Crimean war of 1853-56;
Dardanelles
Economic crises
— and condition of the working
people—55, 61
— and prospects of socialist movement
and revolution—55
— prognostication of—23, 55, 61
— their chronic character—55, 60
— overproduction as the basic form
of their manifestation — 23, 55, 61
— glut in the world market—54, 60
— industrial, commercial — 54, 60
— critique of bourgeois theories of
crises—54-55, 60-61
Egyptian crisis of 1839-41—17, 71, 300
Electoral system (in the bourgeois state)
— as ruling classes' monopoly—208,
322
— corruption—190, 378
Emigrants, political
— Polish—477-80, 588
— French—121
Emigration (as social phenomenon) —
80, 368
Engineering troops—134-35, 175, 263,
408, 427, 435, 446, 597
England (Great Britain)
— general characteristics—51, 56,
61, 144, 145, 188, 242, 243, 417
— Glorious Revolution of 1688 — 51,
53, 63, 188
— and the French Revolution — 283,
311
— in the first half of the 19th cent,
(before 1848)—71, 195, 376-77,
384-85, 387-89, 393
— in the 1850s (from 1849) —24, 31,
43-52, 54-62, 95-101, 124-27, 129-
31, 142-45, 166-69, 187-200, 213-
15, 218, 222-23, 239, 245-49, 257-
59, 280-82, 290-91, 302-11, 320-
27, 333-34, 337-43, 348, 352-58,
363, 664
— economics—21, 53-54, 121, 143,
145, 209-10, 321, 387, 388, 389,
553-55
— symptoms of crisis in the early
1850s—54-55, 60-61, 145, 198
— social and political system — 49,
51, 53-54, 55-60, 62, 100-01
— classes, class struggle—145, 167,
168, 187, 304, 325-26, 370
— bourgeois rule, description of
bourgeois social system—16, 50,
53, 54, 60, 177-78, 190, 303-07,
369, 513, 667-68
— constitutional monarchy—51, 53-
54, 62, 69-70, 320, 379
— oligarchic nature of government—
31, 49, 53-54, 57, 60, 194,
302, 311, 321, 338, 542
— and the army—63-64, 120-26,
320-21, 517, 664-66
— police—325-26
— two-party system as the instrument
of domination by the ruling
classes —50-51, 78, 187, 338, 339,
373-74
— political parties of the ruling classes
(general characteristics)—24-
25, 391
— coalition ministry of "All the Talents"
(1853-55)—31, 53, 79, 130,
275, 382
— political crisis during the Crimean
war of 1853-56—31, 59, 142-45,
168, 258
— Bonapartist methods in Palmerston's
policy, his attempts to establish
personal dictatorship—50
— Peelites—8, 23, 45, 50, 130, 143,
224, 246, 258, 277, 391
— Free Traders as a party of industrial
bourgeoisie—8, 31, 103, 168,
258
— Radicals—8, 25, 29, 44, 47, 222,
243, 375
— legislation—54, 96, 303-04, 308,
340, 386
— electoral system, electoral reforms—
21-22, 47, 54, 190, 191,
196, 208-09, 242-43, 322, 338,
377-79
— bourgeois-democratic movement
for electoral reform in the 1840s
and in the 1850s—47, 51, 208-09,
243, 381-83, 393, 394
— bourgeois reform movement in
the 1850s—167-68, 187, 195-97,
208-09, 223, 240-42, 274, 289-91,
309-11, 334, 394
— preconditions and prospects of social
revolution—56, 62, 145, 243
— the press—121-22, 281-82
— English Church and religion—51-
52, 64, 302, 303, 310, 384, 390-91
— Catholic Church and religion —
79-80, 391-92
— Catholic Emancipation Bill of
1829—51, 79, 391
— colonial policy (general characteristics)—
295-96, 368
— colonial policy in Persia (Iran)—
18
— colonial policy in Ireland — 295,
383-86
— colonial policy in Canada—368
— projects of agrarian reforms in
Ireland—79, 80, 342
— foreign policy, diplomacy (general
characteristics)—15-17, 584
— aristocracy's monopoly on foreign
policy—394
— interconnection between foreign
and home policies—9, 245
— foreign policy before the 19th
cent.—584-86
— foreign policy in the first half of
the 19th cent.—15-17, 19, 71,
388, 474, 586
— and the "Eastern question" — 230-
32, 233-34
— foreign policy during the Crimean
war of 1853-56—143, 223-39,
245-48, 269, 275, 277, 367-68
— foreign policy of free-trade (industrial)
bourgeoisie—15, 120, 143,
168, 224, 227, 231, 246, 258, 370
— and Argentina—17
— and Austria—108, 223, 498-99
— and France—9, 59, 70, 72, 74,
118, 286, 368, 470, 599
— and Greece—17, 18, 368
— and Holland—15, 585
— and Hungary—108
— and Italy—17, 475
— and Poland—15, 474
— and Portugal—17
— and Russia—17-19, 142, 143, 234,
584-86
— and Spain —17, 368
— and Sweden—17
— and Turkey—17, 18, 367-68
— and the USA —599, 600
See also Anglo-Afghan war of 1838-42;
Anglo-American war of 1812-14; Anti-
Corn Law League; Aristocracy (nobility),
English; Army, British; Bank of England;
Bourgeoisie, English; Chartism,
Chartist movement; Corn Laws; Crimean
war of 1853-56; "Eastern question";
Literature; Manchester; Manchester
School; Navy, British; Parliament,
British; Tories, English; Urquhartism,
Urquhartists; Wales; Whigs, English;
Working class in Great Britain; Working-
class movement in Great Britain;
World market
Europe— 89, 145, 691
F
Famine (as social phenomenon) — 80,
389
Female labour—369-70
Fortification
— general features—435
— permanent work—175, 262, 435,
549
— strategic significance of fortresses—
251-62, 528
— fortified camp—262-63, 528-29
— siege and defence of fortresses—
90, 137, 148-49, 172, 261-63, 314,
528, 529, 547, 549
France
— general description — 35, 144, 177,
242, 412, 414, 416, 557
— during the First Empire—441,
557
— during the Restoration—285,
603, 659
— July 1830 revolution and July
monarchy—285, 558, 620
See also Army, French; Bank of France;
France during the Second Empire;
French Revolution; June insurrection of
the Paris proletariat in 1848; Literature;
Napoleonic wars; Working class in
France
France during the Second Empire
— general features—615, 617, 618
— coup d'état of December 2,
1851—9, 213, 416, 616-17
— agriculture—144
— trade—534, 535
— finances—293, 534, 557, 558,
601, 602, 620
— banks—534, 535, 557
— Crédit Mobilier—535, 620
— Stock Exchange, speculation —
293, 558, 604, 657
— internal situation — 212, 601-04
— corruption of the ruling circles—
601, 615, 616, 620
— army as the bulwark of the
Bonapartist regime — 213, 268,
415-16, 602, 615, 617-20
— counter-revolutionary terrorism —
60, 603, 615-17
— working class—144, 602, 603
— peasantry—110, 144, 212
— growth of opposition in all strata
of the society—602-04
— growth of opposition in the
army—110, 602, 603, 619
— Bonapartist regime and wars—86,
87, 91, 120, 142, 278, 484, 618-19
— and Austria—600
— and Britain —62, 69, 70, 118, 213,
286, 368, 470, 599, 600
— and Greece—92
— and Italy—35, 92
— and Russia—267, 286, 289, 600
— colonial policy of the Second Empire—
35, 110, 286
See also Crimean war of 1853-56
Free trade— 60, 258-59
French Revolution (18th cent.)—144,
311, 618
G
Galicia—157
Georgia—627
German Confederation (1815-66)—448
German philosophy—159, 161, 691
Germany
— general description—156, 434-35
— history—656, 657, 659
— economy—658-59
— education—660
— foreign policy—156-62, 462, 596
See also Army; Crimean war of 1853-
56; German Confederation; Prussia
Greece—15, 18, 368
H
Habeas Corpus Act—386
Highland Gaels—426
"Historical Irony"
— as transformation of realisable intentions
into their opposite—91
— examples of—91, 212, 617
Historiography
— its class nature, as expression of
the ruling classes' ideology—656
— bourgeois (19th cent.)—158, 514-
15, 656
— bourgeois falsification of history—
405, 656
History (as science) —158, 404, 691
See also "Historical Irony"; Historiography
Hungary—15, 39, 89, 108, 156, 157,
159, 161, 425, 427, 428, 453, 596,
689-90
See also Army; Crimean war of 1853-
56; National liberation war of 1848-49
in Hungary
India
— its subjugation by Great Britain
and conversion into a market for
sale—49, 55, 61, 142, 418, 514
Industrial revolution—655-56
Infantry
— general features—5, 361, 405,
406, 414, 423, 434, 445, 446-47,
456
— in the Middle Ages—469
— light—5, 406, 414, 426, 465
Interests— 81, 86, 90, 105, 107, 121,
142, 395, 659
Ireland
— general description—80, 426
— as British colony and citadel of
English landlordism—295, 385-86
— agrarian relations—80, 342
— famine in Ireland as a result of
British rule —389
— potato blight and- famine (1845-
47)—80, 389
— Repeal agitation—78, 79, 385-86
— Lichfield-House Compact of
1835—78, 79, 384
— Irish deputies in British Parliament
(Irish Brigade, Irish Quarter)—
58, 78-80, 130, 342-43, 392
— and English Established Church,
persecution of Catholics—383-84
— struggle of Catholic population
for equal rights, Catholic Emancipation
Bill—51, 79, 391
Islam
— as a weapon of ruling classes, its
fanaticism—455, 586
Italy—15, 428, 460-61
See also Army; Austro-Italian war of
1848-49; Crimean war of 1853-56;
Kingdom of Sardinia (Piedmont); Literature;
Papal States (Roman State)
J
Joint-stock companies—53, 310, 321, 535,
555, 620, 658, 659
June insurrection of the Paris proletariat in
1848
— its suppression by the bourgeoisie—
616
K
Kingdom of Sardinia (Piedmont) —
459-60
See also Army; Crimean war of
1853-56
Kraina (Carniola)—157, 690
Kurdistan, Kurds—453
L
Landed property, landowners—80, 387-89,
659
Language, linguistics—121-23, 157-60,
306, 690, 691, 692
Large-scale industry—531, 656, 659
Law, legislation—54, 326, 340
Literary Association of the Friends of
Poland (from 1832)—477-79
Literature
— English—247, 297, 374, 383, 480
— French—31, 303
— Italian—355, 382
— Slav—158-59
M
Manchester— 247, 370, 531
Manchester School—8, 78, 103, 120, 168,
246, 247, 258, 259, 282
Masses, the, People, the
— antagonistic interests of the masses
and exploiter classes—303
Military art
— its laws (rules of warfare)—88,
92-93, 202, 349
— strategy—92-93, 270-71, 435, 529,
627
— tactics—414-15, 420, 424, 426,
435, 463-64, 509-11, 528-29, 627
Military science
— military history—404-05
— military literature—423, 427, 435,
443
Military training—34, 42, 433, 578, 579
Monarchy, absolute—403
Money circulation and banks—198-200
Money market—198-200
See also Money circulation and banks
Morality—50, 656
Mortgage—661
Moscow—537, 538
N
Napoleonic wars
— general characteristics—88, 91-92,
204, 248, 261, 283, 414, 528, 549
— France's wars with European coalitions
(1804-15)—6, 11, 88, 91,
92, 106, 147, 204, 261, 263, 269,
288, 405, 412, 414, 427, 441, 444,
464, 469, 511, 529, 549, 559,
569-70, 579
— and Britain—190, 300, 311, 383,
502, 503
— and Prussia—106
— and Russia—283
— miscellanea—43, 414, 427, 514,
665
See also Wars of the First French Republic
(late 18th-early 19th cent.)
Nation—145, 157-59, 404, 690, 691
See also Nationality; National question
Nationalism
— national prejudices—15, 144
Nationality—157-61, 425, 427, 428
National liberation war of 1848-49 in
Hungary— 425, 427-28, 569, 692-93
National question—89, 143, 144
See also Pan-Slavism, Polish question
Navy, British—53, 54, 59, 60, 515, 517
P
Pan-Slavism—156-62, 689, 690, 691-93
Papal States (Roman state)—460, 474
Paris— 263
Parliament (in the bourgeois state)—
100-01
See also Parliament, British
Parliament, British
— general features—54, 90, 187,
188, 226, 338, 340, 343, 380, 394
— House of Commons—53, 60, 63,
68, 190-92, 208, 213, 226, 322,
337-38, 340-41, 379
— Irish MPs (Irish Brigade)—58,
78-80, 130, 342-43, 391-92
— House of Lords—189-94, 661-70
— miscellanea—47-48, 167-68, 187-
88, 213, 222, 245, 470-71, 605
Patriotic war of 1812 in Russia—88, 92,
407, 441, 476, 569, 574
Peasantry
— in Austria—66i
— in England—144, 377
— in France—110, 144, 212
— in Ireland—80
— Polish—576
— in Prussia — 661
Persia (Iran)—18, 625, 633
Petty bourgeoisie—145, 657
Poland, Poles—15, 18, 108, 157, 161,
284, 474, 477-80, 570, 576, 588-89,
596, 690
See also Cracow, Cracow Republic; Crimean
war of 1853-56; Democratic Polish
Association; Literary Association oj
the Friends of Poland; Peasantry; Polish
question, the
Polish question, the— 89, 284, 477-78
Poor Laws— 54, 188, 513
Press, the—121-23, 659
Probabilism—231
Prussia
— general characteristics—429, 430,
433-34, 661
— history—106, 657-61
— economy—429, 657-59
— social and political system—659-
61
— foreign policy—39, 105-07, 283
See also Army, Prussian; Bourgeoisie,
Prussian; Crimean war of 1853-56;
Danish-Prussian war of 1848-50; Germany;
Peasantry
R
Railways— 209-10, 658
Revolution— 31, 80, 89, 655-56
See also Revolutions of 1848-49 in
Europe
Revolutions of 1848-49 in Europe—31,
61, 71, 80, 145, 161, 267, 425, 427,
457, 460, 616, 655, 660, 661
Russia (Russian Empire)
— population—441
— serfdom—442
— in the first half of the 19th
cent.—575, 576
— autocracy as the bulwark of reaction
and counter-revolution —
586-87
— state apparatus and officials—
442, 443
— education—443
—- Russian language—160
— religion—442
— foreign policy and diplomacy—
38-39, 67, 269, 283, 284, 288, 576
— and Austria—39, 105, 156, 160,
271, 289, 496
— and England—59, 67, 143, 234,
584-85
— and France—269, 289, 441
— and Persia (Iran)—19
— and Prussia—105
— and Turkey—18-19, 584
See also Army, Russian; Crimean War
of 1853-56; Moscow; Patriotic war of
1812 in Russia
Russo-Turkish war of 1768-74
— Treaty of Kutschuk-Kainardji,
1774—229, 235
Russo-Turkish war of 1787-91—564-66,
697, 700, 701
Russo-Turkish war of 1828-29—511
Ruthenians—see Ukraine, the, Ukrainians
S
Science—158, 443, 655-56
See also History (as science)
Second Empire—see France during the
Second Empire
Serbia, Serbs—157-60, 425, 428, 690-92
Seven Years' War, 1756-63—414, 528,
569, 570
Slavonians—157, 690, 691
Slavs— 39, 89, 156-61, 425, 428, 689-93
Social system
— ancient, slave-owners' — 531
— bourgeois, capitalist—60, 89, 531
Society— 80, 243, 244, 656
See also Social system; Society, bourgeois
Society, bourgeois— 61, 89, 243, 244,
531, 655, 656
State, the— 244, 403
Stock Exchange—293, 558, 604, 657
Styria—157, 690
Suffrage— 243-44
See also Electoral system (in the
bourgeois state)
Switzerland—460-63
T
Thirty Years' War, 1618-48—168, 464
Tories, English
— general features, class nature of
the Party—50-51, 78,187, 195, 390
— and electoral reform of 1832 —
377, 378
— and British foreign policy—118,
259
— decay of the Party—31
Treaty of Adrianople, 1829—17, 399,
451, 664-65
Treaty of Balta-Liman, 1849—17, 400
Treaty of Unkiar-Skelessi, 1833—18, 300,
400
Turkey
— history—453, 474, 485
— economic relations—367-68, 653
— social and political system — 9,
451, 453, 454, 588, 589, 654
— role of national factor in its life —
456, 588-89
— privileges of the Turks, special
features of national character—
126-27, 455, 588-89
— Albanians (Arnauts)—453, 454,
456
— oppression of the Slavs—39, 156-
58, 160
— and Britain—18, 367, 625
— and Egypt—453, 454, 456
— and France—368
— and Prussia—104-05
— and Russia—18, 156, 232, 300, 625
— and Syria—71, 453, 454, 588
— and Tunisia—453, 454, 456
— as an object of colonial expansion—
102, 104, 232, 235, 284,
286, 367-68, 456, 474
— religious question—160, 454
See also Army, Turkish; Crimean war
of 1853-56; "Eastern question"; Egyptian
crisis of 1839-41; Russo-Turkish
war of 1768-74; Russo-Turkish war of
1787-91; Russo-Turkish war of 1828-
29; Treaty of Adrianople, 1829; Treaty
of Unkiar-Skelessi, 1833
U
Ukraine, the, Ukrainians—157, 690
United States of America, the—53, 55,
61, 80, 143, 368, 599
See also Anglo-American war of 1812-
14; American War of Independence,
1775-83 and European powers; Army;
California
Urquhartism, Urquhartists—243-44, 394,
478
W
Wales— 426
War, wars—143, 144, 429, 430, 516
See also Anglo-Afghan war of 1838-42;
Anglo-American war of 1812-14; Austro-
Italian war of 1848-49; Crimean
war of 1853-56; Danish-Prussian war of
1848-50; Military art; Military science;
Military training; Napoleonic wars; National
liberation war of 1848-49 in
Hungary; American War of Independence,
1775-83 and European powers;
Patriotic war of 1812 in Russia; Russo-
Turkish war of 1768-74; Russo-Turkish
war of 1787-91; Russo-Turkish war of
1828-29; Thirty Years' War, 1618-48;
Wars of the First French Republic
Wars of the First French Republic (late
18th-early 19th cent.)—90-91, 106,
144, 261, 300, 311, 383, 462, 502,
569, 572, 599, 654, 664
Wealth— 531
Whigs, English
— general features of the Party—49,
130, 188, 384, 388, 482
— class character of the Party—187,
387
— as a ruling party, its policy—78,
187, 188, 194, 195, 352-53, 377,
385, 388, 584
— policy on the Irish question—78-
80, 383-86, 391
— Whiggism—15, 380
— decay of the Party—8
Working class— 55, 145, 258, 655-56
— conditions of its life and work
under capitalism — 369-70
See also Working class (in different
countries)
Working class in Australia—65-66
Working class in France—145, 602, 603
Working class in Great Britain—55, 95,
145, 243
See also Working-class movement in
Great Britain
Working-class movement in Great Britain—
51, 54-55, 61, 95-96, 187, 195-
96, 209, 239, 303-07, 320, 323-27,
333, 369, 656
See also Chartism, Chartist movement
World market
— Britain's monopoly—331







MECW 15







A
Afghanistan, Afghans— 177-80, 194-96,
278, 293, 295
Albania, Albanians (Arnauts)—144,
279
Algeria—170, 355, 583
America—-120, 121, 124-26, 135, 561,
615
See also California; Canada; United
States of America
Analogy—186-87
Ancient Rome—138, 155, 356, 485
— its wars—142, 148
Anglo-Afghan war, 1838-42—180,
364, 505, 588
Anglo-Persian war, 1856-57—177, 180,
194, 198-99, 212, 278-80, 293, 296,
298, 331, 588
Anglo-Sikh war, 1845-46—532
Annexation—311-12, 536, 538, 587,
588
Anti-colonial struggle—281, 298, 341,
441
Anti-Corn Law League—186, 230,
239-41, 250, 469
Arabs—121
Armenia— 197, 615
Army—101, 107, 167, 280, 424, 437,
464-65, 530-31, 557-58, 580, 609
— Austrian—107
— British, Anglo-Indian—171,
198-99, 262, 279-81, 298, 306-
08, 311, 315-16, 353-55, 374-75.
392, 395, 420, 424, 437, 451,
528-31, 557-58, 580-84, 587,
609-10,
— French—107, 167-69, 262, 464-
66, 475-76, 478-79, 482-83, 552,
568, 569
— Persian —278-80
— Russian—172, 197-98, 262-65,
450
— Spanish—101-02, 104, 107, 108,
171
— Turkish—278, 280
See also Cavalry; Infantry; Navy
Asia—124-26, 129, 283, 295-96, 298,
546, 579, 587, 615
See also Afghanistan; Asia Minor;
China; India; Manchuria; Persia
(Iran); Turkey
Asia Minor—141
Astrakhan—197-98
Australia—120, 124, 128, 387, 402,
408, 444, 523, 561
Austria—142-43, 150
— in Middle Ages—153, 155-56
— and Napoleonic wars—169-70,
616
— foreign trade—139-50, 615-16
— finances—120, 121, 137
— and Italian states — 3-7, 139,
148, 474-75, 480, 533, 616
— and Galicia, suppression
by—568
— foreign policy and diplomacy—
192,296, 322-24, 569, 616
— and France—116, 139, 146,
474-75, 480, 568, 569, 615-16
— and Russia—6, 323-24, 568
— and Switzerland—173
— and Turkey—141, 147, 322-23
See also Army—Austrian; Austro-
Italian war, 1848-49; Austro-Swiss
wars, 14th cent.
Austro-Italian war, 1848-49—5, 533
Austro-Swiss wars, 14th cent.—167
B
Balance of trade—124-29, 415
Banks
— functions—16, 23-24, 110, 117-
18, 123, 130-31, 136, 386-89,
401, 402, 407, 410, 411, 416-17,
443, 454, 461
— reserve fund—110, 118, 120,
123-24, 132, 185, 379-82, 402,
460-61
— and money circulation — 379-83,
415, 460
— and rate of discount—117, 123,
130, 186, 379, 381, 401, 446
— and railways—21, 23, 120, 132,
135, 274-76, 360, 417-18, 461,
502
— and the state—16, 454, 461, 551
— and economic crises—110-38,
379-80, 400-18, 459-63
— commercial—20-21
See also Bank legislation; Bank of
England; Bank of France; Crédit
Mobilier; Royal British Bank
Bank legislation— 379-83, 385, 389
Bank of England— 61, 109, 118, 123,
130, 379-89, 402, 403, 407, 410,
411, 443
Bank of France—14, 109, 117-19, 123-
24, 131-32, 274-75, 277, 289-92,
303, 390, 414-17, 454, 459-61, 502,
551
Belgium— 4, 120, 184, 415, 441, 480,
561
Beloochistan—197
Bengal— 298, 305-06, 308, 312, 316,
329, 355, 420, 547, 555
Bill of exchange—119, 123
Bimetallism—119-22, 459-60
Bonapartism— 5, 14, 453-58, 464-67,
480, 482, 517, 519, 550-52, 568-69,
574
See also France. Second Empire
Bourgeoisie—102, 241, 567
— Dutch—418
— English—188-89, 202, 203, 229-
30, 241-42, 252, 253, 513, 567
— French—289, 291, 454, 456,
465, 481
— German—116, 418
— Italian — 7
— Spanish —102, 105, 107, 625,
629
— Swiss—418
Bourse, Stock Exchange—302
— as centre of speculation and
corruption—15, 109, 276, 454,
501
— and interests of' stockjobbers—
511-12
— and the state — 502
Brandenburg—153-57
Bulgaria—76
Burgundy, Burgundian lands—152, 167
Burma— 529
Byzantium— 75, 76, 80, 356, 615
C
California—120, 124
Canada—444
Carbonari—468, 474
Carinthia—149, 616
Caucasus, Caucasians—171, 178, 196-
97, 237, 539-40, 544-45
Causality—107, 116, 117, 141,453-54,
486
Cavalry—168, 264-65, 583
Child labour— 252, 254, 261, 524-26
China— 278, 282-83
— foreign trade—122, 126-28,
163, 204, 223-25, 234-35, 444,
561
— social and political system — 225,
278, 282-83
— as object of colonial expansion
by capitalist states—126, 163,
223, 234-35, 280-81
— opium trade—126-27, 219-220,
224, 234-35, 243
— emigration—234-35, 280-82
See also Opium wars; Taiping uprising
in China, 1850-64
Church
— Greek—81, 86
Civilisation—454, 530, 621
"Civil society"—185, 190, 534
Class(es), class struggle—8, 15, 102,
114-15, 134, 202, 231, 254, 302,
454, 465, 486
See also Bourgeoisie; Revolution; Society;
Working class
Community
— Indian—547-48
— Greco-Slav tribes—191
Constantinople—76, 141
Constitution, constitutional government—
181-84
Content and form—190, 485
Corn Laws (England) —201-03, 222,
248, 387-88, 408-09, 469
See also Anti-Corn Law League
Crédit Mobilier— 8-24, 109, 110, 114,
116, 117, 118, 120, 132-37, 270-77,
303, 357-60, 417, 499-501, 551, 569
Crimean war, 1853-56—114, 121, 130,
134, 182-84, 185, 190, 213
— battle of Oltenitza, November 4,
1853—279
— military operations in the
Caucasus —279-80
— capture of Kars by Russian
troops, 1855—214, 279
— military operations in the
Crimea, 1854-56—294, 447
— battle on the Alma, September
20, 1854—424, 447, 483
— battle of Balaklava, October 25,
1854—393, 424, 447, 451
— battle of Inkermann, November
5, 1854—198, 392, 393, 424,
483
— defence of Sevastopol, 1854-
55 — 214, 392, 393, 441, 447-49,
483
— its results, Paris Peace Treaty of
1856—3-6, 114, 214, 322
— and Austria—6-7
— and Germany—116
— and Italian states — 6-7
— and Piedmont—3
See also Eastern question
Croatia—616
Cuba— 235, 573
Customs— 156, 621
Customs Union (Germany, 1834-71) —
390, 415, 416
D
Dalmatia—144, 147-49, 615-16
Dantzig— 406, 407, 441
Danubian principalities—62, 191,
322-24
Deism—109
Delhi— 306, 314, 315, 318-21, 327-29,
342-46, 355, 356, 361, 362, 365-68,
369-71, 373-76, 392-99, 504, 506,
553, 556, 582, 583, 609, 610
Denmark—41, 42, 56, 94-95, 334,
405-06, 412, 565
See also Schleswig-Holstein question
Despotism—4, 14, 102, 482
Development—19, 102, 115, 125, 141,
259
Discount of Bills—119-21
E
East India Company (British)—61, 126,
128, 194, 297, 311, 349-51, 443-46,
534-37, 579, 585-88
Eastern question, the—182, 183, 190-
91, 322-24
See also Danubian principalities
Economic crises
— and condition of the working
people—132-35
— and prospects for development
of socialist movement and of
revolution—113-15, 383-84
— prediction of—113-14, 383,
385-91, 411, 414-16
— periodic nature of—401
— depression — 416-17
— and trade—124, 400-03, 411,
414-18
— and market situation—117-22,
130-31
— crises of world market—113,
390
— industrial—113, 390, 401, 411
— commercial —20, 109, 113, 124,
400-03
— monetary and financial—113-
22, 123-25, 136, 273-76, 289-91,
404-18
— crisis of 1825—109, 113, 126
— crisis of 1837 — 109, 113, 126
— crisis of 1846-47—109, 113,
117, 126, 302, 383, 386, 390
— crisis of 1857-58—109-38, 273,
290-91, 302-03, 383-91, 400-18,
427, 524-25
— crisis of 1857-58 in England —
382-85, 387-90, 400-03, 407,
410-11, 427, 521
— crisis of 1857-58 in France—19,
113, 117-24, 130-35, 302-04,
413-18, 459-63
— crisis of 1857-58 in Germany —
113-18, 404-07
Economic laws—256
Economy and politics—135, 185-86,
188-89, 202-05, 303-04, 463, 485-86
Egypt—140-42, 296, 561, 615
Emigration-— 234-35, 490, 493, 495,
539-40, 545
England (Great Britain)—186, 250,
251
— in 17th cent.— 63
— in 18th cent.—468
— in the first half of 19th cent,
(before 1848)—186, 220, 222,
248, 386-87, 389, 468
— in the 1850s (from 1849) —204,
211-14, 221-22, 226, 238-42,
247-50, 255, 468, 566, 567
— Coalition Cabinet of All the Talents
(1853-55)—203, 213, 248
— Bonapartist methods in Palmerston's
policy —204, 213-14, 221,
222, 226-28, 238-40, 248, 250,
468, 517, 519, 567, 587
— industry—255-61, 430
— foreign trade—58-64, 221, 383,
425-33, 521-24, 560-65
— trade with Asia (Turkey, India,
China)—125, 126, 142, 220,
383, 407-08
— and slave trade—219, 570-74
— finances —201-06, 211, 469,
510-13, 575-79
— aristocracy—188, 202, 203, 469,
548, 567
— social and political system—8,
61-62, 184, 188-89, 203, 239-40,
248, 266-67, 269, 302, 468, 516,
523, 566-67
— bourgeois society, its morals—
214-16, 235, 516, 548, 597-602,
604
— pauperism —205-06, 523-24,
602, 604
— Peelites—204, 214, 247-50
— Liberals—470
— disintegration of the ruling parties
(the 1850s-60s)—213-14,
240, 248-50, 302, 567
— Radicals — 567
— electoral system, reform of
1832 — 186, 188, 212, 214, 226,
229, 238-42, 247-49, 469, 567
— law on the emancipation of
Catholics (1829)—468-69
— colonial policy—178-80, 196-99,
217-18, 221, 281-82, 293-97,
311, 351, 352, 536, 538, 579,
587, 588; see also Anglo-Afghan
war, 1838-42; Anglo-Persian war,
1856-57; Anglo-Sikh war, 1845-
46; East India Company (British);
Indian national uprising of 1857-
59; Opium wars;
— foreign policy before 19th
cent.—30, 32-35, 38-41, 56-57,
92
— and Denmark — 94
— and France —32-33
— and the Netherlands—64-65
— and Russia —30, 32-35, 56-69,
92-96, 187
— and Sweden—38-40, 56-61,
92-96
— foreign policy in 19th cent.—6,
178-80, 188, 204-05, 214, 254,
302, 333, 351-52, 510, 533,
570-74
— and Austria—193
— and France—187, 189-90, 214,
302, 333, 457, 470-71, 484, 488-
98, 515-20, 573
— and Russia—178-80, 187, 190-
93, 281-82, 610
— and Spain — 57
— and the USA—141, 214, 570-72
See also Anti-Corn Law League;
Army—British; Bank of England;
Bourgeoisie—English; Corn Laws
(England); Economic crises—crisis of
1857-58 in England; Factory legislation;
Free Trade; "Glorious revolution"
in England, 1688; Habeas Corpus
Act; Joint-stock companies—in
England; Peace Society (England,
from 1816); "Poor Laws"; Royal
British Bank; Tories (England);
Whigs (England); Working class—in
England; Workhouses
Epoch— 21, 125-26, 488
Essence and phenomenon—257, 401
Europe
— origin and development of
European peoples — 75, 76
— in 15-16th cent.— 80
— economic and political characteristics
of 19th-century
Europe—4, 10, 120, 125-26,
135, 226
— prospects of revolution in the
1850s —567-68
See also Economic crises; Revolution of
1848-49 in Europe; Slavs
F
Factory, factory system—251-61
Factory legislation— 251-54
Female labour—254
Foreign policy—5
Foreign trade—122-29, 139-50, 425
Fortification— 392-98, 435-36, 441,
527-29
Fourierism— 21
France— 75, 143, 152, 185, 190, 202,
453, 464-65
— economy—122, 130-35, 413
— during absolutism (17th-18th
cent.)'—14, 109, 116, 492
— constitutional monarchy, 1789-
92 — 621-22
— during Consulate and First Empire—
145-47, 464-65
— during the Restoration—463,
465, 629-30
— July 1830 Revolution and July
monarchy—114, 184, 187, 289-
92, 302, 464-65, 472-73, 482,
533-34, 621-22
— peasantry—133-34, 463, 465,
482
— foreign policy and diplomacy,
colonial policy—223, 322-23,
356, 456-58, 472, 479-80, 484,
488-89, 573-74
— and Austria—116, 190, 474-75,
480, 568
— and Belgium—4-5, 480
— and Denmark—498
— and England—187, 190,457-58,
468, 470-71, 482-84, 490-98,
515-20, 573-74
— and Germany—152, 498
— and Italy—4-6, 480
— and Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
(Naples)—190
— and Prussia—190
— and Romania—323
— and Russia—187, 190, 323, 484
— and Spain —98-99, 190, 353
— and Switzerland — 479-80
See also Bank of France;
Bourgeoisie—French; Crédit Mobilier;
Economic crises—crisis of
1857-58 in France; French Revolution,
end of 18th cent.; Joint-stock
companies—in France; Napoleonic
wars; Revolution of 1848 in France.
Second Republic; Society of December
10; Wars of First French Republic
(late 18th-early 19th cent.)
France. Second Empire—4, 456-57,
464-67, 482, 490, 499, 502, 517
— coup d'état of December 2,
1851 — 110, 222, 226-27, 290,
453-57, 465, 488
— industry, railways, agriculture —
20-21, 23, 120,' 122, 124, 132-
34, 136-37, 460-61, 463, 502,
551
— finances —9-13; 19-24, 117-21,
123-24, 130-35, 404, 413, 463,
500, 502, 550-51, 568-69
— Stock Exchange, stock-exchange
speculation—15, 109-10, 133,
138, 276-77, 302-03, 454, 483,
501-02
— government's economic and financial
policy—14-18, 19, 109-
10, 136-37, 290-91, 407, 502,
550-51, 569
— domestic situation, home policy-
122, 132-35, 464-66, 482,
550-52
— corruption of ruling circles—14-
15, 501
— character of political power—4,
464-65, 482, 499, 517
— army as bulwark of Bonapartist
regime—457, 464-66, 482-84,
568, 569
— counter-revolutionary terrorism—
4, 134-35, 227, 353, 456-
57, 467, 472, 475, 479, 480-81,
501, 551-52
— the press—135, 137, 455-56,
467, 499, 515, 516, 552, 568-69
— Corps Législatif—16, 213, 291
— bourgeoisie, petty bourgeoisie —
454,^456, 480
— growth of opposition in society
and army—134-35, 472, 475,
478, 552
Free Trade, Free Traders—185, 201-03,
228-30, 238-41, 248, 250, 387-88
See also Anti-Corn Law League; Corn
Laws (England); England (Great Britain)—
Radicals
French Revolution, end of 18th cent.—
167-68, 185, 186, 188, 353, 465,
531, 574, 621-22, 626
G
Galicia—568
Genoa, Genoese—3, 64, 95, 141, 148,
430, 615
Germany—75
— in 18th cent.—42
— and July 1830 Revolution in
Fran« e— 116
— fragmentation of country—116
— economy—113-18, 136, 404-08
— foreign policy — 3, 153
See also Bourgeosie—German; Brandenburg;
Customs Union (Germany,
1834-71); Holy Roman Empire of the
German Nation (962-1806); Prussia;
Joint-stock companies—in Germany;
Reformation in Germany; Revolution
of 1848-49 in Germany; Westphcdia
Gibraltar—142, 564
"Glorious revolution" in England,
1688—61, 189-90
Gold and silver
— as money—406
— history of their circulation —
119-29
— importance of discovery of gold
in Australia and America—120,
124-25, 128-29
— as reserve fund—120-21
— as articles of luxury—120-21
— and foreign trade—119-29, 379,
383-91, 400-18
— and crises—117-25, 130, 379-
91, 400-18, 459-63
Golden Horde, 13th-15th cent.— 78-82,
85, 92
See also Tartar-Mongol yoke
Greece—142, 144, 191
H
Habeas Corpus Act—222
Hamburg—404-07
Hanse towns—63, 414, 415
Herat—177, 179, 180, 194-99
Historians, historiography—40, 57, 58,
80, 91-92, 485-86
History— 40, 75-76, 115, 468
Holland—see Netherlands, the
Holy Alliance—3
Holy Roman Empire of the German
Nation (962-1806)— 152-53
Hong-Kong—158, 208, 217-18, 221,
281, 283, 564
Human ism— 209, 211, 531, 548
Hungary—75, 77
Hussite movement—155
I
Illyria—146, 148, 616
India—125, 297, 312, 575
— population, nationalities,
castes—297, 306, 420, 423, 532,
582-83
— before English conquest—179
— British colonial occupation of
Indian territory —300, 311-13,
423, 549, 587-88
— Punjaub, occupation of, by the
British —297, 299, 306, 313
— annexation of Oude—297, 299,
311, 531, 534-38, 549, 588,
608-10
— religion, religious discord — 297-
98, 356, 363, 587, 610
— colonial subjugation by Britain,
convertion into market—311-
12, 349-56, 407-08
— peasants, exploitation of—353,
546-49, 575
— trade, money system, finances —
122, 126, 128-29, 352, 444-46,
575-79
— British administration (methods,
character)—232, 296-300, SHIS,
336-41, 354, 585-88
— British armed forces in India,
use of the Sepoy army—198-99,
297-98, 315-16, 420-21, 532,
583, 610
See also Anglo-Sikh war, 1845-46;
Annexation; Bengal; Community—
Indian; Delhi; East India Company
(British); Indian national uprising of
1857-59
Indian national uprising of 1857-59
— its liberation and anti-colonial
character—298, 316, 328-29,
341, 354-56, 366, 441, 549, 553-
55, 607-11
— its causes—296, 298, 311-13,
336-41, 356, 538, 548
— and Sepoy troops—298, 307,
314-16, 321, 353, 366, 373, 392,
447, 553, 587, 610
— and native population of
India—307, 329, 423, 445, 504,
532, 534, 549
— and Sikhs—315, 420, 532,
609-10
— course of uprising—298-300,
305-08, 314-17, 321, 328-29,
333, 342-43, 345-48, 356, 361-
64, 366-68, 371-73, 376-78, 393,
394, 441-42, 447-52, 504-09,
532, 553-55, 558-59, 575, 580-
84, 609-10
— siege and capture of, Delhi by
the British; see Delhi
— battle of Lucknow—347-48,
361-62, 367-68, 419-24, 435-42,
448, 504-09, 527-32, 553
— plunder and atrocities by English
soldiers—354-55, 437,
529-31, 556-58, 608-10
— causes of defeat—305, 375, 392-
94, 399, 422, 423, 438-40,
527-29
— and economic and political situation
of England —301, 443-46
— and English people—308, 349,
587
— results of—331-32, 356
Industry
— textile—255-61
Infantry— 167, 450-51
Inquisition—106
Ireland— 5, 257, 469, 512
"Irony of History"—15, 209, 250, 552
Islam—153, 179, 363, 610
Italy
— history (before 19th cent.)—3,
5, 83, 153, 566, 615-16
— insurrection of 1831—474, 488
— economy—121, 404, 415, 416,
561, 615-16
— national movement in the
1850s—6-7, 304, 474-75; 568
See also Austro-Italian war, 1848-49;
Bourgeoisie—Italian; Kingdom of
Sardinia (Piedmont); Mazzinism;
Mazzinists; Revolution of 1848-49 in
Italian states; Working class—in Italy
J
Joint-stock companies
— activity of—10-13, 15-16, 22-23,
110-13
— management of—110-11, 267-
69
— and railways—124, 136-37
— and the state—11, 20
— and competition among them —
131-32
— in England—110-12, 267
— in France—132, 501, 502
— in Germany—136
See also Banks; Crédit Mobilier; East
India Company (British)
Journalism, journalists—552, 596
K
Kabul—177, 195-96
Kamchatka— 225
Kazan, Khanate of Kazan (1438 —
1552)—8Ü, 82
Khanate of Crimea—81, 82
Kiev, Kievan Rus, empire of the Ruriks —
76-77, 86
Kingdom of Sardinia (Piedmont) — 3-7
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Naples) —
122, 190, 561
Knights— 80, 153, 167
Kurds— 278
Kurile Islands—225
L
Lancashire— 253, 254, 256, 257
Law— 533, 536, 538, 546-48
Lithuania, Lithuanians—76-77, 79-80,
84-86, 88
Livonia—75, 77, 80
Loans (state)—124, 134
Lombardy—3, 7, 533
M
Machiavellism—62, 80, 84
Malta—564
Manchester School—see Free Trade
Manchuria— 283
Market price—120
Mazzinism, Mazzinists—115, 129,
485-89
Merchant fleet and navigation—141-42,
144-46, 560, 565
Military science, art of war—167-77,
195, 198, 366-68, 372, 392-93
See also Fortification
Moldavia— 322-24
Money
— as means of circulation — 406
— metallic—124-29, 406
See also Bill of exchange; Gold and
silver; Money circulation; Money
market
Money circulation—117-29, 379-83,
406, 415, 459-60
Money market—117-22, 130-31, 133,
136-37, 429
Morals— 115
Moscow, principality of Moscow-77-87,
89-93, 198
N
Napoleonic wars—107, 114, 139, 145-
47, 148, 169, 171, 353, 424, 441,
490, 615, 616
Nationality, nation—152, 209, 621
Navigation— 61, 62, 146, 147
See also Merchant fleet and navigation
Natry—145-50
Netherlands, the— 63-65, 120, 128, 141,
415-16, 418, 430, 522
See also Bourgeoisie—Dutch
New Orleans—197
New York—460
Nijni Novgorod—225
Nogay Tartars' Horde—81, 82
Normans, Norman conquests—75-77
Northern war, 7 700-27—41-43, 57, 65,
89, 91-92
Norway— 334, 405-06, 565
Novgorod, feudal republic of Novgorod,
12th-15th cent.— 82-84
O
Odessa— 140, 616
Opium wars
— colonial, predatory character
of—126, 163, 219-20, 223, 243,
245. 353-54, 587, 588
— Anglo-Chinese war, 1840-42 —
126, 163, 220, 234-35, 243-46,
278, 280-81, 353-54
— Nanking treaties, 1842 and
1843—158, 162, 163, 208, 220,
245
— Anglo-Franco-Chinese war,
1856-60—158-63, 204, 207-09,
213, 214, 217-18, 219-21, 223,
225, 232-35, 243-46, 252, 278,
280-83, 301-02, 353
Opposites, antagonism—8, 178, 254,
302, 464, 465
P
Papacy—5
Paris—114, 503
Parliament (in bourgeois state) — 239,
310
— English —209, 213-14, 222, 239,
247, 309, 468, 566, 567, 587
Peace Society (England, from 1816) —
209
Persia (Iran)—177-78, 278-81
— as object of British colonial expansion—
178-80, 194-99, 278-
80, 293-96
— and Afghanistan—177-80, 194-
98, 294, 295
— and France—278, 296
— and Russia—178, 180, 195-97,
278, 296
See also Anglo-Persian war, 1856-57;
Army—Persian; Islam; Kurds
Peru—126, 235, 561
Petersburg— 88-91
Poland
— before 19th cent.— 35, 41, 76-
77, 80, 84, 153, 154, 156, 157,
187
— in 19th cent.—90, 193, 486, 533
See also Pomerania; Posen; Russia
(Russian Empire)—Tsarist policy in
Poland, 18th-19th cent.; Silesia
Politics—114-15, 189-91, 485
Pomerania—153, 154
"Poor Laws"—61
Posen (Poznan)— 154
Prerequisites— 150, 160, 205, 313, 577,
581
Press, the—185, 220-21, 230, 234, 240,
249-50, 328, 356, 493, 596-97, 623
Prevision—113-14, 182, 184, 383-91,
411, 416-17,. 518
Private property—114, 531, 550-51
Productive forces—102, 141, 408
Prussia— 41, 96, 151-57, 187, 190,
322-23, 568
See also Warsaw Conference of Austria,
Prussia and Russia, 1850
R
Race— 297, 621
Railways— 20, 23, 120, 124, 137, 274-
76, 360, 417-18
Rate of interest—117-18, 123, 379,
381, 382
See also Banks—and rate of discount
Reformation in Germany—155-56
Reserve capital (bank.)—110, 118, 123,
132, 379-82, 402, 459-60
See also Banks—reserve fund
Revolution (general)—114-15, 185,
302
Revolution of 1848 in France. Second
Republic— 4-6, 114 122 134-35 202,
227, 289, 290, 454, 464-65
Revolution of 1848-49 in Germany—
114
Revolution of 1848-49 in Italian states—
4-7, 193, 485, 533
Revolutions of 1848-49 in Europe-—4,
62, 102, 113-15, 181-84, 193, 301-
02, 420, 625
Rhine Province—154
Romania, Romanians—192, 323-24
Royal British Bank—109-12, 266-69
Russia (Russian Empire)—74, 88, 91-
92, 183-84, 224-25
— history—74-96, 169-70
— economy—57-61, 63, 121, 223-
25, 415, 565, 616
— foreign and colonial policy of
Tsarism, its diplomacy—6, 28-
29, 32-35, 38-42, 64, 75, 85-89,
157, 186-87, 190-91, 199, 223,
323
— Patriotic war of 1812—424
— and Far East—223-25, 282-83
— and Central Asia—195-99
— Tsarist policy in Poland, 18th-
19th cent.—84, 90, 157, 187,
486, 533
— and Austria—6, 144, 323, 568
— and England—38-41, 56-58, 92-
96, 190, 193, 402, 610
— and France—187, 190
— and the Netherlands — 64
— and Persia—91, 179, 196-97,
296
— and Sweden—42, 57, 61, 63, 89,
91-92, 94-96
— and Turkey —89, 91, 96, 190-91
— foreign policy and diplomacy in
the 1850s-60s —6, 323
See also Army—Russian; Crimean
war, 1853-56; Golden Horde; Kazan,
Khanate of Kazan; Khanate of
Crimea;Kiev, Kievan Rus,empire of the
Ruriks; Moscow, principality of
Moscow; Northern war, 1700-21; Novgorod,
feudal republic of Novgorod,
12th-15th cent.; Russo-Persian war,
1826-28; Russo-Turkish wars; Tartar-
Mongol yoke; Tver, principality of Tver,
13th-15th cent.
Russo-Persian war, 1826-28—178, 196
Russo-Turkish wars, 1686-99, 1710-13,
1735-39, 1776-84—21, 33-34, 89,
91
Russo-Turkish wars, 1806-12 and 1828-
29—192, 278-80
S
Scandinavia—304, 334
Schleswig-Holstein question—114,
334-35
Scotland—78
Secret societies—114, 129, 623, 629-30
Serbia, Serbs—191
Silesia—154
Slave trade— 219, 235, 570-74
Slays—76-77, 153, 191-92
Society— 465, 485, 566
— bourgeois—8, 102, 302, 602
— feudal—621
Society of December 10—14, 353, 457
Sophistry—227
Spain— 99, 102, 104, 106-08, 132,
172, 404, 561, 572-73
— during the Arab domination and
Reconquest (8th-15th cent.) —
81, 104
— first Spanish revolution of 1808-
14 and struggle against
Napoleonic rule—106, 171, 353,
441, 622-24
— Second Spanish revolution,
1820-23—99, 106, 621-30
— first Carlist war, 1833-40—104,
106, 107, 172
— third Spanish revolution, 1834-
43—98-100, 106, 284, 629
— fourth Spanish revolution, 1854-
56—97-108, 284-88, 304, 622
— Spanish colonial empire, colonial
policy—572-74
— and England —561, 572-73
— and France—98-99, 132, 190,
441
See also Army—Spanish; Bourgeoisie—
Spanish; War of Spanish Succession,
1701-14
Speculation (in money, stockexchange)—
21-23, 109-10, 136-38,
270, 275-76, 454, 502
State, the—152, 465, 482, 485, 546,
566
See also Despotism
State property of land
— precapitalist forms of—546-47
"State socialism", Bonapartist (imperial)
"socialism"— 8, 11, 15, 24, 110, 405
St. Simonism, St. Simonists—15, 20,
110
Suez Canal— 63, 142, 144
Sweden
— in 17th-18th cent.—41-43, 56-
61, 63-65, 157
— and movement for the Scandinavian
union, 19th cent.— 334
— economy—405-06, 412
— and Denmark—41-42
— and England—41-42, 56-59, 61,
63-65, 92-93
— and the Netherlands—63-65
— and Prussia—41, 157
— and Russia—41-43, 56-60, 77,
91
See also Northern war, 1700-21
Switzerland
— natural conditions—164-69,
173-76
— in Middle Ages—152, 164-67
— and French Revolution (end of
18th cent.)—167-69, 172
— war against Sonderbund,
1847—117
— economy—415
— conflict with Prussia over
Neuchâtel—151-52, 157
— and France—415-16, 418,
479-80
T
Taiping uprising in China, 1850-64—
126, 129, 163, 224, 246, 282-83
Tartars— 88, 89
Tartars, Crimean—see Khanate of
Crimea
Tartars, Nogay,—see Nogay Tartars'
Horde
Tartar-Mongol yoke, liberation from —
77-87, 91, 92
See also Golden Horde
Taxes, taxation—201-06, 546-47
Teutonic Order, the—155
Theocracy—5, 482
Thirty Years' War, 1618-48—156
Tories (England)—213-14, 239-41,
247-49, 302, 468-71, 548, 567
Trade— 57-62, 102, 123-29, 140-42,
144, 413-18, 560-65, 615-16
Traditions—150, 178, 241, 366
Tribe(s)—178, 297
Trieste—139-43, 144, 149, 615-18
Turkey— 76, 89, 91, 140, 141, 144,
147, 190-91, 279-80, 322-26, 615
See also Eastern question, the; Russo-
Turkish wars
Tver, principality of Tver, 13th-15th
cent.—79, 85
Tyrol—171
U
United States of America—140
— war of independence, 1775-83 —
30, 35
— economy—125, 387, 401, 408,
414, 415, 521-23, 560, 563-65
V
Varangians—see Normans, Norman
conquests
Vienna Congress of 1814-15 and Vienna
treaties of 1815—139, 151, 152, 157
Venice— 3, 64, 139-41, 144-46, 148,
149, 430, 615-18
W
War of Austrian Succession, 1740-48—
3
War of Spanish Succession, 1701-14—3,
41, 157, 187
War(s)— 441
— in feudal society—152-53
— mountain warfare—166-76
— national, popular—281-82, 353
— guerrilla—580, 583, 607-10
See also Ancient Rome—its wars;
Anglo-Afghan war, 1838-42; Anglo-
Persian war, 1856-57; Anglo-Sikh
war, 1845-46; Army; Austro-Italian
war, 1848-49; Austro-Swiss wars, 14th
cent.; Military science; Napoleonic
wars; Northern war, 1700-21; Opium
wars; Thirty Years' War, 1618-48;
War of Austrian Succession, 1740-48;
War of Spanish Succession, 1701-14;
Wars of First French Republic (late
18th-early 19th cent.)
Warsaw Conference of Austria, Prussia
and Russia, 7850—323
Wars of First French Republic (late
18th-early 19th cent.)—139, 146-
47, 167-69, 190, 490, 616
Westphalia— 154
Whigs (England)—186-88, 229, 240,
247-49, 469, 470
Workers' labour conditions—251-54
See also Child labour
Workhouses— 206, 524, 604-08
Working class—102, 404
— in England —202, 251-54, 260-
61, 408-09
— in France—102, 105, 132
— in Italy—6-7
— in Spain—114, 133-34, 454, 461
Working day— 252-53
Y
Yorkshire— 256, 257






MECW VOL 16






A
Abstraction, abstract and concrete—435,
446, 473-77
Algeria—448, 555, 565
Alsace— 216, 252
Ancient Greece—270
Armament, weapons—178, 179-80, 407
Armed uprising
— national, popular—151, 152-53
See also Indian uprising of 1857-59;
Taiping uprising in China
Army—145, 149, 172, 179-80, 217, 218,
225, 232, 317, 371, 386-87, 394, 407,
422, 424, 550-51, 556, 586, 587, 589,
591, 626
See also Army (of different countries);
War, wars
Army, Austrian—176-82, 184, 276, 277,
340, 393-94, 397, 399, 402, 407, 430,
435-36, 445, 573-76, 607
Army, French—91, 95, 164, 168, 171-
76, 178, 225, 252, 253, 263, 271,
274-77, 297, 407, 430, 433, 441, 443,
445, 448, 533, 573, 576, 606
Army of German states—179-82, 252,
253, 297-98, 540, 573
See also Revolution of 1848-49 in
Germany
Army, Prussian—127, 155, 178-81, 252-
53, 298, 390
A rmy, Sardinian (Piedmontese)—151,
152-53, 200, 276-77
Asia— 6, 63, 86
Australia— 30, 488, 491, 494-96, 519-20
Austria
— general characteristic—448, 607
— in Middle Ages—225
— and Napoleonic wars—573, 604
— in 1815-47—448, 604
— in 1850-67—122, 342, 394, 404,
407, 422, 447-49, 607
— finances—156, 162, 261-62, 323-
26, 448, 607
— political system—289, 393, 407,
607
— bureaucracy—394
— home policy—337, 394
— national question—337, 604-05,
607
— and Hungary, its oppression—
270, 288, 498, 604, 607
— and Italian states, their oppression—
151, 183-89, 216, 219, 220,
225, 230-31, 233, 419, 483,
484, 498-99, 504-07, 571, 572,601,
604, 607-10, 615
— and Poland—288, 604, 608
— and the Slavs, their oppression—
217, 269-70, 277, 325, 607
— foreign policy and diplomacy—
128, 448, 604
— and England—150, 448
— and France—128, 152, 168, 263,
264, 307, 309, 604
— and Germany—216, 230, 233,
238-39, 267-70, 308-09, 343,
573
— and Prussia—71-73, 99, 103, 107,
128, 150, 239, 254-55, 265, 268,
269, 311-13, 320, 382, 419, 452-
59, 462-63, 540-44, 609
— and Russia—72, 150, 239, 261,
265, 277, 448, 542, 543, 604, 605,
606-09
— and Switzerland—588-89
See also Army, Austrian; Austro-Italian
war of 1848-49; Austro-Italo-French
war of 1859; Dalmatia; Galicia; Revolution
of 1848-49 in Austria; Vienna;
War of Austrian Succession
Austro-Italian war of 1848-49
— general characteristic—152-53,
179, 216, 238-39, 361, 400, 418
— progress of the war—183-88, 197,
198, 200-01, 228-31, 276-77, 321,
346, 351, 352, 362, 394, 423
See also Revolution of 1848-49 in
Austria; Revolution of 1848-49 in
Italian states
Austro-Italo-French war of 1859 (Italian
war of 1859)
— general characteristic—153, 341,
370-71, 381-82, 407, 416-20, 431,
432, 448, 451, 482, 534, 572,
615-16
— preparations for war, Plombières
Agreement of 1858—148-50,
154-56, 165, 166, 199-201, 239,
261-63, 267-68, 274-77, 287, 290,
295-97, 299-302
— forces of belligerents—150, 166,
171-79, 276-77, 300-02
— course of military operations—
303, 310, 315-19, 321, 322, 327-
40, 346-53, 360-71, 384-89, 392-
94, 396-98, 400-03, 421-26, 432,
435-38, 455, 532, 573-76
— battle of Magenta, June 4, 1859—
364, 366 67, 368, 370, 384, 393,
396, 397, 424-26, 431, 455, 576,
616
— battle of Solferino, June 24,
1859—388-90, 392-94, 396-403,
431, 433, 437, 463, 574, 575, 616,
631-32
— actions by Garibaldi's detachments—
348, 351-55, 360, 417,
533
— Villafranca preliminary peace treaty
of 1859—407, 412, 413, 416-
19, 438, 449, 483-84, 504-06, 532-
33, 576, 577, 607, 616, 629
— Zurich peace treaty of 1859—482,
484, 532-34
— and Austria—150, 151, 154, 156,
165-66, 189, 261, 262, 264, 265,
276, 277, 287, 288, 290-95, 297,
299, 303, 306, 311-13, 315, 320,
323, 337, 341, 343, 344, 371, 394,
407, 408, 412, 413, 418, 421, 432,
448, 450, 451, 454-55, 456, 458,
459, 483, 573-74, 605
— and Italy—148, 149, 151-54, 165-
66, 238-39, 289, 306, 310-11, 337,
408-14, 416-20, 482, 483, 486,
499, 533-35, 576, 577
— and Piedmont—151-52, 153, 156,
157, 165, 166, 288, 291-93, 296,
297, 307-08, 336, 352, 354, 407,
413, 417-20, 484, 485, 533, 534,
576, 577
— Mazzini's attitude—170, 354-59,
420, 499, 533
— and France (Second Empire)—
149, 153, 155-66, 169, 170, 188,
215, 253-54, 256, 261-63, 273,
274, 276, 287, 288, 290-97, 303-
09, 312, 315, 320, 336, 341, 343,
344, 354, 381, 390, 407, 408,
413-22, 438, 442, 443, 448, 456,
460, 482-86, 532, 533, 546, 571,
576-78, 637-38
— and Britain—150, 156, 157, 263,
276, 287-90, 292, 293, 295-97,
303-07, 421, 422, 448, 451, 455,
464, 482, 484, 637
— and Germany—181, 188, 215,
216, 217, 239, 267-70, 276, 277,
287-89, 297, 298, 308, 309, 312,
313, 320, 341-45, 381, 382, 389-
91, 394, 405, 406, 433, 438, 451,
452, 455, 571, 573, 576, 602,
607-08
— and Prussia—150, 154-57, 265,
267-69, 287, 289, 296, 298, 304,
307, 308, 312-14, 320, 343, 344,
381-82, 389-91, 394, 405, 406,
438, 448, 464, 484, 573, 576, 631
— and Russia—149, 150, 156, 157,
163, 164, 263, 269, 277, 287-93,
296, 297, 303, 304, 307, 320-21,
344, 354, 391, 448, 451, 455,
456-57, 484, 571, 576, 602, 603,
605, 606-09, 637
— and diplomacy of European
states—148, 199, 290-94, 296,
297, 303, 307, 312, 320, 321, 354,
391, 416, 421, 449, 451-64, 482,
484, 571, 602-03, 607-09, 637-38
— and European Stock Exchange—
154-63, 268, 303-05, 325, 326
— and revolutionary movement in
Europe—341, 381, 413, 419
— and European democracy—387,
413, 499, 500, 573
B
Bank of England— 3-12, 33, 34-35, 156,
303
Belgium
— its neutrality—247
— strategic position—241-42, 243,
246-47, 251, 252, 599
— and France—242, 243, 246-47,
251, 253, 579, 581
— and Germany—251
— and Holland—130, 251, 252
Berlin—158, 160, 342
B onapart ism
— general characteristic, its essence—
91, 271-72, 309, 404, 443,
546
— manoeuvring between contending
classes—114, 164
— and army—91, 95, 164, 168, 271,
443, 606
— and bourgeoisie—94-95, 114
— and working class— 114
— and lumpenproletariat—596
— foreign policy—164, 215, 263,
271-72, 309, 443-44, 546-47
— and national liberation movements—
167-70, 253-54, 309, 404,
497-503, 573
— critique of Bonapartist principle
of nationalities—381, 417
See also France. Second Empire
Bosnia— 82, 289
Bourgeoisie
— general characteristic—94-95,
114, 123, 160, 191, 637
— English—190-91, 502, 536
— French—92, 94-95, 114, 122, 272
— German—102, 345, 466
— Hungarian—325
— Prussian—80, 116, 159-61
Brandenburg—109
Bulgaria— 289
Bureaucracy, bureaucratism—76-77, 80,
102, 123, 161, 394, 466
C
California
— California gold—488, 495-96
Cameralistics— 466
Canada—491
Carbonari—163, 167, 168, 265
Carthage— 32
Child labour—193-95, 206-08
China
— general characteristic—16, 83, 86
— economy, finances—31-32, 536,
538-39
— foreign trade—13-16, 18, 28-32,
47-49, 83-84, 519, 520, 536-38
— silver as means of circulation—18
— social and political system—16,
17, 83
— as object of colonial expansion by
capitalist states and their market—
28-32, 523-24, 536
— opium trade—13-20, 30-31, 32,
46-47, 286, 519, 524, 536, 537
See also Opium wars; Taiping uprising
in China
Chinese revolution, Chinese war—see
Taiping uprising in China
Civilisation—19, 147, 153, 439, 517,
577
Civil war (general characteristic)—465,
544
See also Revolution
Class, classes— 52, 125, 160, 191, 391,
476, 531, 581
See also Bourgeoisie
Colombia—30
Colonial wars (general features)—13,
488, 565
See also Indian uprising of 1857-59;
Opium wars; Spanish-Moroccan war of
1859-60; Taiping uprising in China
Commerce, trade— 218, 477, 488-89
See also Foreign trade; Opium trade
Commodity—476-77
Communist League—469, 470
Community—140, 141, 146, 147, 476,
539
Confederation of the Rhine—233, 390,
577
Constitution— 76, 77, 80, 526, 541-42
Corruption— 526, 531. 637
Courts, judiciary system—193, 489, 541
Cracow, Cracow Republic—131, 261,
288, 448
Crete—82
Crime— 487-91, 530
Crimean war of 1853-56—53, 54, 62,
73, 75, 82, 83, 121, 155-56, 163, 239,
248-49, 256, 277, 288, 315, 346, 391,
443-44, 447, 534, 546, 547, 604, 607
Customs Union (Germany, 1834-71)—
269, 466
D
Dalmatia— 270
Danish-Prussian war of 1848-50—104,
320
Danubian Principalities—256, 268, 447
See also Moldavia; Wallachia
Democracy, vulgar—470, 573
Denmark— 608
See also Danish-Prussian war of 1848-
50; Schleswig-Holstein question
Despotism, tyranny
— as reactionary political power of
exploiting minority—262-63, 288,
406, 409, 485, 571, 580
See also Bonapartism; Tsarism, autocracy
in Russia
Dialect, dialects
— French—557, 558, 594, 595
— Italian—558, 593-95
— Limousin—557
— Lombard—558, 594
— Norman—579
— Piedmontese—558, 593-95
— Walloon—579
See also Language
Dialectics—472-77
Diplomacy—152, 262, 292-93, 295, 297,
343, 604
Disarmament— 288-89, 293, 296
Division of labour—617-18
E
East India Company (British)—15-18
Economic crises—34, 209, 263, 272, 342,
479, 493
Economic relations—32, 476, 536
Egypt—606
Emigration
— as social phenomenon—488,
490-91
— political—21, 37, 470
— from different countries—21-27,
37, 145, 354-59, 488, 490-91, 497-
503, 573
England (Great Britain)
— general characteristic—19, 254,
487-89, 493
— in the 1850s (from 1849)—120-
21, 134, 511, 512, 520, 545, 546
— political parties—87-89
— suffrage—87-89
— press, the—89
— foreign policy—19, 59, 129, 156,
262-64, 265, 271-72, 276, 287-93,
295-96, 305-06, 448, 488, 502,
511, 513, 514-16, 519, 525, 546,
547, 605-06
— and Italian question in 1859-60—
150-51, 276, 287-93, 295-96, 303,
305-06, 421, 422, 462-64, 637-38
See also Bank of England; Bourgeoisie
(English); East India Company; Liberal
Party; Parliament, British
Europe
— economic and political characteristic
in 19th cent.—52, 120-24, 128
— prospects of revolution in the
1850s—120, 124, 127-28, 341-42,
381
— prospects of revolution and threat
of war—127-28, 152-53, 341, 391,
413, 448
See also Revolution of 1848-49 in
Europe
Export of capital— 493-94
F
Famine—489
Fenians, Fenianism—136
Feuerbach, Feuerbachianism—472-73
Foreign trade
— and colonies—478-81, 519-20, 539
— foreign trade balances—478-81,
492-96, 519-20, 536-39
— export and import of precious
metals—494-96
Fortification
— permanent—243, 251, 346
— strategic significance of fortresses—
13, 183-84, 186-87, 223,
227, 230, 247, 248-49, 252, 346-47,
586
— Italian quadrilateral of fortresses
in Lombardy—183-88, 346, 534
— entrenched camp—230, 247-48,
252, 586, 600
— siege and defence of fortresses—
248, 343, 356, 556
France
— general characteristic— 112, 169,
248, 263, 416, 465
— before French Revolution (18th
cent.)—71, 165
— during Consulate and First Empire—
29, 532, 580
— July 1830 revolution and July
monarchy—80, 91, 94, 168, 170,
259, 579
— foreign policy and diplomacy, colonial
policy (general characteristic)—
130, 152, 264, 446, 532-33
See also Alsace; Army, French;
Bourgeoisie (French); French Revolution;
Napoleonic wars; Paris
France. Second Empire
— general characteristic—91-92, 94-
95, 120, 124, 130, 262, 309, 404,
446, 546
— coup d'état of December 2,
1851—91-95, 168, 170, 257, 263,
271, 309, 440, 445
— industry, railways, agriculture—
169, 245, 271, 347, 583-84
— finances—156, 162, 164, 169,
268, 271, 305, 546
— Crédit Mobilier—102, 114, 123,
155, 164, 271, 313
— Stock Exchange, stock-exchange
speculation—123, 155, 162, 169,
257, 273, 443
— government's economic and financial
policy—110-14, 164, 268
— domestic situation, home policy—
133, 152-53, 442-43, 446, 448,
533, 546-47, 613-14, 638
— corruption of ruling circles—93,
162, 164, 297, 347
— character of political power—91-
92, 120, 123-24, 309
— army as bulwark and ruling force
of Bonapartist regime—91, 95,
164, 168, 271, 443, 445, 546, 606
— counter-revolutionary terrorism—
288, 309, 448, 547
— manoeuvring between contending
classes—114, 164
— the press, literature—41-44, 93,
116, 162, 294, 305, 309, 547, 578
— Corps législatif— 91, 92, 305
— courts, judiciary system—44-45,
613
— monarchical groups, the clergy,
bourgeoisie, petty bourgeoisie—
92, 94-95, 114, 122, 123, 156-64,
263, 264, 546-47
— working masses, peasantry—95,
114, 164, 264, 444
— growth of opposition—94, 95,
122, 123, 156, 215, 263-65, 267-
68, 380-81, 416
— growth of opposition in army—
92, 263, 448
— republican movement—92, 120,
287, 448
— Bonapartist regime and wars—
128, 152, 156, 164, 166, 215,416,
442, 443, 446, 546-47
— impending revolution—95, 128,
166
— foreign policy—130, 151-52, 156,
162, 170, 262-64, 272-73, 276,
287, 290-94, 296-97, 307, 308,
407-08, 412, 419, 442-43, 446,
532-33, 546, 565, 571, 604
— and Austria—264, 604
— and Belgium—218, 242, 247,
251, 253, 447, 599
— and Denmark—303
— and England—259, 260, 263, 264
— and Germany—251, 540, 603
— and Greece—447
— and Holland—251
— and Hungary—502
— and Italy—218, 253-54, 504-07,
597-98
— and Portugal—262, 447, 621-22
— and Prussia—264, 603
— and Russia—263, 272, 603, 604
— and Spain—272
— and Switzerland—447, 484, 560,
591-92
— and USA—416, 447
— its colonial expansion—150-51,
169, 170, 264, 447, 448, 603
See also Bonapartism; Society of December
10
French Revolution (18th cent.)—141,
142, 147, 225, 502, 545, 580, 596-97,
604
See also Jacobin dictatorship, Jacobins
Frontiers, borders (state)
— general characteristic—225, 254,
572
— critique of "natural frontiers"
theory—188, 225, 238, 243-51,
571-72, 578, 582, 583, 600, 602
G
Galicia— 246, 250, 270, 337
Geographical environment—239-40, 588
Geography— 590
German Confederation (1815-66)
— general characteristic—165, 251,
268, 287, 312, 320, 394, 404,
418-19, 456, 462, 542, 608, 638
— Federal Diet—161, 268, 419, 542-
44, 608, 638
German philosophy—158-61, 473
See also Feuerbach, Feuerbachianism;
Hegel, Hegelianism
Germany
— Germans—159, 465
— in Middle Ages—224-25, 465
— and French Revolution (18th
cent.) and Napoleonic wars—181,
225, 239, 245-46, 268, 269, 602,
603, 608
— survivals of feudalism and process
of their liquidation—465-66
— in 19th century—103, 104, 122,
473, 540
— fragmentation of country and task
of its unification—103-04, 150,
216-17, 239-40, 254-55, 288-89,
312, 344, 394-95, 404-06, 452-53,
465, 573, 600, 638
— economy —31, 103, 325, 342,
465-66
— bourgeois liberalism in 1840s—
106, 159, 160
— bourgeois liberalism in 1850s—
74, 78, 81, 95, 103, 106-08, 115,
116, 121-22, 125-26, 454, 573
— democrats, democratic movement—
313, 454, 470, 573, 638
— science—77, 104, 465-66
— prospects of revolution in 1850s—
119, 128, 181-82, 341-43, 381,
382, 394-95, 544
— foreign policy—240, 251, 607-08
— and Belgium —218, 247, 251, 253
— and Britain—72, 540
— and France—104, 188, 215, 218,
239, 240, 241, 243-44, 246-51,
253, 264, 265, 267-70, 276, 289,
297, 308, 406, 571, 580, 602-04
— and Hungary—254
— and Italy—188-89, 215, 216, 217-
19, 224-26, 233, 235, 236-40, 246,
247, 248, 250, 252-55, 269, 270,
572, 599-600, 601
— and Netherlands—465
— and Russia—104, 239, 246, 391,
406, 419, 455, 543, 603, 605,
607-08
— and the Slavs, their oppression —
216-17, 254
— and Switzerland—588-89
— and USA—540
See also Army of German states; Berlin;
Bourgeoisie (German); Brandenburg;
Confederation of the Rhine; Customs
Union; German Confederation; German
philosophy; Gotha party; Hesse-Cassel;
Holy Roman Empire of the German
Nation; Pan-Germanism; Pomerania;
Prussia; Revolution of 1848-49 in Germany;
Rhine Province; Saxony; Silesia
Gotha party (Germany, 1849)—103,
312, 313, 405, 572, 573, 638
Greece— 82, 132
See also Ancient Greece
H
Hegel, Hegelianism—159, 472-75
Hesse-Cassel— 540-44
Historical materialism, materialist conception
of history—466-70
History, historicism—72-73, 163, 474,
475, 477
See also Historical materialism,
materialist conception of history
Holy Alliance— 253, 291, 296
Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation—
216, 225, 465
Hong Kong—46
Humanism
— pseudo-humanism of bourgeoisie,
private owners—52, 131-32
Hungary—178, 254, 270, 288, 289,
390, 413, 497-503, 603-05, 607, 608
See also Bourgeoisie (Hungarian); National
liberation war of 1848-49 in
Hungary; Revolution of 1848-49 in
Hungary
I
Idealism
— as aspiration for ideal goals—159
— its opposition to materialism—
469-70, 473-75
— and religion—159
— idealist method—473-75
— idealist conception of history—
469, 470, 474
See also German philosophy; Plato
(Plato's philosophy)
India
— general characteristic—86, 488
— industry, social system—539
— colonial subjugation by Britain, its
conversion into market—133,
479-81, 519, 539
— trade—519-20, 537
— money system, finances, accumulation
of treasures under British
rule—279-86
See also Indian uprising of 1857-59
Indian uprising of 1857-59—88, 254,
279, 281, 284-85, 481
Industry, large-scale—208, 536-39
Ionian Islands—129-33, 254
Iran—514
Ireland—133, 134-37, 209, 489-90
See also Fenians, Fenianism;
Orangism
Italian war of 1859—see Austro-Italo-
French war of 1859
Italian wars of 1494-1559—183
Italy
— general characteristic—218
— geographical position—183-84,
218-20, 226, 228, 559, 560, 584
— Italian nation, national character—
217, 238, 240, 417
— economy, social and political system—
162, 218, 559, 583
— towns—337
— history—183-84, 218, 236, 253
— Austrian domination—122, 148-
53, 156, 166, 199-200, 201, 219,
220, 225, 238-40, 252, 253, 264,
269, 270, 291, 407-08, 412-14,
418, 571, 572, 601
— question of Italy's unification —
148-53, 238-40, 409, 601
— national movement—95, 238,
354, 418, 498, 559, 580, 601
— revolutionary upsurge of 1859 —
122, 148-49, 152-53, 154, 165-66,
289, 306, 336-37, 351-54, 380,
381, 404, 413, 416-18, 420, 482,
524, 526, 533-35, 576, 577
— Savoy and Nice—557-60, 577,
578, 595, 598-602
— duchies of Tuscany, Parma and
Modena—122, 154, 165-66, 273,
291, 408, 533
— foreign policy—296, 297
— and Vienna Congress of 1815—
291, 417
— Italian question in 1859, Zurich
Congress—274, 276, 277-78, 287,
288, 291-93, 296, 297, 354, 380,
407, 416-20, 482-86, 532-35, 602,
603
— and Austria—148-51, 165-66,
184, 185, 187-89, 197-201, 230,
233, 272, 276-77, 291-94, 296,
297, 407, 412, 419, 504-07
— and Britain—150, 484
— and France—122-23, 149-53, 156,
163, 164, 166-70, 199-201, 215,
216, 218, 223-24, 226, 228, 234,
237, 354, 380-82, 404, 407-09,
412-14, 416, 418-20, 483-84, 532-
33, 576-92, 596, 600, 601
— and Germany—215, 216, 217,
218, 224-28, 233-37, 246, 247,
248-49, 250, 253, 254, 269, 270,
599
— and Russia—149, 150, 154, 156,
221
— and Switzerland—148
See also Austro-Italian war of 1848-49;
Austro-Italo-French war of 1859; Carbonari;
Italian wars of 1494-1559; Kingdom
of Sardinia; Kingdom of the Two
Sicilies; Lombardy; Mazzini, Mazzinists;
Papal States; Revolution of 1848-49 in
Italian states; Venice
J
Jacobin dictatorship, Jacobins—142, 147,
181
Junkers, Prussian—108, 159-60
K
Kingdom of Sardinia (Piedmont)—37,
122, 151, 153, 155-57, 162, 197-200,
223, 224, 227, 234, 240, 308, 337,
408, 418, 419, 433, 484-86, 533-34,
558-60, 571, 577, 580, 581, 595-96,
598-99, 600
See also Army, Sardinian; Austro-
Italian war of 1848-49; Austro-Italo-
French war of 1859; Crimean war of
1853-56; Revolution of 1848-49 in
Italian states
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Naples) —
122, 148, 154, 218, 289, 601
L
Language—222, 254, 557, 558, 579,
593-95
See also Dialect, dialects
Liberal Party (England)—530, 637
Liberty— 66, 77, 133, 160
Lombardy—122, 149, 151, 165-66, 216,
225-27, 238-40, 288, 337, 408, 418,
534, 558
Lorraine— 216, 252
M
Manchuria (Mantchooria)—83, 86
Marxism
— as a new scientific world outlook—
466-70
Marxist political economy—465-77
Materialism— 469-70, 473-75
Mazzini, Mazzinists—37, 170, 354, 420,
498-99
Method— 472-75
Militarism—439
Military art
— methods of conducting wars—
222-23, 231, 365, 369, 422-24,
445
— and development of military
technique and armament—346-47
— during decay of feudalism—225,
327, 445
— in first half of 19th cent.— 225,
248, 346
— in second half of 19th cent.— 223,
225, 346, 347, 365, 369, 586-87
— strategy—184, 188, 198-99, 200-
01, 216, 225, 226, 229-30, 231-32,
236-37, 244, 245, 346, 370, 384,
397, 426, 427, 435-36, 445, 555,
584, 588, 600
— tactics—184, 186-87, 231-32, 393,
426, 445, 550, 555
— military art in mountain warfare—
220-23, 224, 231-32, 583-
85, 587, 588
— miscellaneav-252-53, 333, 346-47,
550, 556
See also Fortification
Military science— 216, 231-32, 319, 435
See also Military art
Military training—351-52, 407, 551
Mode of production—469
Moldavia— 289, 603
Monarchy— 79-80, 119, 286
Money circulation—155, 156, 494-96
Montenegro—82, 265
Moorish war—see Spanish-Moroccan war
of 1859-60
Moors—548-56
Moravia—270
Morocco—551, 555, 565
See also Spanish-Moroccan war of
1859-60
N
Napoleonic wars
— general characteristic—200-01,
217, 222-23, 225, 232, 253, 327,
346, 426
— war with third European coalition
(1805)—154, 181, 236, 269, 387,
389, 448, 573
— Pressburg Peace Treaty of 1805
between France and Austria—233
— war with fourth European coalition
(1806-07)—128, 181, 238,
243. 573
— Tilsit peace treaties of 1807—603,
605, 606
— war with fifth European coalition
(1809) —181, 201, 220, 223, 426
— war with sixth European coalition
(1813-14)—225, 227, 242, 244-48,
252-53, 269, 365, 369, 587, 599-
600, 606
— war with seventh European coalition—
150, 241-44, 245, 248, 606
— war on Iberian Peninsula (1808-
14)—232, 272
— and Austria—604
— and Britain—502, 545
— and Germany—225, 245-46, 269,
297, 532
— and Italy—253
— and Prussia—103, 128, 268, 269,
533, 573, 603
— and Russia—246
See also Patriotic war of 1812 in
Russia; Vienna Congress of 1814-15
and Vienna treaties of 1815; Wars of
First French Republic
Nation— 238, 254, 595
See also Nationality; National question
Nationality—152-53, 238
National liberation war of 1848-49 in
Hungary— 322, 346, 608
National movement—152-53, 238, 572
See also National question
National question—152-53, 238-39, 240,
380, 417
See also National movement
Neutrality (in international relations)
— general features—247, 287, 560
— Belgian—247
— Swiss—200, 223, 224, 247, 558,
560, 588
New Zealand—491
Nice— 557-60, 577-78, 593-600, 602
O
Opium trade—13-20, 32, 46-47, 283
Opium wars
— their colonial, predatory character—
13, 30-32, 49, 87
— Anglo-Chinese war of 1840-42 —
13, 19, 28, 46, 48, 49, 50, 514,
524
— Nanking treaties of 1842 and
1843—13, 19, 28, 29-32, 46-49,
83, 537
— Anglo-Franco-Chinese war of
1856-60—13, 19, 28, 31-32, 46-
49, 50, 83, 84, 447, 508-14, 516-
20, 521-24, 546
— Tientsin treaties of 1858—13, 46-
50, 508-11, 513, 517, 518
Orangism (in Ireland)—134-37
Ottoman Empire—see Turkey
P
Pan-Germanism— 216-17
Pan-Slavism—156, 277
Papacy— 267, 271, 273, 419, 483, 601
Papal States (Roman State)—122, 148-
49, 151, 153, 166, 218, 273, 293, 408,
419, 482-84, 534, 601, 615
See also Papacy
Paris— 241, 248, 249
Parliament, British— 80, 134, 526, 637
Patriotic War of 1812 in Russia—145,
448, 603
Pauperism—488, 490
Peasantry, Russian, peasant movements in
Russia
— serf—52, 121, 139-41, 142-43,
145-47
— peasant uprisings on eve of abolition
of serfdom in 1861—52-53,
147, 607, 609-10
Piedmont—see Kingdom of Sardinia
Pietism, pietists—160
Plato (Plato's philosophy)—167-68
Poland— 73, 109, 131, 246, 250, 603-05,
608
See also Cracow, Cracow Republic;
Posen
Political economy (as science, its
method)—465-66, 469-77
Politics— 95, 469, 470
Pomerania—73, 109
Portugal— 621-22
Posen—99, 109
Power, legislative and executive—541-42
See also Bureaucracy, bureaucratism
Press, the— 95, 160, 453
Productive forces, production relations, production—
469
Prussia
— general characteristic—78, 96,
103, 107-09, 160
— feudalism, its survivals—52, 77,
160
— and French Revolution (18th
cent.) and Napoleonic wars—52,
103, 128, 243, 268, 269, 573, 603
— in 1815-early 1848—77, 102, 159
— in 1848-49—see Revolution of
1848-49 in Germany
— in 1850-early 1860—54-58, 65-81,
96-100, 106-09, 115-19, 122, 125-
28, 155, 158-61
— economy—67, 103, 160, 161, 208
— social and political system — 67,
77, 80-81, 96, 99-104, 108, 125,
128, 147, 159-61, 289, 449,
452-53
— prospects of revolution—128, 381
— foreign policy and diplomacy
(general features)—71-73, 103,
128, 156, 157, 268-69, 298, 445,
450, 456-64
— and Austria—72-73, 99, 103, 107,
128, 150, 239, 254, 265, 268, 269,
311-13, 320, 382, 419, 420, 448,
452-59, 462-63, 540-44, 609
— and Britain—452, 462, 464
— and France—102, 107, 604
— and Germany—73, 103, 312, 394,
404, 405, 452-56, 459-62, 638
— and Poland —73
— and Russia—72-73, 107, 269, 344,
415, 452, 462, 608, 609
See also Army, Prussian; Bourgeoisie
(Prussian), Confederation of the Rhine;
Danish-Prussian war of 1848-50; Germany;
Junkers, Prussian
Public opinion
— and state policy and legislation —
164, 256-57, 291, 440 '
Punishment—489
See also Crime
R
Radicalism, radicals—116, 125
Railways— 123, 161, 476
Religion—469
Revolution (general characteristic)—52,
381, 469
See also French Revolution; Revolution
of 1848-49 (in different countries);
Revolution of 1848-49 in Europe; Revolution,
proletarian, socialist; Revolution,
social
Revolution of 1848-49 in Austria—52,
107, 178, 288, 604
Revolution of 1848-49 in Europe (general
characteristic)—37, 120, 123, 146,
268, 404, 488
Revolution of 1848-49 in Germany
— prerequisites and causes of the
revolution, its development and
character—55, 57, 66, 68, 101,
404, 542
— classes, estates, parties, social
groups—52-53, 66, 99-103, 106-
07, 160
— state apparatus, government institutions,
representative assemblies—
55, 67-68, 75-76, 97, 100-
03, 104, 270, 406, 542, 608
— ways of Germany's unification —
404, 542-43
— national question and foreign policy—
98, 107, 181, 270, 604, 608
— results and assessment of—78,
101, 160, 181, 343, 394, 404, 406,
470
Revolution of 1848-49 in Hungary—52,
288, 501, 604, 608
Revolution of 1848-49 in Italian states—
37, 95, 106, 149, 150, 153, 165,
178-79, 183-84, 238, 273, 277, 351,
352, 361, 418, 482, 604
See also Austro-Italian war of 1848-49
Revolution, proletarian, socialist—469,
637
Revolution, social—469, 637
Rhine Province— 99, 109, 160
Right, law— 76, 130, 140, 418, 469, 489
Roman State—see Papal States
Russia (Russian Empire)
— before 19th century—139-40
— in first half of 19th century—52,
121, 139, 144-47, 607, 609
— economic situation before 1861
Reform —52, 53, 145, 609-10
— industry, agriculture, foreign
trade—31, 52, 83-84, 609
— finances—53, 156, 288, 303, 304
— social and political system — 52,
121
— serfdom —51-52, 139-40, 142-43,
146
— question of abolition of serfdom
(position of ruling circles, prep
aration of Reform)—51-53, 121,
139-47, 307-08
— revolutionary movement in 19th
cent.—53-54, 147, 607, 609-10
— foreign policy (general characteristic)—
83, 86, 157, 406, 609-10
— foreign policy before mid-19th
cent.—60, 603, 605, 608
— foreign policy and diplomacy in
1850s and 1860s—86, 150, 156-
57, 263-65, 269, 277, 287, 289-92,
293, 296, 304, 307, 320-21, 391,
447, 543, 571, 604-07, 609-10
— and Central Asia—59-63, 86, 156
— and Far East—50, 83-86
— tsarist policy in Poland in 19th
cent.—131, 246, 250, 605, 608
— and Afghanistan—515-16
— and Austria—150, 261, 265, 277,
288, 293, 297, 448, 542-43, 604,
607-09
— and Britain—59, 515-16, 525,
545, 605-06
— and China—19, 31, 83, 84-86,
512-14
— and Denmark—128, 303, 608
— and France—82, 163, 165, 263,
269, 273, 303-04, 320, 408, 571,
602-09
— and Germany—104, 246, 391,
406, 419, 455, 608-09
— and Italy—149, 154, 28«, 571
— and Prussia—72, 269, 344, 415,
452, 457, 462, 609
— and Turkey—82
See also Patriotic War of 1812 in
Russia; Peasantry, Russian; Tsarism,
autocracy in Russia
S
Saxony—109
Schleswig-Holstein question, the—72, 128,
250, 268, 543, 604, 608, 638
See also Danish-Prussian war of
1848-50
Scotland—103, 195-96, 210
Serbia, Serbs— 82, 265, 277
Seven Years' War (1756-63)— 225, 253
Silesia— 73, 99, 109, 325
Slavs— 82, 277, 607
Society— 469, 476-77
Society, bourgeois—36, 191, 469,
488-89
Society of December 10 (France, from
1849)—445, 596
Spanish-Moroccan war of 1859-60—548-
49, 550-56, 561-66
Speculation (money, Stock Exchange)—
123, 155, 161, 162, 443
State, the— 51-52, 160, 217, 254-55, 476
See also Despotism, tyranny; Monarchy;
Power, legislative and executive
Stock Exchange—8, 123, 155, 161, 162,
313
Switzerland—148, 200-01, 223, 224,
247, 557, 558, 560, 581, 582, 588-92,
627
T
Taiping ujrrising in China (1850-64)—
18, 31, 49, 83, 84
See also Opium wars
Terror—147, 448
Theory and practice
— general features—159, 247, 465,
469, 473, 475-77
— various theories and practice—
216, 230, 231, 233, 243, 247-48,
465, 475-77, 563, 577, 599, 600,
602
— miscellanea—33, 147, 159, 191,
253, 465-66, 469-71, 473, 582,
601
Thirty Years' War (1618-48)— 104, 465,
532
Tsarism, autocracy in Russia—142, 156,
157, 406
Turkey— 82, 85, 150, 277, 289, 603,
605
U
United States of America, the
— economy—31-32, 49, 478-79,
488-89, 519-20
— emigration, its role—491
— foreign policy—31-32, 83, 264,
447, 513, 545
See also California
V
Venice—149, 225, 227, 418, 505, 506,
601
Vienna— 225, 314
Vienna Congress of 1814-15 and Vienna
treaties of 1815—130-31, 152, 170,
185, 251-53, 291-93, 117, 457, 535,
560, 608
See also Holy Alliance
W
Wallachia— 289
War, wars
— general characteristic—188, 216,
435, 439
— in feudal society—327
— in capitalist society—439
— their influence on economic and
social development—52, 443,
488-89, 547
— method of conducting war—346-
47
— and revolutionary movement—
128, 341
— revolutionary — 413
— national liberation—152-53, 175
— guerrilla — 352
— defensive—175, 179-80
— local —341, 446
— character of military operations in
land warfare—188, 252, 352, 555,
556
— mountain warfare—220-23, 224,
232, 583-85, 587-88
— threat of war in 1850-60s—127,
128, 148, 156, 163-64, 443, 547
See also Armament, weapons; Army;
Austro-Italian war of 1848-49; Austro-
Italo-French war of 1859; Civil, war;
Colonial wars; Crimean war of 1853-
56; Danish-Prussian xuar of 1848-50;
Italian wars of 1494-1559; Military art;
Military science; Military training;
Napoleonic wars; National liberation
war of 1848-49 in Hungary; Opium
wars; Patriotic War of 1812 in Russia;
Seven Years' War; Spanish-Moroccan
war of 1859-60; Thirty Years' War;
War of Austrian Succession, 1740-48;
Wars of First French Republic; War of
Spanish Succession, 1701-14
War of Austrian Succession, 1740-48—
252
Wars of First French Republic (late 18thearly
19th cent.)
— general characteristic— 502
— and development of military
technique and military art—184,
200-01, 220-23, 225, 232, 445,
596
— war with first European coalition
(1792-97)—164, 183, 184, 188,
201, 220, 223, 228-29, 230, 232,
236, 243-44, 263, 269, 273, 390,
426, 432-33, 436, 445, 448, 532-
33, 573, 580-81, 584-85, 596-98
— war with second European coalition
(1798-1801)—183, 188, 220-
23, 230-32, 263, 432, 586
War of Spanish Succession, 1701-14—
183, 243
Westphalia— 99, 109, 160







MECW 17







A
"Agitation Union" (1850s)—87-88, 96-
98, 313
Algeria—137, 345-46
Ancient Greece—370
See also Poetry—ancient Greek
Ancient Rome—339, 370, 371, 401
See also Poetry—ancient Roman
Anglo-Afghan war of 1838-42—338
Anglo-French Commercial Treaty of
1860—335, 341-44, 350-52, 373,
419, 481
Anglo-Iranian war of 1856-57—338
Anti-communism (criticism and unmasking
of it by Marx and Engels)
— anti-communism of ruling classes,
persecution of Communists—66,
69, 259, 263-66, 271-72, 275, 281,
286-88, 293, 295
— anti-communism of bourgeois and
petty-bourgeois ideologists—28-
29, 48, 89, 216, 312-13
See also Cologne communist trial
A ristocracy— 90-91
Army— 346, 347-48, 355, 386, 388-89,
403-05, 434, 436-37, 449-51, 476,
495
— Anglo-Indian—345, 445-46
— Austrian—345-49, 355, 358, 459,
467, 496
— British—345, 354, 357, 363-64,
434-38, 447-48
— French—35, 157, 345-47, 355-56,
357-59, 361, 438, 447-48, 467,
496
— of German states—346-49, 355
— Prussian—345-48, 355-56, 357,
369, 375, 384-85, 496
— Russian—345, 496
— voluntary service, militia—403-05,
434, 436-38
See also Artillery; Fortification; War,
wars
Artillery— 348-49, 354-56
Australia
— discovery of gold—156-57, 331,
466
— foreign trade—156-57, 331, 408,
409, 481
Austria
— general characteristics—145
— history—135, 162-64, 172, 377,
505
— during the revolution of 1848-
49—144-46
— in 1850s—457-60, 486-87, 493-
94, 499-502
— finances—453, 458, 459, 467
— political system—158-59, 456,
459, 493-94, 499-500
— Constitution (October diploma of
I860)—225, 459, 493-94, 499-501
— Reichsrat—459, 494
— home policy—148-49, 457-59,
493-94, 499-503
— national question—148-49, 459,
494, 500-01
— and Hungary—148-49, 458-60,
486-87, 493-94, 499-502
— and Galicia—147-50, 152
— and Italian states—114-15, 458-
60, 486
— and Poland, assistance in its partitions—
139, 147-48, 486
— and Slavs—148-53, 458, 494, 501
— prospects for revolution—459-60,
487, 494, 499, 502
— foreign policy and diplomacy—
135, 144-45, 374, 399, 457-60,
499, 501-02
— and England—135-36
— and France—135, 145-46, 164,
188-89, 446, 459-60, 486-87, 502
— and Germany—146, 357, 485-86,
494
— and Prussia—81-82, 135, 145-46,
167, 368-69, 374, 376-80, 431,
457-58, 486, 491
— and Russia—81-82, 115, 135,
144-46, 148-49, 158-59, 374, 484,
486-87
— and Turkey—446
See also Army—Austrian; Austro-Italo-
French war of 1859; Cracow; Revolution
of 1848-49 in Austria; Styria; Tyrol;
Vienna
Austro-Italo-French war of 1859
— general characteristics—26-27,
158-59, 345-46, 358, 374, 377-78,
454-55, 457
— preparations for war, agreement
at Plombières in 1858—134, 158-
59, 161, 177, 180, 181, 198
— battle at Solferino, June 24,
1859—346, 399, 457
— Villafranca preliminary peace treaty
of 1859—136, 173, 193, 368,
374, 375, 376-78, 396, 399
— and Austria—158-59, 164, 345,
369
— and France (Second Empire)—
115, 134, 158-60, 164, 173, 174,
177, 345, 374, 377-78
— and diplomacy of European
states—158-59, 368, 383, 486
— and England—158-59, 173, 383
— and Germany—27, 134, 158-59,
166, 173, 374-75, 377
— and Prussia—166, 173, 368, 374-
75, 376-78, 383-85, 459, 489
— and Russia—158, 374, 486
— and European petty-bourgeois
democracy—27, 116, 133-34, 146,
157-58, 166, 173
B
Berlin— 369, 486-87
Bessarabia—142, 165
Bohemia, Czechs—150-52
Bonapartism—5, 35, 115, 152-53, 156-
58, 159-60, 161-62, 165, 172, 198,
242-43, 393, 400-01, 464
— social demagoguery—35, 188-89,
191
— Bonapartist "principle of nationalities"
and its criticism—5, 152-53,
161-62, 165, 172, 242-43, 430
— Decembrist propaganda, bribery
of the press—1, 6, 8, 10, 115,
116-18, 121, 131, 133, 134, 136-
37, 140, 146, 153, 155, 156, 159-
60, 161-62, 164-66, 174, 182-83,
184-87, 188, 189-91, 193, 198,
201, 204, 205-06, 208, 210, 211-
12, 239-40, 250, 324-27, 328-29
See also "Gang of December 10"
Bourgeoisie—90, 91, 93
Bukovina—165
Bulgaria—143-44
Bureaucracy
— as the pillar of reaction—368-69,
448, 494
C
California— 92, 156, 331, 466
Carbonari—33
Caucasus, the—116, 148, 152, 164, 345
China— 335-40, 482
See also England (Great Britain)—
colonial policy in China; Opium wars
Civilisation— 38, 92, 131, 143
Class, classes— 69, 88, 91
Class struggle— 88-89, 91
Clergy— 430
Cologne communist trial—55-67, 80, 8i,
262, 267, 288, 305-11
Communism, scientific—80, 91
See also Class struggle; Dictatorship of the
proletariat; Revolution, proletarian,
socialist
Communism, Utopian—88-89
Communist League, the—49-50, 78-81,
84, 88, 91-92, 94-95, 262, 264, 266
— Manifesto of the Communist Party
by K. Marx and F. Engels as its
programme—80, 88, 89, 90, 91,
95
See also Cologne communist trial; League
of the Just
Cracow—139
Croatia, Croats—494
Customs Union (Germany, 1834-71)—
373, 374, 491
D
Dalmatia— 429-30
Danubian principalities—141-43, 165-66
See also Wallachia
Democracy, petty-bourgeois (movement)—
49-50
Democratic Association in Brussels
(1847)—264
Democrats, vulgar—4-9
Dictatorship of the proletariat
— use of the term "dictatorship of
the proletariat"—28-29, 44, 191-
92, 260
Diplomacy (general characteristics)—
238, 484-85
— history of European diplomacy—
505-27
See also Foreign policy of various
countries
E
Emigration
— political (general characteristics)—
26, 27, 52-54, 81, 313
— refugees, political organisations—
see Democratic Association in Brussels;
German Workers' Association in
Brussels; German Workers' Educational
Association in Geneva; German
Workers' Educational Society in
London; League of the Just
— French—81, 217
— German—4, 29, 38-47, 50-54, 56,
59-63, 75, 78-81, 88, 94-97, 216,
232-33, 239, 264, 290, 296-304,
313-16
— Hungarian—81, 216-26, 502
— from Ireland to Britain—412
— Italian—217-18
— Polish—81, 218, 220
Émigré Club (1850s)—87, 96-99, 112,
313
England (Great Britain)
— general characteristics—412, 425-
28, 434, 444-52
— history—58, 136, 158, 222-23,
336, 339-40, 352, 432, 462
— economy, industry, trade—350-
53, 406-09, 410-11, 418-20, 426-
27, 432-33, 444-46, 463, 466,
479-83
— factory labour—410-11, 416-18
— child labour—411-13, 417
— cooperative societies, Rochdale
cooperative company—414-16,
419
— finances—351-52, 447-48, 498
— foreign trade—92, 406-09, 432-
33, 179-83
— social and political system—116-
18, 335-40, 383, 444-46
— colonial policy in China—335-40
— foreign policy—135-37, 139, 352,
371-72, 383, 409, 431, 434, 436-
38, 446
See also Anglo-Afghan war of 1838-42;
Anglo-French Commercial Treaty of
I860; Anglo-Iranian war of 1856-57;
Army—British; India—British colonial
domination; Ireland; Literature—
English; London; Opium wars; Parliament,
British; Poetry—English
F
Finland, Finns—143
Fortification— 389, 427-28, 450, 467,
477
Fourier's doctrine, Fourierists—38, 88-89
France
— general characteristics—35, 37,
154-56, 430, 448, 459
— history—35, 36, 161-63, 248-49,
459
— Second Empire—35-37, 115, 156,
157-58, 159-61, 164, 205, 206,
248-49, 330-34, 336, 400, 409,
429, 430, 448, 453, 455, 467, 481
— foreign policy (during the Second
Empire)—137, 157, 429, 431,
446, 464
— and Austria—54-57, 85, 135, 137,
158, 162, 164, 170, 399, 446, 459,
460, 486-87, 502
— and Belgium—146, 157, 170
— and England—135, 137, 146,
341, 342, 344, 373, 399, 408, 409,
446, 447, 481
— and Germany—115, 145, 161,
170, 373, 376-77, 378, 379-80,
397-401, 430, 431, 459-60, 486-87
— and Hungary—159, 162, 170,
501-02
— and Italy—115, 137, 159, 160,162,
163, 170, 371, 372, 377, 401, 422,
430, 459, 460, 464, 486-87, 489
— and Portugal—157
— and Prussia—135, 145, 170, 376-
77, 378, 391-400, 430, 431, 446,
464
— and Romania—161-62, 164
— and Russia—137, 142, 145-46,
158, 170, 377-78, 385, 399, 431,
446, 486
— and Spain—137, 143, 464
— and Switzerland—176, 377
— and USA—157
See also Army—French; Austro-Italo-
French war of 1859; Bonapartism; Emigration—
French; "Gang of December
10"; Literature—French; Marianne
Freedom of trade (Free Trade movement)—
334, 342, 350, 351
Freedom, political—49, 103, 112, 369,
376
G
"Gang of December 10" (France, from
1849)—33-36, 158, 164
Geneva—53, 54, 113, 176, 228, 229
German Confederation (1815-66)—81,
347-48, 375, 378-80, 459-60, 493
German philosophy— 79, 80, 212, 348
German Workers' Association in Brussels
(from 1847)—79, 264
German Workers' Educational Association
in Brussels (1840s)—79
German Workers' Educational Association
in Geneva (1840s-1860s)—39, 52, 62-
63, 73
German Workers' Educational Society in
London (1840-1918)—56, 78, 80, 264
Germany
— history—150-51, 348-49, 379,
399, 484
— fragmentation of country and task
of its unification—104, 167-69,
190-91, 369, 376-77, 378-80, 391-
92, 430-31, 484, 486-87
— bourgeois liberalism—67, 88, 91,
122, 367-68, 493-94
— foreign policy—26-27, 114-15,
145-54, 161-62, 170, 253, 573,
376-77, 430-31, 457, 459-60, 484,
486-87
See also Army—of German states;
Berlin; Cologne communist trial; Customs
Union; Emigration—German; German
Confederation; German philosophy;
Gotha party; Hesse-Cassel; Holy Roman
Empire of the German Nation; Literature—
German; "National Association";
Poetry—German; Prussia; Revolution
of 1848-49 in Germany; Rhine
Confederation; Rhine Province; Saxony;
Schleswig-Holstein question
Gibraltar—137
Gotha party (Germany, 1849)—486-87
Greece—142-43, 166, 338
See also Ancient Greece
H
Herzegovina—430
Hesse-Cassel (Kurhessen)—81, 378-80
Holy Alliance, its congresses—143, 399
Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation
(962-1806)—379-80
Hungary
— population—148-49, 151
— in 1848-49—225-28, 242, 253,
328, 459-60, 494, 500-01
— in 1850s—459-60, 499-502
— political system—457, 493-94,
499-500
— and Austria—148-50, 225-26,
458-60, 486-87, 493-94, 499-502
— and Russia—106-07, 116, 148-49,
170, 328, 501-02
— miscellaneous—26-27, 136, 161-
62, 170, 225-26, 459-60, 493,
501-02
See also Emigration—Hungarian; National
liberation war of 1848-49 in
Hungary; Revolution of 1848-49 in
Hungary
I
India
— British colonial domination—406-
09, 432, 445-46, 456, 479-81
Ireland— 412, 462
Italy
— general characteristics—370, 476-
77
— history—92, 114-15, 217, 371, 372
— economy—453-55
— national liberation movement
(1850s)—217, 372, 381, 386-89,
424, 430, 459-60
— revolution in Southern and Central
Italy (I860)—422, 471-73, 478
— Garibaldi's expedition to Sicily
and Southern Italy (I860)—381-
82, 386-89, 421-24, 449-52, 458,
464, 471-78, 488-91
— Savoy and Nice—53, 174, 179-82,
196, 200, 201, 375, 377, 382, 422
— foreign policy—26-27, 114, 115,
136, 137, 156, 159, 160, 170, 372,
386, 398-99, 421-23, 430, 457-60,
464, 471, 486, 489-91
See also Ancient Rome; Austro-Italo-
French war of 1859; Carbonari;
Dalmatia; Emigration—Italian; Kingdom
of Sardinia; Kingdom of the
Two Sicilies; Literature—Italian; Lombardy;
Mazzinism, Mazzinists; Poetry—
Italian; Revolution of 1848-49 in Italian
states; Sicily; Venice; "Young Italy"
K
Kingdom of Sardinia (Piedmont)—138,
157, 421-24, 453-55, 489
See also Austro-Italo-French war of
1859; Revolution of 1848-49 in Italian
states
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Naples)—
137, 371, 372, 421, 449-52, 471-78
L
League of the Just, the—78-79
Lebanon— 430, 431
Liberalism (general characteristics)—49,
53, 67, 91, 122, 238
Literature
— ancient Greek—68
— English—29, 35, 38, 40, 46, 47,
48, 55, 59, 86, 97, 99, 116, 128,
173, 245, 272, 378
— French—36, 347, 366, 447
— German—8, 28, 33, 35, 40, 48,
65, 70, 74, 101, 114, 118, 185,
187, 252, 254, 258
— Italian—40, 50, 74, 75, 77, 100,
209, 279, 491
— Portuguese — 99
— Spanish—28, 100, 189-90, 251,
258
See also Poetry
Lombardy—144
London— 72, 113, 403, 425-28
Lumpenproletariat— 34
M
"Manifesto of the Communist Party" by
K. Marx and F. Engels—see Communist
League
Marianne (secret republican society in
France)—49, 157
Mazzinism, Mazzinists—144, 153, 180-81
Militarism
— growth of militarism in Europe—
467, 494, 495
Military art— 347-48, 388-91, 476-77,
485
See also Army; Artillery; Fortification;
War, wars
Montenegro—430
N
Napoleonic wars—522-24
"National Association" (Germany, 1859-
67)—274, 431, 484
National liberation war of 1848-49 in
Hungary—106, 136, 149-50, 214-15,
225-28
See also Revolution of 1848-49 in
Hungary
National question
— fanning of national contradictions
by ruling classes—149, 494, 499-
501
Netherland bourgeois revolution of 16th
century—506, 509
New York— 92
Nice— 54, 174, 181-82, 194-97, 200,
382, 422
O
Opium wars—335-40
Oriental question—429-30
Owen's system, Owenites—88-89
P
Papacy—141, 485
Parliament, British— 335-39, 351, 432,
444-45
Party, proletarian—49, 91, 259
— Marx's party—95
— struggle against slandering the
party—26, 69
See also Cologne communist trial; Communist
League
Poetry
— Ancient Greek—199, 245
— Ancient Roman—26, 44, 46, 68,
77, 112, 136, 213, 214, 239, 243,
245, 247, 273, 282, 295, 297, 299,
303
— English—77, 99, 190, 236-37, 243,
247, 250
— German—51, 70, 71, 74, 91, 102,
107, 108, 114, 120, 154, 156, 181,
184, 193, 213, 235, 242, 311, 440
— Italian—28, 242, 251
— Portuguese—99
— Spanish—99, 190
Poland—139, 146-47, 152, 153, 242,
253, 377, 486, 516, 519-20
See also Emigration—Polish
Police
— as part of state machine—368-69,
375, 395-96
Portugal— 92, 157, 337
See also Literature—Portuguese;
Poetry— Portuguese
Press, the— 49, 103, 117, 186, 243-44,
368-69, 375, 385, 404, 431, 459
Prussia
— general characteristics—147-48,
152, 368, 369, 375, 494
— history—135, 368, 369, 377-78
— in 1850s-1860s—367-69, 374-80,
382-85, 494-96
— "new era"—367, 369, 385, 388,
391, 496
— military reform of the 1860s—345-
49, 369, 375, 384-85, 494-96
— social and political system—66-67,
269-71, 292, 294, 368, 369, 375-
76, 379-80, 384, 393, 394-96, 494,
496
— foreign policy and diplomacy—
368-69, 375, 377-78, 383, 484
— and Austria—80-82, 135, 145-46,
167, 368, 369, 374-75, 377-80,
433, 457, 458, 486, 491
— and England—135, 368, 375,
378, 382-83
— and France—135, 145-46, 368,
373-75, 377, 378, 391-400, 430,
431, 446, 464, 484, 486
— and Germany—167, 170, 191,
369, 374, 375, 377-80, 457, 484
— and Italy—457, 488-89
— and Poland—139, 147, 377
— and Russia—81, 145-46, 158, 168,
368, 375, 377-78, 431, 484
— and Turkey—446
See also Army—Prussian; Germany;
Literature—German; Poetry—German;
Revolution of 1848-49 in Germany;
Rhine Confederation
Public opinion— 429, 430, 457, 459,
460, 464, 494-95, 500
R
"Revolutionary Centralisation " (Switzerland,
1850)—75, 94-95
Revolution, proletarian, socialist
— prerequisites for—90-92
Revolution of 1848-49 in Austria—148-
49, 165, 225-28, 254, 328, 460, 494,
500
Revolution of 1848-49 in Germany
— its progress and character—32,
39, 41, 50, 103-04, 105-06, 253,
369
— campaign for Imperial Constitution—
32, 39, 41, 51, 54, 60, 73,
80, 106, 347
— nobility, aristocracy—251-58
— government institutions, representative
assemblies—103, 105-06,
238, 252-58, 379, 380, 500-01
— Frankfurt National Assembly—
51, 54, 69, 73, 102-03, 105-09,
251-58
— question of unifying the country—
254, 256
— petty-bourgeois democracy—74,
103-04, 211, 238-39, 240
— Marx, Engels and the Communist
League—79, 104, 105
See also Communist League
Revolution of 1848-49 in Hungary—136,
145, 148-50, 165, 225-28, 328, 374,
494, 501-02
See also National liberation war of
1848-49 in Hungary
Revolution of 1848-49 in Italian states—
136, 154-55, 253, 387, 389, 485
Rhine Confederation—399
Rhine Province—169-70, 377
Romania, Romanians—141, 142, 165-66,
500
Russia
— economy—422, 453, 466, 467,
485
— serfdom—429, 466, 485, 486
— question of abolishing serfdom—
140-41, 429, 485-86
— Catherine II "as the standardbearer
of progress" —142
— foreign and colonial policy—138,
139, 141-43, 145-47, 158-59, 168,
429, 431, 467, 484-87
— and Austria—81, 144-46, 150,
374, 484, 486
— and Bulgaria—143
— and China—338
— and England—116, 135, 136, 431
— and France—141, 145-46, 158-59,
377, 399, 431, 446, 484-86
— and Germany—147, 168, 484-87
— and Greece—143
— and Hungary—106, 149-50, 328,
501-02
— and Prussia—81, 145-46, 168,
368, 376-78, 431
— and Turkey—144, 382, 467, 482
— and USA—143
See also Army—Russian; Russo-Turkish
wars; Tsarism, autocracy in Russia
Russo-Turkish wars—142-43, 144,
382-83
S
Saint-Simon's doctrine, Saint-Simonians—
88-89, 341
Saxony—152, 377
Schleswig-Holstein question—102-04, 145,
379, 401
Scholasticism
— medieval—251, 255
Secret societies— 48-50, 78-80, 262
See also Carbonari; Marianne
"Self-Help" (association, Switzerland,
1848)—82-83
Serbia, Serbs—144, 494
Serfdom—140-41, 372, 429, 467, 485,
486
Seven Years' War (1756-63)—135, 377,
517-18
Sicity—370-71, 421-24, 488
See also Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Silesia—146, 151-54, 377
Slavonia—494
Slavs—149, 150, 152, 165, 458, 501
Socialism, Utopian—79, 88
See also Fourier's doctrine, Fourierists;
Owen's system, Owenites; Saint-Simon's
doctrine, Saint-Simonians
Societies, workers'—78-80, 262
See also German Workers' Association
in Brussels; German Workers' Educational
Association in Geneva; German
Workers' Educational Society in London
Styria—152
Sweden—164
Switzerland— 52, 53, 54, 157, 175-82,
187, 191-203, 228, 372, 377
See also Geneva; Working-class and
socialist movement in Switzerland
Syria, Syrians— 429-31, 439, 446, 464
T
Thirty Years' War (1618-48)—168,
509-11
Transylvania—494
Tsarism, autocracy in Russia—141,
485-86
Turkey—144, 165, 170, 430, 431, 446,
467-69, 482
See also Oriental question; Russo-
Turkish wars
Tyrol—152
U
United States of America— 85, 92, 143,
157, 409, 466, 482
See also California; New York; War of
North America for Independence
Urquhartism, Urquhartists— 116
Utopianism—79, 90
V
Venice— 93, 136, 162-63
Vienna— 73, 158, 369, 459-60, 487, 502
Vienna Congress of 1814-15 and Vienna
treaties of 1815—135, 139, 146, 148,
154, 164, 175-76, 228, 377
See also Holy Alliance, its congresses
Villafranca preliminary peace treaty of
1859—see Austro-Italo-French war of
1859
W
Wallachia—143, 164-65, 494
See also Danubian principalities
War, wars—141, 157-58, 338-39, 345,
373, 376-77, 388, 429, 431, 458-59,
467
See also Anglo-Afghan war of 1838-42;
Anglo-Iranian war of 1856-57; Army;
Austro-Italo-French war of 1859; Military
art; National liberation war of
1848-49 in Hungary; Russo-Turkish
wars; Seven Years' War (1756-63);
Thirty Years' War (1618-48)
War of North America for Independence—
520
Weitling's theory—79
Westphalia—169
Working-class and socialist movement in
Switzerland— 39-40, 50-55, 68-73, 78,
100, 120, 190
Y
"Young Italy"—144






MECW VOL 18






A
Abatis— 38, 39
Abensberg, battle of (1809)—3, 58
Achaean League—96
Acre (St. Jean d'Acre), fortress—4, 134
Actium, battle of (31 B.C.)—5
Adjutant—6, 101, 410-12, 415-16, 482-
83, 528
Afghanistan—40-48, 379-90, 418
Agincourt, battle of (1415)—24, 35, 104
Aland Islands—9
Albania—106
Albuera, battle of (1811)—10, 11, 290
Aldenhoven, battle of (1793)—12
Aleppo, bloody events in (1850)—133
Alessandria—13
Algeria—60-70
— its conquest by France, national
liberation wars—64-70, 139,
212-13, 418, 428
— and England—63-64
— miscellanea—214, 306
Alma, battle of (1854)—14-18, 139, 164
Almeida, battle of (1811)—19
American Civil War (1861-65)—525-34
See also Balls Bluff, battle of (1861);
Bull Run, battle of (1861); Donelson;
Mill Springs, battle of (1862)
American War of Independence (1775-
83)—56, 113, 241, 359, 367-68, 434
See also Lexington and Concord, battle
of (1775)
Ammunition— 71, 128, 195, 237, 432,
434, 527
Amusette—20
Anglo-Afghan war of 1838-42—44-48,
379-90
Anglo-American war of 1812-14—35-36,
164, 242, 374, 527
See also Chesapeake, battle of (1814);
Chippewa, battle of (1814)
Anglo-Burmese war of 1852—280
Antwerp— 21-22, 141, 153
Arabs— 61, 67, 105, 142, 189-91, 297
Arbela, battle of (331 B.C.)—23, 95-96,
293, 296
Architecture—243
Argentina—231
Aristocracy— 247, 340-42
Armada, Spanish (1588)—166-69
Armament, arms—434-35
— side-arms—55, 74, 85, 86, 88,
89, 92, 95, 97-99, 107-10, 206,
277, 293, 298, 299, 303, 306,
307, 310-11, 340-41, 345, 348,
350-52, 355-56, 514
— missile weapons—24-25, 85, 86,
88, 89, 92-95, 97-99, 103-04,
105-06, 298, 340-42, 345, 347-
50, 352, 364
— defensive armour—86, 88, 90,
92, 93-96, 98-99, 104, 106, 108-
10, 293, 297-99, 301, 303, 340-
42, 345, 347, 349, 350, 352, 356
— fire-arms—72, 104, 189-90, 238,
298, 350, 352, 447-48
—- smooth-bore hand weapons—24-
26, 72, 104, 105-10, 116, 238,
351-52, 355-57, 362, 418-19,
433-34, 436, 438, 440, 443, 445,
448-49
— rifled fire-arms—111, 116-17,
238, 307, 362-63, 419, 435, 440,
441
— combination of side-arms and
fire-arms—55, 299-301, 306,
307, 350-54, 356, 358, 362, 434,
514
— Assyrian—86
— Athenian—89-90, 341-42
— Egyptian—86
— Macedonian—94-96, 343, 344,
350
— Persian—88
— Roman—97-99, 101, 102-03,
344-47
— Spartan—91-92, 341
— of medieval infantry—103-05,
348-49, 350, 351
— of infantry at beginning of modern
times—105-06
— of Spanish army—107
— of mercenary armies—107-08,
299
— of 17th-18th cent, armies—72,
355-59
— of French army during the Revolution
and in early 19th
cent.—115-16, 302-03
— of 19th cent, armies—116-17,
306, 307, 361-63, 452, 455
— on warships—364-70, 371-75
See also Ammunition; Arquebuse; Artillery
projectiles; Bayonet; Bullet; Calibre;
Cannon, gun; Carabine; Carronade;
Case shot, cartouch; Catapult; Grenade;
Howitzer; Rifle
Army—85-126, 316, 340, 525-29
— and the economy—55, 105, 121,
362-63
— and social relations—105-06,
346, 351
— in slave-owning society—35-36,
72, 85-103, 136, 159, 188-89,
263-65, 266, 291-97, 336, 338,
340-47, 354
— under feudalism—72, 93, 103-
08, 136, 159, 190-95, 297-300,
348-52
— under capitalism—6, 72, 93,
107-26, 136, 146, 160, 196, 237,
302, 354-63, 426, 434
— and bourgeois revolution—107,
113-14, 302, 359, 434
— regular—102, 118, 430, 460,
481, 490-91, 502-03, 525-26,
527-29
— national—106, 347
— standing—87, 90, 94, 102, 106,
118, 356, 365-66, 430, 467, 480
— irregular—415, 525-26, 527-29,
540
— militia—89, 102, 117, 126, 289,
346, 349
— and navy—371-72
— discipline and morale—103, 106,
310, 354, 423, 424, 426, 469,
492, 510
— soldiers—146, 187, 415, 416,
421, 424, 425, 430, 459, 480,
481, 482, 491-93, 508, 510, 519,
526-27
— non-commissioned officers—75,
118, 146, 411, 431, 511, 527
— officers—6, 115, 117, 118, 237,
411, 412, 415-16, 430, 432, 474,
480-83, 492, 501, 508, 511, 521-
24, 526-27, 528, 535
— generals—7, 109-10, 111-13,
114-16, 122, 187, 294, 300-01,
342-43, 358-59, 481-83, 512
— military system, modes and
forms of recruitment—90-91,
97, 102, 114, 193, 195, 298,
305-06, 361, 510-11
— recruitment of mercenaries, enlistment—
42, 89-90, 91, 93, 100-
02, 106-07, 113, 117, 284, 295,
297, 299, 341-42, 346-49, 351,
354, 356, 361
— recruitment by levy—93, 113,
117-18, 125, 284, 361
— general conscription—114, 117,
346, 362, 467
See also Armament, arms; Army (in
different countries); Army, organisation
of; Army staffs; Army train;
Artillery; Art of war; Cavalry; Discipline,
military; Engineers; Fortification;
Infantry; Military science; Military
training; Navy; War, wars
Army, Afghan—41-42, 418
Army, Assyrian—86-87, 340
Army, Athenian— 88-91, 92-93
Army, Austrian— 36, 55, 110, 116, 117,
118-21, 127, 146, 160, 196-98, 201,
300, 302, 305, 308-09, 313, 350,
352-54, 356, 359, 362, 412, 420, 423,
430, 437, 446, 447, 509
Army, Babylonian—87, 340
Army, Belgian—161, 190, 201, 349-50,
437, 441, 443
Army, British
— composition, organisation, armament—
18, 24-25, 104, 116-22,
127, 136, 161, 199-201, 203, 237,
238, 241-42, 244, 298, 305, 309,
349, 362, 411, 415, 418, 423-24,
441, 443-44, 460, 528-29
— mercenaries—117-18
— corporal punishment—411
— generalship, fighting qualities—
18, 35-37, 300, 302, 304, 312,
349, 414, 420-21, 428, 491, 499,
526, 539-40
— defects in organisation and control—
7, 136
— commanders—7, 411-12, 415-16
— Anglo-Indian—308, 418, 428,
526
— militia—118, 411
See also Sepoys; Volunteers, British
Army, Burmese—283-84
Army, Carthaginian—96, 294-96
Army, Danish—201, 363
Army, Dutch— 55, 107-09, 110, 160,
161, 195, 201, 267-68, 299, 353-54,
436
Army, Egyptian—85-86, 93, 291-92
Army, French
— composition, organisation, armament,
military expenditure—55,
56, 58, 68, 105-11, 115-21, 125,
127, 160, 190-92, 195, 197, 198,
200-02, 203, 238, 244, 246, 247,
262, 306, 308-09, 313-14, 352,
356, 398, 410, 417-28, 430, 438-
39, 440-41, 443, 465-68
— French Revolution of 1789-94
and development of military
technology and the art of war—
56, 73, 113-16, 163, 302-03, 359-
61, 367, 434
— generalship, training, fighting
qualities—35-36, 56, 73, 107,
113-14, 117, 191, 198-99, 207,
294, 299, 300-04, 311-14, 360-
63, 417-23, 424-28, 446, 508-17,
526
— system of substitution—419
Army, Greek— 88-96, 291
See also Army, Athenian, Macedonian,
Spartan, Theban
Army, Hungarian—106, 119, 297, 305,
353, 356
See also Honvéd
Army, Macedonian— 93-96, 292-93,
343-44
Army, Neapolitan (of the Kingdom of
the Two Sicilies)—118, 201
Army, Norwegian—363, 449
Army of German states—35, 110, 116,
118, 190-91, 194, 201, 203, 298,
302-03, 305, 306, 362, 412, 417, 424,
435, 439, 441, 443, 446
Army of Italian states— 93, 106-07, 118,
191-92, 201, 349, 351, 352, 363
Army, organisation of
— in Athens—91-92, 93
— in Macedonia—93-96
— in Rome—96, 97-103, 344-47
— in Sparta—91-92, 93
— first standing armies of modern
times—106
— mercenaries—106-07, 292
— under Gustavus Adolphus—109-
10
— under Frederick II—111-13
— in the French Republic—113-16
— in 19th cent.—116-22, 125-26
— brigades, divisions, corps—120
— train—121
— troops control—121-22, 125-26
— artillery— 111, 191-202
— cavalry—292, 293-309, 312-16
— infantry—103-04, 292, 298, 340-
50, 351-62, 363
See also Army staffs; Army supply;
Battalion; Commissariat; Company;
Military establishments; Regiment
Army, Persian— 86-88, 93, 159, 292-93
Army, Polish—105, 106, 119, 130, 302-
03, 305
Army, Portuguese—189, 201, 289-90
Army, Prussian
— composition, organisation, armament—
55, 110, 112, 115-17,
118-21, 126-27, 161, 174, 196-
98, 200-02, 204, 239, 244, 246,
294, 302-03, 305-06, 308-09,
362-63, 409, 419, 430, 439, 441,
442, 450, 467
— generalship, training, fighting
qualities —36, 73, 111-14, 236,
300-02, 303-04, 309, 314, 338-
39, 357-59, 362, 420, 451-52,
508
— general conscription—117-18,
362
See also Landwehr
Army recruitment—see Army (military
system, modes and forms of recruitment;
recruitment of mercenaries,
enlistment)
Army, Roman— 86, 96-103, 159, 263-64,
266, 294-97, 344-48
See also Legion, Roman; Manipulus,
Roman
Army, Russian
— composition, organisation, armament—
55, 109-10, 116-21, 127,
160-61, 201, 238, 299, 305, 307-
08, 309, 314, 348, 363, 441, 526
— generalship—36, 314
Army, Sardinian (Piedmontese)—117,
161, 201, 306
Army, Spanish—24, 107-09, 117, 142,
190, 192, 201, 325, 351-55, 441
Army, Spartan— 91-94, 292-93, 340-42
Army staffs—122, 125-26
Army supply—114, 360
— remount service—118, 194,
305-06
See also Commissariat
Army, Swedish—109-10, 157, 194, 201,
217, 300-01, 354-55, 363, 449-50
Army, Swiss— 35, 118, 191, 350, 352,
362, 417, 435-36, 441, 443, 446-47,
457
Army, Theban—92-93
Army train (baggage)—87-88, 91, 100,
103, 113-14, 121, 159, 176, 198, 200,
284, 346, 347, 349, 360, 465, 481
Army, Turkish—106, 352-53, 355
Army, US— 35-36, 113, 117, 126, 161,
237, 307, 309, 359, 360, 450, 521-22,
524, 525-34
Arquebuse—24-26, 105
Artillery— 37-38, 49, 119, 121, 127-29,
146, 192, 196, 198, 201-03, 206-10,
318-19, 429-32, 527, 528
— early stages—105, 188-90, 191,
266, 364
— as science—107, 111, 146, 191-
92, 194-97, 201-06, 372-73, 429,
430-32
— in Middle Ages—72, 105, 107,
109, 110-12, 116, 142, 190-95,
299, 318-19, 355
— in 18th cent.—111-12, 116, 195,
196, 197
— in 19th cent.—71, 116, 117, 119,
120, 121, 141, 198-210, 429-32
— field—71, 73-74, 107, 109-10,
112, 116, 119, 127, 190-94, 196-
98, 200, 202, 204, 208-10,
430-32
— mountain—20, 132, 200
— siege and fortress—54, 110, 112,
127, 138, 142, 190, 192, 193,
198, 204, 205, 206, 207, 246,
318, 334, 430-31
— navJ—143, 145, 147-48, 166-68,
191, 201, 204-06, 246, 287, 334,
365-69, 370-75
— horse—116, 121, 197, 199, 209,
314, 410, 430
— rifled—372, 375, 432
— range of fire—203, 205-06, 207
— density—195, 199, 210
— mobility—193-94, 197, 199, 360
— position (emplacement)—191,
198-99, 206-10, 263
— qualities required of artillerymen—
430-32
_ Arab—142, 189, 190
— Austrian—116, 120, 146, 196-
98, 201
— Belgian—190, 201
— British—116, 117, 120, 196,
199-202, 203-05, 206, 232, 241-
42, 246, 374, 429-32
— Chinese—142, 188-90
— Danish—201
— Dutch—109, 195, 201
— French—107, 109, 116, 120,
191, 192, 195-202, 203, 204-07,
238, 246-47, 465, 466
— German—191, 194-95, 197, 201,
203, 204
— Indian—188-90
— Italian—191-92, 196, 201
— Polish —130-31
— Portuguese—201
— Prussian—121, 190, 196, 197-98,
199-204, 236, 246
— Russian—201
— Sardinian (Piedmontese)—117,
201
— Spanish —109, 117, 142, 167-68,
189, 190, 192, 197, 201
— Swedish—109-10, 194, 201
— US—205, 241-42
See also Ammunition; Artillery projectiles;
Art of war (tactics of artillery);
Barbette; Battery; Bombardier; Bomb,
shell; Cannonade; Cannon, gun; Carronade;
Case shot, cartouch; Fire (artillery);
Gun-carriage; Howitzer, Incendiary
projectiles; Limber; Ordnance
Artillery projectiles—188-91, 193, 194,
195, 196, 200, 201-03, 205-06, 239-
40, 372, 527
See also Bomb, shell; Case shot, cartouch;
Congreve rocket; Grenade; Incendiary
projectiles; Shrapnell
Artillery school—146, 195
Art of war
— its foundations—35, 115-16, 362
— and socio-economic development—
102-03
— and development of military
technology—72, 73, 104-06, 110,
111, 318, 336-37, 351-52, 362-
63, 372-73
— and revolution—73, 434
— in slave-owning society—35-36,
72, 88, 90-95, 98-102, 292-94,
295-97, 340-42, 343-44, 347-48
— in feudal society—35, 72, 103-
09, 190-92, 194, 297-300, 348-56
— during decay of feudalism—36,
72, 73, 110-14, 136, 250, 300-02,
355-59, 452
— revolution in methods of warfare
in late 18th and early 19th
cent.—73, 113-16, 136, 359-62,
434
— in 19th cent.—115, 117-18, 361-
62, 425-26, 452
— strategy—34-36, 103-04, 176-77,
335, 356-57, 514
— tactics—18, 31-32, 72-74, 88-93,
101-04, 105-06, 112-15, 117,
250, 262-63, 294-96, 313-14,
342-44, 348, 349-50, 352-55,
356-57, 358-59, 361-62, 434,
452, 469, 481-82, 486-87, 530-31
— linear tactics—36-37, 73, 111-14,
249, 357-58, 360, 361, 434
— fighting in columns and extended
order—36-37, 73, 113,
114, 117, 250, 313-14, 359-62,
425, 434, 435, 540
— tactics of infantry—37-38, 72-74,
85, 87, 88-89, 90-91, 92-94, 96-
100, 103-04, 106-07, 111-12,
116-18, 119, 197, 262-63, 303,
314, 340-44, 345-46, 350, 351,
352-58, 359-60, 361-63, 412-15,
425-28, 434-35, 452, 469, 486-
88, 490-94, 536-38, 540
— tactics of artillery—37-38, 73-75,
106-07, 112, 116, 194-95, 197,
199, 206-10, 262-63
— tactics of cavalry—73-75, 89,
104-05, 106-07, 108-12, 199,
262-63, 292-305, 309-14, 315-16,
343, 348-50, 355, 358
— engineering—327
— mountain warfare—20, 39, 132
See also Army; Artillery; Attack; Battery,
floating; Battle; Bivouac; Camp;
Campaign; Cavalry; Fortification; Infantry;
Military science; Military training;
Navy
Aspern and Essling, battle of (1809)—27-
33, 35, 134
Association of German Authors—81, 392
Assyria— 86-87, 192, 291-92
Astronomy—264 .
Athenian Naval Alliance—90, 93,
341-42
See also Samos, military expedition
against (440 B.C.)
Attack— 34-38, 104-05, 532-33
— artillery—37, 74, 208, 209-10,
260
— cavalry—74, 111, 134, 300-01,
303-04, 306-08, 309-16, 350-51
— infantry—74-75, 313, 348, 357,
420, 423, 514
— on fortresses—87, 147, 192, 260,
318, 335-39
— on fortified positions—37-38, 86
— by parallel front—36, 92, 358
— oblique—36, 358
— on flanks—36, 358
— on centre—31, 36-37
— in column—36-37, 93, 210, 304,
313-14
Auerstädt, battle of (1806)—151, 173,
359
Augsburg League (1688-97)—268
Austerlitz, battle of (1805)—134, 136,
151, 173, 474
Austria—105, 278-79, 350
See also Austro-Italian war of 1848-49;
Austro-Italo-French war of 1859; Revolution
of 1848-49 in Austrian Empire;
Vienna, defence of
Austro-Italian war of 1848-49—13, 279,
339
Austro-Italo-French war of 1859 (Italian
war of 1859)—363, 514-15
See also Magenta, battle of (1859);
Solferino, battle of (1859)
Ayacucho, battle of (1824)—170-71
B
Babouvists— 216, 398
Babylon— 87, 192, 318, 340
Badajos, battles of (1811-12)—10-11,
164
Balaklava, battle of (1854)—140, 309,
312
Balls Bluff, battle of (1861)—531
Banat—133
Banquette—128, 321
Barbarians— 93, 99, 102-03, 264,
346-48
Barbette— 49, 127-28
Barter— 283
Basel Peace Treaty of 1795—173
Bashi-Bazouks—106
Bastion— 53-54, 192, 242, 319-38, 430
See also Tower
Batavian campaign (1799)—see France's
war against second European coalition
(1798-1801)
Battalion—6, 17, 58, 111-12, 113, 116,
118-20, 125, 197-99, 313, 351, 353-55,
356-57, 359, 360-62, 409-20, 421-23,
424, 426, 431, 434, 437, 441, 460,461,
465-67, 468, 480, 486, 489, 501, 502,
513, 515, 516, 518-19, 523, 524, 526,
528, 535-41
Battery— 49, 116, 127-29, 193, 197-98,
201, 207, 332, 334, 337, 373, 430,
462
See also Banquette; Barbette; Berme;
Blindage; Bonnet
Battery, floating—371-72
Battle— 72-75, 434, 481
— irregular—354, 361, 426, 537
— naval—364-65, 372-73
See also Skirmishing; War, wars
(forms and character of military operations
in land warfare)
Bautzen, battle of (1813)—51, 174 '
Bayonet— 37, 55, 110, 356, 410, 428,
434, 435, 439, 444
Bayonne, battle of (1813)—290
Bedouins—H19
Belgian-Dutch war of 1831-33—21, 141
Belgium—141, 153, 350
See also Antwerp; Belgian-Dutch war of
1831-33
Berbers— 61, 63, 295
Berme—128, 248
Bidassoa, battle of (1813)—269-75
Bivouac— 114, 136, 262, 360
Blenheim, battle of (1704)—249-50
Blindage—128, 137
Blood vengeance (vendetta)—42
Boarding—364, 449
Bomarsund, battle of (1854)—9, 287
Bombardier—146
Bombardment—147-48
Bomb ketch—143
Bomb, shell—141-42, 191, 205-06
See also Bombardment; Bomb shelter
Bomb shelter—144
Bomb vessel—145
Bonapartism—407, 409
Bonn, battle of (1703)—268
Bonnet—128, 138
Borodino, battle of (1812)—51, 73, 199,
209, 251-55, 315
Bosnia—106
Bosworth, battle of (1485)—24
Boulogne camp— 217, 302, 361, 368,
400
Brazil—290
Brescia— 277-79
Bridge-head—138, 256-57, 339, 531
Bridges, military—159-63, 531
Brigade— 6, 109, 115, 120-21, 125, 309,
360-61, 380-81, 412-13, 485, 515,
537, 538
Bucharest Peace Treaty (1812)—155
Buda, siege of (1849)—258-61
See also Pesth
Buddhism—285
Bullet—107, 363, 433, 434, 436-49,
451, 453-55, 456-58, 496-99, 511
Bull Run, battle of (1861)—531
Burgundy, wars against Switzerland in
15th cent.—105, 350
Burma— 280-86, 317
See also Anglo-Burmese war of 1852
Byzantium—189, 297, 348
C
Cabool— see Kabul
Calibre—109, 117, 119, 193-98,200-02,
205, 208, 241, 352, 367-69, 435-36,
438, 445, 446, 447, 451, 453, 454,
456, 496-98, 499
Camp—1, 88, 100-01, 102, 111, 262-65,
530-31
— entrenched—97, 265, 331, 335-
36, 338-39, 387, 399, 460
See also Bivouac
Campaign— 71, 77, 97, 103, 111, 234-
35, 371, 530
Campo Formio Peace Treaty (1797)—
150, 216, 398
Candahar— 41, 43, 45, 47, 48, 116, 144,
373, 379, 381, 382, 386, 389, 390
Cannae, battle of (216 B.C.)—36, 296
Cannonade—236, 315
Cannon, gun—105, 107, 109-10, 188-
92, 193-94, 204, 205-06, 431-32
Caponnière— 321, 332, 335
Captain— 237, 410, 426
Capua, battle of (554)—297
Carabine—108, 111, 238, 306-07, 358,
438, 450, 498
Carcass—see Incendiary projectiles
Carronade—145, 241-42, 367, 373, 374
Carthage—364
See also Punic wars
Cartridge—7 \, 109, 110-11, 244-45,
355, 498
Casemate—13, 54, 144, 242, 319, 326,
332-34
Case shot, cartouch—ll, 111, 193, 194,
200, 208, 209, 243, 246-47
Catalaunian Plains, battle of (451)—311
Catapult— 266, 364
Caucasus—77
Cavalier— 54, 323, 325-26, 327, 337
Cavalry—291-316, 522, 528
— in ancient world—85-88, 89-90,
103, 104-05, 291-97, 299, 342-
44, 346, 349-50
— in Middle Ages—72, 95, 104-05,
106-12, 297-99, 348-50, 354-55
— in 17th-18th cent.—108-12, 294-
95, 300-02, 304, 309, 314, 355,
356, 358, 360-61
— in 19th cent.—114, 117-21, 199,
299-300, 301-16, 449-50
— heavy—106, 108, 119, 121,
306-08
— light—106, 119, 121, 293, 298,
306-08
— irregular—86, 112, 293, 296,
297, 298, 308, 311, 380, 382
— horse load—307
— in countries of the East—291-93,
297-98, 311
— Algerian—306
— in America—307, 309, 450,
526-27
— Assyrian—86-87, 291, 292
— Athenian—88-90
— Austrian—120-21, 300, 302,
305, 308, 309, 314
— Carthaginian—294-96
— Egyptian—86, 291, 292, 294,
311
— English—121, 238, 300, 302,
304, 305, 308-09, 526
— French—111, 121, 238, 300-04,
308, 312
— German—297, 302-03
— Greek—292-94, 343
— Hungarian—106
— Indian—380, 526
— Macedonian—95-96, 292-94
— Persian—88, 291-93, 348
— Polish—106, 302-03
— Prussian—111, 300-03, 304, 305,
314, 358
— Roman—96-97, 101, 102-03,
294-97
— Russian—109, 117, 119, 121,
238, 301-02, 305, 308, 309, 312,
314
— Sardinian (Piedmontese) — 306
— Spanish—99, 108, 295, 297
— Spartan—92, 292, 293
— Swedish—109-10, 111, 300-01,
355
— Turkish —106, 355
See also Art of war (tactics of cavalry);
Cossacks; Dragoons; Military training
Champaubert, battle of (1814)—182, 183
Charge, loading, wagon—104, 105, 107,
109-10, 116, 119, 190, 193, 194, 195,
196, 198, 200, 201-02, 203, 205, 206,
307, 356-57, 362-63, 367, 373, 419,
433-38, 439, 440, 442, 446-53,
456-57
Chasseurs—116, 417, 419-23, 424, 425,
426, 428, 438, 465, 515
Châtillon . congress (1814)—180, 181,
186
Chesapeake, battle of (1814)—164
China—142, 188-90, 191, 282-83,
284-86
Chippewa, battle of (1814)—37
Citadel—13, 318, 323
Civilisation, bourgeois—75
Civil militia in Prussia in 1848—410-11,
415
Civil wars in England (1642-49)—25,
300
See also Marston Moor, battle of
(1644); Naseby, battle of (1645)
Clan, clans—41
Club of the Cordeliers—see French Revolution
of 1789-94 (Club of the
Cordeliers)
Code Napoléon—230
Coehorn— 267-68, 332
Colombia— 219, 228, 229, 230, 231
Colonies, colonial policy—67, 68-70
See also Algeria; Anglo-Afghan war of
1838-42; Anglo-Burmese war of 1852;
Franco-Moroccan war of 1844; War of
Independence of Spanish colonies in
South America (1810-26)
Columbus, fort—533
Commissariat—101, 121, 122, 125, 387,
465, 481, 527-28
Comorn, defence of (1849)—259, 260,
339
Company— 58, 106, 108-11, 117, 119,
120, 237, 356, 381, 387, 388, 410-13,
416, 418-19, 426, 429-31, 434, 436,
460-61, 466-67, 487-94, 513, 515,
523, 524, 535, 538-39
Condottieri—342
Confederation of the Rhine—179, 302
Congreve rocket—130
Continental System—83, 154
Copenhagen, bombardment of (1807) —
164
Corps— 6, 77, 109, 115, 120-21, 125,
134, 303, 315, 333, 361, 410, 429,
460, 480
Corvette— 367, 370, 373, 375
Cossacks—14, 47, 119, 293
Counter-guard—328, 330, 334-35
Counterscarp— 321, 323, 326, 329, 334,
338
Coupures— 326, 328, 330, 332-33, 335
Crécy, battle of (1346) —35, 104
Crimean war of 1853-56
— military operations in the Crimea
in 1854-56—7, 14-18
— naval operations—9, 145, 148,
206, 287, 371-72
— and development of military
technology and the art of war—
36, 117, 120, 145, 200, 201, 204,
287, 371, 423, 441
— and the French military system,
influence of Bonapartism on the
conduct of the war—67
— and Prussia—441
See also Alma, battle of (1854); Balaklava,
battle of (1854); Bomarsund, battle
of (1854); Inkerman, battle of (1854);
Kinburn, bombardment of (1855);
Sevastopol, defence of (1854-55);
Sveaborg, bombardment of (1855)
Crown work—327
Crusades— 4, 105, 136, 297
Curtain— 320, 321, 322-26, 327-31,
333, 337
D
Danish-Swedish war of 1657-58—50
Dannigkow (Möckern), battle of (1813)—
288, 303
Danzig, defence of (1807, 1813)—78,
130, 331
Decorations— 98
Defence— 37, 39, 73-74, 209-10
— bastionary—319-32
— of fortresses—144, 192-93, 323,
331-37
— defensive battles, defensive operations—
350
See also Bastion; Fortification
Denmark—152, 157, 164, 365
See also Copenhagen, bombardment of
(1807); Danish-Swedish war of 1657-58
Dennewitz, battle of (1813)—156, 288
Derbent, battle of (1796)—77
Despotisms, Asian—41, 285
Directory—see France (Thermidorian
reaction and Directory)
Discipline, military—37, 52, 103, 106,
263, 355, 463, 489, 493-94, 510
— in the operation of railways—
463
Division—6, 109, 115, 120-22, 198,
302, 313, 315-16, 360-61, 460, 515
Donelson, fort—532-33
Dorians— 94, 340-42, 344, 348
Dragoons— 32, 96, 108-09, 117, 119,
299-302, 308, 311, 315, 380
Dresden, battle of (1813)—176
Drill, company—490-94
Duchy of Warsaw—302
E
East— 86, 188, 190, 292, 297-98, 311,
348
East India Company—399
Eckmühl, battle of (1809)—3, 27, 313
Ecuador— 223, 229-30
Egypt—134
— ancient—85-86, 93, 263, 291
— in modern times—5, 134, 289,
311
Emigration, Polish—131-33
Enceinte— 320, 322, 324, 325, 330, 332,
333, 334, 336
Engineers—120, 161-62, 329-34, 353,
460-64, 465, 498, 528
.See also Sappers
England (Great Britain)
— Angles—365
— in 16th cent.—24-25
— and Afghanistan—43-48, 379-90
— and Algeria—63, 64
— and Brazil—290
— and Burma—280, 285-86
— and France—407, 409, 417
— and Germany—407, 409
— and Persia—43-44
— and Portugal—289-90
— and Russia—44
See also Anglo-Afghan war of 1838-42;
Anglo-American war of 1812-14;
Anglo-Burmese war of 1852; Army,
British; Civil wars in England (1642-
49); Tories (Britain); "War of the
Roses" (1455-85)
English revolution of 1640-60—24-25,
300-01
See also Civil wars in England (1642-
49)
Etoges, battle of (1814)—182, 183
Europe— 21, 190, 311
Expedition to Khiva (1839)—382-83
Experiment, practical—202, 330-31
Eylau—see Preussisch-Eylau, battle of
(1807)
F
Fatherland Association in Germany—81,
392
Feudalism, feudal society—103-06, 110-
1 , 318, 348-56
See also Guilds, guild system; Knighthood;
Nobility; Peasantry; Town,
medieval
Finland—155
Fire
— infantry—72, 73, 109-12, 352,
415, 418, 419, 426, 427, 433-36,
487
— artillery—117, 190-93, 194, 201-
10, 268, 431
— cavalry—110-12, 300-01
See also Ricochet fire; Skirmishing
Flanders
— struggle of Flemish towns against
French knights—349-50
Fleurus, battle of (1794)—149, 267
Flint-lock—25, 110
Fontenoy, battle of (1745) — 37
Foreign policy—351
Fornovo, battle of (1495)—191
Fort— 54, 144, 319, 332, 334-36, 532
Fortification—192, 317-39
— as science—192, 324-25
— permanent—39, 49, 53-54, 127-
28, 137, 138, 144, 192, 248, 256,
268, 317-36, 338
— circular—334
— polygonal—332, 334-35
— tenaille—332, 334
— offensive—317
— defensive—317
— in Middle Ages—192
— siege and defence of fortresses—
36-38, 54, 86-87, 93-94, 127-28,
144, 147-48, 191, 192, 202, 204,
206, 209-10, 248, 267-68, 317,
318, 323-24, 326-27, 328-29,
331-38
— field—25, 37, 39, 49, 113, 138,
248, 256, 263-65, 268, 317,
338-39
See also Siege; Works (fortifications)
Fortresses—see Works (fortifications)
Fougasse—142
See also Bomb, shell
France
— Frenchmen—67, 302-03, 512
— absolutism (17th and 18th
cent.)—56, 63, 249-50
— Thermidorian reaction and Directory—
56-57, 149-51, 216, 398
— Consulate and First Empire—57-
59, 219, 395
— "Hundred Days" of Napoleon—
59, 84, 211, 217, 401
— Restoration—59, 84, 211, 217,
401
— July 1830 revolution—64, 67, 81,
157, 211
— Republican movement—212
— and Algeria—64, 70, 139, 212-13,
418-19, 466
— and Britain—407, 409, 417, 468
— and Egypt—64
— and Germany—407, 409
— and Morocco—212
— and Norway—157
— and Poland—130
— and Prussia—409
— and Spain—211
— and Turkey—64, 67
See also Army, French; Austro-Italo-
French war of 1859; Boulogne camp;
France's war against Augsburg League
(1688-97); France's war against first
European coalition (1792-97); France's
war against second European coalition
( 1798-1801 ) ; Franco-Austro-Spanish-
Dutch war of 1672-79; Franco-
Moroccan war of 1844; Franco-Spanish
war of 1635-59; Franks; French Revolution
of 1789-94; Napoleonic wars; Paris
insurrection (1834)
France's war against Augsburg League
(1688-97)—268
See also Namur, sieges of (1692, 1695)
France's war against first European coalition
(1792-97)—359-60
— formation and organisation of
revolutionary army—113-14, 302-
03, 359-60
— military operations—12, 56, 113,
149, 173, 199-200, 215, 302, 398
— first Italian campaign of
Bonaparte (1796-97) —56-57, 134,
149, 150, 216, 279, 398
See also Aldenhoven, battle of
(1793); Fleuras, battle of (1794); Hondschoote,
battle of (1793); Lodi, battle of
(1796); Mondovi, battle of (1796);
Rivoli, battle of (1797); Roveredo, battle
of (1796); Valmy, battle of (1792)
France's war against second European
coalition (1798-1801)
— invasion of Switzerland by French
troops in 1798—216, 398
— military operations—150-51, 216-
17, 398-99
— Batavian campaign—216, 398-99
— Egyptian expedition of 1798-99—
4, 57, 134, 289, 311
— second Italian campaign of
Bonaparte (1800)—57, 83, 134,
234, 399-400
— and England—199-200, 216,
398-99
See also Hohenlinden, battle of (1800);
Marengo, battle of (1800)
Franco-Austro-Spanish-Dutch war of 1672-
79—267-68
See also Maestricht, siege of (1676);
Nimeguen Peace Treaty (1678)
Franco-Moroccan war of 1844—212-13
See also Isly, battle of (1844)
Franco-Spanish war of 1635-59—13
Franks— 278, 297, 348
Frederikshamm peace (1809)—154
French Revolution of 1789-94
— its character, tasks—56
— role of masses—215
— Club of the Cordeliers— 215, 397
— National Convention, its policy—
56
— counter-revolutionary revolts,
Vendée—56, 151, 215-16, 397-98
— revolutionary terror—56, 215-16,
397-98
— revolutionary wars, army—56,
236
— revolutionary strategy and tactics—
56, 73, 113-14, 215, 302,
354, 360-61, 434
— and development of military technology
and art of war—63, 73,
113-16, 163, 197-98, 301-02, 360,
361, 367, 434
See also Jacobin dictatorship, Jacobins
Friedland, battle of (1807)—78, 134, 199
Frigate
— sailing—366-69
— steam—369, 372, 373, 374, 375
Frisians—365
G
Garcia Hernandez, battle of (1812)—315
Gaul—100-01, 265
Geographical discoveries—365
Geographical environment—see Terrain,
its role in military operations
German Catholicism—81, 392
Germany, German states
— Germans—452
— in Middle Ages—103, 106,
297-99
— and French Revolution of 1789-94
and Napoleonic wars—173-87,
217, 400
— and opposition movement—81-
82, 392
— fragmentation of Germany and
need for unification—82, 392-93
— social development—82, 392-93
— bourgeois liberalism—82, 392
— and Hungary—297
See also Confederation of the Rhine;
German Catholicism; Prussia; Revolution
of 1848-49 in Germany; Teutons;
Tugendbund
Ghuznee—4\, 45, 47, 48, 381, 382, 390
Glacis— 321, 323, 326-27, 331, 334,
336-38
Gold and silver— 277, 282-83
Gorge— 320, 328, 329, 333, 335, 339
Görlitz, battle of (1813)—51
Goths—103, 278, 348
Grand army (Grande armée)—27, 58,
126, 151, 180-82, 217, 400
Granicus, battle of (334 B.C.)—88-89,
96, 293
Greco-Persian wars (500-449 B.C.)—35,
88-91, 92, 341
See also Marathon, battle of (490
B.C.); Mycale, battle of (479 B.C.);
Plataea, battle of (479 B.C.); Thermopylae,
battle of (480 B.C.)
Greece, Ancient— 88-96, 263-64
See also Achaean League; Army, Greek;
Athenian Naval Alliance; Dorians;
Greco-Persian wars (500-449 B.C.);
Macedonia; Peloponnesian war (431-
404 B.C.); Sparta
Grenade—110, 267-68
Grenadiers—110, 358, 418, 465, 515
Grossbeeren, battle of (1813)—156, 288
Guard— 95, 131, 134, 180, 312, 465,
468, 515
Guelphs and Ghibellines—278
Guides— 134
Guilds, guild system— 111, 193, 195, 196
Gunboat— 368, 371, 532, 533
Gun-carriage—117, 190, 191, 193, 195,
198, 199, 200
Gunpowder— 38, 72, 96, 105, 141, 188-
90, 195, 201, 239, 336, 381, 437, 438
Gzhatsk—see Tsarevo Zaimishche
H
Haiti— 224
Hangut, battle of (1714)—9
Helots— 92, 341
Herat, siege of (1837-38)—44-45, 380
Hermannstadt, battle of (1849)—133
Hohenfriedberg, battle of (1745)—302
Hohenlinden, battle of (1800)—234
Hondschoote, battle of (1793)—215
Honvéd—132, 261
Horn work—327
Howitzer— 37, 117, 125, 127, 193, 195-
98, 200-01, 203-04, 205-06, 210, 246,
337, 367, 368, 437
Hundred Years' War (1337-1453)—24,
35, 104, 190, 191
See also Agincourt, battle of (1415);
Crécy, battle of (1346); Poitiers, battle
of (1356)
Hungary—132-33, 258-61, 297
See also Buda, siege of (1849); National
liberation war of 1848-49 in Hungary;
Pesth; Revolution of 1848-49 in
Hungary
Hypothesis— 86
I
Illyria—96
Incendiary projectiles— 93, 142, 188, 190,
206, 239-40
See also Bomb, shell
India—188-90
— natural conditions—188
— Mogul dynasty—42
— Punjab, Sind—43
— religion—285
See also Indian uprising of 1857-59;
Mahrattas; Sepoys; Sikhs
Indian uprising of 1857-59—311, 496
Industry—277
Infantry— 37-38, 71, 96, 262-63, 292,
340-63, 421, 423, 432, 469, 526
— in ancient world—85-90, 91-92,
93, 94-95, 96-97, 98-99, 103-04,
292, 340-48, 350, 354, 358
— in Middle Ages—24, 25, 72, 103,
104, 106-08, 194, 298, 299, 348-
55, 359
— under capitalism — 55, 73, 108-12,
114-15, 116-17, 118-21, 198, 249-
50, 303, 313-16, 355-59, 360-63,
431, 434, 436, 498
— of grenadiers—110
— light—37, 55, 90, 97, 101, 110,
117, 118, 120, 121, 257, 341-45,
359, 362, 363, 416, 417-28, 438
— line—55, 74, 103, 118, 121, 344-
45, 347, 359, 362, 363, 439, 464-
65, 467
— heavy—103, 341, 350
— militia—349
— irregular—110, 359-61
— naval—366
— Assyrian — 86
— Athenian—88-90, 342
— Austrian—117-19
— Belgian—116, 350
— Carthaginian—294-96
— Egyptian—85
— English—18, 116-17, 118, 119,
121
— French—114, 116-17, 118-19,
302, 359-63, 417-28, 469
— Greek—89, 103, 292, 294, 340-44
— Macedonian—343-44
— Persian—88
— Prussian—111, 116-17, 118, 119,
357-59
— Roman—96-102, 294-96, 344-47,
354
— Russian—116, 118, 119
— Swedish —109, 194, 354-55
— Swiss—299, 350-51
— of mercenaries—106, 299, 354
See also Art of war (tactics of infantry);
Chasseurs; Landsknechts; Pikemen
and musketeers; Zouaves
Inkerman, battle of (1854)—117, 140,
164
Interaction of combat arms—114
Inventions
— military—72, 105, 188-90, 194-95,
333, 367-73
— and science—196
— compass—364
— gunpowder—72, 96, 105, 188-90,
336
— steamer of Fulton — 369
— screw propeller—370
Iran—see Persia
Islam—42
Isly, battle of (1844)—212-13
Italian war of 1859—see Austro-Italo-
French war of 1859
Italian wars of 1494-1559—191-92, 278,
351
See also Fornovo, battle of (1495);
Marignano, battle of (1515); Novara,
battle of (1513); Pavia, battle of
(1525); Renty, battle of (1554)
Italy
— population in antiquity—278
— in Middle Ages—93, 105
— industry—277
— and Austria—278-79
See also Austro-Italian war of 1848-49;
Austro-Italo-French war of 1859; Brescia;
Guelphs and Ghibellines; Italian
wars of 1494-1559; Kingdom of Sardinia
(Piedmont); Revolution of 1848-
49 in Italian states; Rome, Ancient;
Venice
J
Jacobin dictatorship, Jacobins
— Committee of Public Safety—215,
397
— and revolutionary terror—56,
215-17, 397-98
— 9th Thermidor—56, 216, 398
Janizaries—63
Jewish war (66-73)—263, 266
Jews— 61, 64, 305
— ancient—263
Jugurthine war (111-105 B.C.)—98
Junin, battle of (1824)—170
K
Kabul (Cabool)—41, 42-43, 45-48, 379-
81, 383-86, 389-90
Kabyles— 419, 426, 428
Katzbach, battle of (1813)—175-76, 187
Kentucky— 527, 530, 533
Kesselsdorf, battle of (1745)—302
Kiel Peace Treaty (1814)—157
Kinburn, bombardment of (1855)—-371
Kingdom of Sardinia (Piedmont)—13,
216
See also Alessandria
Knighthood— 72, 104, 106, 298, 299,
349
— its decline—299, 354
— French—297, 349
— German — 297
— Spanish —297
— Knights of St. John—4, 63
Kolin, battle of (1757)—73
Königswartha, battle of (1813) — 51
Kunersdorf, battle of (1759) —73, 197
Kynoskephalae, battle of (197 B.C.)—100
L
Landau, sieges of (1702-04, 1713)—330
Landshut, battle of (1809) — 3
Landsknechts—299, 351
Landwehr—120, 305, 308
Laon, battle of (1814)—184-85, 186, 403
La Plata—see Argentina
La Rothihe, battle of (1814)—180, 186
Latin America—219-33
See also Argentina; Colombia; Ecuador;
Mexico; Peru; Venezuela; War of Independence
of Spanish colonies in South
America (1810-26)
Laupen, battle of (1339) —350
Lech
— battle of (955)—297
— battle of (1632)—110
Legion, Roman— 72, 97-102, 263, 294-
96, 344-47
Leipzig (Leipsic)—110
— battle of (1631)—110
— battle of (1813)—33, 52, 78, 157,
176-78, 312, 403
— shooting down of demonstration
in 1845—81, 392
Leuctra, battle of (371 B.C.) —36, 92
Leuthen, battle of (1757)—73, 196, 302
Lévites—263
Lexington and Concord, battle of (1775) —
359
Ligny, battle of (1815)—186, 315, 403
Limber—119, 192, 194-95, 198-200,
208
Llaneros—229
Lodi, battle of (1796)—56, 277
Lombardy—211, 515, 517
Luckau, battle of (1813)—288, 403
Lunette—331, 334
Lützen
— battle of (1632)—110
— battle of (1813)—135, 174, 304
M
Macedonia
— ancient—72, 93-96, 100, 104-05,
159, 292-95, 343-44
— Alexander of Macedon's campaigns
(334-325 B.C.)—23, 88,
95, 96, 104, 159, 292-93, 294
See also Arbela, battle of (331 B.C.);
Army, Macedonian; Granicus, battle of
(334 B.C.)
Maestricht
— siege of (1676)—267
— siege of (1794)—149
Magenta, battle of (1859)—423, 514,
516
Mahrattas (Marathas)—42
Malays—55
Malplaquet, battle of (1709)—195, 357
Malta— 63
Mamelukes— 311
Manipulas, Roman—97-100, 345-47
Mantinea, battle of (362 B.C.)—36, 93
Marabouts— 69
Marathon, battle of (490 B.C.)—35, 88,
89
Marengo, battle of (1800)—57, 134, 234,
395, 399
Marignano, battle of (1515)—107
Marston Moor, battle of (1644)—300
Mathematics
— and art of war—196, 325, 328,
363, 430
Maximilian towers—334
Mercenaries, Swiss— 93, 118, 299, 351
Merchant fleet and navigation—370
Merseburg, battle of (933)—297
Mexico—231
See also US-Mexican war of 1846-48
Military engineering—see Art of war
(engineering); Bridges, military; Engineers;
Fortification
Military establishments—121-22, 125
Military frontier (of Austrian Empire)—
110, 359
Military science—103, 125, 191-92, 197,
318-19, 324-25, 328-29, 429, 469
See also Artillery (as science); Art of
war; Fortification (as science)
Military service duty— 89-90, 97, 100,
361-62
Military training—87, 89, 91, 96-97,
103, 108, 110, 113, 118, 125, 195,
301-04, 307-08, 344, 355, 361-63,
415, 421-23, 424-26, 429, 459, 461,
480-82, 501-02, 508. 513-14, 519-20.
526-27
See also Drill, company; Fire; Physical
training
Militia—68, 410, 411, 416, 535
— in Athens—89, 342
See also Civil militia in Prussia in
1848; Volunteers, British
Mill Springs, battle of (1862)—531-32
Mining gallery—338
MOckern—see Dannigkow (Mackern), battle
of (1813)
Mottwitt, battU of (1741)—111, 301
Monarchy— 351
— oriental—41
— slave-holding—94
— absolute—351
See also Despotisms, Asian
Mondavi, battle of (1796)—56
Money circulation—283-84
See also Gold and silver
Mongols, Mongol conquests in 13th cent.—
105, 142, 188, 298
Monopoly, state—283
Montmirail, battle of (1814)—182-83
Moors—61, 62, 297
Moral factor in warfare—37, 310, 424,
469, 533-34
Mortar—128, 195, 197, 205-06, 267,
337, 437
Moscow— 47, 51, 58, 155-56, 251, 255
Mountain warfare—20, 39, 105, 132,
200-01
See also Abatis; Amusette
Musketeers—see Pikemen and musketeers
Muthul, battle of (109 B.C.)—98
Mycale, battle of (479 B.C.)—88
N
Namur, sieges of (1692, 1695)—268
Napoleonic wars
— as continuation of wars of French
Republic—114-16, 136, 360-61
— their character—121, 136
— peoples' struggle against
Napoleonic domination—33
— and Continental System—83, 154
— and development of military technology
and art of war—13, 36,
73, 114-15, 116, 136, 162, 198,
199, 210, 302-04, 312-14, 335,
361-62, 368
— naval operations—63
— war against third European coalition
(1805)—58, 151, 173, 302
See also Austerlitz, battle of (1805);
Ulm, capitulation of (1805)
— war against fourth European
coalition (1806-07)—50, 77, 78,
134, 151-52, 164, 173, 174, 186-87,
199, 211, 217, 302, 331, 359
See also Auerstädt, battle of (1806);
Danzig, defence of (1807); Friedland,
battle of (1807); Peace of Tilsit (1807);
Preussisch-Eylau, battle of (1807)
— war against fifth European coalition
(1809)—3, 27-33, 58, 134-35,
152, 162, 302-03, 313, 361
See also Abensberg, battle of (1809);
Aspern and Essling, battle of (1809);
Eckmühl, battle of (1809); Wagram,
battle of (1809); Walcheren expedition
(1809)
— Napoleon's defeat in war against
Russia (1812)—see Patriotic war of
1812 (Russia)
— war against sixth European coalition
(1813-14)—34, 51-52, 78,
134-35, 156-57, 174-87, 234, 256,
302-04, 335
See also Bautzen, battle of (1813);
Châtillon congress (1814); Dannigkow
(Möckern), battle of (1813); Danzig,
defence of (1813); Dennewitt, battle of
(1813); Dresden, battle of (1813);
Etoges, battle of (1814); Görlitz, battle
of (1813); Katzbach, battle of (1813);
La Rothière, battle of (1814); Leipzig,
battle of (1813); Lûtzen, battle of
(1813); Montmirail, battle of (1814);
Paris, battle of (1814); Paris Peace
Treaty of 1814; Trachenberg truce
(1813)
— war against seventh European coalition
(1815)—34-35, 52, 147,
186-87, 211, 217, 304, 315, 335,
472. See also Ligny, battle of
(1815); Waterloo, battle of (1815)
See also Boulogne camp; Continental
System; Patriotic war of 1812 (Russia);
Peninsular war (1808-14)
Naseby, battle of (1645)—300
National liberation war of 1848-49 in
Hungary—132, 133, 259-61, 339
Nation, national character—424, 512
Navigation—364-65, 367
See also Merchant fleet and navigation
Navy— 364-75
— in antiquity—364-65
— in Middle Ages—160, 365-66
— development of naval technology
and shipbuilding under capitalism—
143, 145, 366-75
— armament, naval artillery—143,
166-67, 190-91, 204-06, 241-42,
244, 246, 364, 366-69, 371-75
— sailing—364-66, 374-75
— steam-propelled—369-71
— steel-plated—371-72
— tonnage of warships—366-67
— naval tactics—143, 148, 206, 364-
65, 369, 370, 372-73, 375
— British—145, 167, 205, 237, 241-
42, 244, 246, 287, 366-68, 371-72,
373-74, 450
— French—190-91, 205, 237, 242,
244, 287, 367-68, 370-72, 374,
450, 468
— Russian—450
— Spanish—166-69, 367-68
— US—205, 241-42, 374, 450
See also Armament, arms (on warships);
Captain; Carronade; Navigation;
Warship
Needle gun—see Rifle
Needs and their satisfaction—435
Netherlands— 63, 172
See also Revolution of 1566-1609 in
Netherlands
New Granada—see Colombia
New Zealand—317
Nimeguen Peace Treaty (1678)—267
Nobility—106, 349-51
Northern War (1700-21)—9
See also Hangut, battle of (1714)
Northmen— 365
Norway— 155-57
Novara, battle of (1513)—299
O
Ochakov, battle of (1788)—76
Offensive, offensive operations—11, 34,
37, 74-75, 316, 317, 350, 514
See also Attack; Siege
Order of battle— 73, 75, 90-95, 97,
98-101, 102, 103-04, 105, 106, 107,
108-16, 182, 295, 298, 303-04, 308-
10, 311, 312-14, 341-47, 350, 352-58,
360-61, 373, 515
Ordnance
— in the East and in Western
Europe in Middle Ages—87,
189-92
— cast-iron—109, 194
— leather—109, 194
— heavy—107, 204
— fortress—192-93, 204, 334, 335,
337-38
— naval—190-91, 204, 205
See also Amusette; Cannon, gun; Carronade;
Catapult; Howitzer; Mortar
Örebro Treaty of 1812—155
Orthes, battle of (1814)—290
Ostrolenka, battle of (1831)—131
Oszmiana, battle of (1794)—76
P
Painting—319
Parallels (in siege)—329, 337, 338
Parapet—SI, 128-29, 138, 318, 320-23,
337-38, 339
Paris, battle o/ (1814)—186
Paris insurrection (1834)—212
Paris Peace Treaty of 1814—186
Patricians— 344
Patriotic war of 1812 (Russia)—50, 51,
58, 91, 126, 155-56, 234, 256, 302
See also Borodino, battle of (1812);
Smolensk, battle of (1812); Tsarevo
Zaimishche
Pavia, battle of (1525)—24, 107, 351
Peace of Tilsit (1807)—152, 174
Peasantry—103, 298, 350
Peloponnesian war (431-404 B.C.)—90,
91, 341-42
See also Sicilian expedition of Athens
(415 B.C.)
Peninsular war (1808-14)—10-11, 19,
126, 134, 164, 289-90, 315, 339
See also Albuera, battle of (1811);
Almeida, battle of (1811); Badajos,
battles of (1811-12); Bidassoa, battle of
(1813); Garcia Hernandez, battle of
(1812); Salamanca, batttle of (1812);
Vittoria, battle of (1813)
Periaeci— 92, 340, 341
Persia (Iran)—87
— ancient—86-88, 93, 159, 291-92,
293, 317, 343, 348
— as object of British colonial expansion—
43-44
— and Afghanistan—42-44
— and France—43
— and Russia—44, 77
Peru— 230
Peshawer— 41, 379
Pesth—132
See also Buda, siege of (1849)
Phalanx
— Athenean—88, 89, 90, 93, 341-42
— Spartan—88, 90, 91-93, 341
— Theban (Epaminondas)—342-43
— Macedonian—94-95, 105, 343-44
— medieval—105, 350
Phoenicia, Phoenicians—364
Physical training
— military bearing—493-94
— physique—415, 420-21
— running—362, 421-23, 428
— gymnastic exercises—424-26, 513
Piedmont—see Kingdom of Sardinia
Pikemen and musketeers—24, 55, 107-10,
352-56
Piracy, privateering—63-64
Pirmasens, battle of (1793)—199
Plataea, battle of (479 B.C.)—35, 88, 90,
92
Plebeians, plebs—344
Poitiers, battle of (1356)—35, 104
Poland
— history—105, 106, 298
— Kosciuszko uprising (1794)—76
See also Oszmiana, battle of (1794)
— and Napoleonic wars—130,
302-03
— uprising of 1830-31 — 131, 158
See also Ostrolenka, battle of (1831)
— and 1848-49 revolution—131-32
— Tsarist policy towards Poland—
131
See also Polish question
Polish question—131-32
Portugal—19, 131, 189, 289, 290
Preussisch-Eylau, battle of (1807)—50,
77-78, 134
Prussia
— and French Revolution of 1789-94
and Napoleonic wars—173-74
See also Aldenhoven, battle of (1793);
Army, Prussian; Civil militia in Prussia
in 1848; Tugendbund
Punic wars—297, 345
— first (264-241 B.C.)—364-65
— second (218-201 B.C.)—36, 294-
96, 346
See also Cannae, battle of (216 B.C.);
Ticinus, battle of (218 B.C.)
Q
Quito—see Ecuador
R
Railways, their role in war—462-63
Ravelin— 320-24, 326-32, 336-38
Redan—164, 338, 339
Redoubt— 339
Réduit— 328, 332, 334
Regiment—108, 109, 119, 120, 125,
194, 197-99, 303, 309, 312, 313, 353,
356, 380, 381, 382, 386, 387, 423,
424, 465, 466-67, 513, 526
Renty, battle of (1554)—192
Reserve—115
— infantry—199, 210
— cavalry—199, 304, 315-16
— artillery—196, 198, 199, 210
Revolution of 1566-1609 in Netherlands—
107, 193, 299, 327, 353
Revolution of 1830 in France—see
France (July 1830 revolution)
Revolution of 1848-49 in Austrian Empire
— October 1848 uprising in Vienna—
82, 131-32, 393
— and Hungary—132-33
— and Italy—278-79
— and Poland—131-32
See also Revolution of 1848-49 in
Hungary; Revolution of 1848-49 in
Italian states; Vienna mobile guard
Revolution of 1848-49 in France—213
Revolution of 1848-49 in Germany—81-
82, 392-93
— Preliminary Parliament—82, 392
— Frankfurt Parliament—82, 392,
393
Revolution of 1848-49 in Hungary—132-
33
See also National liberation war of
1848-49 in Hungary
Revolution of 1848-49 in Italian states—
278-79
See also Austro-Italian war of 1848-49
Revolver— 307', 449
Ricochet fire—138, 207, 328, 337, 338
Rifle
_ Wild—435-36
— Whitworth—452-57, 458, 495-99
— Delvigne—116, 362, 419, 436-40,
456
— Lancaster—435, 495-99
— Mimé—18, 116-17, 244, 362,
439-42
— Prussian needle gun—116, 362,
441, 450-52, 453, 458
— Prélat—441, 446
_ Swiss—435-36, 441, 446-47, 451,
457, 458, 498
— Thouvenin—116, 438-40, 456
— Enfield—117, 238, 244, 441, 443-
44, 445, 446, 451, 453-56, 458,
495-99
— firing—116, 357, 362-63, 487,
495-99, 519-20
See also Ammunition; Armament, arms
(rifled fire-arms); Bullet; Calibre; Cartridge;
Skirmishing
Rivoli, battle of (1797)—56, 134, 216,
398
Rome, Ancient— 3, 263-65, 365
— tribes—97
— conquest of Greece and
Macedonia—see Kynoskephalae,
battle of (197 B.C.)
— civil wars—98
— conquest of Gaul—100
— decline of Roman Empire—278,
365
— and conquered peoples—62
— and German tribes—103, 264,
278, 297, 348, 365
— navy—364-65
— praetorians—102
See also Army, Roman; Jugurthine war
' (111-105 B.C.); Patricians; Plebeians,
plebs; Punic wars; Samnite wars
Rossbach, battle of (1757)—302, 309
Roveredo, battle of (1796)—134
Russia
— Pugachov rebellion—76
— December 1825 uprising—131
— and Britain—44, 155
— and Central Asia—44, 382
— and Hungary—133
— and Persia—44, 77
— and Poland—130
— and Sweden—155
See also Army, Russian; Caucasus;
Northern War (1700-21); Patriotic war
of 1812 (Russia); Russo-Swedish war of
1808-09; Russo-Turkish war of
1787-91
Russo-Swedish war of 1808-09—9, 50
See also Frederikshamm peace (1809)
Russo-Turkish war of 1787-91—76
See also Ochakov, battle of (1788)
S
Salamanca, battle of (1812)—290
Samnite wars (4th-3rd cent. B.C.)—345
Samos, military expedition against (440
B.C.)—93
Sappers—120, 137, 382, 460-64
Scarp— 321, 323, 334
See also Counterscarp
Schässburg, battle of (1849)—133
Schiller Association— 81, 392
Sculpture— 243
Scythians— 317
Sepoys—46
Sevastopol, defence of (1854-55)—140,
148, 165, 204, 334
Seven Years' War (1756-63)—73, 76,
116, 172, 197, 302, 309, 315, 339
See also Kolin, battle of (1757);
Kunersdorf, battle of (1759); Leuthen,
battle of (1757); Rossbach, battle of
(1757); Zorndorf, battle of (1758)
Sheeahs (Shiites)—42
ShrapneU—71, 201, 239, 246
See also Bomb, shell
Sicilian expedition of Athens (415 B.C.)—
91-92
Siege— 93, 147-48
See also Fortification (siege and defence
of fortresses)
Sikhs— 43, 44, 379, 380, 381, 383
Silesia—105
Silesian war, first (1740-42)—301
Skirmishing— 425-26, 434
Slavery—63
Smolensk, battle of (1812)—51
Solferino, battle of (1859)—423, 514
Soonees (Sunnites)—42
South America—see Latin America
Spain
— during Arab domination and reconquest—
62, 105, 189-90, 191,
351
— absolutism—166-69, 191-92
— second Spanish revolution (1820-
23)—211, 228-29
— army, navy—166-69, 189, 190,
351
— clergy—166
— and Algeria—62-63
— and England—166-69
— and France—211
— and Holland—168, 193, 299
See also War of Independence of Spanish
colonies in South America (1810-26)
Sparta— 91-93, 263, 340-42
See also Army, Spartan; Helots;
Periaeci
Speyerbach, battle of (1703)—55
Stockholm Treaty (1813)—156
Striegau—see Hohenfriedberg, battle of
(1745)
Sveaborg, bombardment of (1855)—145,
206, 371
Sweden—152, 153-58, 217
Switzerland—105, 217, 299, 350-51
— struggle of Swiss peasants against
Austrian and Swiss feudal lords—
105, 350-51
T
Tafna Treaty (1837)—212
Taxes— 283-84
Temesvâr, battle of (1849)—133
Tenaille— 321, 323, 330, 332, 333, 334
Terrain, its role in military operations—
57, 73, 74, 114, 139, 192, 203, 204,
262, 303, 312, 316, 317, 342, 345-47,
350-51, 355, 357, 359-61, 415, 420,
424, 426, 462, 481, 482, 517, 536-39
Teutons—103, 190, 264-65, 278, 297,
348, 365
Theory and practice— 82, 202, 205, 318,
319, 328-29, 334-35, 363
— scientific theories—196, 202, 206
— theory and practice of warfare—
192, 196, 201-02, 205, 206, 313-14,
318-19, 328-29, 334-35, 363, 429,
432, 452
— experiment—441
Thermopylae, battle of (480 B.C.)—35,
88
Thirty Years' War (1618-48)—109-10,
159, 194, 195, 300, 354, 355
See also Lech, battle of (1632); Leipzig,
battle of (1631); Lützen, battle of
(1632)
Thorn, siege of (1813)—51
Ticinus, battle of (218 B.C.)—295
Tonnage of warships—365-67
Tories (Britain)—290
Toulouse, battle of (1814)—290
Tower— 318-19, 322, 330
See also Bastion
Town, medieval—106, 349, 350
— handicraft—111
Trachenberg truce (1813)—174
Trajectory— 435, 440, 446-47, 451, 454,
456, 457
Transylvania—132-33
Travers—129, 321
Treaty of Abo (1812)—156
Trebia, battle of (218 B.C.)—295
Tribe, tribes— 42, 89, 91
Troops, control of—122
Tsarevo Zaimishche, position at—51, 251
Tugendbund— 174
Turco-Egyptian war of 1831-33—4
Turkey
— wars of conquest (14th-17th
cent.)—63, 259, 332
— and Algeria—62-63, 67
U
Ulm, capitulation of (1805)—58
United States of America—527
— and Algeria—63-64
See also American Civil War (1861-
65); American War of Independence
(1775-83); Anglo-American war of
1812-14; Army, US; US-Mexican war
of 1846-48
US-Mexican war of 1846-48—161, 527
V
Valmy, battle of (1792)—236
Veauchamps, battle of (1814)—182, 183
Venezuela—219-22, 224-28, 230, 232
Venue— 279
Verceüae, battle of (101 B.C.)—265
Vienna, defence of (1683)—332
Vienna mobile guard—131
Vittoria, battle of (1813)—269, 290
Volunteers, British—409-12, 479-83,
539-41
— strength—409-10, 416, 535
— commanders—410-12, 414-16,
480-83, 484-86, 522-24, 540
— system of military education—
411-16, 417, 424, 432, 459, 462-
64, 480-83, 488-94, 500-03, 519,
520, 536-40
— artillery—410, 429-32
— engineers—460-64
— review at Newton in 1860—412-
15, 416, 518, 535
— manoeuvres at Heaton Park—
535-40
— manoeuvres at Brighton and
Wimbledon—484-89
— significance of regular army for
formation of volunteer troops—
415-16, 463, 483, 485-86, 491,
501-03, 522-23, 527-29, 537, 540
W '
Wagram, battle of (1809)—58, 152-53,
162, 199, 210, 313
Wahlstatt, battle of (1241)—298
Weicheren expedition (1809)—134, 153
War-chariots-85, 86, 87, 88-89, 291,
292
War-engines—93
War of Austrian Succession (1740-48)—
37, 111-12, 268, 301-02
See also Hohenfriedberg, battle of
(1745); Kesselsdorf, battle of (1745);
Mollwitz, battle of (1741); Silesian war,
first (1740-42)
War of Independence of Spanish colonies in
South America (1810-26)—219-31
See also Ayacucho, battle of (1824);
Junin, battle of (1824)
"War of the Roses" (1455-85)—24
War of Spanish Succession (1701-14)—
55, 195, 249-50, 268, 330, 339,
356-57
See also Blenheim, battle of (1704);
Malplaquet, battle of (1709); Speyerbach,
battU of (1703)
Warship— 365, 366, 372, 373, 374-75
— of the line—369-72, 373, 374
— bomb—366
— sailing—364-68, 370, 371
— paddle-steamer—369-71
— screw—370-71
— shot-proof—371-72
See also Battery, floating; Bomb ketch;
Bomb vessel; Corvette; Frigate; Gunboat
War, wars
— in slave-owning society—136
— in feudal society—103-05, 136
— methods of warfare—104, 114,
525-26
— offensive and defensive—85
— colonial—see Anglo-Afghan war of
1838-42; Anglo-Burmese war of
1852; Franco-Moroccan war of
1844; War of Independence of Spanish
colonies in South America (1810-
26)
— revolutionary—107, 113-14, 302,
359, 434
— national-liberation—see Algeria;
American War of Independence
(1775-83); National liberation war
of 1848-49 in Hungary; Patriotic
war of 1812 (Russia); War of Independence
of Spanish colonies in South
America (1810-26)
— partisan—132, 359
— insurrectionary—187
— forms and character of military
operations in land warfare—132,
187, 191, 335, 427
— naval—372-73
— mountain—132
See also American Civil War (1861-
65); American War of Independence
(1775-83); Anglo-Afghan war of 1838-
42; Anglo-American war of 1812-14;
Anglo-Burmese war of 1852; Army; Art
of war; Austro-Italian war of 1848-49;
Austro-Italo-French war of 1859; Belgian-
Dutch war of 1831-33; Crimean
war of 1853-56; Danish-Swedish war of
1657-58; France's war against Augsburg
League (1688-97); France's war against
first European coalition (1792-97);
France's war against second European
coalition (1798-1801); Franco-Austro-
Spanish-Dutch war of 1672-79; Franco-
Moroccan war of 1844; Greco-Persian
wars (500-449 B.C.); Hundred Years'
War (1337-1453); Italian wars of
1494-1559; Jugurthine war (111-105
B.C.); Military science; Napoleonic
wars; National liberation war of 1848-
49 in Hungary; Navy; Northern War
(1700-21); Patriotic war of 1812 (Russia);
Peloponnesian war (431-404
B.C.); Peninsular war (1808-14); Punic
wars; Russo-Swedish war of 1808-09;
Russo-Turkish war of 1787-91; Seven
Years' War (1756-63); Silesian war,
first (1740-42); Thirty Years' War
(1618-48); Turco-Egyptian war of
1831-33; US-Mexican war of 1846-48;
War of Austrian Succession (1740-48);
War of Independence of Spanish colonies
in South America (1810-26); "War of
the Roses" (1455-85); War of Spanish
Succession (1701-14)
Waterloo, battle of (1815)—31, 33, 34,
35, 52, 147, 186, 217, 288, 304, 312,
313, 315, 401
Works (fortifications)
— stockade — 317
— masonry walls—318, 319
— earth—318-19, 332
— Italian system—322-24, 325
— D. Speckle—325-27
— Vauban—319-21, 325-26, 328-30,
338
— German system — 325-26, 332,
333
— Dutch system —327-28, 331-32
— Coehorn—267-68, 331-32
— Cormontaigne — 54, 330-32, 334,
338
— Mézières school of engineers—
331
— Montalembert—13, 54, 333-35
— fortresses—332-36
— field—338-39
— outworks—320, 335
— polygonal—332, 334
— detached forts—335, 336
See also Barbette; Bastion; Berme;
Blindage; Bonnet; Bridge-head; Camp;
Casemate; Cavalier; Counter-guard;
Counterscarp; Coupures; Crown work;
Curtain; Enceinte; Gorge; Lunette;
Maximilian towers; Parapet; Ravelin;
Réduit; Scarp; Tenaille; Travers
Z
Zorndorf, battle of (1758) —302, 315
Zouaves—118, 419-20, 426-28, 438,
465, 516






MECW VOL 19






A
Aesthetics—250-51
Amnesty— 243-44
Ancient Egypt—120
Ancient Rome—40-41
Ancient World— 209-10
See also Ancient Rome
Anglo-Afghan war of 1838-42—23, 78
Anglo-French-Chinese war of 1856-60—
30, 196
Anglo-French commercial treaty of 1860—
162
Anglo-Persian war of 1856-57—78, 225
Anglo-US war of 1812-14
— general points—90, 94, 111-12,
132, 140-41, 157, 184-85, 199,
258
— Ghent Peace, Treaty of 1814 —
112
Annexation—68
Aristocracy, nobility, English—22, 240,
241
Army—124, 226, 303-07, 312-16
— Austrian—193, 318
— Danish —317-19
— English—274-75, 283, 287-88, 313-
15
— French—83, 84, 178-79, 186-87,
312-13
— German —303, 305, 314, 316
— Prussian—304, 305, 315-16,
318-19
— Russian—275-77, 287-88
_ US—178-79, 186-88, 258, 289-92
See also Art of war; Artillery; Military
science; Navy; War, wars
Artillery— 289-95
Art of war—110, 188-95, 204-05, 274-
75, 287-88, 298-99
Australia— 58, 64, 83, 132, 162
Austria—3, 5
See also Army (Austrian); Austro-Italo-
French war of 1859;
Austro-Italo-French war of 1859—5-6, 29-
30, 89, 130, 192, 293
B
Balance of payments—63-65
Balance of trade—63-65
Bengal— 19
Blacks
— slave labour—20, 39-40, 44, 50,
54, 227
— slave trade—10,37-40,157,202-03,
263
— in USA—10, 12-13, 20, 32, 36-40,
44-49, 50-51, 54, 203, 258
— in West Indies—51, 54
See also Slave trade; US Civil War
(1861-65)
Bonapartism— 83, 84, 296
Bourgeoisie, English— 21, 22, 109, 162,
168, 241
— its pseudo-humanity—209-12
Bourgeoisie, French—81, 83, 84
Bourgeoisie, German—296-97
C
California
— gold mines—83, 86, 101
Chauvinism
— and war—64
China—18, 19, 111, 216, 218, 292
See also Anglo-French-Chinese war of
1856-60; Taiping uprising of 1850-64
Civilisation—125
Colonial wars—78
Colonial wars of Great Britain—see Anglo-
Afghan war of 1838-42; Anglo-French-
Chinese war of 1856-60; Anglo-Persian
war of 1856-57
Corruption— 84
Cosmopolitanism—108
Craft, craftsmen— 252-53, 255
Crimean war of 1853-56—29-30, 124,
138, 153, 199, 274-88, 293
Cuba—10, 37
D
Danish war of 1864—317-19
Democratic Party (USA) —9-11, 35-36,
37-39, 41-42, 116, 227, 249, 263-64,
266, 268-69
Denmark— 3-6, 23, 292
See also Danish war of 1864; Language
(Danish); Schleswig-Holstein
Dictatorship, counter-revolutionary
— military—48, 80-81
Division of labour
— and individuality—163
— and interests—22
— its development—22, 120, 163
E
Economic crises
— overproduction as main form of
manifestation of crises—161-62
— and market situation—161-62
— crisis of 1846-47—160-61
— crisis of 1857-59—160-61
Emigration
— as social phenomenon — 53, 259
— political emigration—341, 346-47
— English—259
— German—335-36, 341-42, 244,
346-47, 350-51
— German in England—320, 336
— German in USA—48, 50
— Irish in USA—53, 259, 263-64
England (Great Britain)
— general points—163, 219
— history—21-23, 53, 101-02, 141-
42, 153, 246
— England in the 1860s —53-56,
143-44, 167-68, 171, 209
— economy—53-61, 63-65, 111,
149-52, 160-62, 231
— cotton crisis ("dearth of cotton")
in early 1860s—17-20, 53-56, 59-
60, 62, 63, 111, 153-54, 157,
160-62, 239-40
— social and political system—21,
22, 102, 125, 163, 219-21, 246,
303-04
— legislation—153, 239, 245-47
— Electoral Reform Bill of 1832 —
21, 153
— Catholic Emancipation law of 1829
— 21, 153
— colonial policy—67-68, 77-78, 162,
210
— foreign policy, diplomacy—21-23,
71, 108-09, 124-26, 153, 154, 167,
169-70, 172-73, 246
— press, bourgeois—21-31, 105,
128-30, 138-39, 230-31
— and France—29, 61, 64, 69-70,
196, 211
— and Italy—59, 64, 236-38, 245-46
— and Latin American states—69, 77
— and Mexico—67-78, 113-14, 169-
70, 172-77, 196-98
— and Morocco—170
— and Spain—169-70, 173, 176-77
— and Switzerland—66, 72
— and the United States of America
(US Civil War)—17, 18, 19-20,
24-26, 29, 32, 43, 55-60, 63-65,
89-100, 105-06, 114, 125-27, 129-
34, 135-43, 145-47, 153-56, 157-
61, 169, 182-85, 202-03, 211, 230-
32, 239-40, 241-42
See also Anglo-Afghan war of 1838-42;
Anglo-French-Chinese war of 1856-60;
Anglo-French commercial treaty of 1860;
Anglo-Persian war of 1856-57; Anglo-
US war of 1812-14; Aristocracy, nobility,
English; Army (English);
Bourgeoisie, English; Crimean war of
1853-56; Emigration (English); Factory
legislation; Language (English); London;
Manchester School; Navy (English);
Parliament, British; Poor laws;
Tories (England); Whigs (England);
Working class in Great Britain; Workingclass
movement in Great Britain
Europe—5-6, 21
See also Language (European languages)
F
Factory legislation
— Ten Hours' Bill—153
Foreign and domestic policy—23, 37
France
— economy—30-31, 62-63
— on eve of bourgeois revolution of
18th cent.—80
— Restoration—69, 77
— July monarchy—84
— Second Empire (1830-48) —80-81,
83, 211-12
— industry—83
— railways—83
— agriculture—62, 65, 83
— trade—30-31, 62, 63-64, 83
— finances—30-31, 61-63, 79-85,
196
— banks—30-31, 61, 62
— Crédit Mobilier—61, 62-63
— financial and economic policy—
61-63, 80-81, 83
— home policy—30-31, 83-85, 111
— corruption of ruling circles—83-
84
— policy of manoeuvring between
antagonistic classes—83, 84
— public works—83, 84
— press—28-29, 79, 105-11
— monarchist factions—28-29
— bourgeoisie—83-84
— the masses — 29
— working class—83, 84
— growth of opposition sentiments—
84-85
— foreign policy of France during
Second Empire—3, 29-30, 66-67,
71-72, 173-74, 196
— Bonapartism and wars — 29-30,
83-84, 111, 224-25
— and Crimean war—see Crimean
war of 1853-56
— and England—27-31, 64, 66-67,
111, 174-75, 196, 224-25, 264-65
— and Greece—196
— and Italy—29-30, 162, 196, 245
— and Prussia—27-28
— and Spain—71, 169, 174-75
— and Switzerland—66, 72
— and USA—29-31, 111, 196,
264-65
— colonial policy of the Second Empire—
29-31
— and Turkey as object of colonial
expansion — 196
See also Anglo-French-Chinese war of
1856-60; Anglo-French commercial treaty
of 1860; Army (French); Austro-
Italo-French war of 1859; Bonapartism;
Bourgeoisie, French; Mexican expedition
of 1861-67; Napoleonic wars; Navy
(French); Paris
Free Trade movement—162
G
German Confederation (1815-66)
— Federal Diet—296, 350-51, 357
German Worker's Educational Society in
London (1840-1918)—296-97
Germany—58, 64
See also Army (German); Bourgeoisie,
German; Emigration (German, German
in England, German in USA);
German Confederation; Hanover; Language
(German)
Great Britain—see England (Great
Britain)
Greece—252
Ground rent—329-33
H
Haiti— 229
Hanover—43
Holy Alliance
— its history—68-70, 77, 169-70
— its counter-revolutionary role—74
I
India
— general features—18-19, 55-56
— British colonial domination—18-
19, 55-56, 209, 291-92, 301, 302
See also Bengal; Indian Mutiny of
1857-59; Language (Indian languages)
Indian Mutiny of 1857-59—309-10, 313
Ireland—19-20, 21, 53, 153, 210
See also Emigration—Irish in USA
Italian war of 1859—see Austro-Italo-
French war of 1859
Italy
— economy — 59, 61, 64
— Savoy and Nice—162
— and England—59, 64, 236-38,
245-46
— and France —29-30, 196, 245
— and Prussia—5-6
— question of Italy's unification and
Second Empire—5-6, 236-38, 245
See also Austro-Italo-French war of
1859
J
Jurists—49
L
Language
— written—4
— Danish—4 »
— English —303
— European languages—303
— German—4, 303
— Indian languages—303
Law— 244, 347
Legislation— 244
Liberia— 229
London—117, 219-21
M
Manchester School—125
Mexican expedition of 1861-67
— general description—67-68, 74-
78, 113, 114, 170, 173, 174-76,
196-98, 211-12, 224
— convention on joint intervention
in Mexico (1861) —67, 71-74,
169-70, 173-74, 175-76
— and England—67-78, 113-14,
169-70, 172-77, 196, 197-98,
223-25
— and France—67, 69-75, 174-75,
196-98, 224, 225
— and Spain—67, 71, 72, 75, 169,
172-74, 176-77
— and USA—67, 72, 77-78, 196
Mexico— 36, 68-70, 75-77, 169-70,
196-97
See also Mexican expedition of 1861-67
Military science
— military history—186, 274, 287-88
Morocco—168, 170
N
Napoleonic wars— 91, 93, 138-39, 312-14
Navy
— English —132, 292, 302, 321-24
— French—83, 292
— US—125-26, 132, 213-15, 258,
289-92
Needs— 253
Neutrality (in international relations) —
124-25, 147-48, 157
New Orleans—199-200
New York—117-18, 263-64
Vice—162
O
Orient— 216
P
Paris—193
Parliament, British— 78, 153, 167-68,
221, 223
Patriotic War of 1812 (Russia)—193-94,
199, 206-07
Philanthropy (bourgeois) — 54, 125, 246
Pietism—128
Plantations—44
Plebeians, plebs
— in ancient Rome—40-41
Poland, Polish question— 224, 237, 296-97
Politics—154, 216, 249-50
Poor laws— 239, 246
Potato blight in Ireland—19-20, 53
Privateering—124, 125-26, 132, 270
Profession— 163
Public opinion
— and state policy—29, 73, 84-85,
100, 174, 178
— and press—9, 21-25, 127-29, 137-
40, 155-56, 163
— miscellaneous points—27-28, 72,
73, 114, 117-18, 137, 158-59
Punic wars
— Second Punic War (218-201
&.C.)—210
Punishment— 246
R
Reform
— political and social reforms as
concessions by ruling class to the
masses—153
Republican Party (USA)—8, 10-13, 35,
38-39, 41, 42, 86-87, 118, 139,
263-64
Russia (Russian Empire)—124, 147-48
See also Army (Russian): Crimean war
of 1853-56; Patriotic War of 1812
(Russia)
S
Schleswig-Holstein
— Schleswig-Holstein question — 3-6
— London Protocol, ' 1852 —23
See also Danish war of 1864
Scholasticism in Middle Ages — 91
Scotland—53
Slavery
-— general points—50
— slave-owning mode of production—
50
— slave labour—44, 50, 87
— slave labour of Blacks—32, 36-38,
39-40, 44-48, 87, 203, 258
See also Blacks; Slave trade; United
States of America
Slave trade—10, 38-40, 157, 202-03
See also Blacks; Plantations; Slavery
Speculation (business)
— in England —55-56, 60, 63
Spiritualism— 216
State, the—216
Suez Canal—3
Switzerland
— foreign policy—66, 72
Syria—3
T
Taiping uprising of 1850-64—3, 216-18
Tories (England)—145, 263
Traditions, English— 219
U
US Civil War (1861-65)
— general description, results, significance—
7-9, 10-11, 30, 44, 49-
51, 100, 115-16, 186-87, 226-29,
248, 289-90
— causes of war, Southern planters'
rebellion, secession of Southern
States—8-11, 12-15, 30, 32-44,
49, 60-61, 103-04, 186, 260-61
— situation in the border States and
Territories—44-52, 116, 203,
227-29, 248-49, 251, 257, 258
— opposing forces—186-88, 213-15,
226-29, 257-58, 261-62
— progress of hostilities—30, 33,
45-46, 48, 86, 88, 178-81, 186-94,
199-201, 204-08, 212, 213-14,
226-29, 233-35, 248-49, 256-58,
260, 263-64, 267-69, 289-91,
293-95
— and revolutionary émigrés—188
— policy of Union goverment, its
aims and tasks—33-34, 50-51, 77,
91, 97, 99-100, 110-12, 115, 139-
41, 143, 144, 155, 178, 181, 186-
87, 226-29, 251, 266-68, 270
— inconsistent policy of Northern
bourgeoisie, attempts at compromise
with South—8,9,11-12,33-35,
50-52, 86-88, 115-16, 117-18, 179-
81, 186-87, 226-27, 233, 257, 263-
67, 268-69
— "constitutional" conduct of war—
228, 257
— revolutionary conduct of war—
180, 227, 228, 250, 251
— slavery issue—7-8, 30-31, 34,
44, 49-51, 86, 115, 116, 118,
203, 228, 229, 234-35, 264,
268-69
— Southern Confederacy, its policy—
43, 45, 47-50, 55, 91, 99-100,
110, 116, 127, 147, 186, 201,
207-08, 227, 251, 256, 260-62,
270-72
— and US economy—18, 64-65,
132, 183-85
— and working class—50
— and England—18, 23-26, 43, 59,
60, 62, 69-70, 76-77, 90-93, 95,
96, 105-08, 111-14, 117, 125-32,
137-40, 141-42, 154, 159, 168-69,
182-85, 211-12, 230-32, 239-40,
249, 252, 262, 270
— Anglo-US Treaty against Slave
Trade (April 7, 1862)—202-03,
229
— threat of Anglo-US war—89-93,
95-101, 105, 106-09, 110, 111-12,
114, 125-26, 127-28, 129-30, 132-
33, 137, 147-48, 157
— and English bourgeoisie and its
press—7-9, 10-16, 17, 23-26, 29-
33, 42, 55, 59-61, 65, 89-91,
95-99, 100, 105, 107-14, 116, 117,
127-34, 137, 147-48, 154, 157-61,
182-85, 199-201, 210, 230-32,
233-35, 239-41, 249-50, 260,
268-70
— and English working class—17,
29, 127-29, 130, 131-32, 134-38,
140, 142, 143-44, 153-56, 161,
239-42, 246, 297
— and France—28-31, 65, 69-70, 91,
99, 111, 113-14, 126, 131, 158,
185, 211-12, 249, 264-65
— and European states—114, 146-
48, 188, 212
— popular reaction in Europe—29,
30, 110
— miscellaneous points—29, 210-11
US-Mexican war of 1846-48—86, 103
United States of America
— general points—10, 11, 289-90
— territory, population —10, 36-37,
42, 44-50, 59-60
— immigration, its role—188, 259
— industry—18, 44, 54, 187, 252-53
— railways—271
— home and foreign trade—17-18,
19-20, 53-55, 57-59, 64-65, 111,
131-33, 138, 231-32
— protectionism—14-15, 25, 32-33,
53-55, 65, 138
— South (economic area)—32, 37-
40, 43-44, 48-52, 263
— Northwest (economic area)—10,
38-39, 41-42, 228,.256
— border States—43-49, 50-52, 87
— Territories—35-38, 41-42, 46-47,
49-50, 269
— agriculture, agrarian relations—
17, 19-20, 37-38, 39-40, 51-53,
263-64
— Homestead Bill—228
— slave-owning economy in South,
its crisis—19-20, 39-40, 50-51,
54
— Black slaves—32, 36-38, 39-40,
50, 54
— slave trade—10, 11-12, 37-38,
202-03, 229, 263
— social and political system — 9, 10,
34-38, 40-42, 44, 45, 102-03
— "poor whites"—13-14, 40-42,
207-08
— Constitution —8, 10, 13, 34, 102,
250
— oligarchy of slave-owners — 8-10,
11-14, 29, 30, 37-38, 40-42, 45,
49, 54, 257
— bourgeois parties—263-64
— free soil measures—37
— domestic policy—35-39
— Missouri Compromise of 1820 —
10, 35, 37
— Kansas-Nebraska Bill of 1854 —
10, 36-39
— Abolitionism—11-12, 14, 51, 227,
230, 233-35, 263-65, 268-69,
271
— John Brown's uprising" of
1859—13
— question of abolition — 37-42, 51-
52, 228, 250, 251, 257-58, 263-64,
266-67
— machinery, inventions—54, 254
— literature—7
— foreign policy—37-39, 69-70, 78,
125-26, 229
— Monroe Doctrine—69, 77
— expeditions against States of Central
America—37
— and Cuba—37
— and England—76, 157, 229
— and France—29, 67-68, 75-78,
126, 157
— and Mexico—37, 67-69, 75-77,
86, 103
— and Spain—67-68, 76-77
See also Anglo-US war of 1812-14;
Army (US); Blacks (in USA); California;
Democratic Party (USA); Navy
(US); New York; Republican Party
(USA); US Civil War (1861-65); USMexican
war of 1846-48; War of Britain's
North American colonies for independence,
1775-83
V
Villafranca preliminary peace treaty
(1859)—see Austro-Italo-French war of
1859
W
War, wars— 84, 111, 124-25, 226-27,
258
See also Anglo-Afghan war of 1838-42;
Anglo-French-Chinese war of 1856-60;
Anglo-Persian war of 1856-57; Anglo-
US war of 1812-14; Austro-Italo-French
war of 1859; Colonial wars; Crimean
war of 1853-56; Danish war of 1864;
Napoleonic wars; Punic wars; US Civil
War (1861-65); US-Mexican War of
1846-48;
War of Britain's North American colonies
for independence, 1775-83—29, 101
Wars of First French Republic (late 18thearly
19th cent.)—91, 93, 138, 153,
187, 193, 230
Whigs (England)—129, 145
Working class in Great Britain—153-56
Working-class movement in Great Britain
— general points—153
— in the 1860s—134, 137-38, 142,
153-56, 159, 245, 297
— movement to prevent intervention
against USA during Civil War—
134, 137-38, 142, 153, 154, 155-
56, 297
— popular demonstrations, meetings—
153, 154, 245







MECW 20







A
Absolute surplus-value—211-12, 258,
290, 292
See also Surplus-value
Abstract labour—121-23, 265-68, 274,
283-84
See also Labour
Abstraction—104, 106-07, 113, 116,
118, 122, 125, 126-27, 133-35, 142,
144, 148, 217, 231-32, 243, 255,
268-69, 271-72, 277-79, 292
Accumulation of capital—104, 147, 213,
236-37, 257
See also Extended reproduction
Advanced capital—257, 290-91
See also Capital
Agricultural labourers—74, 192, 254,
308, 367
Agriculture— 68, 70-71, 216-17, 301,
308
See also Agricultural labourers;
Nationalisation of land
Ancient Egypt—296
Ancient Rome—9, 100, 106, 243, 251,
278
Ancient world— 217, 225, 252, 287, 296
Appropriation—132-35, 136-37, 233-34,
247, 282
See also Communism; Private property;
Property
Aristocracy, nobility in England—65, 68,
252
Armaments, weapons—167-68, 178-79,
181, 182
See also Artillery
Arming of the people—193
See also Uprising, armed
Army— 43-45, 61-63, 72, 166-68, 296,
426
— and economy—42, 193
— and exploiting classes—60-61, 73
— and proletariat—67, 85-86, 426
— standing—194, 376, 386, 426
— militia—55, 194
— discipline and morale—43, 52,
176, 182
— soldiers—53, 62-63
— officers—43, 52-53, 61
— recruiting (cadre-) system—43-45,
50-54, 62, 85-86
— universal military service—44-46,
48-52, 62, 64, 67, 85-86, 193-94
— Italian—175-76
— Sardinian (Piedmontese)—175
— Swiss—52
See also Armaments, weapons; Artillery;
Art of war; Cavalry; Fortifications;
Infantry; Military training; War(s)
Army, Austrian— 51, 164-68, 171, 175,
178, 181
Army, English— 44, 51, 52, 167
Army, French— 47, 51, 72, 167
Army of German states—49, 51, 179
Army, Prussian— 42-43, 45-54, 61-63,
164-66, 167-68
— as a tool of reaction—53-54,
60-63
— and monarchy and Junkers—73
— art of war, training, combat effi
ciency—50-55, 61, 165-67, 171,
176, 177, 182
— universal conscription—44-45, 48-
52, 63
— reorganisation in 1850s-60s—
44, 50-51, 55-58, 60-61, 64-67,
84-86
— revolutionary and oppositional
mood in—53-54, 63-64
— and working class—67, 79, 84-
86
— and Landwehr— 42-44, 51-52, 85,
164
Army, Russian—167, 199
Artillery— 53-54, 164, 167
Art of war— 52-53, 166-67, 175-77,
179-80, 182
See also Army; Artillery; Cavalry; Fortifications;
Infantry; War(s)
Association—11, 69-70, 190
Austria—153-54, 199, 222-23
— foreign policy and diplomacy—
153-54, 324-25
— and France—312, 313, 316-17,
318, 325-26
— and Germany—155-56
— and Italian states—155-56
— and Poland—153-54, 159-60, 161,
316, 325-26
— and Prussia—200, 317-18
— and Russia—153-54, 157-58
See also Austro-Italian war, 1848-49;
Austro-Italo-French war, 1859; Austro-
Prussian war, 1866; Crimean war,
1853-56
Austro-Italian war, 1848-49—173-74,
176, 198
See also Revolution of 1848-49 in
Austria
Austro-Italo-French war, 1859—43, 51,
166-67, 172-76
Austro-Prussian war, 1866—164, 178
— character of hostilities—164-82
— battle of Sadowa (Koniggrätz)—
181
— battle of Custozza, 1866—173-76
— and Germany—178
— and Prussia—178
Average profit—134
Average rate of profit—119, 137, 138,
144, 145, 149
B
Banks— 31, 113-14
See also Credit
Belgium—156, 289, 311, 316, 319, 375-
76, 385
See also Working class in Belgium;
Working-class movement in Belgium
Bill of exchange—114-16
Bonapartism— 36, 59, 72-74, 89
— criticism of Bonapartist "principle
of nationalities"—153, 155-59,
160-61
— Prussian—72-73, 225
See. also Society of December 10
Bourgeoisie—41, 56-57, 64-71, 74-76
— origin and development—68, 69,
200-01
— role in the development of productive
forces—70-71
— economic domination—14, 68,
236-37
— and state power—64, 68, 77
— and Bonapartism—72-73
— bargains with feudal reaction—56-
57
— theorists and ideologists of—32,
110
See also Capitalist; Competition; Petty
bourgeoisie; Republic, bourgeois; Revolution,
bourgeois; Society, bourgeois
Bourgeoisie, English—57, 65, 360, 422
See also Petty bourgeoisie—English
Bourgeoisie, French—57, 65, 72-73, 78
Bourgeoisie, German—56-57, 65, 66, 75-
76, 360
See also: Bourgeoisie, Prussian
Bourgeoisie, Prussian—56-57, 64-65, 66,
75-76, 85, 395
Bourgeoisie, US— 20, 422, 437
Bourgeois political economy—11, 28-29,
110, 112-13, 207-08, 217, 231-32,
242, 268-71, 305-06
— vulgar bourgeois political
economy—110, 207-09, 231-32,
293
See also Classical bourgeois political
economy; Malthusianism; Physiocrats, the
Bureaucracy, red tape—56, 57, 59, 60,
65, 68-69, 71-74, 77
Byelorussia, Byelorussians ( White Russia)—
158-59, 161
c
Campaign of 1812 (in Russia) — 327
Capital— 214, 256, 277, 295-96
— as relation of production—191,
236-37, 258, 280-81, 290-91,
422
— as general formula—238-41, 256-
57, 275-79, 290
— as self-increasing value—240-41,
258, 276-77, 290-91, 295-96
— capitalist as capital personified —
257-58, 277
— and wage labour—70, 131, 231,
233, 257-58, 299, 415
— as accumulated unpaid labour of
workers—214, 231-32
— and working day—140-42, 256-57
— prerequisites for its appearance—
246-47, 275, 278-81, 290-91, 295
— and division of labour—296-98,
299, 300-01, 304-05
— its minimum—290
— as money—211, 239-41, 275, 276-
77, 280
— its historically transient character—
216, 280-81
— and development of productive
forces—237
— and landed property—275
— control, as its function—248, 257-
58, 282, 290, 293-96
— its migration—107, 109
— and workers' health—287-88
— bourgeois economists on identity of
interests of capital and labour—
207-09
See also Accumulation of capital; Advanced
capital; Capitalist mode of production;
Concentration of capital; Constant
capital; Exploitation of labourpower
by capital; Fixed capital; Interestbearing
capital; Manufacturer's capital;
Merchant's (commercial) capital; Organic
composition of capital; Primitive accumulation
of capital; Usurer's capital; Variable
capital
"Capital" by K. Mane—207-18, 224-59,
260-61, 361-62, 439-40
Capitalism— 245-46, 286
See also Capitalist mode of production;
Society, bourgeois
Capitalist— 68, 69-71, 78, 106-08, 128-
29, 133-35, 137, 233-34, 241, 243-44,
247-48, 253-55, 257-58, 277, 287-88,
292-96, 302, 306
See also Bourgeoisie; Capital; Exploitation
of labour-power by capital; Petty
bourgeoisie; Workers' living and labour
conditions under capitalism
Capitalist mode of production—246,
280
— tendencies of development—254-
55, 269
— its categories—266-67
— historical prerequisites and conditions
for—224-25, 234, 237, 246,
247, 293, 296
— and precapitalist forms of labour—
252
— and industrial revolution—68
— its material basis—305, 307-08
— production of surplus-value as
main goal—247-48, 257, 295-96
— and labour co-operation—296-97
— and division of labour—299
— and control of labour process—
257-58, 295-96
— duration of the working day—220,
253, 288, 293
— accumulation of capital — 236
— and reproduction of capitalist relations—
236
— and market—252
— antagonistic contradictions of, and
prerequisites for its destruction —
148-49, 307-08
— necessity of its destruction — 210-
11
See also Mode of production; Society,
bourgeois
Categories—29, 208, 246, 267, 280
Cavalry— 53-54, 182
Chartist movement—10, 152
Chemistry— 6, 9, 125, 127
Child's labour—142, 188, 189, 255, 288-
89, 302, 376, 386
See also Factory legislation; Labour;
Working day
Christianity— 267
Circulation— 239, 240-43, 246, 269-70
See also Commodity circulation; Money
circulation
Class(es)—9, 12-14, 20, 68-71, 74-75,
76-78, 89, 128-29, 134-35, 188-89,
200-01, 210, 229, 233-34, 235-37,
295-96, 437
See also Bourgeoisie; Class struggle;
Petty bourgeoisie; Social relations; Society;
Working class
Class struggle— 72-73, 76-77, 146, 148-
49, 161, 186, 187-92, 200-01, 235-36,
287-89, 421, 423, 437
See also Class(es); Economic struggle;
Political struggle; Revolution, proletarian,
socialist; Tactics of proletarian class
struggle; Working-class movement
Classical bourgeois political economy—208
See also Bourgeois political economy;
Physiocrats, the
Climate—247, 281, 298
Coin—114-15, 271-72, 274-75
See also Money
Commodity—31, 118, 122, 208, 236-37,
239, 244-46, 248-49, 265-70, 280-84
See also Commodity production
Commodity circulation—116, 238-42,
246, 269-73, 275-81
See also Circulation; Commodity, Commodity
production; Exchange, barter
Commodity production—121-22, 246,
267-69, 278, 280, 284
See also Commodity; Commodity circulation;
Production
Communism—188, 190, 191-92, 216,
224-25
— as goal of working-class movement—
14, 69-71
prerequisites for—29, 148 49, 210,
216-17, 224-25, 237, 307-08
— necessity of proletarian revolution—
129. 216
— international character of—14
— abolition of private property—11-
  12; 69, 216-17, 237
- and production—11, 12, 69-70,
- 129, 188, 189-90, 216-17, 237
-4 labour—11, 12, 14, 149, 188, 189,
 190
— working time and leisure—142
— elimination of opposition between
classes,social equality—12, 14, 237
— and army—193
— demand for arming the whole
people—193
— role of class-consciousness—11,
14
— morals—13
— and science—11
— and man—187-89, 237
— education—184, 188-89
See also Dictatorship of the proletariat;
Period of transition from capitalism to
communism (socialism); Revolution, proletarian,
socialist
Communism, in France—26, 31
Communism, scientific—210, 215-17
See also Dictatorship of the proletariat;
Party, proletarian
Communist League, the—57, 71, 80, 81
Community— 296, 298, 299
Competition—118-20, 147, 184, 191,
254, 292, 298-99
Compromise (in politics)—33, 65-66, 85,
89
Concentration of capital— 125
See also Capital
Conception)— 28, 48, 208, 274
See also Categories
Concrete labour— 248, 265-68, 284
See also Abstract labour; Labour
Consciousness— 26, 69, 71, 189, 280, 307
Constant capital—147, 250, 285, 294
Constitution—59, 60, 64-65, 77
See also Democracy, bourgeois; Monarchy,
constitutional
Consumption—130, 135, 141, 233, 244,
245, 249, 258, 280-82, 290 94
Content and form—112, 234, 267-69,
270-71, 272, 274, 276, 277, 285, 294,
299, 305
Control of production—11 258, 282,
290, 295, 298
See also Organisation of social labour
and production; State, the
Co-operation, co-operative movement—11-
12, 190, 209, 212, 224, 293-97, 299,
300-01
— and production of surplus-value —
212, 306-07
— and capital —294-96, 299
— in pre-capitalist formations
(simple)—295-97
— capitalist—296-97, 300
— workers' producer and consumer
co-operatives—11-12, 190
— co-opei.itive production in the
period of transition to, and under,
communism—11-12, 190, 216-17
— criticism of bourgeois co-operative
theories—12
Corn Laws (England)—112, 139-40
Corruption—72-73
Corvée— 233-34, 252, 287
See also Feudal services; Serfdom
Costs of production—133-34, 295
Coup d'état— 54, 60-63, 67
Cracow, insurrection of 1846—152
Crafts, craftsmen—257', 288, 290, 297-
300, 307 .'
Credit—31-32, 72-73, 114-15, 273-74
See also Banks; Interest (econ.); Interestbearing
capital
Crimean war, 1853-56—154, 199
Criticism— 26-30, 41, 53-54, 84, 85-86,
91, 117, 208, 210-11, 215, 225, 229,
231-32
Culture— 221, 230, 298
D
Danish war, 1864—43, 61, 166, 167-68
See also Schleswig-Holstein question
Danubian principalities—252
See also Waltachia
Darwinism— 217, 221, 224-25, 390
Demand and supply—107-09, 112, 116-
18, 126, 144, 146-48
Democracy, bourgeois—59
Democracy, petty-bourgeois—69
Denmark— 325, 348
Despotism—72, 155
See also Bonapartism; Monarchy, absolute;
Tsarism
Dialectics— 29, 95, 208, 213, 257-58,
439-40
See also Materialism
Dictatorship of the proletariat—12, 14,
69-70, 190
See also Communism; Party, proletarian;
Period of transition from
capitalism to communism (socialism);
Revolution, proletarian, socialist; Working
class
Division of labour—122, 125, 209, 212,
220, 224, 269, 292, 297, 298-301
304-08
Domestic industry—187-88, 212, 228
See also Crafts, craftsmen
E
Economic categories—29, 208, 246, 267,
268, 269, 280, 281
See also Categories
Economic crises—10, 115, 143, 271,
274, 306
Economic laws—117, 118, 119, 120,
125, 134, 146, 147, 148, 149, 208,
210, 217, 225, 237, 242, 243, 244,
248, 249, 251, 254, 257, 268-69, 272,
277, 278, 279, 287-88, 293, 303
— general and specified—120
— natural-historic character of—29,
188, 208, 217, 225
— coercive, compulsory character
of—254, 288
— contradictory character of—256,
257
— bourgeois and petty-bourgeois conceptions
of—116-20, 2.08, 209,
215
Economic relations— 27-29, 224, 267
See also Economy and politics; Relations
of production
Economic struggle—14, 146, 148-49,
191, 192, 441
Economy and politics—12, 14, 33, 64, 68,
69, 146
Education, training—52, 54, 184, 187-89
Egypt—198
Emigration—9, 10, 50, 92-93, 162-63,
306
Ends and means—14, 61, 69, 191, 210,
247, 252, 257, 277, 295, 441
England (Great Britain)—68, 155-56,
209, 432
— in the 1850s-60s—5, 8-9, 10, 20
— world-market monopoly—9, 109
— industry —5, 7, 10, 11, 68, 115,
124, 212, 228, 422
— landed property—8-9
— tenant-farmers—68, 145
— finances, budget, taxation — 8,
113-14
— social contrasts, morals, corruption—
5, 7-9
— factory inspection — 8, 209
— Factory Acts—10-11, 72, 109-10,
209
— Reform Bill, 1832—77
— Reform Bill, 1867—432
— and struggle for free trade principles—
7, 230
— foreign policy, diplomacy—10,
198-99
— and France—313, 316
— and Poland—152, 197-98
— and Russia—10, 198-99
— and the US Civil War—6
See also Aristocracy, nobility in England;
Army, English; Bourgeoisie, English;
Ireland; Peasantry—English; Reform
League, 1865; Working class in
England
Enlightenment, the— 160
Epoch—68, 76, 145, 246, 287, 296
Equality—14, 129, 441
See also Rights of man
Europe—156, 157-58
Exchange, barter—125-26, 131, 240,
241-42, 243-44, 244-45, 248, 249,
266-68, 269-70, 271, 272, 274, 276-80
Exchange(able) value—265-66, 276-78
See also Value
Experience—12, 118, 127, 254, 256, 299
See also Theory and practice
Exploitation—132, 133, 211-12, 233,
234, 251, 252, 258, 286, 287, 288, 290,
301, 302, 307, 338
Exploitation of labour-power by capital—
68, 134-35, 212, 233, 234, 251-52,
257, 258, 287, 290-91
— as source of capital—134-35,
258
— degree of—136, 255-56, 289, 302,
338
— extensive and intensive growth —
142, 290-91
— means of production as means of
exploitation—258, 290, 305
— and surplus-value—289-99
— manufacture, large-scale industry
and machines—258, 287-89, 295,
302-05, 306
— and control of labour process—
258, 295
See also Absolute surplus-value; Child's
labour; Factory legislation; Female
labour; Intensity of labour; Labour;
Wage labour; Workers' living and labour
conditions under capitalism; Working
day
Extended reproduction—128, 131
See also Reproduction
F
Factory legislation—72, 76, 142, 146,
228, 229, 255, 287, 289, 302-03, 307
— reduction of labour time—10-11,
72, 76, 109, 110, 146, 187, 209,
212, 222-23, 230, 235, 252-53, 254,
255, 287, 304
— 10-hour Bill in England and struggle
for it—10, 11, 72, 109, 141,
222, 228, 230, 288, 307
— workers' movement for legal reduction
of working day—187, 222-
23, 235, 422
See also Workers' living and labour
conditions under capitalism
Factory system— 236, 300, 301-02,
304-06
See also Large-scale industry; Machinery
Family and marriage—142, 188, 298,
302
Farmers—145-47
Female labour—181-88, 255, 288-89,
302, 376, 386
See also Factory legislation; Labour;
Working day
Fenians, Fenianism—339, 391
Fetishism—267-68
Feudalism—27', 69, 71, 77, 191, 200,
257, 287, 296
See also Community; Guilds, guild
system; Middle Ages, the
Feudal services—214, 234
See also Corvée
Feuerbach, Feuerbachianism—26, 200
First International (International Working
Men's Association)—3-16, 186, 190
— foundation of—12-13, 14-15, 82,
96, 330, 351, 356, 406
— first programmatic documents—3-
16, 151, 351, 352, 369, 371, 393,
398, 401, 406, 442
— struggle for class character of
Association—12-15, 36, 82-83,
186, 330, 392-400
— struggle for international solidarity
and united actions of proletarians
of all countries—11-16, 162-63,
185, 186, 190, 369, 376, 405
— emancipation of workers as Association's
aim—14-15, 186, 203, 369,
423, 437, 441
— and building of a classless society—
11-12, 149, 190
— economic and political struggle of
proletariat—11-12, 149, 190-92,
407
— and trade unions—149, 191-92,
369, 376, 386, 396-97, 432-
3"3
— and strikes—162-63, 186, 405,
407-08, 412, 430-31
— and struggle for limitation of working
day and higher wages—103-
49, 183, 186-88, 222-23, 376, 386
— female and child's labour, education—
183-84, 187-89, 376, 386
— and statistical inquiry into condition
of working class—183-84,
186-87, 376, 428, 430, 443
— and factory legislation—187-89,
222-23
— and co-operative movement—11,
190, 376, 386, 444-45
— and national question—152-61
— and Polish question—97-98, 152-
61, 193, 196-201, 354-56, 414
— and independence of Ireland—
399, 407
— and Bonapartism —36, 398, 414
— and foreign policy—12-13, 19-21,
97-100, 152-54, 156-57, 193, 376,
407, 411, 426-27
— struggle against Mazzinists—393-
394, 401
— struggle against Proudhonists—
82, 153
— struggle against Lassalleans—395-
96
— and League of Peace and Freedom—
204, 426-27, 439
— organisational principles—15-16,
18, 185, 351, 395, 441-46
— Rules and Regulations—14-16,
412, 441-46
— Central (General) Council—15-16,
17, 18, 82-83, 150, 195, 203, 330,
351, 353, 357, 364-65, 398-99, 412,
413, 438
— Sub-Committee (Standing Committee)—
331, 351, 354, 358, 365,
375-77, 385, 412, 413, 429
— local sections, federations, federal
councils, national organisations—
15-16, 184, 203, 335, 354, 358,
443-46
— membership—15, 17, 18, 82, 328,
340, 369, 398, 412-13, 432-33
— Marx as a corresponding secretary
for Belgium—339, 364
— Marx as a corresponding secretary
for Germany—20, 100, 356-57,
358, 365, 369, 384, 387, 388, 389,
405, 411, 412
— its press—328, 340, 388, 394, 399,
407, 408, 429-30
— and ruling classes, and police
persecution—364, 385, 388, 409,
412-14
— functions and tasks of general
congresses—15-16, 186
First International and revolutionary movement
in Poland—91-98, 152-54, 354-
55, 356, 370, 399, 406, 414
First International in Belgium—357, 364,
385, 388-89, 395, 397, 409, 410, 421,
436-37
First International in England—17, 96,
354-55, 358, 365, 369, 378-79, 394,
396, 406, 408, 412, 421-22, 432-33
— functions and activity of General
Council—14-16, 358, 364-65, 394,
396, 407-08, 421-32
— and struggle for election reform —
337, 357, 358, 359, 365, 366, 394,
396, 406-08, 422, 432
— and press—380-83, 394; 407-08,
413-14
— emigrant sections—360, 389, 393,
395, 407, 435
First International in France—385, 409,
436-37
— participation of French workers
and Republicans in foundation of
International and in the work of
Congresses—82, 385-86, 388, 406,
413
— first Paris section (till April 1865)—
82-83, 330-36, 357, 358-59,
363-64
— Paris sections (April 1865-April
1870)—364-65, 385, 386, 387, 389,
394-95, 396-97, 413
— outside Paris—340, 387, 394-95,
396, 409
— and strikes—421, 437
— and Proudhonists—82, 153,
331-32
— police persecution—412, 428-29
First International in Germany—356-57,
358, 365, 384, 388, 395-96, 405,
409, 421, 436, 438
— local sections—356, 388, 389, 395,
411, 436
— and General Association of German
Workers—328, 356-57, 395
First International in Italy—401, 410,
412, 436
First International in Switzerland—98,
356, 358, 366, 388, 395, 397-99,
406, 408-09, 421, 436
First International in the USA—19-21,
99-100, 354, 355, 357, 365-66, 369,
370, 407, 410, 436, 437
Fixed capital—US, 124, 303
See also Machinery
Foreign policy—13, i 52-53, 193
Formal and real subordination of labour to
capital—11, 190, 258, 290, 295, 296-
97, 304-05
Fortifications—164, 170, 172
Fourierism, Fourierists—26, 215, 231
France— 52, 72, 73, 74, 156
— industry—65, 73
— agriculture—75
— classes, class relations and class
struggle—72, 73, 200
— bourgeoisie—72
— working class—36, 72-75, 77-78,
89
— peasantry—72, 74, 75
— state apparatus—73, 74
— home situation, home policy—225,
397
— counter-revolutionary terrorism —
72-74
— foreign policy and diplomacy—
311-27
— and Austria—312, 313, 314, 316,
317, 318, 325
— and Belgium—311, 319
— and England—313, 316, 317
— and Germany—311, 314
— and Holland—311, 319, 320
— and Kingdom of Sardinia (Piedmont)—
311
— and Poland—311-27
— and Prussia—200, 313, 314, 317-
18, 320
— and Russia—196, 311-13, 314-17,
320, 322, 323-27
— and Spain—311
— and Sweden—311, 312, 314, 317
— and Turkey—311, 313, 316, 317
See also Army, French; Bourgeoisie,
French; First International in France;
France's wars against first and second
European coalitions, 1792-97, 1798-
1801; French Revolution, 1789-94; July
Revolution in France, 1830; June insurrection
of Paris proletariat, 1848;
Napoleonic wars; Peasantry— French;
Revolution of 1848 in France; Working
class in France; Working-class movement
in France
France's wars against first and second
European coalitions, 1792-97, 1798-
1801—140-41, 145, 173, 318-23
See also French Revolution, 1789-94
Free time—142, 253, 287
Free trade—9, 77
See also Competition; Corn laws
French Revolution, 1789-94—19
G
General Association of German Workers—
36, 80, 81, 87-91, 94-95, 210, 328,
395
See also Lassalleanism, Lassalleans
General law of capitalist accumulation—
237
See also Accumulation of capital; Impoverishment
of the working class; Industrial
reserve army; Pauperism
Geneva Congress of the First International—
150, 183-84, 185-204, 385-86,
412, 428
— on necessity of combining
economic and political struggle of
the working class—191-92
— on introduction of 8-hour working
day—187-88, 222-23
— confiscation of Congress documents
by French police—412-14,
428-29
— publication of Congress documents—
413, 429
German philosophy—30
See also Hegel, Hegelianism; Kantianism
German Social-Democracy—210, 215
See also First International in Germany;
General Association of German
Workers
German Workers' Educational Society in
Geneva, 1840s-60s— 395, 398
German Workers' Educational Society in
London, 1840-1918—360, 395, 415
Germany— 41, 65, 68, 73-75, 228, 261,
415
— population—57. 74-75, 156-57,
207, 217-18, 224, 228
— survivals of feudalism, and process
of their liquidation—65, 75
— division of country and task of its
unification—67, 97, 155-56, 178,
208, 228, 360, 421
— industry—65, 68, 70-71, 208
— agriculture—74-75
— legislation—360
— suffrage—67, 72-75, 77, 210, 236
— bourgeois liberalism—41, 57, 58,
64-65, 85, 415
— cultural development—224, 228
— science—207-09, 224, 231
— prospects of revolution in 1860s—
415
— oppression of other nations—155-
56
— and France—311, 314
— and Italy—156
— and Poland—153-54, 193, 360
— and Russia—153-54, 196-97
— and Switzerland—156
See also Army of German states; Army,
Prussian; Bourgeoisie, German;
Bourgeoisie, Prussian; German Social-
Democracy; Party of Progress, Germany,
1861-84; Peasantry—German; Petty
bourgeoisie—German; Prussia; Revolution
of 1848-49 in Germany; Working
class in Germany; Working-class movement
in Germany
Gold and silver—10, 116, 125, 140, 251,
271, 272, 273, 274, 287
Guüils, guild system— 70, 77, 217, 257,
2Ô6, 297, 299
See also Crafts, craftsmen; Feudalism
H
Hegel, Hegelianism— 26, 29, 257
History, historical development—27-28,
T56, 217, 224-25, 245-47
—world history—246, 281
Holland— 311, 319, 320, 322
Hungary—155-56
See also Revolution of 1848-49 in
Hungary
I
Impoverishment of the working class—5, 9,
139-40, 148-49, 231-32, 236-37
See also General law of capitalist accumulation;
Industrial reserve army;
Pauperism; Workers' living and labour
conditions under capitalism
Industrial reserve army—147, 213, 236-
37, 254, 287, 303, 305
See also Impoverishment of the working
class; Pauperism
Industrial revolution—68, 71, 300
See also Large-scale industry; Machinery
Industry (branches)—6, 289
See also Crafts, craftsmen; Domestic
industry; Factory system; Guilds, guild
system; Large-scale industry; Machinery;
Manufacture
Infantry—48, 52-54
See also Armaments, weapons; Military
training
Instruments (tools) of labour—68, 70, 129,
236, 245, 284, 285, 290, 294, 305
See also Means of labour
Intensity of labour—142-44, 212, 221-22,
290, 303-04
See also Exploitation of labour-power by
capital; Working day
Interest (econ.)—32, 134-36
Interest-bearing capital—32, 243, 279
See also Banks; Credit; Interest (econ.);
Usurer's capital
Interests—S3, 69, 77-78, 115, 189,
211, 237, 252
— general, special—69-70, 163
— of society—237
— of people—155
— class—69-70, 75, 77-78, 163, 237
— bourgeois—41, 69, 77-78, 110,
237, 253-54, 287
— petty-bourgeois—33
— proletarian—163, 192
— communists as spokesmen for
proletarian interests—69, 78-79
International Working Men's Association—
see First International
Internationalism, proletarian—12-16, 184,
437, 441
See also Communism; First International;
International solidarity of workers;
Social relations
International solidarity of workers—6, 11-
16, 162-63, 186, 365, 386, 405, 407-
08, 409, 412, 421-23, 426, 430-31,
437, 441-43
See also Communist League, the; First
International
Ireland—5, 12, 306
Italy—155-57, 251, 322
See also Austro-Italo-French war, 1859;
Kingdom of Sardinia (Piedmont)
J
Jews—158, 160
July Revolution in France, 1830—78,
155, 196
June insurrection of Paris proletariat,
1848—72
K
Kantianism—27, 29
Kingdom of Sardinia (Piedmont)—60,
311
L
Labour—125, 189-90, 267-68, 282, 307
— as function of labour-power—244,
248, 281, 282
— under communism—11, 12, 14,
188, 190
— emancipation of—12, 14, 360, 441
— co-operative labour—11, 12, 190-
91, 376, 386
— its quantity and quality—122, 124,
137, 138, 265, 282-84
— dual character of—248, 265-266,
284
— as source of wealth—231, 308
— as source of value—122, 124,
137-38, 243, 265, 283
— time of labour as its measure—
128, 265
— manual—124, 296, 304
— simple, unskilled—122, 138, 147,
265, 284
— complex, skilled—118-19, 122,
138, 147, 265, 281, 284
— compulsory—11, 258, 290
— subordination to capital—11, 190,
258, 290, 295, 296, 304, 305
— individual—121-22, 270, 274, 293
— supervision and control—258,
295, 298
— demand and supply—117-18,
146-48
See also Abstract labour; Child's labour;
Concrete labour; Division of labour;
Exploitation of labour-power by capital;
Female labour; Instruments (tools) of
labour; Intensity of labour; Labouring)
power; Labour (working) time; Means of
labour; Necessary labour; Organisation of
social labour and production; Production;
Productive and unproductive labour; Productivity
(productive power) of labour;
Social labour; Surplus labour; Wage
labour; Workers' living and labour conditions
under capitalism; Working day
Labour discipline—305
Labour(ing) power—131-33, 143, 191,
244-45, 248, 250, 282, 285, 293, 305
— and pre-capitalist modes of production—
132, 258, 287
— as commodity—127-30, 141, 208,
211, 219, 222, 232, 244-49, 255,
280, 289, 415
— its value (price)—128-32, 138-40,
144-46, 211, 219, 233, 246-49, 281,
283, 292, 294
— its use value—211-12, 244, 248..
283
— its consumption, and production of
surplus-value—130-31, 233, 244-
45, 247-49, 280-83
— costs of production and reproduction
of—129-30, 141, 144, 246-47,
251, 253-54, 281
— and wages—143, 144, ,288
— and working day—131, 140-44,
252-53
— its waste—252-55, 287-88
— and capital—252-55, 258, 280,
287-88
— and industrial reserve army—287
— and means of production — 246,
282, 285, 294
See also Labour; Worker
Labour (working) time—122, 124, 141,
142, 212, 219, 220, 231, 247-49, 253,
260, 265, 268, 283, 286, 287, 293,
295, 302-03
See also Working day
Landed property— 8-9, 70-71, 134, 216-
17, 275
See also Feudalism
Language—156, 158, 344
Large-scale industry—9-10, 65-68, 70,
71-73, 125, 142, 147-48, 159, 188,
209, 212-13, 216-17, 224, 227-28,
287-89, 299-301, 302, 306-08
See also Factory system; Industrial reserve
army; Industrial revolution; Industry
(branches); Machinery; Production
Lassalleanism, Lassalleans—25, 69, 71,
74-75, 80, 87, 91, 95, 207, 210, 215,
216, 225
See also General Association of German
Workers
Lausanne Congress of First International,
1867— 203, 204, 421-23, 428-37
Law of value—125, 138, 143-44, 243-
44, 269, 277, 279, 293
See also Value
Law(s)— 210, 224-25, 269
— objective character of—106, 117,
254, 287-88
— and manifestations of—256-57,
277-78
— "eternal"—29, 208, 248
— general, universal—119-20, 125,
138, 189, 237
— natural —29, 117, 188
— of society—29, 188, 208, 217-18,
224-25, 237
See also Economic Laws
League of Peace and Freedom, 1867—
204, 426
Legislation, bourgeois—76-77
Legislation, social—76-77, 145, 189
See also Factory legislation; Working
day
Literature—27, 34-35, 76, 79, 86, 145,
160
Lithuania, Lithuanians—158-59, 161
Logic— 103-04, 119, 260
See also Abstraction; Categories; Conception);
Dialectics; Method
London Conference of First International,
1865—150, 151, 153, 185, 339, 364,
375-77, 384-87, 395-99
Luxuries—107, 108, 133-35, 137, 233-
34, 306
M
Machinery— 70, 147-48, 299-300, 301,
304-05, 306-07
— as means of production—133, 135,
147, 248, 284-85
— machine system — 300, 305
— as basis of large-scale industry—
212, 300-01, 302-03, 307-08
-^- as material basis of capitalist mode
of production—305, 307-08
— cost of—301-02
— wear and tear, depreciation of—
141, 301, 302-03
- capitalist use of—141, 302-05,
306
— and value (price) of commodity—
300-04
— productivity of—300-02, 306
— and surplus-value—302-03, 306
— and capital—147-48
— and economic crises—306
— and division of labour—125, 209,
212, 234, 296-97, 300, 304-07
— and worker—141-42, 147-48, 302-
03, 304-05, 306, 307
— and working day—141-42, 212-13,
254, 303-04
— and intensity of labour—142-43,
303-04
— and labour productivity—124-25,
146-47, 212-13, 254, 300-01
— and wages—146-48
— and subordination of labour to
capital—255, 304-05
— conversion of part of variable
capital into constant—305-06
— and use of female and child's
labour—255, 302-03
— and increase of industrial reserve
army—146-47, 236, 302-04, 305
— and struggle of the working class
against bourgeoisie — 255
— and co-operation — 307
— and manufacture—298-99, 300,
301, 307
— in agriculture—306-07
— and science—300-01, 305
See also Constant capital; Fixed capital;
Instruments (tools) of labour; Means of
labour; Means of production
Malthusianism—27, 141
Man, individual, personality—121, 129,
142, 154, 188, 189, 237, 245, 267,
270, 274, 280, 294-97, 307, 368, 422
See also Consciousness; Labour; Rights
of man; Society
Manufacture— 297-300
— transition from, to large-scale industry—
300-01, 306-07
— as stage of development of industrial
production — 224, 227
— as organisation of social labour—
296-97, 300-01
— as form of division of labour—209,
212, 224, 296-300, 304-05
— aggregate worker as its main instrument—
298
— its capitalist nature—299, 307
— and labour productivity—303-04
— and use of machinery—298, 300,
301, 306-07
— in agriculture—308
— study of, in Vol. I of Capital—209,
224, 227
Manufacturer's capital—241
See also Capital
Market—9, 146, 184, 245
See also Market price; Trade, Commerce;
World market
Market price—107, 113, 118, 126, 134,
137, 144
Marxist political economy—210-18, 224-
25, 229
See also "Capital" by K. Marx
Material conditions of (social) life—29,
148-49, 295
Materialism— 224-25
Means of communication—125, 301
Means of labour—11, 14, 134, 191, 247-
48, 258, 293-94, 295, 300, 301
See also Instruments (tools) of labour;
Means of production
Means of production—245, 258, 291,
294, 305
— produced by labour itself—211-
12
— land—70, 216-17
— machinery—133, 135, 147
— raw materials—133, 135, 147, 245
— objectified—305
— and labour-power—147, 246-47,
282, 285, 294
— and means of subsistence—234,
245-46
— and productive forces—70
— and production process—258,
290
— production of—217
— consumption of—135, 258, 291,
294
— and labour—133, 217, 258, 282,
290, 294
— and ownership—70, 211, 234, 244-
47, 251
— and money—258, 291
— and creation of value—124, 125,
133, 134-35, 285, 290, 294
— and surplus-value—285
— and income—135
— and capital—135, 147-48.. 246,
288, 290, 294
— social character of—293
— under capitalism—70, 246, 282
— under communism — 216-17
Means of subsistence—106-08, 129, 245-
47, 281, 360
Merchant's (commercial) capital—241,
243, 275, 277
Method—105, 118, 121, 123, 224-25,
439-40
See also Dialectics
Middle Ages, the— 217, 225, 227, 257,
290
See also Feudalism
Military training—52-54, 62, 193-94,
296
See also Army
Mode of production— 68, 129, 191, 199-
200, 225, 255, 258, 269, 292, 296, 299,
300, 305
See also Capitalist mode of production;
Communism; Feudalism
Monarchy, absolute— 58-59, 69 159-61,
360
See also Tsarism
Monarchy, constitutional—59
Money—114-15, 246-47, 267-68
— essence of—238-39, 246, 266-69,
272-74
— history of—246, 267-68, 274,
280-81
— fetishism of—267-68
— contradictions of—272-74, 277
— power of, in bourgeois society—
272-73
— as measure of value—267-69,
273-74
— as standard of price—267-69,
271-72
— as means of circulation— 116, 238-
39, 246, 269-70, 276-78
— as means of hoarding—246,
272-73
— as means of payment—114-16,
243-44, 246, 272-74, 281
— world money—246, 274, 280-81
— of account—243-44, 268-69, 274,
279
— metallic—114-15, 116
— paper—114, 271-72
— credit money—114-16, 273-74
— laws of its circulation—114,
270-74
— as commodity—274
— value (and price) of—106, 114-
115
— transformation of money into capital—
238-40, 243-44, 246, 272-81,
283-84
— depreciation of—271-72
— and possibility of crises—269-70,
273-74
— and wages—139-40, 143-44
— importance of Marx's theory of
money — 239
— about analysis of money in Marx's
Capital— 208
— criticism of Proudhon's theory of
money—31
See also Bill of exchange; Money circulation
Money circulation—104, 113-16, 238,
270-77
See also Bill of exchange; Circulation;
Coin; Commodity circulation; Gold and
silver, Money
Moral depreciation of means of labour—
302
Morals—10, 13, 15, 33, 185, 221, 260,
302, 442
Napoleonic wars—51-52
— against fourth European coalition,
1806-07—51-52, 165-66, 323-25
— against sixth European coalition,
1813-14 — 51-52
— against seventh European coalition,
1815—43, 63-64, 182
— nature of 1813-14 and 1815 wars
on the part of the Germans—43,
196-97
— and England—145
— and Germany—196-97
— and Prussia—64
— and Russia—196-97, 327
See also France's wars against first and
second European coalitions; Vienna Congress
of 1814-15
Nation— 73, 155-57, 176
See also Nationality; National question
Nationalisation of land—217
Nationality—155-57, 158-59
National Labor Union, 1861—436
National liberals—261
National liberation war of 1848-49 in
Hungary—197-99
See also Revolution of 1848-49 in
Hungary
National movement—155, 160-61
See also Campaign of 1812; Fenians,
Fenianism; Napoleonic wars; National
liberation war of 1848-49 in Hungary;
National question; Polish national insurrection
of 1863-64; Polish question; War
of North American colonies for independence,
1775-83
National question—15, 152-59, 160-61,
193, 399
See also Internationalism, proletarian;
Polish question
Natural sciences—127', 217, 224-25, 257
Natural selection—217, 225, 254,
390
Necessary labour— 219-20, 251-53, 283,
286, 292-93, 298
See also Labour; Means of subsistence;
Variable capital; Wages
Nobility, aristocracy, German—35, 56, 57,
65, 68, 74-75, 89, 225
Nobility, aristocracy, Polish (szlachta)—
159-60
Nobility, landowners, Russian— 160-61,
200
Notion—128, 136, 261
O
Objectification, materialisation— 244,
248, 266, 268, 280, 282
Organic composition of capital—147, 299
Organisation of social labour and production—
11, 69, 125, 188, 190-91, 212,
224, 225, 227, 234, 293, 296-301,
305-08
See also Communism; Control of production;
Production; Social labour
Overhead costs (faux frais)—296
See also Costs of production
Owenism—U, 110, 231
P
Pan-Slavism—157, 199
Party of Progress, Germany, 1861-84—58,
60-62, 66, 76, 79-81, 84, 85-86,
360
Party, proletarian—10, 12, 15-16, 41, 57,
67, 68-70, 72-73, 78, 79, 85-86,
185, 220, 397-401, 441-46
See also Communist League, the; First
International
Pauperism—5, 112, 145, 190, 236, 237
See also Impoverishment of the working
class; Workers' living and labour conditions
under capitalism
Peace (the main concern of the workingclass
movement)—12-13, 426
Peasantry— 35, 72, 74-75, 142, 296, 308
— Danish — 35
— English—145
— French —27, 65, 72, 74, 75
— German—35, 71, 74-75, 145
— Irish —306
— Polish—160-61
— Russian—199-200
See also Community; Peasant wars; Serfs
Peasant wars—34, 35
Period of transition from capitalism to
communism (socialism)— 69
See also Dictatorship of the proletariat;
Party, proletarian
Petty bourgeoisie— 27, 28-29, 30, 31, 32,
33, 68-69, 71-72
— English —32
— French—72
— German—68-69, 71-72
See also Democracy, bourgeois; Peasantry
Philanthropy, bourgeois—12, 237
Philosophy— 27, 28-30, 32-33, 197, 257
See also Dialectics; German philosophy;
Materialism
Physiocrats, the—126
Poland—156, 157, 158-60, 197, 200
— history—158-60
— partitions of—97, 153, 154, 158,
161, 193, 200, 312, 314, 316, 318,
319, 321, 322
— Kosciuszko's revolutionary rising,
1794—161, 318
— and Vienna Congress—153-54,
155
— insurrection of 1830-31 — 152,
154, 196
— aristocracy—159, 161
— struggle for national independence,
and country's social and
political tasks—155, 193
— and Tsarism—13, 152-54, 157,
159-61, 197, 200, 315, 324, 326,
376
— and Austria—153, 154, 160, 161,
325
— and England—154, 198, 313
— and France—196, 311-27
— and Germany—154, 193
— and Prussia—97, 153, 154, 160,
161, 200, 315, 321
See also Cracow, insurrection of 1846;
Polish question
Police— 59, 72, 74
Polish national insurrection of 1863-64—
152, 154
Polish question— 97-98, 152-61, 193-201,
311-27
Political economy— 29, 30, 110, 207-09,
211, 224, 225, 231
See also Bourgeois political economy;
Classical bourgeois political economy;
Economic laws; Economic relations;
Malthusianism; Marxist political
economy; Physiocrats, the
Political struggle—IS, 14, 146, 191-92
See also Working-class movement
Politics— 33, 65, 69
See also Economy and politics; Political
struggle; State, the
Press, the—10, 58, 59, 69, 71,72, 76-78,
235
Pnce—107, 110, 112, 118, 125, 126,
127-28, 137, 138, 143-44, 268, 269
— influence of labour productivity
on—124-25, 138, 292-93, 303
— use of machinery—301-02
— and value—125-27, 137, 268
— and value of gold and silver—140
— and wages—106-13, 117-20, 143-
144, 149, 364
— and demand and supply—106-09,
112, 113, 118, 126, 144
— and economic crises—143, 271
— bourgeois economists' views of—
110, 119, 120, 126
See also Market price
Primitive accumulation of capital—129,
440
Private property—11, 14, 20, 26-28, 68-
70, 134, 191, 216, 237, 251, 299, 415,
422, 440, 441
See also Landed property; Property
Production—9, 11, 29, 68, 70, 144-45,
147, 188, 190, 193, 216, 224, 236,
237, 258, 296-301, 302, 304-07, 423
See also Commodity production; Instruments
(tools) of labour; Means of production;
Productive forces; Relations of production
Productive and unproductive labour—188,
189, 296
Productive forces—9, 29, 70, 190, 293-
96, 299, 301
Productivity (productive power) of labour—
104, 124-25, 138, 147, 212, 237, 259,
292-97, 299, 302, 306
Profit—119, 127, 132-38, 144, 145-46,
231-33, 303
See also Average profit; Average rate of
profit; Interest (econ.); Rate of profit;
Rent of land; Surplus-value
Property— 26-28, 70, 216-17, 234, 245-
46, 251, 267, 299
See also Appropriation; Landed property;
Private property
Proudhonism, Proudhonists—26-33, 153,
215, 225
Prussia— 42, 44, 45, 51, 54, 56, 59, 224
— feudalism and its survivals — 56,
60
— in 1815-beginning of 1848—42,
64
— Provincial Diets—56, 59
— "New Era"—55, 56-60, 62, 63, 76
— reorganisation of the army—54,
58, 60-63, 67, 84-86
— constitutional conflict ( 1860s)—41-
79, 84, 86
— and Bonapartism—72-74, 225
— and industry—65
— finances, budget, taxes—42
— nobility, aristocracy—73
— bureaucracy—56, 57, 59, 60, 65,
69, 71-73, 77, 213, 229
— political system—42, 59-60, 64
— constitutionalism — 56, 59
— legislation—50, 328, 360
— factory legislation — 72
— courts—59
— press, the—58, 59
— and Austria—200, 313, 314, 317-
18, 322
— and England—313
— and France—55, 200, 313-14,
317, 319, 320, 321, 322-23, 323-24,
325
— and Germany—60, 67, 200
— and Poland—97, 153, 154, 160,
200, 315, 318-19, 321, 322-23, 324
— and Russia—55, 153-54, 159, 200,
313, 315, 316, 317-19, 324
See also Army, Prussian
Purchase and sale—132, 238-40, 269-70,
280-81, 302
Q
Quality and quantity—44, 240, 265,
272-73, 276, 283-84
R
Rate of profit—107-09, 135-38, 144,
208, 338
See also Average profit; Average rate of
profit; Profit
Rate of surplus-value—131, 135-36, 250,
255-56, 286, 289-91, 302-03
See also Exploitation of labour-power by
capital
Raw materials—133, 135, 147, 245, 284-
85
Reform League, 7865—366, 394, 396,
407, 416, 435
Reform, social—69, 76-79
See also Factory legislation
Relations of production—28-29
See also Economic relations; Social,
socio-economic formation
Relative surplus-value—212-20, 259, 291
See also Surplus-value
Religion—11, 32, 33
Rent of land—119, 134-36
See also Landed property; Nationalisation
of land
Reproduction—129, 131, 236
See also Extended reproduction
Republic, bourgeois— 19
Research (study)— 28-29, 84, 85-86, 118,
208, 210-11, 212-13, 215, 217, 224,
225
— scientific—119-21, 208, 227, 231
— into economic conditions of various
classes—208-09
— line of Marx's economic research —
105, 123, 208, 210-13, 224, 227,
231, 238, 240-41, 242-43, 246-48,
250, 257-58, 282-83
— of capital and money—231, 232,
238, 240-41
— of co-operation—209, 212, 224
— of manufacture—209, 224
— of big industry, machine production—
209, 212-13, 224-25
— of accumulation of capital—128-
29, 213, 236
— of circulation—238, 240-41
— of surplus-value—240-41, 242-43,
250, 255-56, 282
— of labour-power—211-12, 246-47
— of division of labour—209, 212,
224
— of value—118, 123, 240-41,
282-83
— of commodity—240-41, 246-47
— A. Smith's studies—120
— various studies by Marx and Engels—
85-86, 215
Revolution, bourgeois, bourgeois-democratic—
56-57, 69-71, 75-78, 200
See also French Revolution, 1789-94,
Revolutions of 1848-49 in Europe; War
of North American colonies for independence,
1775-83
Revolution, proletarian, socialist
— essence and tasks—12, 129, 216
— prerequisites for—29, 148-49, 213,
216, 237, 307-08
— as form of class struggle—200-01
— international character—14, 441
— and party—78
— ways of carrying it out—12, 69-70,
441
— and army—193
— abolition of private ownership of
means of production—112, 216-17
— and agrarian question — 216-17
— and trade-union movement—149,
191-92
See also Communism; Dictatorship of
the proletariat; Internationalism, proletarian;
June insurrection of Paris proletariat,
1848; Revolution, social; Social
relations
Revolution, social— 200, 213, 216, 307
See also Revolution, bourgeois,
bourgeois-democratic; Revolution, proletarian,
socialist; Social relations
Revolution of 1848-49 in Austria—197-
200
See also Revolution of 1848-49 in
Hungary
Revolution of 1848 in France—31, 72,
78, 152, 200
See also June insurrection of Paris
proletariat, 1848
Revolution of 1848-49 in Germany—54,
56, 57, 62, 71, 152, 197
Revolution of 1848-49 in Hungary—155,
197-200
See also National liberation war of
1848-49 in Hungary
Revolution of 1848-49 in Italian states—
199
See also Austro-Italian war, 1848-49
Revolutions of 1848-49 in Europe—10,
11, 78, 197
See also Revolution of 1848-49 (in
different countries)
Rights of man—14, 15, 19, 77, 441, 442
See also Equality
Romania, Romanians—157, 287
See also Danubian principalities
Russia—32, 51, 158-61, 197, 198
— railways—199
— reform of 1861 — 199-200
— foreign policy and diplomacy—13,
97, 155, 156, 160, 161, 198, 199,
311, 312, 313-20, 321-27
— and Central Asia—119
— and the Caucasus—13, 199
— and Tsarist policy in Poland, 19th
cent.—13, 152-54, 157, 159-61
— and Austria—312, 325
— and England—198
— and France —200, 311-21
— and Germany—197, 200, 314,
315
— arid Prussia—154, 200, 313, 314,
315, 316, 318
— and Sweden —314, 317
— and Turkey—313, 316, 317, 325
— and the USA—112
See also Campaign of 1812; Working
class in Russia
S
Saint-Simonism, Saint-Simonists— 26,
231
Saxony—49
Schiller Institute, the— 402-04, 417-20
Schleswig-Holstein question—94-95, 161
See also Danish war, 1864
Science—27, 28-31, 33, 91, 110, 119-21,
127-28, 217, 239
— and production—9, 10-11, 124-25,
147, 297-98, 299, 301, 305
— and agriculture—147
— and division of labour—299
— and religion—390
— military—85, 175-76
— of history—217
— socialism and communism — 29,
215
— research—119-21, 208, 227, 231
— history of—27, 217, 299
— in bourgeois class society—32, 297,
299, 301, 305
— and working class—29, 41, 299,
305
— under communism—10-11
— in Germany—207-09, 224, 231
See also Communism, scientific;
Philosophy; Political economy
Scotland—6, 111, 306
Serfdom—199-200, 209, 214, 234, 252-
53
See also Feudalism
Serfs—11, 70, 132-33, 145, 160-61,
199-200, 217, 252, 287, 415
See also Feudal services; Peasantry
Seven Years' War, 1756-63—312,
313-16
Silesia—214
Slavery—11, 14, 20, 128-29, 132, 143,
209, 234, 296, 441
See also Ancient Rome
Slave trade— 20, 162, 252, 253
Socialism, doctrinaire—207-18, 225
Socialism in France—26, 32
Socialism in Germany—207
See also Communist League, the; Lassalleanism,
Lassalleans
Socialism, Utopian—29, 30
Social labour—11-12, 107, 108, 121,
122, 124-26, 189-90, 247, 267-68,
269-70, 274, 293-301, 304-05
See also Communism; Labour; Organisation
of social labour and production;
Wage labour
Social question—421, 432
See also Revolution, social; Social relations;
Society
Social relations— 224-25, 231, 232-33,
245-46, 267, 280-81
Social, socio-economic formation—20,
186, 188, 190, 246, 286
See also Mode of production; Relations
of production; Social relations
Society— 68, 69, 70, 124, 190, 208,
224-25, 231, 237, 247, 251, 265, 269,
274, 296
— and nature—245
— and production—70, 124, 216-17,
247
— and classes—68-71, 237
Society, bourgeois—9, 14, 70-71, 188,
231, 237, 360, 440, 441
— economic basis of—70-71, 234,
280
— social relations—225, 231, 232-33,
246, 280
— based on class antagonisms and
opposition—9, 70-71, 190
— classes, social strata—68-69, 437
— proletariat—68, 187, 437
— and bourgeoisie—70-71
— and class struggle—69, 77
— inevitable downfall of—148, 216,
224-25, 237, 289
See also Capitalist mode of production;
Corruption; Exploitation of labour-power
by capital;. Impoverishment of the working
class; Pauperism; Productive forces; Rela
tions of production; Workers' living and
labour conditions under capitalism
Society of December 10, the—397
Society, primitive—296
See also Community
Spain— 311, 324, 325
State, the— 60, 62, 64-65, 126, 156-57,
158-60, 189, 190, 192-93, 360
See also Dictatorship of the proletariat;
Republic, bourgeois
State boundaries—156-57
Statistics—142, 183, 186-87, 440
Strikes—103, 117, 365, 405, 407, 409,
412, 421, 437
See also First International; Workingclass
movement; Working-class movement
(in different countries)
Suffrage— 67, 69, 72-77, 210, 236, 432
Surplus labour—131-33, 140, 209, 233-
35, 250-56, 258, 286, 287, 291, 293,
301-02
See also Corvée; Feudal services
Surplus produce—131
Surplus-value—131, 135-36, 208, 232-
33, 234, 240, 243, 250, 255-56, 276,
285, 286, 290-91, 303
— development of the theory of
surplus-value by Marx—208, 211,
229
— origin of—132-34, 232-34, 235,
240-44, 247-48, 250, 256, 276-77,
281-84, 285
— laws of—134, 208, 257, 289-90,
302-03
— as basis and goal of capitalist
production—132, 134-35, 257,
290-91, 292, 295-96
— methods and means of its production—
247-50, 256-57
— rate of—136, 255-56
— mass of—289
— capitalisation of—257
— transformed forms of—134-36,
211
— and laws regulating commodity
exchange—242-44, 248, 279
— and labour productivity—212,
259, 293, 306
— and means of production—285,
302, 306
— and working day—131-34, 212,
257, 289-90, 303
— interpretation of, by bourgeois
economists—242, 250, 278, 283,
286
See also Absolute surplus-value; Interest
(econ.)*, Profit; Rate of surplus-value;
Relative surplus-value; Rent of land
Sweden—156, 311, 312-13, 314, 317,
324, 325, 343-48
Switzerland—156, 222, 408-09
See also Working-class movement in
Switzerland
T
Tactics of proletarian class struggle—75-
79, 85-86
See also Class struggle; Working-class
movement
Taxes— 32, 60, 192, 376, 386
Theory and practice—10-12, 14, 29-31,
90, 103, 117-18, 146, 207-10, 215,
217, 227, 232, 236, 239, 245, 253,
260, 300, 441
See also Consciousness; Production
Thirty Years' war, 1618-48—100, 311
Trade, commerce—9, 68, 71, 242-43, 275
See also Merchant's (commercial) capital;
World market
Trade(s) unions, trade union movement—
149, 190-91, 375-76, 386
— as school of class struggle—15-16,
149, 191-92, 338, 422
— and need to combine economic and
political struggle—149, 191
— need to found international trade
union association—422-23
— in England—149, 190-92, 394,
396, 407, 422, 431-36, 437
See also Economic struggle; Workingclass
movement (in different countries)
Truth—15, 127, 208, 217
Tsarism—161, 199
Turkey—159, 198, 311, 313, 316, 317,
324
U
Ukraine, Ukrainians—158-61
United States of America—10, 19-20,
112, 253-54, 301
— industry—301, 422
— agriculture—109, 112
— social and political system—19,
422
See also Bourgeoisie, US; US Civil
War, 1861-65; War of North American
colonies for independence, 1775-83;
Working class in the USA; Workingclass
movement in the USA
Uprising, armed—53-54
See also Arming of the people; June
insurrection of Paris proletariat, 1848;
Peasant wars; Revolution, proletarian,
socialist
US Civil war, 1861-65—6, 13, 19-20,
24, 64, 99-100, 115, 354, 355, 365-
66, 407, 422
Use value— 244, 245, 248, 251, 265,
267, 283
Usurer's capital—275
V
Value—118, 120-28, 134, 137, 232-33,
240, 243, 247, 260, 278-79, 303
— analysis of—118, 120-21, 242
— importance of Marx's theory of
value—239, 240
— its social substance—120-22, 265,
277
— and surplus-value—278-79
— form of—265-66, 268, 269
— magnitude of—122, 269
— and price—118, 125-27, 137-38,
268-69
— money form of—125, 268
— qualitative similarity and quantitative
difference of commodities as
values—240, 265, 269, 276, 282-84
— and labour productivity—124,
138, 293, 302-03
— and machinery—300-03
— and wages—106, 107, 119-20, 122-
23, 137-38, 233
— process of its creation and increase—
278-79, 283, 293-94
— distribution of—137
— and market price—106-07, 118,
126, 137
See also Commodity; Exchange(able)
value; Law of value; Money; Price; Use
value
Variable capital—147, 250, 256, 285,
289-90, 303
Vienna Congress of 1814-15—155
W
Wage labour—11, 131-33, 134-35, 148-
49, 191-92,'217, 232-34, 258-59, 267-
69, 290-91, 296, 305-08, 415
See also Exploitation of labour-power by
capital; Labour; Social labour
Wages
— as converted form of value (price)
of labour-power—127-33, 138-39,
143-45, 281
— and reproduction of labourpower—
129-30, 144-46
— laws of— 117
— as form of distribution—106-07,
114, 141, 143-44, 148
— real—104, 111
— piece—183, 186
— by the day—183, 186
— absolute and relative—139
— average—111-12, 143, 144-45,
183, 186
— national differences—105, 109-11,
113-14, 118, 145-47
— and money circulation—113-16
— and means of subsistence—106-08,
129-30
— of agricultural labourers—110-12,
145-47, 308
— of skilled workers—118, 138-39,
147, 281
— and working day—109-10, 140-42
— fluctuations of—104-06, 107, 109-
10, 117-18, 142, 144-45, 146-48,
149, 338, 364
— workers' struggle for higher
wages—103, 104-05, 129, 138-49
— legislative "regulation" of—287-
88
— and value of commodity—118-19,
122-23, 137-38, 338
— and price of commodity—106-13,
118-20, 143-44, 149
— and money—113-16, 139-40,
143-44
— and profit—107-09, 137-38, 144,
145-46, 149, 231-32, 338
— and market price—143-44
— and intensity of labour—142-44
— and use of machinery—147-48
— and economic crises—115
— in Smith's theory—147
— in Ricardo's theory—120, 147,210
— critique of bourgeois definitions
of—103-22
— critique of Lassallean "iron law of
wages"—207, 210
Wallachia—157, 251-52, 287
See also Danubian principalities
Wants (needs)—122, 145, 221, 245,
251, 258, 277
War of Austrian succession, 1740-48—
313
War of North American colonies for independence,
1775-83—19-20
War of Polish succession, 1733-35—312-
13
War(s)—13, 43, 298, 426, 427
See also Army; Art of war; Austro-
Italian war, 1848-49; Austro-Italo-
French war, 1859; Austro-Prussian war,
1866; Campaign of 1812; Crimean
war, 1853-56; Danish war, 1864;
France's wars against first and second
European coalitions, 1792-97, 1798-
1801; Napoleonic wars; Thirty Years'
war, 1618-48; US Civil war, 1861-65;
War of Austrian succession, 1740-48;
War of North American colonies for
independence, 1775-83
Wealth—29, 231, 265, 272-73, 308
See also Accumulation of capital; Capital;
Gold and silver; Money
Will— 28, 105-06, 119, 166, 235, 254,
267, 296
Worker— 68, 188, 190, 289, 307
— as productive force—190
— workers' separation from means of
labour and production — 20, 68,
70-71, 129, 294, 299, 305
— his interests—69-70, 75-78, 163
— his reproduction—129, 131, 220,
236
— his income—107, 114-15
— his wages—139
— and wealth —308
— competition among workers—191
— and capitalist—247, 287-88
— and machinery—141, 142, 301-04
_ "free"—209, 216, 234, 245, 251,
255, 289, 296, 415
— aggregate worker—251, 255, 294,
297-99
— detail worker—297-301, 304, 305
See also Agricultural labourers; Exploitation
of labour-power by capital;
Labour; Labour(ing) power; Wage
labour; Wages; Working class; Working
day
Workers' living and labour conditions
under capitalism—5, 6, 7, 9, 11-12,
14, 68, 70, 119-20, 128-29, 142,
254-55, 258, 287, 288, 294, 305, 415,
422, 441
See also Child's labour; Economic crises;
Exploitation of labour-power by capital;
Female labour; Labour; Labour(ing)
power; Pauperism; Worker; Working day
Workers' societies—15-16, 183-84, 356-
58, 369-73, 389, 401, 406, 408-09,
421, 442-43
See also First International, German
Workers' Educational Society in Geneva,
1840s-60s; German Workers' Educational
Society in London, 1840-1918
Working class—12, 14, 68, 69, 77-78,
237, 415, 441
— essence—68, 128, 236, 280
— number of—12, 191, 236
— concentration in towns—308
— the only consistent revolutionary
class—77-78, 89
— world-historic role—69, 192
— goals—14, 69
— material prerequisites for emancipation
of—12, 29
— and party—12, 70
— class solidarity—12-14, 15-16, 186,
187, 437, 441
— class consciousness—12, 71
— and petty bourgeoisie—30, 69
— attitude towards wars—426
— and national question—15, 152,
154, 156, 157, 193
See also Agricultural labourers; Class
struggle; Dictatorship of the proletariat;
Internationalism, proletarian; Party, proletarian;
Revolution, proletarian, socialist;
Worker; Working class (in different
countries); Working-class movement
Working class in Belgium—289
See also Working-class movement in
Belgium
Working class in England—6, 10, 13,
19-20, 68, 72, 109, 112, 118, 145-47,
288, 407, 422
See also Working class in Scotland;
Working-class movement in England
Working class in France—72-74, 77-78,
152
See also June insurrection of Paris
proletariat, 1848; Working-class movement
in France
Working class in Germany—35, 58, 67,
71, 74, 154, 193, 360, 415
See also Working class in Prussia;
Working-class movement in Germany
Working class in Prussia—66, 73
Working class in Russia—154
Working class in Scotland—6, 111
See also Working-class movement in
England
Working class in the USA—20, 105, 146
See also Working-class movement in the
USA
Working-class movement—67, 70, 148-49
— its immediate and final aims—14;
148-49, 441
— struggle for working-class emancipation—
12-13, 14,20,31,69, 110,
149, 186, 187, 190, 415, 423
— its unity—14-16, 186
— political organisation as condition
for its development—12, 15-16
— trade unions—16, 149, 190-92,
422
— emergence of—69, 70, 422
— necessity to combine workers
economic and political struggle—
14, 146, 148-49, 191-92, 441
— internationalism of—12-16, 186,
437, 441
— struggle for suffrage, and democratic
demands; parliamentary activity
of workers' representatives—
67, 69, 73-74, 75-78, 191, 210,
235-36, 432
— and struggle against national oppression—
15, 152, 154, 156, 157,
193
— at the time of First International—
14-15, 422, 441
See also Association; Chartist movement;
Class struggle; Communist
League, the; First International; International
solidarity of workers; Strikes; Tactics
of proletarian class struggle; Trade(s)
unions, trade union movement; Working
class; Working-class movement (in different
countries)
Working-class movement in Belgium—
421, 436, 437
See also Working class in Belgium
Working-class movement in England
— Luddites—305
— in 1830-40S—77-78, 288
— in 1860s—252-53, 373, 422, 431-
32, 437
— campaign against intervention in
the USA—13, 19, 20
— struggle for workers' political
rights—191, 375, 422, 432
— campaign for 10-and 9-hour working
day—10-11, 72, 212, 235
— co-operative movement—11, 12
— press—378-83
See also Chartist movement; First International
in England; Reform League,
1865; Trade(s) unions—in England;
Working class in England
Working-class movement in France—78
See also First International in France;
June insurrection of Paris proletariat,
1848
Working-class movement in Germany—12,
57, 58, 66, 71, 74, 75-76, 77, 78,
85-86, 210, 215, 360, 395, 421, 438
See also Communist League, the; First
International in Germany; General Association
of German Workers
Working-class movement in Italy—396,
401
See also First International in Italy
Working-class movement in Switzerland—
395, 397, 398
See also First International in Switzerland
Working-class movement in the USA—20,
187, 191, 223, 289, 422, 436, 437
See also First International in the USA
Working day—10, 11, 72, 76, 109, 110,
111, 142, 143, 146, 187, 209, 212,
222, 223, 228, 230, 234, 235, 251,
252, 254-55, 287-89, 290, 304, 338,
376, 386, 422
— constituent parts—220, 234-35,
250-51, 286
— introduction of machines and intensification
of labour—212, 221,
255, 302, 303
— and surplus-value—211-12,
289-90
— and rate of surplus-value—131,
290, 303
— and labour-power—131, 140-44
— and workers' health—141, 142,
212, 222, 235, 251, 253
— capitalists' striving to excessively
lengthen working day—11, 110,
140, 142, 146, 220, 235, 251, 253,
256, 288, 302
— struggle for 10-hour working day
in England—10, 11, 72, 109, 212,
222, 230, 235, 288, 307
— campaign for 8-hour working
day—187, 223, 288, 422
See also Child's labour; Female labour;
Labour (working) time; Surplus labour
World market—9, 109, 252, 271, 274,
275
Y
Young Europe", 1834-36—155