MECW VOL 21
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A
Agriculture
— and natural conditions—154-60
— in various historical periods—94,
203
— and use of machines—166, 384
Alemanni—178
Alliance of Socialist Democracy—see International
Alliance of Socialist Democracy
Ancient Egypt—169, 203
Ancient Rome—89, 120
— slaves, their labour—57, 394
— agriculture — 203
— family—394
— classes, class struggle—57
— Roman Empire —328, 395
See also Navy—of Ancient Rome
Anglo-American war, 1812-14—271
Anglo-Saxons—147, 174, 178
Aristocracy, nobility
— Austrian—78
— English—193, 292, 317, 319,
363, 395, 410, 423; see also
Landlords, landlordism—in England
— French—22
— German—22, 94, 97, 100
— Irish—194, 197, 292, 317, 318;
see also Landlords, landlordism—
in Ireland
— US financial aristocracy—54
Army
— as a tool of reaction and means
for suppressing revolutionary
movements—47-50, 88, 89, 120,
404, 405
— standing—54, 89, 120, 405
— demand for abolishing the standing
army—400, 405
— in slave society—176
— Belgian—47-50
— British—49, 88, 119-20, 193,
198, 218, 225, 268, 273
— French—217
— German—97, 99
— US—49
Austria (Austria-Hungary from 1867)—
291, 296
— home policy, its anti-labour
character—16, 77-78, 79, 95,
407
— and Germany—96
— and Italy —296
— and Prussia—95, 98
See also Aristocracy, nobility —
Austrian; Austro-Prussian war, 1866;
Bourgeoisie— Austrian ; International
Working Men's Association in Austria;
Working-class movement in Austria
Austro-Prussian war, 1866—13, 77, 94,
96, 312, 362
B
Bakuninism, Bakuninists
— as a variety of petty-bourgeois
socialism—46
— untenability of theoretical tenets—
46, 112-15, 207-09, 394-96
— sectarian character—113
— Bakuninists' disorganising activities
in working-class movement—
34-36, 46, 90-91, 112-24,
394, 395, 445, 446; see also International
Alliance of Socialist Democracy;
International Working-Men's
Association—struggle against Bakuninism
and Bakuninists
— in France—123, 445
— in Italy—114
— in Spain—114
— in Switzerland—113-16, 123,
445
Bank of England—28-30
Basques— 174
Belgium—47, 353
— economics—353, 357, 358
— reactionary, anti-labour character
of its home policy—6, 14, 47-51,
72-73, 80, 89, 320, 335, 353,
358, 359-61
— the press—51
— its neutrality—49
— and France—48-49, 198, 336
See also Army—Belgian; Bourgeoisie—
Belgian; International Working
Men's Association in Belgium;
Working class in Belgium
Bonapartism—57
— maneuvering between contending
classes—12-13
— and working class—12-14, 74-
75
— Prussian—15
See also International Working Men's
Association—struggle against Bonapartism
Bourgeoisie—96-98, 311
— its economic domination—66,
90, 396
— and political (state) power—49-
50, 94, 96-97
— petty—97-98
— and working class—97; see also
Classes, class struggle—in bourgeois
society
— and peasantry—99-100
— Austrian—78, 94, 98
— Belgian—47-51
— English—88, 97, 120, 166, 401,
402
— French—97
— German—20-22, 94-99
— Irish—194, 242
— Prussian—94, 98
— Swiss—68-72
— US—54, 88, 120
Britons—147, 174, 177
Bureaucracy
— as a prop of reaction—21, 22,
96, 97, 100
C
Canada—410
Capital
— its definition—99
— and wage labour—63, 383
— control over production as its
function—86, 118
"Capital" by K. Marx—59-64
Celts—174, 175, 178, 185, 312
Chartism, Chartist movement—329
Child's labour
— its exploitation in capitalist society—
63, 69, 339-40, 357, 382,
383
— demand for its regulation by
law—340, 387
— under communism — 339
China— 318
Christianity—176-78, 395
See also Ireland—spread of Christianity,—
Protestants,—Catholics,
their persecution; Reformation
Church— 285, 395, 399, 440
Cimbri—184
Classes, class struggle
— in ancient society—see Ancient
Rome—classes, class struggle
— in feudal society—93
— in bourgeois society—12, 57, 74,
86, 97-98, 118, 403
— class prejudices—403
— and religion—94
— abolition of classes under communism—
46, 90, 114, 121
See also Aristocracy, nobility; Bourgeoisie;
Peasantry; Revolution, bourgeois,
bourgeois-democratic; Revolution
proletarian, socialist; Working class
Clergy, the—178, 439.
— as advocate of class interests of
exploiters—22, 78, 97
— and national liberation movements—
194, 197-98, 318
Communism (socialism), scientific
— its theoretical sources—61; see
also Fourierism; Saint-Simonism,
Saint-Simonists
— Marxist political economy as its
foundation—63
— dissemination of its ideas—87,
119
Communist League, the—59, 61
Co-operation, co-operative movement—98,
100, 331, 392
See also International Working Men's
Association—and co-operative movement
Corn Laws (England) —200, 201, 401
D
Denmark—179, 184
E
Economic crises—329, 345, 358
Economic struggle of workers—74, 89-90,
121
See also Co-operation, co-operative
movement: Strikes, strike movement;
Trade(s) unions, trade union movement;
Working-class movement—necessity to
combine workers' economic and
political struggle; Working day—
struggle for its reduction
Education, training— 391, 398-99,
404
Emigration
— as a result of capitalist development—
201, 329, 403
— political—62, 329
See also Ireland—mass emigration as
a result of colonial oppression
England (Great Britain)
— natural conditions—157, 160-
61
— population—86, 118, 312; see
also Anglo-Saxons; Britons, Norsemen
— English nation, national character—
193, 197, 288
— history—147-48, 17? 192, 194-
99, 286-88, 293-94, 295, 317-18
— in the 1860s—29-30, 80, 81
— as leading capitalist country,
industrial and trade monopoly—
29, 86, 87, 96, 118, 119,
328
— industry—29, 73, 201, 330, 353,
357, 383
— agriculture—166, 202, 392
— concentration of landed property—
86, 99, 118, 167, 192,
328
— possibility of land nationalisation
by the state—393
— trade—29, 212, 218, 221, 324,
401-02; see also Corn Laws
— classes, class struggle—86, 118,
see also Aristocracy, nobility—
English; Bourgeoisie—English;
Peasantry—English; Working class
in England
— class, oligarchic character of government—
101, 171, 191, 192.
404, 423
— illusory character of bourgeois
democracy—101-07, 408, 411
— legislation, judicial system—80,
193, 212, 287, 301, 313, 362,
395, 410, 414
— election system—97, 98
— political parties of the ruling
classes, their corruption in the
1860s—16, 423; see also Liberal
Party; Tories; Whigs
— the press—25, 87, 103, 119, 135,
189, 193, 343, 430
— prerequisites and prospects of
proletarian revolution — 87, 88,
97, 118-19, 121, 372
— and India—259
— colonial policy in Ireland—88,
101-06, 119-20, 148, 152, 162,
189-206, 212, 218, 221, 223-24,
271, 287, 289, 292-93, 297-98,
307, 313, 317-18, 407-12, 428-
30, 434; see also Ireland; Irish
question, the
— and Canada—410
— and France—217, 218
— and Holland—218
— and Italy—105
— and Poland—8, 193, 412
— and Russia—8, 29-30
— and Spain—217
— and the USA—53, 54, 83, 88,
120, 215, 319, 409, 411; see also
Anglo-American war, 1812-14;
War of North American colonies for
independence, 1775-83
See also Army—British; Bank of England;
International Working Men's Association
in England; Navy—British;
Parliament—British; Scotland; Wales
F
Famine (as social phenomenon)—191,
192, 200, 201, 204, 318, 403
Farmhands—22, 166, 191, 199, 203
Female labour
— its exploitation under capitalism—
63, 357, 382, 383
— demand for its regulation by
law—387
Fenians, Fenianism
— character and specific features of
the movement—193, 194, 318
— conspiratorial tactics of struggle—
12, 409, 423
— in the USA—193, 194, 206, 408-
09, 436
— struggle against persecution of
Fenians by the British government,
and International Working
Men's Association — 3-4, 13,
83, 101-07, 189, 314, 362-63,
407-12, 414-27, 430-31, 435-
36
Feudalism—383, 395
First International—see International
Working Men's Association
Fourierism— 175
France
— French nation, its formation —
185
— during the First Republic and
First Empire—198, 408
— coup d'état of December 2,
1851 — 12-14, 56, 62, 374
— economics—22, 37-38, 73, 96,
353, 358, 388
— possibility of nationalisation of
land by the state—393
— reactionary character of home
policy—21, 104
— suffrage—21, 22, 74, 98
— the press—21, 74-77, 342,
362
— prospects of proletarian revolution—
86, 118
— and Belgium—48-49, 198, 335
— and England—217, 218
— and Germany—362
— and Prussia—362
— and Spain—217, 270
— and Switzerland—137
— and the USA—216, 270, 442
See also Aristocracy, nobility—French;
Bonapartism; Bourgeoisie—French;
French Revolution, 1789-94; International
Working Men's Association in
France; Peasantry—French; Revolution
of 1848-49—in France; Wars of the
First French Republic; Working class in
France
French Revolution, 1789-94—236, 238,
239, 242, 278, 312, 318
Frisians—147, 312
G
Gaels—176, 177, 192
General Association of German Workers—
15, 21-24, 32-33
— sectarian character—23, 90, 122,
123
— relations with the Prussian Government—
20, 21, 23, 134
— and International Working
Men's Association—10, 15, 23,
32-33, 90-91, 122-23, 134
— its congresses—10, 15, 32-33
Geographical environment
— its role in development of society—
147-67
Germanic tribes—169, 179, 185
German People's Party (from 1865)—96
German Social-Democracy
— Social-Democratic Workers' Party,
Eisenachers (1869-75)—32-
33, 78-80, 90, 122, 132-34
German Workers' Educational Society in
London, 1840-1918—32, 386
Germany
— population—22
— Germans, national character of
— 185
— history—286
— economic development in 1850-
60s—96-98, 165
— social progress—96
— burghers—94, 97-98
— political system—100, 110
— bureaucracy—22, 96, 97-98, 100
— suffrage—21-23, 95, 99-100
— the press—25, 26
— prospects of revolution—96
— and Austria—96
— and France—362
— and Poland—110
— and Russia—110
See also Aristocracy, nobility—German;
Army—German; Bourgeoisie—
German; Germanic tribes;
German People's Party; International
Working Men's Association in Germany;
National-Liberals; North-German
Confederation; Peasantry—German;
Prussia; Revolution of 1848-49
—in Germany; Working class in Germany
Great Britain—see England
H
Habeas Corpus Act—189, 225, 272, 280,
429
Hegel, Hegelianism—60-61, 178
Historical materialism, materialist conception
of history—94
Historical sources—168-74, 184-85, 306
Historiography
— its class character—161
— of Middle Ages—168, 173
— bourgeois (19th cent.), its apologetic
and nationalistic features—57,
93-94, 169-70, 173, 175, 179, 184,
283-96, 313
— creation and development of Marxist
historiography — 57, 94
See also Historical sources
History (as science)—57, 93-94
See also Historical materialism, materialist
conception of history; Historiography
Hungary— 95, 296, 407
See also International Working Men's
Association and Hungary; Revolution of
1848-49—in Hungary; Working-class
movement in Hungary
I
Iberians— 174
India— 259, 383
International Alliance of Socialist Democracy—
34-36, 45-46, 48, 85, 113-15,
207-10, 394, 395, 446
Internationalism, proletarian—see Working-
class movement—internationalism
as its inherent feature
International Working Men's Association
(First International)
— general characteristics, its historical
significance—12, 17, 45, 46,
64, 91, 122, 127
— foundation of—322-23, 332, 333
— first programme documents (Inaugural
Address and Provisional
Rules)—89, 121, 322, 324-35, 337
— emancipation of workers as its
aim—45, 89, 121, 127, 332, 333
— struggle for class proletarian
character of—12-14, 126, 323
— struggle for international solidarity
and united actions of the working
class in all countries—10, 17,
45, 138, 323, 334, 337, 386,
442-43
— socialist principles in its programme—
100, 143, 385, 391,
393
— and political struggle of working
class—10, 87-89, 119-21, 127,
333
— and trade unions—5, 16, 25-26,
37, 74, 78-81, 87, 89, 92, 119,
125, 343-44, 347-51, 391
— and strikes—13, 14, 16, 47-51,
68-78, 137-39, 345-53, 357-61,
388
— struggle for reduction of the
working day—10, 11, 16-17, 338,
385-87
— questions of female and child's
labour, education — 69, 339-41,
383, 387, 391, 398-99
— and co-operative movement—26,
143, 334, 385
— and agrarian question—143, 385,
391-93
— and national question — 87-89,
119-21, 423
— and the Irish question — 3, 13, 83,
87-89, 101-07, 116, 119-21, 189-
91, 362-63, 407-41, 444; see also
Fenians, Fenianism— struggle
against persecution of Fenians by
the British government, and International
Working Men's Association
— and the Polish question — 8, 110,
322, 362
— struggle against Bonapartism —
12-15, 74
— struggle for independent stand of
proletariat in foreign policy,
against wars of conquest—8, 13,
53-54, 80-81, 143, 332, 342, 361
— struggle against Mazzinism and
Mazzinists—323
— struggle against Proudhonism
and Proudhonists—364-65, 393,
399
— struggle against Lassalleanism and
Lassalleans—23, 33, 90, 122, 134
— struggle against reformism — 92,
126
— struggle against Bakuninism and
Bakuninists—34-36, 46, 65-67,
84-91, 110-24, 209, 394-97, 446
— and League of Peace and Freedom—
35, 78, 112-13, 342
— and Reform League—362
— organisational principles (general
points)—35, 45, 84, 108-09, 117,
127, 323, 334, 336, 337, 364
— Rules and Regulations—6, 35, 45,
46, 77, 79, 84-86, 108, 110, 112,
114, 116-18, 127, 132, 133, 209,
444
— General (Central) Council, its
functions and activities — 3, 6-8,
10, 13, 15-16, 31, 34-38, 45-46,
51, 52, 54, 68, 73-74, 77-83,
84-87, 89-92, 108, 110, 112-19,
121-26, 131-37, 138-39, 142, 143,
209, 320, 322, 333-35, 337, 344,
346, 348, 350, 352, 357, 358,
360-64, 369, 376, 378, 385, 387,
391, 394, 412, 413, 442-46
— Sub-Committee, Standing Committee—
10, 391
— Marx's role in founding the International
and in its activities—10,
64, 324
— Marx as Corresponding Secretary
pro tern for Belgium — 37, 84-91
— Marx as Corresponding Secretary
for Germany—32-33, 51, 91, 122,
131-32, 378, 389, 443
— Marx as Corresponding Secretary
for Russia—110-11, 124
— its press—26, 45, 72, 80, 84-86,
114, 116-18, 123, 126, 336, 378,
444
— and ruling classes, and police and
judicial persecution—12-14, 50,
70-73, 74-79, 131, 346, 350,
363-76
See also International Working Men's
Association. Congresses; International
Working Men's Association (in different
countries)
International Working Men's Association.
Congresses
— their functions and aims—45, 333
— Geneva Congress (1866)—11-13,
31, 34, 37, 85, 108, 117, 143, 324,
335-41, 343, 345, 364, 387, 399
— Lausanne Congress (1867) — 34,
37, 108, 320, 337, 341-42, 345,
364, 375, 387
— Brussels Congress (1868)—6,
9-17, 25, 31, 34, 35, 37, 50, 92,
320, 375, 376, 385-87, 393, 400
— Basle Congress (1869) —68-82,
86, 100, 108, 113, 115, 118, 132,
391, 446
— Mainz Congress (1870, reasons
for postponing the congress) —
132-34, 143, 445
International Working Men's Association
and Hungary—78
International Working Men's Association
and Russia—110, 124
See also International Working Men's
Association—Marx as Corresponding
Secretary for Russia
International Working Men's Association
and the USA—16, 53-54, 126, 127,
377
International Working Men's Association
in Austria—15-16, 77-79, 131
International Working Men's Association
in Belgium—14-16, 25, 37, 50-51, 72,
123, 320, 350, 352-53, 358, 360,
375-77
See also International Working Men's
Association—Marx as Corresponding
Secretary pro tern for Belgium
International Working Men's Association
in England—16, 25-26, 86-87, 92,
118-19, 126, 127, 336, 377
International Working Men's Association
in France—12-14, 16, 72-77, 123,
127-31, 336, 347-48, 352, 360, 362,
364-74, 376-77, 381
See also International Working Men's
Association— struggle against Bonapartism,—
struggle against Proudhonism
and Proudhonists,— struggle
against Bakuninism and Bakuninists
International Working Men's Association
in Germany—15, 16, 33, 37, 78-80,
90, 122, 133-34, 349, 378, 381
See also General Association of German
Workers—and International Working
Men's Association; German Social-
Democracy; International Working
Men's Association—Marx as Corresponding
Secretary for Germany;
Union of German Workers' Associations
International Working Men's Association
in Ireland—377
See also International Working Men's
Association—and the Irish question
International Working Men's Association
in Italy—15, 79, 341-42, 377
See also International Working Men's
Association—struggle against Mazzinism
and Mazzinists
International Working Men's Association
in the Netherlands—79, 377
International Working Men's Association
in Spain— 79, 377
International Working Men's Association
in Switzerland—16, 37, 77, 84-85, 91,
113-17, 123, 136, 349-53, 360, 376-
78, 446;
See also International Alliance of Socialist
Democracy; International Working
Men's Association—struggle against
Bakuninism and Bakuninists
Ireland—103-04, 148, 175, 317, 319,
324, 432
— natural conditions—147-67, 192,
283, 306
— population—173-85, 190-92, 197,
200, 203-05, 215, 299, 317, 403;
see also Celts; Gaels; Picts; Scots
— Irish nation, national character—
147, 148, 161, 169, 174, 185, 192,
193, 195-97, 221, 223, 232, 235,
275
— gens, tribe, commune, clan,
sept—174, 284, 307-09
— before British conquest in the
12th cent.—165, 168-85, 307-12
— ancient laws—165, 169-73
— spread of Christianity—171, 176-
78, 307
— British conquests in 12th-15th
cent.—147, 172-73, 194-95, 285,
306, 317
— completion of British conquest of
the country in 16th-l7th cent.—
140, 165, 168, 173, 192, 195-96,
289, 307, 317, 318
— and English Revolution (17th
cent.)—189, 192, 194-96
— in 18th cent.—165, 169, 194, 196-
99, 215-82, 317
— Anglo-Irish Union of 1801—88,
89, 120, 121, 192, 193, 198, 202,
212, 226, 234, 251, 261, 281-82,
307, 318
— as British colony and citadel of
British landlordism —88, 119-20,
162, 192, 194-206, 212, 218, 307,
317-19
— under British ruling classes—88,
103-06, 120, 192-93, 194-95, 218,
221, 223, 271, 287, 289, 292,
297-98, 312, 317, 428-30, 434
— famine as a result of British
rule—191-92, 200-02, 204, 205,
318, 403
— industry and its destruction by
British competition—152, 197-
201, 215, 218, 221, 224, 271, 272,
317, 318
— agriculture, agrarian relations —
105, 165, 166, 190-92, 200-06,
284, 285, 300, 318, 403, 427,
432-33
— trade, struggle against British
monopoly—197, 198, 215, 218,
221-23, 271, 276
— and abolition of Corn Laws in
England —200, 201, 318
— legislation, judicial system—199,
224, 231-32, 245, 255-56, 272,
287, 410, 414
— crime (as social phenomenon) —
193, 206
— mass emigration as a result of
colonial oppression — 88, 120,
141, 161, 167, 190-92, 201, 204,
284, 318, 403
— interconnection between national
liberation and economic struggle
(the land question as social basis
of the national question) — 88,
120, 319
— national movements and uprisings
in 17th cent.—194, 196-97, 198,
293, 318, 411
— national movements and uprisings
in 18th-19th cent.—193, 194, 198,
200. 218, 220, 239, 250-53,255-58,
277, 280-81, 307, 318, see also
Fenians, Fenianism
—- the Volunteer movement—218-
26. 227-28, 229-36, 248, 270-77
— religious antagonism, its social
character—193, 195, 197, 215.
220. 252. 317-18. 410, 439
— Protestants—194, 195, 197, 215,
217. 218, 220, 221. 242. 252,
270-72, 279, 302, 314
— Catholics, their persecution—140,
178, 194-98, 215-16, 219-20, 230,
231, 235, 236, 247, 251. 270-72.
274. 275, 279, 280, 282, 285, 290.
293, 299, 314
See also Aristocracy, nobility—Irish;
Bourgeoisie— Irish; International Working
Men's Association in Ireland ; Irish
question, the; Landlords, landlordism—
in Ireland; Parliament—Irish; Peasantry—
Irish; Working class in Ireland
Irish question, the
— its character, significance—87-89,
119-21, 319, 407, 409, 413
— ways of settlement—194, 319
Italy
— anti-labour character of home
policy—15
— and Austria—296
— and England—105
See also International Working Men's
Association in Italy; Revolution of 1848-
49—in Italy; Sicily; Working class in
Italy
J
Jamaica—49, 359
June insurrection of Paris proletariat,
1848—12, 97
L
Land and Labour League (England, from
1869)—87, 119, 401-06
Landed property
— and land rent — 65
— liquidation of feudal landed property—
392
— its monopolisation under capitalism—
86. 118. 192, 392
— ousting of small peasant property
under capitalism —99, 192, 392,
393
— historical necessity of replacement
of private property in land by
common property—100, 392,
393, 397, 405
— according to Saint-Simonists—66
Landlords, landlordism
— in England —86-88, 101, 105,
118-20, 191-92, 193, 396, 402,
423
— in Ireland—192, 197, 202, 277,
314, 428, 434, 435
Lassalleanism, Lassalleans
— Lassalle and his role in German
working-class movement—59
— dogmatic and sectarian character
of Lassalleanism —23, 90, 122
— and demand for universal suffrage—
21
See also General Association of German
Workers; International Working Men's
Association—struggle against Lassalleanism
and Lassalleans
Law
— as superstructure, its dependence
on economic basis — 65-67
— abstract—392
— civil—44, 65
— critique of Hegel's philosophy of
law by Marx — 60-61
League of Peace and Freedom (from
1867)—35, 78, 112-13, 342-43
Liberal Party (England)
— policy in the Irish question — 83,
104, 189, 407-12
— and working class—87, 119
Literature
— folklore—140-41, 168-69, 177,
180, 184
— satire and humour—57
— ancient German—185
— ancient Scandinavian—172, 179-
80, 185
— French — 56-57
— Icelandic—181-84
— Irish—140-41, 168-69, 171-74,
177, 308, 310, 312
Lock-out— 37, 70, 137-38, 345-46, 347,
351
Lumpenproletariat— 98
M
Machinery (machine production) — 9,
166, 324, 329, 382-85, 387
Malthusianism—383
Marxism—60-61, 63
See also Communism (socialism), scientific;
Historical materialism, materialist
conception of history; Marxist political
economy
Marxist political economy—64
Mongols— 318
N
National Labour Union of the United
States—16, 53-55, 81, 377
National-Liberals (Germany, from
1866) —95, 96
National movement
— as part of bourgeois-democratic
revolutions — 88, 119
— and working class — 88, 120
Navy—147
— of ancient Rome—147
— British —218, 280
— French —217, 218, 270
— Spanish —217, 218, 270
Neoplatonism— 178
"Neue Rheinische Zeitung"—61-62
Norsemen—147, 177, 179-84
North-German Confederation (1867-71) —
75, 311
Norway, Norwegians—182-83, 291
P
Pan-Slavism—123, 124
Parliament (in bourgeois society)
— its use by working class—95, 98,
396
— British —87, 119, 189, 193, 196,
215, 217, 222-23, 226-27, 229,
230, 232, 233, 271-76, 278, 281,
290, 325-26, 330, 331, 345, 362,
396, 410
— Irish—195-98, 212-19, 220-21,
222, 224-27, 229, 232-37, 247,
268, 270-80, 282, 290, 317
Pauperism
— as consequence of capitalism —
324, 328-29, 402-04
Peace
— as one of the main concerns of
working class — 53-54, 81
Peasantry
— big—99, 100
— small—99, 393
— its ideologists—393
— and bourgeoisie—98-99
— and working class — 98-100
— English—195,
— French —21, 22
— German — 22, 98-99; see also Peasant
War in Germany, 1524-25;
Working class in Germany—agricultural
— Irish—99, 198-205, 206, 220, 318
Peasant War in Germany, 1524-25—93,
94, 98
Phoenicians— 169
Picts—177-78
Poland
— Tsarist Russia's policy towards Poland—
8, 110, 148, 296, 429-30
— and England —8, 193, 412
See also International Working Men's
Association—and the Polish question
Political economy—61, 63, 330-31
See also Marxist political economy
Politics, political struggle
—• as a form of class struggle—94
— political struggle of working class
— 10,89-90, 116, 120-21,127,143,
332-33
See also Working-class movement—
necessity to combine workers' economic
and political struggle
Press, the
— freedom of the press and its
significance for working-class
movement—20, 21, 61-62
— illusory character of freedom of
the press in bourgeois society—
20, 60, 101, 428
— persecution of the proletarian
press in bourgeois society—20,
62, 78, 329
See also Belgium— the press; England—
the press; France—the press;
Germany—the press; International
Working Men's Association—its press;
"Neue Rheinische Zeitung"; Prussia—
the press
Production
— social — 9 , 383
— application of science—328-29,
330-31
— its capitalist form — 86, 118
— under communism — 9, 330-31
See also Machinery
Proudhonism, Proudhonists—364-65, 393,
399
See also International Working Men's
Association— struggle against Proudhonism
and Proudhonists
Prussia
— in the 1840s —61
— home policy—408
— finances—95
— legislation—15, 33, 395
— the press — 75
— education — 399
— and Austria—94-95, 98
— and France—362
— and German states—95-96
— and Switzerland—137
See also Austro-Prussian war, 1866;
Bonapartism— Prussian ; Bourgeoisie-
Prussian; North-German Confederation
(1867-71); Trade(s) unions, trade union
movement—in Prussia
R
Red Indians— 195
Reformation— 317
Reform League (England, from 1865) —
26, 193, 345, 362
Religion
— as superstructure, form of social
consciousness—94
— religious struggle as reflection of
class struggle — 93
— religious strife, its utilisation by
ruling classes—88, 120; see also
Ireland—religious antagonism, its
social character
See also Christianity; Church; Clergy,
the
Revolution, bourgeois, bourgeois-democratic
— and working class—97-98
— and national question — 88, 120,
121
See also French Revolution, 1789-94;
Revolution of 1848-49; US Civil War,
1861-65; War of North American colonies
for independence, 1775-83
Revolution, economic—86, 118
Revolution of 1848-49—329
— in France—61, 97; see also June
insurrection of Paris proletariat,
1848
— in Germany—59, 61-62, 93-98
— in Hungary—411
— in Italy—105
Revolution, proletarian, socialist
— prerequisites for—9, 66, 86-87,
97, 118-19, 384, 396
— as the highest form of class struggle
of proletariat against bourgeoisie
—12
— international character of—86,
118
— and radical socio-economic and
political changes—66-67, 99, 397,
404
— and national question — 88, 89,
120, 121
— and trade unions—92
Revolution, social— 66, 86-89, 113, 118-
21, 396
See also Revolution, bourgeois, bourgeois-
democratic; Revolution, proletarian,
socialist
Right
— of inheritance—65-67, 112-13,
115, 391, 394-97
— property right—65, 192, 197, 434
Romania—96, 165
Russia
— history—218, 270
— economics—29-30, 53, 96, 165
— reactionary character of its home
policy—408
— revolutionary movement—110-11
— international significance of the
Russian revolution—110
— Marx's contacts with Russian revolutionaires
—110-11, 123-24
— annexation of the Caucasus — 332
— Tsarist policy towards Poland — 8,
110, 148, 296, 318, 332,429-30
— and England —8, 29-30
— and Germany—110
— and Switzerland—137
— and the USA —53
S
Saint -Simonism, Saint-Simonists — 66,
115, 208, 395
Scandinavia, Scandinavians—147, 170,
179-85
See also Literature—ancient Scandinavian;
Norway, Norwegians; Sweden
Schiller Institute, the (Manchester, 2nd
half of 19th cent.)—18-19
Scotland—147, 176-78, 179, 192
See also Scots
Scots—147, 169, 173-74, 176-78, 310
Sicily— 203
Slavery— 65, 310
— in ancient Rome—57, 394
— in the USA—54, 88
Society, bourgeois
— economic basis of—65, 66, 404
— contradictions of—328-29
See also Bourgeoisie; Capital; Peasantry;
Wage labour; Working class
Society, slave—57
See also Ancient Rome
Spain—173, 217
See also International Working Men's
Association in Spain
State power
— its social functions—403-04
— as a tool of class domination of
exploiters —48-49, 192, 353, 403
-04
See also Bureaucracy
Strikes, strike movement—47-50, 68-75,
343, 345-46, 348
Sweden—154, 184-85, 291
Switzerland—69, 137
See also Bourgeoisie—Swiss; International
Working Men's Association in
Switzerland; Working class in Switzerland
T
Taxes— 66, 396, 398, 404, 405
Tories (England) —313, 345, 401, 423
Trade(s) unions, trade union movement
— their tasks and role in the class
struggle of proletariat — 92, 343-
44, 391
— critique of reformist views of
trade union leaders—43-44, 92,
389-90
— in England—16, 25-26, 37, 73,
81, 86, 87, 92, 118, 119, 322,
343-45, 347-48, 357, 377, 443
— in France—73-74, 347-48
— in Germany—37, 43-44, 79, 98,
389-90
— in Prussia—79
— in Switzerland—350, 351
See also Economic struggle of workers;
International Working Men's Association—
and trade unions
U
Union of German Workers' Associations—
15, 32-33, 381
United States of America
— history—216, 217
— immigration, its role in composition
of population—88, 120, 141,
216, 319, 329
— trade—53, 165
— financial policy—54
— bourgeois parties — 54
— home policy—54, 386, 407
— legislation — 395
— system of education—398
— and England—53, 54, 83, 88,
120, 215, 319, 409, 411
— and France—216, 270, 442
— and Russia—53
— and Spain—217, 270
See also Anglo-American war, 1812-
14; Aristocracy, nobility—US financial
aristocracy; Army—US; Bourgeoisie—
US; Fenians, Fenianism—in the USA;
International Working Men's Association,
and the USA,Slavery—in the USA;
US Civil War, 1861-65; War of North
American colonies for independence,
1775-83; Working class in the USA
US Civil War, 1861-65
— its results and significance—53,
54
— and US working class—54
— and England—83, 409, 411
— and English working class—53,
325
— and European working class—47,
380, 391
— and International Working Men's
Association — 53, 54
W
Wage labour
— and capital —63, 383
— as specific form of slavery—383
— necessity of abolition of wage
labour system—9
Wales— 283
War(s)
— influence on economy and social
progress—53-54
See also Anglo-American war, 1812-
14; Army; Austro-Prussian war, 1866;
Navy; Peasant War in Germany, 1524-
25; US Civil War, 1861-65; War of
North American colonies for independence,
1775-83; Wars of the First
French Republic
War of North American colonies for independence,
1775-83—53-54, 198, 212-
18, 259, 270, 271, 318, 361, 380,
386
Wars of the First French Republic—198,
246, 250, 280
Whigs (England)—230, 235, 276
Workers' societies
— mutual aid — 39-44
See also Co-operation, co-operative
movement; German Workers' Educational
Society in London; Trade(s) unions,
trade union movement; Union of German
Workers' Associations
Working class
— its emergence and development—
45, 97
— world-historic role—10, 17
— development of its class consciousness—
23, 98
— and revolutionary theory—87,
119
— and peasantry—99-100
— and urban petty bourgeoisie—97-
99
See also Classes, class struggle—in
bourgeois society; Wage labour; Working
class (in different countries);
Working-class movement; Working
day—importance of its reduction for
working class
Working class in Belgium—354-56
See also Working-class movement in
Belgium
Working class in England
— living and labour conditions—5,
86, 87, 118, 119, 324-30, 354,
357, 402
— and suffrage — 98
— and the Irish question — 88, 120,
212
See also Liberal Party (England)—and
working class; Working-class movement
in England
Working class in France
— its condition —21-22, 37-38, 98,
354, 388, 442
— and Bonapartism—12-14, 74
— and suffrage—21-22, 74, 98
See also Working-class movement in
France
Working class in Germany
— during 1848-49 revolution — 98
— its composition — 22
— its condition —5, 39-44, 389
— and suffrage—21, 23, 95, 98
— and bourgeoisie—94, 96-98
— and petty bourgeoisie — 98, 99
— and peasantry—99-100
— and lumpenproletariat—98
— agricultural —22, 23, 99-100
See also Working-class movement in
Germany
Working class in Ireland—87-88, 120
Working class in Italy—15
See also Working-class movement in
Italy
Working class in Switzerland—137-39
See also Working-class movement in
Switzerland
Working class in the USA—54, 81, 442
See also Working-class movement in the
USA
Working-class movement
— its aims and tasks—10, 45, 46, 64,
88-90, 120-21, 127, 143, 331-32,
333, 344
— significance of its organisation
and unity—10, 17, 45, 331, 334,
386
— objective laws of its rise—17
— necessity to combine workers'
economic and political struggle —
10, 90, 121, 333
— and revolutionary theory—45
— internationalism as its inherent
feature—10, 15, 17, 53, 73, 74,
77, 89, 120, 138, 323, 331-33,
344, 346, 348, 350, 357, 358, 385,
442-43
— and democratic freedoms—10,
20, 23, 77
— and struggle against national oppression—
77, 88, 120-21, 212
— and struggle for peace, against
wars—53-54, 81, 143, 332
See also Communist League, the;
Economic struggle of workers; International
Working Men's Association; Marxism;
Parliament—its use by working
class; Politics, political struggle—
political struggle of working class;
Revolution, proletarian, socialist; Strikes,
strike movement; Trade(s) unions, trade
union movement; Workers' societies;
Working-class movement (in different
countries)
Working-class movement in Austria—15-
16, 77-78
See also International Working Men's
Association in Austria
Working-class movement in Belgium—47-
52, 72, 320-21, 357-60
See also International Working Men's
Association in Belgium
Working-class movement in England—16,
47, 80-81, 98, 377
See also Chartism, Chartist movement;
International Working Men's Association
in England; Land and Labour League;
Reform League; Trade(s) unions, trade
union movement—in England
Working-class movement in France—13,
72-77
See also Bakuninism, Bakuninists—in
France; International Working Men's
Association in France; Revolution of
1848-49—in France; Trade(s) unions,
trade union movement—in France
Working-class movement in Germany—20-
23, 59, 79, 95, 98, 100, 378, 381, 387
See also Communist League, the; General
Association of German Workers; German
Social-Democracy; International
Working Men's Association in Germany;
Revolution of 1848-49—in Germany;
Trade(s) unions, trade union movement—
in Germany; Union of German
Workers' Associations
Working-class movement in Hungary—78-
79
Working-class movement in Italy—15, 377
See also Bakuninism, Bakuninists—in
Italy; International Working Men's Association
in Italy; Revolution of 1848-
49—in Italy
Working-class movement in Switzerland—
16, 79, 137-38, 349, 377-78
See also Bakuninism, Bakuninists—in
Switzerland; International Working
Men's Association in Switzerland;
Trade(s) unions, trade union movement—
in Switzerland
Working-class movement in the USA—16,
17, 54, 338, 377, 379, 380, 442-43
See also National Labour Union of the
United States
Working day
— and intensification of labour—
382-83
— and introduction of machines—
382-83, 387
— of women and children—63, 382,
387
— importance of its reduction for
working class—11, 330, 382,
387
— struggle for its reduction—10, 11,
16-17, 330, 379-80, 383, 385, 387,
405





MECW VOL 22





A
Agitation—415, 587
Agriculture— 337, 338, 341, 483, 487-89,
493-94, 497
Algeria— 95, 193
Alliance of Socialist Democracy—357-58,
361-62, 376, 411-12, 429
See also Bakuninism, Bakuninists
Alsace—see Lorraine; see also Franco-
Prussian war of 1870-71—annexation
of Alsace and Lorraine by
Germany
Analogy (military-historical)— 216-18
Anarchy in production—335
Anarchy (political)—484
Anglo-American war of 1812-14—350
Anglo-Franco-Chinese war of 1856-60
(Second Opium war)—350
Anglo-French commercial treaty of 1860—
346, 442
Antagonism— 7, 329, 333, 335, 535,
548, 620
Anti-communism (criticism and exposure
of it by Marx and Engels)— 335,
354, 386, 597-98, 608
See also Bakuninism, Bakuninists;
Paris Commune of 1871—ruling classes'
slander campaign against the
Commune and the International Association;
Reformism
Aristocracy, nobility in France—336, 492,
493, 524
Aristocracy, nobility in Germany—540
Armaments, arms—24, 26, 46, 96-98
See also Artillery
Army
— general characteristics—25, 30,
106-07, 151, 159, 181, 188, 255,
583
— and the economy—487, 488
— and social relations—600
— as a component part of the state
apparatus—105-06, 278, 328,
331, 483, 485, 533, 534, 548
— as an instrument of reaction and
suppression of revolutionary
movements—106, 116, 125, 278,
322-23, 354, 485, 487, 501, 527,
536, 537
— under feudalism—483-84
— under capitalism—284, 353, 484
— and exploiting classes—125, 278
— and peasantry—337-38, 488
— and bourgeois revolution — 533,
548
— and proletarian revolution—322-
24, 331, 487, 527, 536; see also
Paris Commune of 1871—
replacement of the standing army
by the National Guard
— regular—151, 231
— standing—328, 331, 334, 483,
488-89, 501, 533, 537, 548
— irregular, volunteer, guerrilla—
151, 575, 581, 582
— militia—200, 488, 490, 537
— discipline and morale—26, 98-99,
108-09, 120, 135, 137, 220, 232-
33, 323-24, 527
— soldiers—46-47, 106, 122, 323
— non-commissioned officers—120,
151
— generals—94, 200, 202, 236, 245-
48, 256, 258
— military system, modes and forms
of recruitment—11, 105-07, 575
— mercenaries, enlistment of—108-
09, 354
— universal conscription—105-07,
125-26, 575
See also Armaments, arms; Army (in
different countries); Artillery; Art
of warfare, its laws; Cavalry; Fortifications;
Infantry; Military science,
history, literature; Military training;
Navy; War(s)
Army, Austrian— 34, 96-97, 284
Army, British
— composition, organisation, armament—
141, 574, 575
— martial skills, fighting qualities—
96, 175, 575, 583
— militia, volunteers—151
Army, French
— composition, organisation, armament,
military expenditure—11-
13, 47, 96, 97, 107, 116-17, 158,
283, 317, 453, 520
— inefficiency of commanders—
23, 46, 77, 98-99
— martial skills, training, fighting
qualities—60, 95-97, 108-09, 137,
175, 182, 194, 196-97
— system of substitution—96, 99,
109
— Garde Mobile—13, 35, 46, 66, 89,
103, 108, 120, 121, 139, 151, 194,
200, 231, 255, 553
See also Franco-Prussian war of 1870-
71; Napoleonic wars; Wars of the First
French Republic
Army, German
— of the German states (before
1871)—13, 14, 36, 47, 98, 125-26,
146
See also Revolution of 1848-49 in
Germany (uprising in the southwestern
Germany in May-June 1849)
Army, Polish—149
Army, Prussian
— composition, organisation, armament,
military expenditure—11-
14, 96-98, 116, 132, 140-141, 148,
149, 284
— as an instrument of reaction—
105, 124, 266
— martial skills, training, fighting
qualities—42-43, 97-98, 105-07,
128, 220
— universal conscription—105-07,
123-26, 166
— Landwehr—13, 97, 166, 201, 202,
213-14
— Landsturm—166, 167, 201-02
See also Franco-Prussian war of
1870-71
Army, Russian— 284, 575, 583
Army, US—151
Artillery— 22, 94, 96, 97, 101, 131-32,
140-41, 175, 218-19, 234
Art of warfare, its laws—228
— and development of technology
and arms—24, 46
— revolution in the art of warfare in
the second half of the 19th
cent.—128
— strategy—21, 25-26, 28-29, 33,
47, 57, 80, 188, 207, 210, 244,
253
— tactics—26, 28, 98, 182, 233
— battle—25-26, 104
Atheism— 362, 608
Austfalia—534
Austria-Hungary (from 1867)
— political system—487
and Germany—261
— and Prussia—97
Austro-Italian war of 1848-49—88, 95,
165-66
Austro-Italo-French war of 1859
— general characteristics—96, 97,
104, 193
— course of military operations—34
— battle at Magenta, June 4, 1859
and at Solferino, June 24, 1859—
16, 28, 35, 97
— and France (Second Empire)—97,
98, 104, 158, 301
— and Prussia—97
— and Russia—301
— and European democracy—300-
04
Austro-Prussian war of 1866
— general characteristics—98, 193
— armed forces of belligerent
states—14, 24, 36, 128
— course of military operations—14,
34
— battle of Sadowa (Königgrätz),
July 3,* 1866—5, 35
— and France—5, 267
— and Germany—36, 146
B
Bakuninism, Bakuninists
— rejection of the political struggle
of the proletariat—412, 415-18,
614, 616
— disorganising activities of
Bakuninists in the working-class
movement—357-58, 361-62, 376,
411-12, 417-20, 429, 430
— and Nechayevism — 377, 429
— in Switzerland—411-12, 555, 556,
558-59
See also Alliance of Socialist Democracy
Basis and superstructure
— economic basis of bourgeois society—
459, 498
— social basis—540
— political superstructure—540
— the term "superstructure"—328,
494, 533, 540, 548
See also Economics and politics
Belgium—111, 173, 340
Blanquism, Blanquists
— and uprising of October 31,
1870—323, 352, 471, 527
— and Paris Commune—352
See also Société des Saisons
Bonapartism—3, 5, 77, 95, 282, 330,
486, 493, 496, 535, 548-49
See also France, Second Empire
Borders (frontiers), state—117-18, 264-66
Bourgeoisie
— its economic domination—278,
354, 493-94, 501
— its different factions, struggle between
them—461, 548
— and state power—278, 328-31,
353, 354, 426, 460, 485, 486,
534-35, 547-49; see also Dictatorship
of the bourgeoisie; Republic,
bourgeois
— and peasantry—330, 337-38, 550
Bourgeoisie, English—580, 584
Bourgeoisie, French—286, 314, 453, 460,
501, 519
— in the first half of the 19th
cent.—333, 460, 485, 522
— during the Second Empire—330,
337, 486, 496, 603, 629
— during the Third Republic—576,
578, 581
Bourgeoisie, German—264, 268, 579,
582, 605
Bourgeoisie, Swiss—299
Bureaucracy, officials— 278, 328, 483-85,
488-89, 494-97, 533-35, 547, 549
C
Capital— 329, 330, 335, 535, 536, 548,
549
Capitalist mode of production—335
Capitalists— 335, 536, 549
Carbonari—597
Cavalry—12, 98
Censorship— 275
Centralisation of capital—339-40, 535-36
Centralisation (political)—328, 485-86,
504, 533-35, 547-49
— bourgeois—328, 332-33, 485-86,
502, 504, 533-35, 549
— its use in the interests of the
exploiting classes—116, 502, 504,
533-35, 547-49
— under the dictatorship of the proletariat—
331, 333, 485-86, 504,
533-34, 547-48
Chartism—615, 634
Chauvinism—104, 260-61, 500-01
Civil society— 483-88, 490-92, 550
Civil war—134, 606
See also Paris Commune of 1871—civil
war as a form of class struggle
Civil War in the USA, 1861-65—142,
151, 270, 458, 464, 542, 606
Classes
— ruling classes in bourgeois societ
y _ 3 , 4, 263, 290, 316, 329-31,
333, 335, 352, 354, 426-27, 460,
484-90, 495-500, 519, 521, 525-
26, 531, 533-37, 547-51, 603-04
— middle strata in bourgeois society_
336, 344, 385, 492, 496, 591
— class contradictions, antagonism
between the proletariat and the
bourgeoisie—329, 335, 535, 536,
548, 602
— class prejudices—318, 332, 493,
494, 496, 519, 537
— exploiting, propertied—251, 278,
329, 330, 335, 336, 426, 427, 457,
459, 460, 577
— privileged, upper—282, 322, 385,
426, 427, 526, 535, 549, 595, 597
— appropriating—325, 335, 353,
534-36, 548
— parasitic—455, 541
— lower, exploited, propertyless —
278, 494
— productive—329, 330, 335, 459,
531, 534-36, 549
— proletariat as the ruling class—
336, 416, 417, 426, 486-92, 500,
536, 634; see also Dictatorship of
the proletariat
Class struggle— 335, 350, 353, 491, 499,
531, 535, 536, 603, 604
— struggle of the workers with the
bourgeoisie in the period of developed
capitalism—330, 348,
353, 354, 427, 491, 498, 534, 535,
541, 602, 619
— workers' economic struggle
against the bourgeoisie—427, 498
— political struggle as a form of class
struggle—536
— struggle between the proletariat
and the bourgeoisie, and middle
strata—337, 496
— and national question — 311-12,
353, 501, 515-16
— and revolution—329, 335, 353,
416, 417, 491, 525, 526, 548-49
— classes and class struggle in the
period of the dictatorship of the
proletariat—493-94, 500
— international character of the class
struggle of the proletariat—602,
605
Clergy
— as a champion of the interests of
the exploiting classes—502, 504,
533, 534, 548
— its place in social hierarchy, its
functions—328, 485
— and national liberation movements—
198, 200-01
Communism, Icarian (Cabet's communism)—
499
Communism, scientific
— demand of socialisation of the
means of production—494, 634
Communism (social formation)
— as a necessary result of the historical
development of human society—
336, 491-92, 504
— as the aim of the revolutionary
workers' movement, of the proletarian
revolution—334, 416,
417, 426-27, 491, 497-500, 548-
49, 601-02
— criticism of the Utopian ideas
of the future society—336, 499-
500
— material preconditions of the
communist transformation of society—
336, 491, 492, 494, 499
— international character of the
communist transformation of society—
7, 338, 459, 486, 490-92,
501, 540
— period of transition from capitalism
to communism (socialism)—
331-41, 485-95, 496, 498-501,
533, 536-38, 547-49
— abolition of private property, social
property in the means of
production—335, 494-95, 505,
608, 634
— social character of production—
335-36, 491-92, 494
— labour—7, 335, 491-92, 494, 496,
498, 608
— communism as a new society, new
organisation of society—7, 341,
349, 353, 354, 537-38, 540
— abolition of class antagonisms and
differences, society without classes—
331, 335, 416, 417, 427, 486,
491, 494-95, 499-500, 525, 526,
548-49, 634
— communist transformation of society
and the state—328-42, 483-
93, 496, 498-501, 533, 536-37,
547-49
— communist transformation of society
and the army—7, 322-23,
328, 331, 332, 334, 487-90, 527,
531, 536-38, 547-48
— communist transformation of society
and the law—328, 331-32,
337-38, 340-41, 490, 493, 533,
536-38, 547-48, 634
— communist transformation of society
and man—332, 335, 336, 486,
490, 491, 492, 493, 505, 537
Comtism (positivism) and working-class
movement—556, 558, 574, 605
Co-operation, co-operative movement—
335-36, 339, 472, 488
Corruption— 77, 333-34, 463, 486, 505
Counter-revolution—354, 441, 481, 532
— bourgeois—319, 323, 440, 524-
26, 529, 546
— its international character—352-
54, 498, 509, 520
Crimean war of 1853-56—88, 96, 97,
100, 110, 135, 141, 142, 158, 193,
216-17, 459, 575, 576, 579-80, 583
D
Danish war of 1864—98, 132, 218, 219
Democracy, bourgeois—385, 605
Democracy, proletarian—331-35, 338-39,
487-92, 536-37
Despotism— 4, 5, 260, 275, 487, 502
Dictatorship, counter-revolutionary— 497,
533-34, 539
Dictatorship of the bourgeoisie—278,
533-35
— as a means of suppression of the
liberation struggle of workers—
348, 349, 351, 352, 485-86, 531,
548
— betrayal by the bourgeoisie of the
national interests—264-65, 311-
12, 314-18, 320, 338, 351-53, 437-
38, 440, 458-59, 482, 501, 509,
515-16, 519, 520, 538-40
— its anti-popular character—485
Dictatorship of the proletariat
— its historical necessity—335, 416,
417, 426, 427, 500
— demand of the dictatorship of the
proletariat in programme documents
of the working-class movement—
427
— as a state of the transitional
period from capitalism to communism
(socialism)—634
— its historical tasks—334, 416, 417,
490, 548-49, 601-02, 634
— destruction of the bourgeois state
machine—328, 331-34, 483, 486-
90, 493, 497, 498, 533, 536-37,
548
— its constructive functions—601-
02; see also Paris Commune of
1871
— and the peasantry—333, 337-38,
488, 492-95
— and the urban middle strata—
336, 472-74, 486, 492, 496, 591
— its truly democratic nature—331,
333, 334, 338, 464, 487-90, 495,
498
— its humaneness—323, 326-27,
351, 401, 447, 450, 464, 475, 476,
491, 512, 513, 526, 528-31, 592
— its international character—339,
460, 475, 486, 490, 501
— separation of the church from the
state—331, 337, 475, 490, 493,
533, 537
— classes and class struggle—491-
92, 500
— role of the proletarian party in
winning the dictatorship of the
proletariat and in the implementation
of its functions—416, 417,
426-27
— political rule of the proletariat as
a means of building a classless
society—416, 417, 491-92
— and experience of the Paris Commune—
328-43, 483-93, 536-38,
634; see also Paris Commune of
1871
— using of the term "dictatorship of
the proletariat"—634
Distribution— 491
E
"Eastern question" at the beginning of the
1870s—lib, 282
Economics and politics—327, 332-35,
426-27, 491-92, 549, 601, 602
Electoral rights
— in bourgeois society—488, 496,
539
— and the working class—278, 331,
333, 474, 489, 490, 537, 617, 634
Emigration (counter-revolutionary)— 342-
43, 457-58, 538-39, 543-44
England (Great Britain)
— constitutional monarchy—587
— oligarchic character of government—
339
— bodies of local self-government—
333, 464
— judiciary—333, 464
— Radicals—634
— electoral system—617
— bourgeois-republican movement—
587
— trade unions—279, 498, 554, 560,
561, 589, 614, 615
— possibility of carrying out a proletarian
revolution in a peaceful
way—602, 606
— State Church (Anglican) and religion—
587
— foreign policy and popular masses—
269, 573, 574, 582
— foreign policy and the Civil War
in the USA—270
— and France during the Second
Empire—269, 580
See also Army, British; Bourgeoisie,
English; International Working Men's
Association in England; Working class
in England; Working-class movement in
England
Exploitation— 334-35, 484-85, 493-94
Expropriation— 334-37, 493-95, 535-36
F
Federalism (reactionary)—502
Fenians—597
Feudalism— 329-31, 483-86, 533, 534,
548
Feudal society—504, 531
Foreign policy—3, 276, 282
See also — foreign policy (in different
countries)
Fortifications— 26, 87-88, 91-94, 101-05,
108-110, 130-35, 139, 141-45, 172-
75,219,222-23,231,235,236,283,591
Fourierism, Fourierists—499
France (prior to 1830)
— general characteristics—116, 333,
502
— territory, state frontiers—116,
117, 251
— French nation, its formation—77,
482
— Frenchmen, their national character—
96, 106-07, 129, 156, 232
— social and political system—116,
328-31, 483-84, 502, 533, 547-49
— classes, class struggle—329, 534-
36, 548-49
— state apparatus—328-34, 484-87,
502, 533-37, 550-51
— religion, the church—198, 314,
315, 484-85
— during the Consulate and the
First Empire—328, 484-85, 534,
547-48
— social and political situation during
the Restoration—458-59, 491-
92, 521-23, 534-35
— reactionary character of the parliament—
319, 329, 339-40, 465-
66, 503, 523-24
See also French Revolution, the
France. Foreign policy and diplomacy
— foreign policy during the July
monarchy—316, 452-53, 519-20
— during the Second Empire—266-
67
— and Austria—452-53, 519-20
— and England—316, 346, 442,
452-53, 519-20
— and Germany—37, 106, 117, 266-
67, 316, 452-53
— and Italy—316, 317, 462
— and Poland—338-39
— and Prussia—5, 106, 266-67, 316,
452-53, 519-20
— and Russia—316, 338-39, 452-53,
519-20
— and Turkey—316, 452-53, 514-20
— colonial aggression against
Algeria—95
— colonialist policy in Egypt—316,
452-53, 519-20
See also Army, French; Bourgeoisie,
French; Franco-Prussian war of 1870-
71; International Working Men's Association
in France; June 1848 uprising of
the Paris proletariat; Napoleonic wars;
Paris Commune of 1871; Revolution of
1848 in France; Wars of the First
French Republic; Working class in
France
France. July Revolution of 1830 and July
monarchy— 315, 317, 329, 333-34,
345, 442-44, 446-47, 454-55, 459-61,
519-23, 534, 535, 548-49, 572
France. Revolution of September 4, 1870,
proclamation of the Third Republic
— revolution of September 4, proclamation
of the republic, its character—
263, 268, 311, 312, 317-18,
321-22, 451-52, 462-63, 480, 481,
485-86, 515, 525-26, 532-33, 546-
48, 576-77
— workers' uprising on September 4,
1870 in Lyons, proclamation of
the Commune—480, 532-33
— proclamation of the Commune by
the workmen of Marseilles and
Toulouse—480, 532-33
— rise of the Paris workmen on
October 5, 1870—437-39, 480
— uprising of October 31, 1870—
323, 326-27, 353, 437-39, 445,
447, 480-81, 527
— politics of the Government of
National Defence—240-42, 249,
268-69, 275, 311-14, 318, 437,
439, 446, 452-53, 456-57, 481,
506-07, 515-19, 525, 527
— counter-revolutionary monarchist
groups—268-69, 292, 317-18,
346-47, 465-66, 502, 511, 521-25,
538-39, 544-45; see also Paris
Commune of 1871—counterrevolutionary
policy of the Thiers
government
— National Guard—330-31,437,445,
446, 449-50, 481, 482. 521, 527
— bourgeois-republican movement—
268-69, 341-42, 465-66, 497-98,
523-24, 538-39
France, Second Empire
— general characteristics—3-5, 76-
77, 129, 263, 266-67, 321, 330-31,
338-39, 451-52, 482, 484-87, 496-
98, 525, 526, 533, 535, 536, 547-48,
550-51, 575-76
— coup d'état of December 2,
1851—3-5, 95-96, 269, 330, 455-
57, 460-63, 468-69, 586
— industry—330,522-23,535-36,594
— agriculture—338, 493-94
— trade—330
— finances—5, 319, 330, 337, 484-
85, 496-97, 535-36
— home policy, domestic situation—
5
— corruption of the ruling circles—
23-24, 46, 76-77, 98-99, 158, 159,
313, 314, 330, 337, 439, 442-43,
484-87, 505, 535-36, 556, 557,
603-06
— character of political power—3-5,
330-31, 484-87, 497-98, 532-37,
550-51, 603-04
— administrative apparatus, bureaucracy—
76-77, 484-85
— army as the bulwark and dominating
force of the Bonapartist
regime—95-96, 98, 330, 452-53,
484-85, 550
— the police—140-41, 303, 323-24,
453-54, 473-74, 493, 506, 532,
623-24
— public works—98-99, 339-40,
350-52
— suffrage—330, 442, 468-69, 484-
85, 496, 539
— Corps Législatif—160, 321-22,
442, 484-85, 533
— monarchist groups—522-23
— clergy—198, 484-85, 492-93,
502
— bourgeoisie—330, 336, 484-85,
500, 601-02, 626-27
— people, the—195
— peasantry—4, 95-96, 195, 198,
251, 268-70, 337-38, 482-83, 492-
95, 502, 535-36, 550
— republican movement—443
— plebiscite of May 8, 1870—3-4,
557
— Bonapartist regime and wars—3-
6, 36
— causes of the collapse of the
Second Empire—5, 263, 459-60,
552
See also Franco-Prussian war of
1870-71
France. Third Republic (after the defeat of
the Paris Commune)
— working class—268-70, 311, 321-
22, 437-38, 451-52, 481, 515, 516,
526, 527, 532, 546-47
— peasantry—629-30
— petty bourgeoisie—481
— home policy—357-58, 361, 608
— the bourgeois press—319-20, 369
Franco-Prussian war of 1870-71
— general characteristics—3-7, 31,
150, 193-94, 253-54, 260-70, 272,
276, 353-54, 473, 517, 527, 621
— its causes, diplomatic preparation—
36, 59-60, 608
— change in its character during the
course of military operations—
104, 126, 253-54, 263-64, 267-68,
272, 503, 517, 527, 528, 549-51
— forces of belligerent states—12-14,
23-24, 35-39, 42-47, 54-55, 58, 59,
66, 67, 74-78, 89, 98-99, 119-22,
127-29, 137-39, 146-49, 151-52,
155-57, 159, 164, 170, 175, 181-84,
187, 188, 194-97, 203, 204, 206-
07, 212-15, 217, 227-29, 239, 240,
252, 253, 255, 283-84
— course of military operations—
11, 12, 16, 17, 19-30, 32, 42, 44,
47-54, 56-65, 67-69, 71-76, 78-85,
88-94, 100, 103, 104, 109, 113,
114, 115, 116, 127-29, 130, 131,
138, 139, 140, 141, 146-53, 155,
157-62, 168-71, 173-76, 179, 181-
83, 185-88, 192-96, 203-11, 213,
219, 221-30, 236-58, 264-66, 321-
22, 391, 574-76, 577-80, 585, 591
— major battles of the first period of
war—28-30, 32-35, 38, 42, 50, 52,
53, 55, 57-59, 62, 65, 72, 82, 83,
102-03, 108, 136-37, 155, 159,
160, 579-80
— siege and capitulation of Metz in
August-October 1870—59, 65-66,
72, 82-83, 86, 87, 91, 113, 127-29,
134-37, 146-56, 159, 164, 173,
180, 182, 231, 252, 317
— capitulation of the French army
on September 1-2, 1870, at Sedan,
its political consequences—82-87,
89, 91, 150, 161-62, 173, 180, 182-
84, 231, 242, 243, 248, 249, 263,
299, 300, 313, 317, 451-52, 501,
519, 541, 578-79
— siege of Paris in September 1870-
January 1871—59, 73, 87-90,
108-11, 119, 121, 122, 128, 129-
34, 136-145, 147-50, 169, 170,
172-78, 181, 183-85, 187-91, 193-
98, 205, 207, 212, 216-20, 225-28,
231-35, 238-41, 249, 251, 252,
299, 311-13, 321-24, 437-40, 451-
52, 482, 506-07, 515-19, 525-27,
532, 547-48
— major battles after the capitulation
at Sedan (the second period
of war)—168, 169, 176, 194, 204,
228-30, 236-38, 241, 245, 251,
256, 257
— prospects of the continuation of
the war by France—175-76, 180,
183, 184, 187-88, 193-97, 207, 242,
249, 251-54, 276
— operations of francs-tireurs, popular
resistance to the Prussian interventionists—
54, 55, 129, 136-
37, 163-67, 173, 182-85, 187-88,
193-98, 200-202, 204, 207, 210-11,
224, 225, 244, 252
— cruelty of German invaders—92,
93, 130, 163-67, 182, 194-95, 198-
200, 233-34, 350-53
— peace negotiations, truce and
capitulation of Paris on January
28, 1871 — 112-14, 122, 146, 147,
194-95, 248, 249, 313, 316, 318,
320-22, 353-54, 438-39, 450-52,
458-59, 481, 501, 519-20, 523,
525-26, 545-47
— German demands and preliminary
peace terms—251, 265-66,
299, 319, 337-38, 353-54, 452-53,
462-63, 491-92, 524-25, 542-47,
586
— Frankfort Peace Treaty of May
10, 1871—346, 347, 543-44
— annexation of Alsace and Lorraine
by Germany—193, 214-15,
251, 260, 261, 264-65, 267-71,
274, 299, 302, 303, 338-39, 458-
59, 544-45, 558, 559, 577-78
— and Bonapartist regime—5, 11,
23, 25, 29-31, 36, 45, 50, 69-70,
156, 159-162, 263, 274, 304,
319-20, 446-47, 457-58, 533-35
— internal situation in France—4,
24, 28-29, 31, 40, 54-55, 65, 66,
129-30, 132-33, 215, 242, 251-52,
261, 318-19, 336-37, 496-97,
523-24
— politics of the Government of National
Defence—240-42, 249, 268-
69, 275, 311-13, 318, 437, 438,
446, 452-53, 456-57, 481, 506-07,
513-515, 525, 527
— and the French bourgeoisie—4,
120, 121, 251, 277, 289, 292, 319,
338-39, 459, 481, 496-97, 501,
524-25
— and the French working class—3-
7, 120, 251, 261, 268-70, 279,
286, 289, 311, 516, 532, 558, 560,
562
— and revolutionary and democratic
movements in France—35, 41-42,
134, 480-82
— and internal situation in Germany—
12, 36, 105-06, 124, 197,
207, 214-15, 242, 261, 272, 274-
75, 281, 617
— and Prussian government's politics—
3-6, 31, 194-95, 263-66,
268-69, 274-75, 281-02, 299, 358,
362, 515, 539-40, 574-77, 578-81,
619
— and attitude of the South-German
states—11, 301
— and the German bourgeoisie—
107, 215, 260-262, 264-67
— and the German working class—
6, 7, 261-62, 268-69, 272, 275,
428, 577-78, 619
— and German Social-Democracy, its
internationalism—271-75, 278,
279, 281, 299, 303, 558-59, 617,
619-20
— and England—59, 66, 175, 181-
82, 244, 269-70, 281, 286, 289,
559, 573-81, 583-84
— and the English working class and
the democratic movement—7,
269-70, 272, 358-59, 361, 557-60,
569, 571, 572, 575, 578-80
— and Russia—6, 7, 175, 260-61,
266-67, 275-76, 281-84, 575, 576,
579-80, 582-84
— and other European countries—
173-75, 275, 560, 575-77, 579-81,
584
— and European bourgeois democracy—
299-304
— and the International Association
and the international working class
movement—3-7, 263-74,
277-79, 286-87, 289, 358, 362,
412, 515, 558-62, 573-84, 609,
619-20
— post-war alignment of forces in
Europe, threat of a new military
conflict—260-61, 266-68, 282,
302, 576, 580-82, 583-84
Freedom— 264, 335, 426-27
— political freedoms in bourgeois
society as a privilege of propertied
classes—274-76, 617
— freedom of assembly, association
and coalition—415, 417-18, 621
— workers' use of political freedoms
in bourgeois society—269, 278,
415, 417-18, 617, 634
— conditions for the actual emancipation
of people—335-36, 426-
27, 497, 501, 531
— true freedom under communism—
335-36, 490, 491
See also Communism (social formation)—
communist transformation of
society and man
French Revolution, the— 328, 533-34, 549
— and peasantry—238-39, 336-38,
493-94
— Girondins—333
— national assemblies, their policy—
497, 538-39
— National Convention, its policy—
47
— counter-revolutionary rebellions,
Vendée—238-39, 342-43, 457-58,
543-44
— revolutionary wars, army—47; see
also Wars of the First French
Republic
— and England—269-70
— and Europe—485, 534-35
— and Germany—266-67
G
General German Workingmen's Society—
589, 616
German Confederation (1815-1866)—36
German People's Party, 1865—261
German Social-Democracy
— Social-Democratic Workers' Party
(Eisenachers)—278, 619
— and the International Association—
259, 271, 555, 557, 559,
619; see also International Working
Men's Association in Germany
— and Franco-Prussian war, annexation
of Alsace and Lorraine—
260-62, 267, 271-74, 278, 279,
299, 303, 617, 619-20
— and Paris Commune—620
— parliamentary activity—272-73,
278, 619-20
German Workers' Educational Society in
Geneva—560
Germany—12, 125, 261
— North German Confederation
(1867-71)—11, 36, 106, 125, 267,
302
— North German Reichstag—272,
274, 278, 558
— working class—see Working class
in Germany
— "demagogues"—201
— philistinism—215, 299, 302, 303
— bourgeois liberalism of the
1840s—5, 264
— youth, students—619
— foreign policy and Hungary, Italy
and Poland—266
— and France—106, 117, 264-68,
316, 453, 520
— and Russia—7, 261, 266-67
See also Aristocracy, nobility in Germany;
Army, German; Bourgeoisie, German;
Franco-Prussian war of 1870-71;
Pan-Germanism; Revolution of 1848-49
in Germany; Socialism (theories and
trends)—in Germany; Wars of the First
French Republic; Working class in Germany;
Working-class movement in
Germany
H
History—333, 335, 341, 463-64, 487,
505, 526, 528
Home policy and its influence on foreign
policy—3, 105, 125, 126, 282
Hungary— 266
I
India—166, 494
Infantry—12, 97, 125
International Democratic Association—
562
International solidarity of workers—3,
294, 501, 602, 603
International Working Men's Association
— general characteristics, its historical
importance—354, 386, 545,
601-02, 633-34
— first programme documents (Inaugural
Address and Provisional
Rules)—364, 426, 600, 616, 618
— struggle for proletarian class
character of the Association—
277-78, 386, 600, 601, 633-34
— struggle for unity of actions of the
proletarians of all countries—430,
602, 603, 633-34
— emancipation of the workers as
the aim of the Association—426,
601, 602
— programme demand that the
working class should win political
power and build a classless society—
416, 417, 427, 601, 602, 634
— and political struggle of the working
class—278, 412, 415, 416,
417, 418, 427-28, 602, 616-18
— demand for forming a proletarian
party in some countries—415-18,
427, 616-18
— question of the connection of the
economic and political struggle of
the proletariat—415, 427-28,
601-02
— and trade union organisations—
279, 294, 423-25, 428, 554, 558,
560, 561, 590, 614-15
— and statistical surveying of the
condition of the working class—
425, 566
— and the agrarian question,
peasantry and agricultural proletariat—
426, 554, 561
— and the Irish question—555, 561,
620
— struggle against Bonapartism—3-
5, 608
— and Franco-Prussian war—see
Franco-Prussian war of 1870-71—
and the International Association
and the international working class
movement; see also Paris
Commune of 1871—and the International
Association
— and religion—563, 608
— and secret societies—407, 428,
597, 621
— organisational principles of the
International Association—365,
407, 408, 413-14, 422, 423, 430,
556, 557, 564, 565, 567, 601, 611,
616, 621
— Rules and Regulations—259, 408,
413, 428, 429, 557, 565, 566, 600,
602
— General Council, its statute, composition,
activity—292-93, 367,
370, 372, 391, 393, 408, 411, 413,
419, 422, 423, 424, 428-30, 553-
67, 609-13, 616
— funds—273, 397, 398, 407-08,
424
— local sections, federations, federal
councils, national organisations—
407-08, 414, 422, 423, 426-30,
555, 559, 565, 601-02
— activities of Marx and Engels in
the International Association—
367, 370, 386, 556, 558-59, 573-
84, 589-99, 604-05, 607-21,
633-34
— Marx as Corresponding Secretary
for Germany—8, 259, 270, 288-
90, 357, 367, 382, 398, 431
— Marx as Corresponding Secretary
for the Netherlands—357, 382
— Marx as Corresponding Secretary
for Russia—270, 431, 556
— Engels as Corresponding Secretary
for Belgium (December 1870-
July 1871)—272-73, 357, 382
— Engels as Corresponding Secretary
for Spain—277-80, 357, 382,
431, 561
— Engels as Corresponding Secretary
for Italy—431
— press organs of the International
Association—555, 556, 570, 603
— and bourgeois press—285-93,
358-65, 371, 375-78, 391-96, 397,
405, 553, 562, 588-98, 604
— and ruling classes, police persecutions—
285, 286, 290, 291, 356,
362-63, 369, 376-77, 383, 384,
403, 407, 421, 430, 556-58, 560,
562, 565, 597, 599, 603, 604, 609,
612, 613, 617, 618, 621, 633
International Working Men's Association.
Congresses and conferences
— functions and tasks of general
congresses—430, 616
— competence, character and tasks
of conferences—420-22
— Geneva Congress (1866)—413,
425, 614
— Lausanne Congress (1867)—426
— Basle Congress (1869)—407-08,
413, 419, 423, 430, 552, 557, 566,
614
— Mainz (Mayence) Congress
(1870)—agenda, reasons for cancelling
it—259, 557, 558, 562
See also London Conference (1871)
International Working Men's Association
in Belgium— 272-73, 556, 559, 564,
603, 609
International Working Men's Association
in England— 279, 428, 554-55, 557,
558, 560-565, 567, 609, 615, 620
— and the Land and Labour
League—484-85, 610
International Working Men's Association
in France— 3-5, 279, 297, 354-55,
412, 423, 427-29, 442, 454, 497-98,
546, 554-57, 609
— Paris Federation—3, 4, 286, 297,
546, 585
International Working Men's Association
in Germany—6, 619
— Social-Democratic Workers' Party
as a branch of the International
Working Men's Association—259,
271, 555, 557-59, 619-20
— during the Franco-Prussian war
and the Paris Commune—271-74,
279, 428, 558, 559
— police persecutions—271-74, 279,
405, 559, 562, 609, 619-20
International Working Men's Association
in Ireland—620
International Working Men's Association
in Italy— 556, 559, 608
International Working Men's Association
in the Netherlands—294, 603
International Working Men's Association
in Portugal—279
International Working Men's Association
and Russia— 377, 429, 556, 613
International Working Men's Association in
Spain— 277-79, 295, 428, 603, 612
International Working Men's Association
in Switzerland— 279, 411, 430, 555,
556, 557, 558, 561, 563, 603, 609,
613
— Romance sections, Romance Federation,
Federal Council of Romance
Switzerland—412, 419-21,
430, 559, 561; see also Alliance of
Socialist Democracy; Bakuninism,
Bakuninists
— press—411, 421-22, 430
— resolution of the London Conference
on the Alliance of Socialist
Democracy—see London Conference
(1871)
International Working Men's Association
in the USA— 279-80, 555, 557, 559-
61, 563, 589, 590
Internationalism, proletarian—3, 268,
278, 339, 421, 430, 603, 614
See also Working-class movement
Italy— 266
J
Joint-stock companies—496, 536
Journalism, journalists—264, 324, 336,
456, 457, 530
Judiciary—165, 278, 332, 339, 343,
345, 443, 449-50, 474, 485, 494-95,
533, 534, 547-49, 631-32
July Revolution of 1830 and July monarchy—
see France. July Revolution of
1830 and July monarchy
June 1848 uprising of the Paris proletariat—
588, 634
— causes of the uprising—324,
571-72
— establishment of Cavaignac's military
dictatorship, suppression of the
uprising by the bourgeoisie—269,
325, 329-30, 348, 351-62, 445, 446,
455-56, 461, 521, 527, 571-72,
610-11
L
Land and Labour League (England,
1869)— 555, 561, 603
Landed property— 491, 493-95, 523, 549
Landed proprietor (landlord)—335, 492,
523, 548, 549
Large-scale industry—329, 491, 548
Lassalleanism, Lassalleans—616
Law, international—353, 461
Legislation (bourgeois)—339, 444, 445
Liberalism— 300, 340
London Conference (1871)
— its preparation and convening—
406-08, 413-14, 561, 563-66
— its tasks, character and composition—
407, 432, 563-67, 609, 613,
616
— resolution on the political struggle
of the working class and formation
of an independent proletarian
party—415-18, 426-27,
616
— on the winning of political power
by the working class—416, 417,
427
— on the international solidarity of
the workers—428, 619-20
— struggle against anarchist sectarianism,
resolution on the Alliance
of Socialist Democracy—
411-12, 429-30
— resolutions on the organisational
questions—413, 423-24, 427-28
— and trade unions—614-15
— various resolutions—419-22,
424-31
— publication of the International
Association's documents by decision
of the Conference—413,
423-32, 566, 613
Lorraine— 33, 117, 260, 261, 264-65
See also Franco-Prussian war of 1870-
71—annexation of Alsace and Lorraine
by Germany
Luxembourg—275, 575, 579
M
Mazzinism, Mazzinists—380-85, 562,
563, 598, 605, 607-08
Means of labour— 490, 494, 500, 634
Means of production—335, 494, 524
Mexican expedition, 1861-67—129, 156,
166, 182, 397
Military science, history, literature—88,
220, 463
Military training— 98, 104, 106, 125,
151-52, 256, 311, 516
Monarchy— 328, 330-31, 333-34, 458-
61, 483-84, 487-88, 497-98, 533-35,
547-51
N
Napoleonic wars—6, 7, 57, 59 60, 65, 69,
88, 91-92, 102-03, 104, 108, 129,
143-44, 165, 166-67, 173, 175, 182,
196-97, 199-202, 260, 264-68, 458-
59
— and Prussia—104, 165, 167, 199-
202, 264-65, 458-59
— and Russia—7
Nation— 332-33, 484, 490
— national pride, consciousness, feeling—
12, 128-29, 330, 336-37,
496-97, 550
National debt—M9, 329, 484, 488, 536
Nationalism— 3, 518-19, 608, 620
National Labour Union (USA, 1866)—
280, 615
National Liberals (Germany, from
1866)— 261
National question— 265-67, 290, 353-54,
500-01, 608
— and bourgeoisie—311-12, 338-39,
353-54, 500-01, 515-16
— and peasantry—268-70
— and working class, and working class
and socialist movement—267-
70, 500-01
Natural science— 298-99, 303-05
Navy
— British—572, 576, 584
— French—77, 304
Neutrality—173, 175
P
Pan-Germanism— 261
Pan-Slavism— 282
Paris—116-18, 311, 319-22, 330-31,
340-43, 349-51, 354-55, 440, 443-44,
456-60, 502, 505, 515, 519, 539-40,
543-44, 547-48
Paris Commune of 1871
— its historical significance—331,
333-39, 350-51, 353-55, 459-60,
483, 485-88, 490-92, 496-500,
505, 525-26, 536-41, 595, 601,
603-04, 612, 634
— as a proletarian revolution—322-
23, 330-31, 334-39, 353-54, 451-
52, 459-60, 482, 485-88, 490-92,
496-500, 524-26, 536-38, 540-42,
601
— as people's revolution—456-57,
463-64, 476-77, 482, 483, 485-86,
488, 498, 505, 590-91, 603-04
— completion of bourgeois democratic
reforms—524
— as a political form of the emancipation
of labour—334-35, 490-92
— as a working-class government, dictatorship
of the proletariat—328,
330-31, 334-36, 338, 488-92, 498-
500, 532-34, 536-37, 547-48, 634
— as a form of the proletarian statehood
on a national scale—331-34,
481, 490, 491, 504, 536-38
— as a true representative of the
national interests of France—338-
39, 352-54, 459-60, 481, 490-92,
500, 502-04, 540-41, 547-48
— its international character—339,
353, 459-60, 475, 487, 490, 501
— leadership of the working class—
335-37, 487, 490, 493-99, 526,
536-38, 588, 591, 601
— role of the National Guard and
arming of the people in the preparation
of the revolution of March
18—331, 482, 483, 536-37,
545-48
— rising of March 18—292, 313,
319-26, 328, 343, 441-42, 445,
446, 449-50, 478, 482, 483, 507-
09, 517, 524-25, 528, 530, 532-33,
536-37, 547-48, 585, 586, 616
— Central Committee of the National
Guard as the first workers'
government—322-26, 328, 354-
55, 445, 449-50, 483, 491-92, 500,
508-13, 525, 530, 533, 545-46,
586, 588, 616
— election of the Commune on
March 26, 1871—326, 330-31,
481-82, 508-09, 512-13, 586, 588
— its democratic character—332-34,
338-39, 350-51, 483, 485-86, 488-
90, 538
— destruction of the old state
machine and its replacement by
the new one—330-38, 474-75,
485-91, 493, 498, 533, 536-38,
547-48, 592
— electivity, revocability and responsibility
of all functionaries of the
Commune—330-33, 335-38, 340,
474-75, 488-90, 537, 592
— replacement of the standing army
by the National Guard—330-31,
334, 474-75, 488-90, 537-38
— arming of the people—311, 321,
323, 324, 330-31, 437, 438, 474-
75, 481-83, 488, 498, 509-10, 516,
524-25, 536-37, 545-47, 585,
590-91
— destruction of the old judicial
system—330-32, 474-75, 493,
533, 537-38
— transformation of the police into a
body responsible to the people—
330, 332, 337-38, 489, 490, 493,
536-37
— and universal suffrage—330-33,
474-75, 489, 490, 537
— social measures in the interests of
the working class and the non proletarian
working people—
339-40, 472-75, 499, 590-91
— socialist trend in its activity—335-
36, 338-40, 472, 486-87, 490-492,
496, 499-500
— financial measures—337-40, 478-
79, 491-92, 537-38, 592
— cutting down of the expenditures
on administration ("cheap government")—
330-31, 333-38, 490-91,
493, 592
— foreign policy of the Commune—
353-54, 475-76, 586
— reforms in education—331-32,
337-38, 473-75, 490, 492-93, 496-
97, 537-38
— and religion—331-32, 337-41,
351-53, 400, 446-48, 473-79, 489,
492-93, 528, 537-38, 540-41,
563-64
— and the movement in provinces—
313, 333-34, 339-40, 343-46, 465-
69, 480-82, 502, 517, 542-46, 591,
593
— heroism of the Communards,
their honesty and modesty—335-
36, 340-44, 348-51, 438-39, 465-
66, 504-05, 526, 530-31, 537-39,
553, 591
— women's participation in the revolution—
341-42, 350-51, 505,
631-32
— and the French sections of the
International Association—297,
354-55, 364, 381-82, 397, 427-28,
545-46, 561-62, 585, 586, 590,
591, 601, 622
— civil war as a form of class struggle—
316-17, 319, 322-23, 325-26,
336-39, 342-45, 350-54, 438, 440,
441, 451-54, 458-59, 477, 481,
490, 492-93, 496-97, 501, 524-25,
528, 530-33, 535, 539-40, 546-47,
549, 550
— struggle against the Versailles
government—326, 327, 339-45,
348-53, 447-50, 456-57, 462-64,
469-70, 476-79, 499, 509-10, 512-
14, 530-31, 539-40, 588, 591, 593
— the Rural Assembly in Versailles—
319-23, 325-28, 330-31, 338-
42, 344-49, 354-55, 441, 446-50,
458-59, 467-68, 491-92, 495-98,
503, 507-11, 517, 529, 531-32,
538-48, 585, 586, 590, 596, 629
— counter-revolutionary policy of
the Thiers government—315-17,
319, 322-23, 325-27, 330-31, 336-
49, 351-55, 438, 440, 446-55, 462-
71, 475-78, 481, 482, 490-95, 496-
97, 501, 503, 508-13, 517, 519,
524-25, 528-32, 535, 538-47, 549,
550, 585, 588, 591-93, 595
— counter-revolutionary terror—
313, 324-28, 339-40, 342-43, 348-
53, 356-58, 389-90, 398, 400-02,
440, 447-49, 457-58, 462-65, 469-
71, 477-78, 497-98, 509-11, 528-
33, 538-43, 591, 597, 631-32
— and the Versailles army—317,
325-26, 341-44, 448-49, 452-53,
459-60, 465-69, 488-89, 506-07,
513-14, 539-44, 591
— and Prussian government's policy—
346-48, 352-54, 438, 449-53,
481, 483, 501, 531, 595
— and the ruling classes of Europe
and the USA—335-36, 355, 379-
82, 386-87, 457-60, 524-26,
532-33
— ruling classes' slander campaign
against the Commune and the
International Association—286-
92, 313, 324-27, 331-32, 335-37,
349-53, 358, 364-67, 369-71, 375-
80, 393-94, 398, 400, 446, 447,
449-50, 459-60, 463-67, 469-70,
474-76, 512-13, 517, 528, 530-31,
539-43, 552-53, 562-64, 585, 591-
92, 597, 599, 601, 603-04
— and European bourgeois democracy—
367, 380, 386, 499-500
— and international proletariat, its
movement of solidarity with the
Commune—338-39, 353-55, 415-
17, 426-28, 486-87, 490-92, 545-
46, 553-54, 562, 563, 595, 599,
610-12, 615, 620
— and the International Association—
292-93, 297, 354-55, 357-58,
361-73, 376-382, 415-17, 426-29,
453-54, 500, 545-46, 553-54, 562-
65,585-86,588-93,595-97,601,634
— Marx's advice to the Commune—
388, 389, 396, 589-91
— Marx and Engels on the General
Council's Address The Civil War in
France— 367-68, 370, 372-73, 375-
77, 386-87, 400, 562, 563, 592
— defeat of the Commune, its
causes—324-26, 399, 508, 512-14,
528-31, 547-48, 588, 615
— emigration of Paris Communards—
396, 428-29, 562-64
Parliament— 317-18, 329, 330, 332-33,
461, 484-86, 488-90, 519, 533, 535-
36, 550
— use of bourgeois parliament by
representatives of the working
class—273, 274, 278, 617
Party, political— 277, 483-84
Party, proletarian
— its nature, tasks, leading role—
278, 415-18, 427-28, 634
— in the period of the International
Association—47, 278
— organisational principles—419
— its tactics, propaganda, agitation—
278, 415-18, 617
— resolution of the London Conference
on founding independent
proletarian parties in some countries—
415-18, 426-428, 520-21
Patriotic war of 1812 in Russia—200,
351-52
Patriotism—166-67, 199, 267-68, 480
— pseudo-patriotism—264-68, 314,
316-17, 319-20, 338-39, 352-53,
437-38, 440, 458-59, 482, 501,
509-10
Peace
— struggle for peace, against militarism,
wars of conquest and annexations—
3, 6, 7, 261-62, 267-70,
272, 573, 574, 577-82, 617, 620,
634
Peasantry— 200, 238, 267-69, 330, 334,
336-37, 425-26, 459, 488, 492-95,
614, 630
People, the— 290, 332-33, 460-61, 463-
64, 468-70, 488-89, 499, 535
— in the proletarian revolution—
335-37, 463-64, 482-84, 487-88,
498-99, 504-05, 536-37
Poland—79, 148-49, 264, 283, 339
Police, the— 328, 331, 337-38, 354, 370-
71, 490, 493, 497, 502, 504, 533,
534, 537, 548
Press,the— 274-76,291,414,416,418,586
— anti-democratic character of the
official press in the exploiting
society—269-70, 336-37, 371,
438, 446, 498-99, 597
Prevision, prediction (Marx's and Engels'
predictions of social, political and
historical phenomena and events)—
5, 260-61, 263, 267-68, 270
Private property— 315, 334-35, 439, 494-
95, 504, 505, 523-25, 608, 634
Proudhonism, Proudhonists—297, 423,
429-30, 553, 562, 590
Prussia—481
— population—97-98, 105, 149, 199
— feudalism and its survivals—459
— and the French Revolution and
Napoleonic wars—104, 165-66,
199-202, 260, 265, 266, 458
— reforms of 1807-14—166, 199-
202, 459
— in 1850s-1870s—5-6
— political system—5, 104-06, 166,
334, 459, 487
— religion and the church—340
— foreign policy and diplomacy—
124-25, 272
— and Austria—97
— and France—5, 106, 267
— and Germany—5, 11, 31, 59-60,
261, 299, 302-03, 316
— and Poland, its oppression—149,
264
— and Russia—281-82, 353
See also Army, Prussian
Public opinion—65, 199, 266-67, 272,
274, 285
R
Radicalism, radicals—633-34
Reformism— 372, 373, 376, 386, 610-11
Reform League (England, 1869)—615
Religion— 496, 537, 620
Republican movement—268, 278, 300,
315, 329, 341-44, 454-55, 460-61,
465-66, 469-70, 497, 498, 519-20,
522, 524, 527, 539, 549, 562, 577,
578, 580, 587, 605
Republic, bourgeois— 316, 329-30, 460-
62, 469, 484, 487, 493, 497, 516, 521,
533, 535, 539, 548-50, 577, 580, 587,
588, 605
Republic, proletarian— 331, 497, 499,
540, 548-50, 577, 580
See also Dictatorship of the proletariat
Revolution— 329, 341, 416, 417, 481-88,
540
— and the state—328, 329, 460,
483-88, 534-38, 547-50
— revolutionary initiative—336-37,
498, 501, 526
Revolution, bourgeois and bourgeois democratic—
322, 333, 460-61, 469,
484-86, 516, 526, 535, 547-50
Revolution, continuous
— proletarian revolution as its final
stage—335-36
Revolution of 1848 in France. Second
Republic
— February 1848 revolution—315-
16, 323, 329, 330, 456, 459-61,
505, 571-72, 634
— counter-revolutionary dictatorship
of Cavaignac—495-98, 521
— Second Republic, general characteristics—
329-30, 445, 460-61,
484, 487, 493, 497, 522, 523, 533,
534, 536, 549
— retaining and improvement of the
old state machine—329-30, 345,
484-86, 548-49
— National Assembly, its policy—
325, 330, 336, 461, 533, 571-72
— election of Louis Bonaparte President,
enhancing of his personal
power—444, 493
— Legislative Assembly (from May
28, 1849), its politics—442, 469
— events of June 13, 1849, defeat of
petty-bourgeois democracy—325,
444, 456, 496, 512
— universal suffrage, its abolition on
May 31, 1850—330, 440, 469,
539
— and the National Guard—496
— and the bourgeoisie—329, 336,
460-62, 492, 493, 505, 522, 549
— and the working class—330-31,
461, 522, 548-49, 571
— and the peasantry—337, 493
— various monarchist groups—319,
461, 522, 523, 549
— Party of Order—316, 325, 329,
330, 338, 461-62, 468, 493, 497,
503, 521, 524, 533, 535, 549, 550
— and bourgeois republicans (the
National Party)—329, 461
— Rome expedition—315, 316, 325,
455, 462-63, 510-12, 521, 572,
610-11
Revolution of 1848-49 in Germany (uprising
in the south-western Germany
in May-June 1849)—95, 151, 165-66,
352
Revolution of 1848-49 in Hungary—95,
165, 225, 266
Revolution of 1848-49 in Italian states—
165, 315, 316, 325-26, 455, 462,
510-12, 520, 572, 611
Revolution, people's— 484, 487, 498, 505,
535, 548
Revolution, proletarian, socialist—416,
417, 427, 486, 491, 498, 525, 526; see
also Dictatorship of the proletariat
— its historical necessity—504, 540,
603
— its prerequisites—335, 491, 499
— its radical difference from the
bourgeois revolution—486, 487,
498, 533
— its international character—339,
460, 486, 490, 502, 540
— peaceful and violent ways of carrying
it out—576-77, 602, 603,
606, 618
— necessity of winning the army
over to the side of the revolution—
488
— and national question—501
Revolution, social— 277, 427, 452, 481,
486-87, 491, 496, 516, 524, 526, 540,
602
Russia— 7, 261, 266-67, 281-84, 301,
351, 575, 576, 577, 579, 583
S
Science—140, 298, 331-32, 335-36, 488-
90, 494-98, 522-23, 537
Second Empire—see France. Second
Empire
Sectarianism— 335-36, 423, 429, 497-99,
618
See also London Conference (1871)—
struggle against anarchist sectarianism,
resolution on the Alliance of
Socialist Democracy
Sepoy mutiny—166, 352
Silesia—149
Slave-owning society—504, 505
Slavery— 491, 504
Socialism (theories and trends)
— doctrinal—335-36
— petty-bourgeois socialism of Louis
Blanc—497, 598
— Utopian—499, 618
— in France—278
— in Germany—278
Société des Saisons—444
Society of December 10—5
Spain—129, 143-44, 165, 173, 182, 254
State
— and society—328-31, 333-34, 483-
92, 498, 504, 533-38, 540, 547-51,
598
— its genesis—328, 333, 483, 484,
533, 534
— formation of national states—328,
331, 333, 483-85
— state machine—328, 332, 461,
483-84, 486-87, 490, 493, 496,
498, 502, 504, 533-37, 547-48
— and religion—332, 474, 490, 537,
547-48
— and classes, class struggle—278,
329-30, 490, 496, 498, 533-36,
548, 550
— its withering away in communist
society—333, 490, 537
State, bourgeois— 278, 329-31, 483-90,
498, 533-38, 548-51
— its parasitical character—333-34,
459, 484-85, 491, 493, 533-34,
538
— as an instrument of exploitation
of working people—278, 329-33,
459, 484-88, 490, 502, 548-50
— decay of the bourgeois state apparatus—
77, 330-31, 459, 486,
536, 550
— its various forms—330-31, 333-
34, 460, 486-87, 533-36, 550, 551
See also Monarchy; Republic, bourgeois
State power, its class character—487,
534-35
— its origin—328, 333, 483, 484,
533, 534
— as an instrument of the class
domination of the bourgeoisie—
329-34, 484-88, 533-38, 548-51,
618
State, proletarian—see Communism (social
formation); Dictatorship of the proletariat;
Paris Commune of 1871; Republic,
proletarian
Strikes— 294-96, 442, 498, 602-03
Swindling— 330, 336, 536
T
Taxes, taxation— 329, 487-88, 537-38
Terror— 325, 329, 344, 348, 350-51,
461, 481, 497, 503, 511, 529, 531,
549
See also June 1848 uprising of the
Paris proletariat—establishment of
Cavaignac's military dictatorship, suppression
of the uprising by the
bourgeoisie; Paris Commune of
1871—counter-revolutionary terror
Third Republic (France)—see France.
Third Republic (after the defeat of the
Paris Commune)
Trade unions, trade-union movement—
279, 295, 428, 558, 603, 614, 615
See also England (Great Britain)—
trade unions
U
United States of America, the—379-82,
536, 587, 618
See also Civil War in the USA,
1861-65; War of Independence in North
America, 1775-83
Uprising, armed
— national, popular—201, 341, 469,
485
— proletarian—339, 386, 588
See also June 1848 uprising of the
Paris proletariat; Paris Commune of
1871; Revolution, proletarian, socialist
V
Voltairianism—336, 460
W
War(s)
— general characteristics—165, 193,
574, 583
— economic causes of their origin—
337-38, 492-93
— under feudalism—330
— under capitalism—319, 343, 492
— and politics—3, 265-66, 495, 576,
577
— consequences of wars, their influence
on economic and social development—
496-97, 574
— and revolution and revolutionary
movement—261
— and foreign policy of the working
class—see Working class—struggle
for peace, against militarism, wars
of conquest and annexations
— revolutionary—350
— national liberation—97, 129, 353
— guerrilla warfare—137, 164, 165,
173, 182, 188, 195, 199-201, 254
— defensive—6, 126, 214, 264
— of conquest—3, 6, 106, 126, 195,
214-15, 266
— local, localised—267
— laws (rules) of warfare—132-33,
164, 199
— threat of war in the last third of
the 19th cent.—261, 267, 577,
583
— elimination of wars in communist
society—7
See also Anglo-Franco-Chinese war of
1856-60; Austro-Italo-French war of
1859; Austro-Prussian war of 1866;
Civil War in the USA, 1861-65; Crimean
war of 1853-56; Danish war of
1864; Franco-Prussian war of 1870-71;
Napoleonic wars; Patriotic war of 1812
in Russia; War of Independence in
North America, 1775-83; Wars of the
First French Republic
War of Independence in North America,
1775-83—165-66
Wars of the First French Republic (end of
the 18th-beginning of the 19th
cent.)—35, 47, 65, 265, 266, 269
Women's question and women's movement—
341, 350, 424, 567
Working class
— its world historic mission—335,
486, 499, 590, 601-03
— historical necessity of turning it
into the ruling class—335, 416,
417, 426-27, 494, 601-02
— development of its class consciousness—
335, 499, 505
— as a leading class, expressing the
interests of all people—335-36,
486, 495, 496, 591
— and the peasantry—337-38, 426,
488, 493-95
— and the petty urban bourgeoisie—
336, 486, 496, 591
— struggle for peace, against militarism,
wars of conquest and annexations—
3, 6, 7, 261-62, 268-70,
272, 573-84, 619-20
Working class in England—573, 574,
578-81, 602, 617, 620, 634
Working class in France
— during the revolution of 1848 and
the Second Republic—330-31,
461, 522, 548-49, 571, 634
— during the Second Empire—4, 5,
330, 331, 486, 536, 550, 556, 601;
see also Franco-Prussian war of
1870-71—and the French working
class
— during the Third Republic—269-
70, 311, 321, 437-38, 451, 481,
515-16, 526-27, 532, 547
Working class in Germany—267, 268,
577, 578, 582, 602, 619, 620; see also
Franco-Prussian war of 1870-71—and the
German working class
Working class in Ireland—620
Working-class movement
— its immediate and ultimate aims—
278, 416, 417, 426-27, 491, 494,
498-500, 601-03
— struggle for the emancipation of
the working class—3, 275, 278,
426, 460, 461, 500, 534, 595, 602,
633-34
— significance of its unity—278,
427, 602-03
— its origin and conditions of development—
494, 499
— stages of its development—277-
78, 498
— necessity to unite the economic
and political struggle of the working
class—426-27, 601-02
— and the revolutionary theory—
277, 499-500, 605
— internationalism as its essential
feature—3, 268, 278, 421, 430,
501, 602, 603, 614
— struggle for democratic demands—
278, 415, 417-18, 587,
617
— struggle for the elimination of
national oppression—267-68
— combination of legal and illegal
forms of political struggle—278,
600-02
See also Class struggle; International
Working Men's Association; Party, proletarian
Working-class movement in England—
269, 573-74, 577
See also International Working Men's
Association in England
Working-class movement in Germany—
261-62; see also Franco-Prussian war
of 1870-71
— and the Paris Commune—599,
620
See also International Working Men's
Association in Germany
Working-class movement in the USA—
554, 560, 587, 589, 590, 606, 614-15
See also International Working Men's
Association in the USA
Working-class and socialist movement in
France— 443, 497, 554, 558
— between the revolution of September
4, 1870 and the Paris
Commune—324, 437-38, 445,
481, 527, 590
— during the Paris Commune—see
Paris Commune of 1871
See also International Working Men's
Association in France
Working-class and socialist movement in
Italy— 621
See also International Working Men's
Association in Italy






MECW VOL 23






A
Agricultural labourers—48, 57, 148-49,
422
Agriculture— 58, 131-36, 148, 384, 389,
422, 424
Alsace—155, 221, 601, 603, 607, 620
America— 607, 609
Anarchism, anarchists—121, 264-65,
267, 268, 288, 332, 392-94, 425, 446,
466-69, 470, 476, 497, 525-26, 559-
60, 581-82, 588-91, 597
See also Bakuninism, Bakuninists; International
alliance of anarchists; Sectarianism
Anti-communism—160-61, 224-25, 445
Army— 66, 363, 402-04, 419-20, 592-
93, 60i; 603, 612, 617-18, 620-24,
626
Australia—324
Austria— 80, 161, 223, 601-03, 604,
610, 619
Austria-Hungary (from 1867)—-35, 223-
25, 365
Austro-Italo-French war, 1859—162,
402, 604, 607
Austro-Prussian war, 1866—402, 617,
624
Authority— 67', 95-96, 110, 206, 233-36,
255, 274, 279-82, 310, 422-25, 472-
76, 500-01, 508-10, 525, 543-44, 554
B
Bakuninism, Bakuninists—61, 66, 67,
85, 86, 88-90, 92-93, 107-08, 114-15,
121, 205, 231-32, 264-65, 268, 275,
281, 369, 393, 394, 457, 458,
460-62, 465-70, 471-75, 480, 490,
492-93, 497, 503-04, 506-07, 518-
20, 523-24, 526, 544-49, 553-60,
572-80
— theoretical views—61, 89, 107-08,
114-15, 121, 205, 230, 288, 369,
458, 461, 466-71, 472, 473, 478,
480, 490, 517-26, 535-36, 542-56,
559-60, 562-67, 572-74, 579-80,
596-97, 630
— views on the state—93, 288, 392-
93, 425, 466-70, 476, 497, 505,
509, 519-21, 544, 545, 547-48,
554, 559-60, 572-76, 578-79, 581-
83, 585, 589, 597
— abstention from political action by
the proletariat—209, 233, 254,
274, 288, 392-94, 397, 462, 474,
478, 483, 497, 509, 540, 555, 568,
578, 582, 584-85, 596-97
— federalist ideas, negation of authority—
66, 67, 92, 94-95, 97-98,
105, 114-16, 206, 208-10, 216,
233-36, 267-68, 274, 279-82, 288,
310, 394, 414, 422-25, 450, 460,
465-69, 473, 475-76, 480-84, 489,
493, 496-97, 500-03, 505-07, 510-
11, 513-14, 524, 525, 528, 543-55,
566, 573-76, 578-81, 590-92,
595-97
— on revolution—233, 466-70, 472,
476, 481, 518-27, 540, 544-51,
553, 555, 563-64, 568, 572-77,
582, 584, 586-87, 590-92, 595,
597, 598
— orientation on lumpenproletariat—
555, 595
— ideas of a future society—66-68,
115, 394, 468-70, 482, 490, 521,
524, 542-43, 547-48, 552, 554,
572, 575-76
— attitude to the working class and
its movement—114, 168, 231,
233, 279, 392-94, 460-61, 467,
469-70, 481, 488, 541-44, 555,
572, 575-79, 581, 582
— and general strike—584-86, 591
— and the nationalities question—
85, 95, 517-18, 559-60, 566, 578
— attitude to scientific communism—
502, 519-21, 544
— attitude to various socialist and
communist trends—121, 492,
524, 551, 565-66, 574, 577, 630
— disorganising activity in the working-
class movement—32, 66-68,
79, 84-122, 168, 188, 205-12, 215,
216, 217, 228-38, 247-50, 254,
260-65, 267-69, 272, 274-75, 279-
82, 286-92, 294, 299-300, 302,
312, 408, 439-46, 456-598
— and the Paris Commune — 95,
477, 496, 509
— revolutionary phrase-mongering,
adventurism and voluntarism—
92, 107-08, 207, 264, 267-69, 281,
465-68, 475-77, 480, 498, 505, 526,
581-98
— and Nechayevism—23, 89, 463,
515-19, 524, 526-41, 549, 552-55,
557
— blocs with reformists—118-19,
484, 513-14
See also Anarchism, anarchists; International
alliance of anarchists; International
Alliance of Socialist Democracy;
International Working Men's Association
(First International)
Basle Congress of the International Working
Men's Association, 1869—18, 19,
24, 40, 57, 66-67, 93-96, 102, 112, 125,
188, 233-34, 267, 307, 312, 477, 642
Bavaria—428
Belgium— 83, 620
Blanquism, Blanquists—265, 284, 370,
439-41
Bonapartism— 319, 354, 363-65, 417,
627-28
Border tariffs— 420
Bourgeois political economy—321-22,
331-33, 394-97
See also Vulgar bourgeois political
economy
Bourgeoisie— 3, 106, 243, 264, 274, 325,
337, 339-40, 362, 376, 395, 400-01,
417, 419, 628
Bourgeoisie, Danish—57
Bourgeoisie, English—149, 186, 284,
349, 351, 612, 614-15, 616
Bourgeoisie, French—177, 363, 401,
405
Bourgeoisie, German— 49, 223, 338, 357,
362-63, 426-31, 436, 628, 629
Bourgeoisie, Italian—28
Bourgeoisie, Prussian—363-64, 400-05,
617-19, 626-28
Bourgeoisie, Spanish—29, 418-20
Brussels Congress of the International
Working Men's Association, 1868—16,
19, 61, 85, 87, 101, 112, 135, 141,
460, 479
Bureaucracy— 255, 363, 364, 403
C
Capital— 34-35, 331-32, 342, 343, 345,
385-87, 390
Capitalism—331
See also Capitalist mode of production ;
Society, bourgeois
Capitalist— 49, 204, 318-20, 337, 343,
346, 348, 362, 396, 422-23, 426-27,
616
Capitalist mode of production—132, 136,
318, 323, 327, 338, 350, 360, 368,
383-87, 389-91
Catalonia— 419-20
Catholicism— 608
Centralisation of the state—599-600
Chartism, Chartist movement—106-07,
155, 306, 372, 481, 584, 613-14
Chauvinism—116, 155-56, 402, 519,
629, 631
Chemistry—107, 322, 381-82, 384, 394,
519
Child labour— 392, 394, 497
China—35
Christianity— 67, 255, 397, 484, 608
Civil rights— 3-4, 44, 48, 435
Class(es)—S, 66, 88, 106-07, 121, 128,
131, 135, 138, 140, 154, 158-59, 166,
193-95, 201, 226, 243, 246, 273, 317,
318, 323-28, 339-40, 361-64, 370,
372, 375, 377, 384, 394, 417-21, 467,
470, 471, 585, 604, 613
Class struggle—3, 55, 106, 233, 243,
274, 419, 481, 631
See also Economic struggle of workers;
Political struggle; Revolution, proletarian,
socialist; Tactics of the proletarian
class struggle; War, civil;
Working-class movement
Clergy, the— 28, 46, 48, 58, 645
Coalitions, workers'—352, 394-96
Cologne Communist trial—75, 161
Commodity, commodity production—320,
322, 374
Commune—388, 558
Communism—3, 4, 35, 54, 55, 66-68,
88, 106, 121, 126, 128, 131-36, 175,
201, 221, 226-27, 243, 246, 255-56,
264, 274, 317, 318, 323-27, 330, 336,
341, 347-49, 368, 370, 372, 377,
383-91, 393-94, 407, 422-26, 467,
471, 542-44, 581-82
— transitional period from capitalism
to communism (socialism)—
330, 348, 370, 386, 389, 393
See also Dictatorship of the proletariat;
Revolution, proletarian, socialist
Communism (theories and trends)—
543-44, 639
Communism, Icarian—106, 481
Communism, scientific—317, 368, 370,
377, 389, 391
See also Marxism
Communist League—75, 161, 174-75
Communists, communist movement—8,
175
Competition— 396
Compromise (in politics)—392, 619
Concept(ion)— 190, 380-81
Confederation of the Rhine, the—602,
603
Connection (between different facts)—
55, 106, 322, 332, 384, 390, 600
Conquest—131, 283, 599-600
Consciousness—364, 394
Conservative Party (Britain)—611
Conspiracy— 265, 267, 420, 439, 441,
458
Constitutions, bourgeois—49, 402, 417
Consumption— 320, 324-26, 374, 543
Contradiction, antagonism—12, 25-27,
47, 87-88, 96, 98, 125, 135, 146-47,
151-52, 184, 212, 220, 257, 273-74,
321, 326, 339, 383, 395, 471, 481,
494
Control over production—422-25
Corruption— 360, 363-64, 417
Counter-revolution—128, 223-25, 420,
588
Court, legal system—64, 609
Crafts, craftsmen— 323, 329, 340, 419,
422
Criticism— 88, 106, 197, 368, 371, 391,
394, 481, 526, 548, 604, 608
Culture— 325, 400
Customs Union (1834-37)—35
D
Danish war, 1864—402, 617, 619
Democracy, democratic movement,
bourgeois— 43, 48, 96-97, 294, 418
See also Constitutions, bourgeois;
Suffrage
Denmark—601
Despotism—120, 219, 403
See also Bonapartism
Development— 58, 88, 106, 131-32, 175,
324, 377, 380-81, 396, 419, 424, 452,
481, 582, 608, 627-29
Dictatorship, bourgeois— 222-23, 393
Dictatorship of the proletariat—55, 106,
121, 128, 136, 175, 201, 226, 243,
255, 256, 264, 274, 330, 370-72, 386,
393, 407, 425
See also Communism; Paris Commune
of 1871; Party, proletarian; Revolution,
proletarian, socialist
Diplomacy— 255
Discipline—67', 422-25, 451, 501, 519-
20, 554, 572-73, 579, 589
Discussions in working-class movement—
88, 107-08, 272, 470, 482
Diseases (as social phenomenon)—337,
343, 361
Distribution— 318, 326-27, 389
Division of labour— 325, 381, 393
Dogmatism, doctrinairism—91, 119, 281,
371, 393-94, 458, 484, 602
E
Economic crises—35, 340-41
Economic relations— 320-21, 373, 377-
81, 422
Economic struggle of workers—3, 54-55,
106, 201, 243, 264, 274, 393-95, 397,
426-36, 555, 631
Economics and the state—54-55, 106,
243, 264
Education, training—14, 144, 392, 419,
607-08, 610, 621
Emigration
— of Paris communards—80, 83, 94,
101, 102, 223, 225, 265, 283, 442,
591, 635
— French—260, 265, 637-38, 642-43
— German—116, 178, 429, 607,
609-10, 637, 642-43, 645
— Irish—638
— Italian—44, 435
— Russian—517, 519, 522
Ends and means—3, 4, 54-55, 88, 105,
106, 121-22, 126, 136, 201, 243, 255,
256, 264, 274, 467
Engels, Frederick— 74-75, 155, 174, 368
England (Great Britain)—34, 35, 195,
294, 298, 299, 359-61, 401, 407,
611-13, 615-16
— Wars of Red and White Roses—
599
— industry—34, 35, 185-86, 360,
396, 602, 613
— towns—337, 352, 355, 360, 362
— legislation—50, 51, 294-95, 360-
62, 611-12
— suffrage, Reform Bills of 1832
and 1867—361, 611-15
— bourgeois-republican movement—
157, 484
— possibility of a peaceful proletarian
revolution—255
— colonial policy in Ireland—154-
56, 295, 612
— and France—154
Enlightenment, Enlighteners, the—603,
608
Equality—3, 88, 418-19
Estates— 600, 604
Exchange— 320-22, 324-25, 380
Exploitation— 57, 201, 264, 317-18, 323,
327, 331, 333, 336, 345, 348, 429
Expropriation— 58, 330, 348, 390
F
Factory, factory system—324, 426, 430
Factory legislation—144
Family and marriage—135, 347, 352,
360-61
Federalism— 590-92, 595
Female labour— 394, 497
Fenians— 294-96, 449, 616
Feudalism— 403, 404, 599-600, 602-
08, 627-28
See also Guilds; Serfdom; State, feudal
Foreign policy—116, 220-21, 283-85
See also Diplomacy; International relations
Foreign trade—600-02
Fourierism, Fourierists—106-07, 347-48,
394, 481, 630
France— 400, 599-601, 607-09, 620
— July monarchy—417
— Second Empire—96, 106, 219-21,
402, 417
— Revolution of September 4, 1870,
the Lyons uprising—93, 476,
504-05
— Third Republic—122, 222, 224,
400, 417-19, 482-83, 622-23
— industry, transport, agriculture—
132-35, 353, 388-89
— foreign policy—154, 402, 601,
603-09
Franco-Prussian war of 1870-71—43, 44,
83, 92-93, 100, 116, 158, 219-23,
262, 305, 365, 402, 604, 619, 624,
629
Freedom— 49, 222, 294-96, 344, 417,
581-82, 603, 639
Freemasonry—472, 487
French Revolution of 1789-94—277, 377,
381, 400, 417, 603
Funds, social—325-26
G
General Association of German Workers—
75, 107, 119, 442, 444-45, 451, 481,
484, 587
Geneva Congress of the International
Working Men's Association, 1866—13,
15-19, 86, 100-01, 110, 310
Geneva Congress of the International
Working Men's Association, 1873—
253, 263, 266-67, 269, 308, 312, 581,
584
German Conservative Party—403
German Empire (from 1871)—49, 363,
618, 621-22, 626
— economy—426-34, 629
— political system—49, 362-65,
618
— home policy—400, 403-05,
627-28
— and annexation of Alsace and
Lorraine—619-20
— and prospects of a European
war—604, 620-21, 625
— prospects of the revolution—622
— participation in Poland's oppression—
627
— and France—625
— and Russia—225, 625
German Peasant War—592, 599-600
German philosophy— 600, 602-03, 610,
630
German Social-Democracy—48-49, 66,
92, 101, 116, 221-24, 372, 389, 415,
619, 629-31, 645
Germans, ancient—405
Germany— 401, 599-604, 617, 626-28,
630
— fragmentation of the country and
tasks of its unification—599-601
— economy—35, 344, 351-53, 363,
388-89, 403, 599-603, 607-10, 628,
629
— classes, estates, social development—
361, 363, 364, 600-02,
609, 622, 627-28
— taxes—602, 628
— political system—363, 599-602
— cultural development, science,
education—452, 601-03, 607-10,
630
— press, censorship—160, 161, 221,
286
— religion and the church—600-01,
608
— oppression of other peoples—
599-600
— and foreign policy—161, 599-601,
607, 608
Greece— 381, 566
Ground rent— 321, 327, 386-87
Guilds— 382, 401
H
The Hague Congress of the International
Working Men's Association, 1872—
119, 170-71, 176, 188, 208-10, 212,
215, 219-27, 240-56, 260-62, 265,
267-75, 277-84, 287, 291, 300, 302,
304-05, 310-11, 432, 443, 483, 487,
494-96, 507-11, 556
— struggle against Bakuninism—
176, 188, 228-38, 249-50, 257,
264, 265, 267-69, 274-75, 286-87,
290-91, 302, 445, 454, 457-59,
483-85, 487, 511, 543-44, 580
— struggle against reformists—265,
266, 448
— and Blanquists—265, 266, 284,
439-41
— its decisions—243-58, 263-67,
269-70, 272-76, 283-84, 291, 305-
07, 311-12, 407, 450
— approvement of its decisions by
local organisations—291, 299-300,
304, 308, 312-13, 407-08, 409-10,
426, 440-41, 513-14
— actions of Bakuninists and reformists
against decisions of the Congress—
188, 189, 291-92, 307-12,
406-08, 414, 415, 440, 448-50,
508-12
Historical approach— 321, 381, 608
Historical materialism—379
See also Class(es); Class struggle; Consciousness;
Economics and the state;
Production; Productive forces; Relations
of production
History—131, 175, 323-24, 329, 379,
418, 419, 608, 626
Holy Roman Empire of the German nation
(962-1806)—600, 603
Housing question, the—204, 317-24, 326-
68, 371-79, 382-83, 385-91
Huguenots, Huguenot wars—608
Humanitarian goal of the socialist transformation
of society—136
Hungary—566
I
Ideal, idealisation— 329, 349, 391, 417,
590
Ideas— 88, 107, 115, 224, 256, 322,
380, 458, 470, 492, 516, 526, 603
Ideology, bourgeois—331, 376
Impoverishment of the working class—191
See also Industrial reserve army of
labour; Pauperism; Workers' labour and
living conditions under capitalism
Industrial reserve army of labour—98,
340-41
Industrial revolution—323
Industry—135-36, 175, 319, 323-26,
329, 353, 360, 362, 369, 373, 384,
389, 419, 422-24
Inquisition—223
Instruments of production—339-40, 386
Interests
— as economic relations—379
— and production—132
— and state—295, 363, 425, 626,
628
— and law—132, 363-64
— and social development—377
— common—137, 299
— private—132
— individual—341
— of society—363, 425
— of estates—600
— class—295, 363
— of landowners—626
— of bourgeoisie, capital—295, 336-
37, 343, 346, 363-64, 395, 628
— of petty bourgeoisie—336-37,
372-73
— of proletariat— 372-73, 411, 454
— in communist society—425
International alliance of anarchists—217,
299, 309-10, 408, 410-12, 415, 440-
41, 450-51, 496, 503, 508-15, 555-56,
585, 588-89
International Alliance of Socialist Democracy—
32, 79, 85-97, 102-08, 111-17,
119-22, 176, 205-13, 228-38, 247,
249-50, 261, 267-69, 278-80, 286-90,
302, 437-41, 442, 444-45, 448, 451,
454-580, 583, 586-88
— secret—206-12, 215, 229-38, 249-
50, 257, 261, 267-68, 274-75, 281,
283, 287-92, 299-300, 302, 412-13,
442, 445, 448, 457-70, 472-74,480,
481, 486-88, 494-95, 499, 505-06,
509, 519-21, 525, 527, 530, 532,
536, 548, 554-55, 567-77, 581, 585,
596
International relations—608
International solidarity of workers—3-8,46,
80, 94, 107, 110, 112, 116, 198, 201,
220-21, 226, 255-56, 262, 264,
266, 283, 303, 305, 310, 411, 430-32,
435-36, 482, 554, 635
See also International Working Men's
Association (First International); Internationalism,
proletarian ; Parts Commune
of 1871
International Working Men's Association
(First International)—88, 106-07, 226,
255, 275, 283, 454, 457, 482, 554-56
— foundation of and first programme
documents—3-20, 22, 54, 87-88,
96, 105-07, 141, 146, 162,207,232,
243, 254, 257, 274-75, 280, 311,
407, 454
— struggle for class character of
Association—74-86, 108-09, 110-
11, 114-15, 118-19, 126, 137-38
— struggle for international solidarity—
3-4, 7, 64, 66-67, 88, 109, 198,
201, 226, 256, 262, 266, 267,
283-84, 454, 469-70, 482, 554
— economic and political struggle of
the working class—3-4, 54-55,
57, 65-66, 87-88, 105-07, 126, 141,
178, 198, 201, 226, 243, 254-55,
257-58, 273-75, 407, 449, 477
— socialist principles in its programme—
131-36, 449
— demand for the creation of the
proletarian party in individual
countries—57, 106, 201, 243, 264,
274, 306
— and Paris Commune—29, 46, 64,
68-69, 93-94, 102, 116, 128, 141-
43, 158, 223, 225, 283, 288, 370,
477, 496
— struggle against Lassalleans—119,
439-45
— struggle against Mazzinists—60-
61, 480, 499
— struggle against Proudhonism—
12, 370-71, 481
— struggle against reformism—80,
260-65, 306, 446, 448, 449
— struggle against Bakuninists—53,
61, 64-70, 79, 84-96, 102-22, 176,
188-89, 205-12, 215, 228-38, 247-
48, 267-69, 277-82, 286-87, 301-02,
415, 437, 438, 467, 470, 509-13,
544-49, 557-71
— and Blanquists—265, 284, 370,
439-40
— and League of Peace and Freedom—
61, 85, 87, 460-62
— organisational principles—3-4,
7-11, 14, 22, 24-27, 38-41, 65-67,
83, 84, 86-88, 98-100, 102-05,
109-13, 124-25, 137, 146-47,
158, 170, 173, 198, 201-03, 216,
244-47, 260, 261, 264, 265, 272-74,
276-78, 280-81, 283, 291-92, 305-
07, 310, 312, 313, 482
— General Rules and Administrative
Regulations—3-20, 24-27, 40,
83, 84, 86-88, 90, 98-103, 105-11,
114, 124-26, 146-47, 154, 158, 170,
173, 184, 198-204, 211, 212, 214,
216, 217, 232, 243-45, 260-61, 263,
264, 268, 269, 272, 273, 276, 280,
281, 299, 305, 310-13, 437-38,440,
447, 454, 482, 493, 496, 512
— General Council—4, 7, 9-11, 24-
26, 31, 37, 38, 40-41, 61, 65-68, 83,
86, 88-93, 95-97, 99-100, 104, 105,
108-14, 158, 170, 176, 180-81,198,
201, 202-04, 206, 216, 218, 234,
240, 244-45, 248, 255-56, 260-63,
265, 267-69, 271-75, 284, 296,
302-03, 306-07, 311, 312, 448,
471-73, 475-77, 480, 495, 554-55,
556, 638, 639, 642-44, 645
— Sub-Committee—176, 211-13
— General Council in New York—
240, 249-50, 256, 257, 265, 267,
269, 273, 283, 291, 292, 299,
306-07, 311-12, 398, 399, 408,409,
414-16, 447, 448, 450, 509, 511-12
— local organisations—7, 8, 12-16,
19, 25-26, 94, 103-04, 111-13,
124-26, 137, 154, 181, 201-04, 209,
261, 263, 269, 272-73, 305, 307,
310, 312
— membership, money resources—7,
8, 11, 22, 25, 39, 52, 98, 108,
125-26, 181, 202-03, 206, 211, 232,
244-45
— its press—104, 141, 408, 438,
499, 523-24
— role played by Marx and Engels—
19, 22, 43-53, 55, 57-58, 60-61,
74-75, 122, 129-30, 137-39, 145-47,
159, 176, 184, 187, 211-13, 215,
217, 259, 265, 284, 285, 288-93,
302-03, 398, 409-16, 437-38, 440,
448, 644-45
— and bourgeois press—31-32, 48,
62, 74-75, 80, 84, 127, 158-59, 312,
477, 482
— and ruling classes, police persecution—
21, 28, 32, 62-64, 74, 77-78,
80-84, 103, 111, 114, 128, 129,
137-38, 140, 142-44, 149-52, 170,
177, 203, 219-21, 223, 225-26, 255,
283, 288, 312, 409, 412, 415, 437,
439, 442-44, 480, 487, 489, 491,
497, 507-08, 554, 645
See also Basle Congress-, 1869; Brussels
Congress, 1868; Geneva Congress,
1866; Geneva Congress, 1873; The
Hague Congress, 1872; International
Working Men's Association (in different
countries); Lausanne Congress, 1867;
London Conference, 1865; London Conference,
1871; Mainz (Mayence)
Congress
International Working Men's Association
and revolutionary movement in Poland—
155, 260, 262, 263, 271, 275,307,312,
407
International Working Men's Association
and Russia— 77, 89, 122, 145,
159, 213, 458-59, 463, 485,
515-54
International Working Men's Association in
Argentina— 226
International Working Men's Association in
Australia— 84, 260, 262, 271, 275
International Working Men's Association in
Austria— 83, 111, 137, 151-52, 223,
224, 260, 263, 307, 312, 407-08, 415,
514
International Working Men's Association in
Belgium— 26, 41, 85, 99, 103, 119,
260, 266, 273, 275, 441, 483, 512, 513,
644-45
International Working Men's Association in
Denmark— 57-59, 224, 226, 260, 262,
271, 275, 312, 389, 407, 408
International Working Men's Association in
England— 25-26, 84, 95-100, 116, 118,
130, 154-57, 265-66, 285, 301-14, 406,
410-12, 414, 438, 441, 448-49, 512,
513
International Working Men's Association in
France—19, 26, 59, 64, 79-80, 83,
91-93, 95-98, 99, 102, 111-12, 129-30,
137, 221, 223, 260, 262, 264-66, 275,
283, 307, 312, 370, 399, 407, 412,
439-45, 472, 481, 504-07, 513
International Working Men's Association in
Germany— 50, 59, 92, 100-01, 112,
116, 129-30, 221-22, 275, 307, 407,
411, 415
International Working Men's Association in
Holland— 59, 130, 226, 260, 262, 269,
271, 275, 299, 308, 312, 408, 513
International Working Men's Association in
Hungary—19, 137, 223, 224, 260, 262,
263, 275, 307, 312,407,408,432, 514,
International Working Men's Association in
India—84
International Working Men's Association in
Ireland—130, 154-56, 225-26, 260,
262, 263, 275, 294
International Working Men's Association in
Italy— 43, 45, 83, 111, 146-47, 184,
260, 275, 276, 283, 293, 312, 408,
409, 414, 437, 438, 440, 447, 497-99,
504, 512
International Working Men's Association in
New Zealand—226
International Working Men's Association in
Portugal—226, 260, 262, 263, 266,
275, 285, 287, 303, 307, 312,407, 408,
410, 412, 415, 438, 487
International Working Men's Association in
Spain—26, 54, 99, 129-30, 137-38,
207-08, 215, 234-37, 247-48, 260-62,
267-69, 271-72, 281, 288-92, 299-300,
308, 312, 408-13, 415, 417-18, 426-28,
438, 441, 459, 486-87, 490-96, 510-13,
581-98
International Working Men's Association in
Sweden—266
International Working Men's Association in
Switzerland— 55, 68-70, 77, 80, 89-94,
100-05, 108, 118, 122, 130, 188, 189,
225, 247, 260-62; 275, 307, 312, 407,
415, 427, 449-50, 472-76, 478, 479,
483, 485, 489, 514, 540, 584-85,
645
International Working Men's Association in
the USA— 84, 112, 124-26, 130, 177-
83, 226, 240, 246, 260-62, 265, 266,
269, 272, 275, 280, 307, 312,407, 408,
429, 513, 636-43, 645
Internationalism, proletarian—3-4, 46,
116, 154-56, 198, 201, 256, 283-84,
295-96, 631, 632
See also International solidarity of
workers
Ireland—154, 155, 295, 449, 612, 613,
616
See also Fenians; Working-class movement,
Irish
Italy— 43-48, 162, 294, 402, 451, 566,
599-600, 609
J
Jesuits— 459, 470, 545, 553, 554
Jews—604
Joint-stock societies—333, 351, 364
Journalism, journalists—104, 499
See also Press, the
Junkers, Prussian— 363, 364, 381, 382,
400-01, 403-04, 626-28
Jurisprudence— 375-76
K
Kingdom of Sardinia (Piedmont)—43
L
Labour—135-36, 221, 226, 255, 324-26
Labour aristocracy—284, 357, 613-15
Labour power— 318, 320, 327, 339, 345
Land and Labour League (England)—157
Landed property— 57, 131-35, 318, 321,
344, 386-89, 419, 423
Language— 601-02, 607
Lassalleanism, Lassalleans—75, 107, 119,
144, 380, 444-45, 481-82, 484
See also General Association of German
Workers
Lausanne Congress of the International
Working Men's Association, 1867—55,
105, 311
Law(s)
— of nature—322
— of society—341, 347
— economic—35, 320-22, 332, 374-
75, 377, 378
Lawyers— 49, 131, 380-81
League of Peace and Freedom—61, 85, 87,
95, 460-62, 464, 477, 482, 496
Lease, farmer—149, 376
Legislation—131, 132, 332, 380-81, 628
See also Factory legislation
Liberal Party (England) —294, 306,
361, 612-15
Liberalism— 45, 49, 284, 401, 460
Literature— 72, 167, 338, 522, 602-07,
610
Logic— 326, 383
Lombardy—44
London— 353-54, 358-59, 375, 384
London Conference of the International
Working Men's Association, 1865—83
London Conference of the International
Working Men's Association, 1871—14-
16, 18, 19, 23, 25-26, 32, 37, 38, 55, 59,
80-84, 93, 100-08, 118, 121, 126, 130,
181, 206-07, 232-34, 243, 254, 257,
264, 267, 273, 289-90, 306-06, 311,
407, 477-82, 485, 490
Lorraine—221, 603, 607, 620
Lumpenproletariat—454, 555, 595
M
Machinery—131-32, 324-25, 340-41,
422-24
Mainz (Mayence) Congress—80-83, 158,
170, 644-45
Malthusianism— 380
Man, humanity—128, 136, 324-25, 378,
380, 381, 384, 423, 543, 603
Manchester— 366
Marx, Karl (biographical data)—62,
71-73, 161-62, 259, 283-84
— as a scientist—265
— Engels on Marx's role—391
Marxism—174-75, 317, 370, 389, 391,
630-31
Mazzinism, Mazzinists—43-48, 497,
499-500
Means of communication—384, 420
See also Railways
Means of labour—126, 368
Means of production—136, 326, 368, 386,
423, 449
See also Instruments of production;
Means of labour
Means of subsistence— 340, 346, 429, 639
Middle Ages, the— 418, 608-09
Militarism— 48-49, 401, 419-20
Mind—145, 197, 226, 325, 592, 631
Mode of production—136, 327, 347-48,
368, 373, 384-85, 389
Monarchy— 363-64, 417-19, 599-600,
608, 627
Monasteries— 608
Monopolies—3, 48
Morals— 4, 25, 98, 223, 232, 255, 291,
341, 347, 495, 524-25, 544-53, 555,
626-27
Mortgages— 344
See also Usury
Music— 602-03
N
Napoleonic wars— 420, 602-04, 621-24
Nation, nationality—116, 154-55, 198,
203, 305-06, 599, 607-08
National Liberal, Germany—618-19, 621
National movement—154-55
National question—154-56, 227, 600
See also Fenians; Ireland; National
movement; Polish question
National Reform League—313
Nationalisation of land—57-58, 131-136,
386-87, 389, 449
Nationalism—154-56, 607-08
See also Chauvinism
Natural science—337, 608
Nature— 384, 423
Navigation— 599
Necessity and chance—132, 324, 338,
340-41, 363, 402
Needs— 66, 107, 132, 170, 264, 355, 358,
370, 380, 393, 482, 613
Netherlands, the—608-10
Neutrality— 418, 620
New York— 240, 260, 261, 265, 266, 429,
434-35, 638-38, 641
Nobility, landowners—149, 177,363,393,
400, 419, 600, 602 612, 628
North German Confederation (1867-71)—
221, 403, 618, 627
O
Owenism, Owenites—106-07, 347-48,
394, 481, 630-31
P
Pan-Slavism—85, 558-60
Papacy— 45, 600
Papal States (Roman State)—225, 600
Parcel, parcelling—132, 135
Paris Commune of 1871—44, 46, 48,
80-83, 94, 128, 142-43, 175, 219, 225,
256, 370, 425, 451, 468, 477, 504,
591, 593, 631, 635
Parliament— 48, 411, 583
Parliament, British—145, 197, 360,
612-16
Party of Progress, Germany—617
Party, political—48, 372, 425
Party, proletarian—4, 7, 12, 24, 52, 57-58,
66-67, 88, 105-08, 119, 125-26, 136,
174-75, 201, 222-23, 243, 255, 264-65,
274-75, 281-83, 305-08, 372, 424-25,
449, 459, 470, 490, 614, 629-31
See also Communists, communist movement;
Communist League
Pauperism— 380
Peace as the most important demand of the
working-class movement—220-21
Peasantry— 48, 57-59, 132-35, 148-49,
344, 362, 373, 376, 384, 389, 400,401,
403, 419, 520-21, 602
People, popular masses—401, 420
Petty bourgeoisie—318-19, 336, 372-73
Philanthropy—110, 338, 343, 349, 350,
352, 354, 357, 383, 394
Philistinism—525, 597
Philosophy—131, 379-80, 600-03, 608,
630
See also German philosophy; Marxism
Phoenicia—608
Plebeians, plebs—405
Police, the— 255, 393, 400, 401, 435, 516,
518, 628
Policy, politics— 201, 255, 264, 371-72,
379, 418-19, 425, 601, 629
Polish question—560
Political struggle— 3, 54-55, 89, 105-
08, 120, 198, 201, 209, 234, 243,
254-55, 264, 273-74, 290, 343, 370,
372, 392-97, 419, 477-78, 482, 555,
582-85, 631
Population—131-32, 380, 384-85
Portugal—599
Positivism—96
Press, the—101, 158-59, 222, 226, 312,
429, 432, 442, 484, 645
Prevision, prediction—384-91
Private property—132, 323, 382, 386
Product of labour, of production process—
324-26
Production— 35, 132, 135-36, 322, 326,
332, 380, 384
Productive forces— 325-26, 377
Productivity of labour—324
Profit— 331, 429
Progress—135, 377, 418-19, 602
Propaganda— 80, 106, 112, 137-38, 265,
289, 470, 555, 631
Property—135, 328, 339, 368, 389
See also Private property; Public property
Prostitution— 609
Protestantism—601, 608
Proudhonism, Proudhonists—317, 319-37,
341, 343, 346, 368-91, 394, 351, 630
Prussia— 352, 363-64, 401-03, 601-03,
604, 607, 617-18, 621-22, 626-28
— after the foundation of the German
Empire—400,403-05, 627-29
— industry, commerce and agriculture—
363-64, 401, 403-04, 627-29
— political system—363-64, 401-03,
419, 627
— Constitution, constitutional question,
the—401-04, 617-18
— legislation, law—364, 609
— foreign policy—161, 221, 402,
418, 602-04, 607, 624, 626
Public opinion—46, 149, 608
Public property—135, 388
Publicity—459
R
Race—121, 637
Radicalism, radicals—48, 266, 284, 482,
614, 639
Railways— 422, 424
Rate of profit— 332
Rate of surplus value—332
Red flag— 449
Reform, reformers (bourgeois)—144,
345, 361, 403, 405, 628
Reformation in Germany—600-01
Reformism—154-56, 265-66, 284, 448,
613-15
Relations of production—340, 385
See also Economic relations
Religion— 379, 608
See also Catholicism; Christianity; Protestantism
Rentier— 332, 333
Republic— 46, 400,417-21,469, 582, 585
Republican movement (bourgeois)—44,
46-48, 118-19, 158-59,418-19,459-60,
484, 505, 583, 585, 597
Research—167, 321-22, 332, 350, 373-75,
381, 389-91, 596
Revolution— 425, 470, 596-98
Revolution, bourgeois, bourgeois-democratic—
401, 582-84, 596-97, 628
Revolution, proletarian, socialist—3, 35,
46-47, 55, 67, 106, 128, 135-36, 175,
198, 201, 243, 255-56, 264, 274, 330,
347-48, 368, 372, 377, 384, 386, 389,
419, 420, 423, 425, 469-70, 587, 631,
636
See also Communism (theories and
trends); Dictatorship of the proletariat;
Paris Commune of 1871
Revolution, social—106, 128, 243, 274,
318, 324, 330, 348, 377, 423-25
Revolution of 1848 in France—175,
401
Revolution of 1848-49 in Germany—161,
400-01, 592, 604, 607, 628
Revolution of 1848-49 in Italian states—
44-45
Right— 89, 326, 373-74, 380-81
— of inheritance—472
— of property—131, 135, 373
Russia
— before the 19th cent.—405, 518,
520, 567
— the rising of the Decembrists
(1825)—566
— followers of Mikhail Butashevich-
Petrashevsky—556-57
— reform of 1861, Russia after
1861—225, 558, 561-65
— development of revolutionary radical
thought under the influence of
Nikolai Chernyshevsky—516, 524-
26, 558-59, 561-62
— revolutionary actions of the student
youth in the 1860s-70s—89-
90, 515-20, 523-24, 526, 561,
565-66
— tsarist persecution of the revolutionaries,
political trials—515-
18, 524, 561-63
— liberal constitutional movement—
556-59, 561-62
— and Poland—155
— foreign policy—77-78, 602, 604,
624-25
S
Saint-Simonism, Saint-Simonians— 89,
106-07, 394, 472, 481, 630-31
Scandinavia— 607
Schleswig-Holstein—155, 607
Science— 85, 115, 132, 144-45, 167, 191,
259, 284, 325, 337, 339, 381,
388-89, 394-95, 452, 482, 519, 526,
529, 549, 557, 602-03, 630-31
See also Communism, scientific; Natural
science
Sectarianism—12, 61, 84, 89, 105-07,
126, 232, 234, 274-75, 369-70, 391,
394, 458, 481-82
Sects, religious—608
Serfdom— 602, 604
Silesia— 429
Social formation—332
Social labour—136, 324, 422-25
Social question—W0, 339, 346-47, 368,
516
Social relations— 331, 390-91, 394, 424
Social system—34, 318, 338-41, 361, 542
Socialism (theories and trends)—121,
175, 319, 340-50, 353, 372-73, 467,
639-40
Socialism in Germany—317, 389
Socialism, scientific—see Communism,
scientific
Socialism, socialists in England—394
Socialism, socialists in France—584
Socialism, socialists in Russia—516,
523-24
Socialism, Utopian—106-07, 347, 348,
394, 481, 630-31
Societies, secret— 47-48, 161, 174, 232,
267, 439, 441, 454, 516
Society—131-32, 135-36, 325, 329, 340,
362-65, 379-80, 424-25
See also Social formation; Social relations;
Social system
Society, bourgeois—128, 135, 177, 220-
21, 243, 274, 322, 327, 330-33, 339-
41, 363-64, 377, 383, 384, 389, 391-
94, 397, 417, 422-25, 481, 627-28
Spain— 417-21, 581-82, 586, 587, 591-
93, 596
— fifth revolution in Spain (1864-
74)_408, 418, 420-21, 449, 490,
581-86
State, the—107, 121, 128, 135, 136,
175, 255, 362-65, 370, 380-81, 392-
93, 422-25, 467-68, 482, 599-602,
627
See also Dictatorship of the proletariat;
Monarchy; Republic; State, bourgeois;
State, feudal; State power
State, bourgeois—107, 121, 128, 201,
264, 362-63, 417-19, 467, 586, 627
See also Bonapartism; Constitutions,
bourgeois; Dictatorship, bourgeois; Parliament
State debt—SS6, 388
State, feudal— 599
State power—201, 264, 417, 421, 586,
607
Statistics—13-14, 19, 145
Strikes—106, 112, 148-49, 281, 394,
418, 481, 585-86
Students— 499, 516
Suffrage— 361, 417, 640
Surplus value— 318, 320, 327, 331-32
See also Rate of surplus value
Switzerland— 83, 85, 144
T
Tactics of the proletarian class struggle—
391-92, 583-84, 631-32
Taxes, taxation—135, 336, 388, 404-
05, 420, 468, 602
Terror, counter-revolutionary—128, 223,
225-26, 563
Theory and practice— 3, 66, 88-89, 96,
106-09, 115, 143-44, 174-75, 283,
292, 322, 329, 337, 369-70, 375, 378,
381-82, 388-91, 393, 480, 482, 526,
544, 555, 630-31
Thinking— 470, 526
Thirty Years War (1618-1648)—601-02
Town and country— 28, 43, 46, 57, 317,
324, 328, 330, 337, 341, 344, 347-50,
352, 368, 375, 383-86, 388, 418-19,
603, 609
Trade— 318, 609
See also Foreign trade; World market
Trade unions, trade-union movement—
106-07, 246, 266, 365, 393, 394, 481,
631
See also Coalitions, workers'; Trade
unions in England
Trade unions in England—80, 106-07,
112, 148-49, 306, 481, 613-16, 631
Traditions— 394, 419, 604-05, 614
Truth, the—4, 207, 212, 232, 322, 394,
495, 642
Turkey—625
U
United States of America, the—144, 177-
78, 255, 392
Uprising, armed— 420, 421, 586, 587-
88, 592-95
Usury—135, 332, 334, 344, 388
Utopism— 330, 384-86, 389, 630-31
V
Violence— 222-23, 255, 371, 386, 417,
420, 425
Vulgar bourgeois political economy—88,
341-44
W
Wage labour— 35, 201
Wages—149, 340, 345, 399, 426-
36
War(s)—116, 220-21, 227, 283, 420,
561, 601-02, 604, 620, 625, 627,
See also Army; Conquest; Militarism;
War, civil
War, civil— 219, 418, 420, 469
See also Class struggle; Paris Commune
of 1871; Revolution, proletarian,
socialist
Wars of the First French Republic—602-
03
War of North American colonies for independence,
1775-83— 603
Westphalia— 610
Women's question—12-13, 178, 461,
636-43
See also Family and marriage; Female
labour
Worker— 49, 57-58, 260-62, 318-20,
327-28, 336-37, 339-40, 395-97, 636,
639, 642
Workers' associations and combinations—
352, 394-96
See also Trade unions, trade-union
movement; Workers' societies
Workers' labour and living conditions
under capitalism—14, 148-49, 204,
343, 377, 424
Workers' societies—4, 7, 12, 47, 88, 107,
125, 148-49, 161, 174, 198, 201, 203,
246, 266, 439, 482, 491
Working class— 3-7, 46-48, 57, 88, 106-
07, 111, 128, 135, 148-49, 154-56,
201, 220-21, 226-27, 255-56, 264,
319, 323-24, 336, 339-41, 371-73,
377, 391, 393-94, 396-97, 581-82,
629-31
Working class in Austria—430, 432, 434,
435
Working class in Belgium—433
Working class in Denmark—57-58
Working class in England—148-49, 155,
255, 265-66, 284, 294-96, 306, 357,
359, 613-16, 630
Working class in France—46, 220, 262,
319, 350-51, 343-55, 359, 365
Working class in Germany—49, 266, 337,
351-52, 364, 365, 403, 426-34, 436
Working class in Italy—43-46, 48
Working class in Prussia—363-65,
626-27
Working class in Spain— 419-21, 426-28,
449, 586-89, 593-94
Working class in Switzerland—91, 427,
428, 430-31, 433, 436, 474-75
Working class in the USA—116, 255,
429, 434-35
Working-class movement—3-7, 54-55, 57-
58, 105, 109-110, 116-17, 121, 126,
135, 138-39, 154-56, 175, 198-200,
210, 226-27, 243, 255-56, 262, 264,
273-74, 283-84, 295-96, 369-70, 391,
393-94, 427-36, 467, 469-70, 555,
584, 613-14, 629-32
— ideological struggle in it—88-89,
106-08, 482, 631
See also Class struggle; International
Working Men's Association (First International);
Party, proletarian; Trade unions,
trade-union movement; Working class
movement (in different countries)
Working-class movement in Canada—431
Working-class movement in England—80,
148-49, 328-29, 392, 449, 613-14,
630-31
Working-class movement in Germany—92,
100-01, 116, 221-22, 262, 426-32,
433-34, 436, 444, 629-32
Working-class movement in Roumania—
433
Working-class movement in the USA—
434-35
Working-class movement, Irish—155-56,
295-96
Working-class and socialist movement in
Austria—430, 432, 434, 435
Working-class and socialist movement in
Belgium— 370, 430, 433, 584, 630
Working-class and socialist movement in
Hungary— 223, 224, 262, 433, 435-36
Working-class and socialist movement in
Italy—28-29, 43, 45-48, 216, 369-70,
498-99, 630
Working-class and socialist movement in
Spain— 369-70, 410-11, 420-21, 486,
582, 585-89, 591-94, 597, 630
Working-class and socialist movement in
Switzerland— 428, 430-31, 433, 436,
450, 514
Working day—144, 185, 392, 394, 426-
36, 449, 497
World market— 602, 607, 609, 613
Y
"Young Russia" manifesto—561, 565
Youth— 497, 504, 516, 520





MECW VOL 24






Academic, armchair (Katheder) socialism—
203, 479, 480, 558
Agriculture— 308, 310-11, 350-52, 355-
58, 368, 398-99, 443-44, 449, 554-55
Anabaptists—287
Anarchism, anarchists—71, 176-77, 209,
213-15, 217-19, 246, 247, 321,
477-79
See also Bakuninism, Bakuninists
Ancient Orient—434, 435
Ancient Rome—201, 358-59, 428, 430-
34, 445, 554
Anti-Corn Law League (Britain, the
1840s)—390, 400-02
Antiquity— 201, 367, 431-33, 451
See also Ancient Rome
Anti-Socialist Law—240-51
272, 277, 286, 372, 404,
Argentina—399
Aristocracy—10, 415
—British—162-63, 180,
397-98, 415-16
—French—144, 290-92
Army— 96, 112, 120, 126-27, 432, 477
—French—223-24
— Prussian—120-21
—Russian—204
Artel— 43-45, 356, 364
Asia— 441, 449
Atheism—15-16, 97, 236, 285-86, 427-
28, 430-31
Austria—7, 9-10, 56, 57, 103, 117, 344,
497
See also Peasantry—Austrian; Revolution
of 1848-49 in Europe—in Austria
260, 262,
407-09
182, 390,
Austria-Hungary (from 1867)—219,
495-96
Austro-Italian war, 1848-49—57-58, 344
Austro-Italo-French war, 1859—6, 9, 189
Austro-Prussian war, 1866—9, 61, 121
B
Bakuninism, Bakuninists
— a variety of petty-bourgeois socialism—
45, 175
— anarchist trend—176-78, 214-15,
217, 478, 487
— social roots of—175, 178, 217,
487
— general description of the
Bakuninists' theoretical views—
174-76, 178, 213, 215, 478
— views on the state—176, 321, 478,
492-506, 510-13, 515, 518-22, 526
— rejection of the political struggle
of the proletariat—173, 175-76,
213-15
— on revolution and revolutionaries—
19-20, 24-25, 32-33,
36, 49, 174, 175, 213, 218-19,
487, 493-95, 497-98, 500, 506-07,
510, 511, 512-15, 517-18, 522,
526
— ideas of future society—498, 507-
08, 512, 518
— disorganising activities in the
working-class movement—20, 22-
23, 26-31, 37, 100, 105-06, 174-
78, 190-91, 209, 213-15, 246-47,
478; see also International Alliance
of Socialist Democracy
— in Belgium—105, 213, 214, 495
— in Italy—105-06, 174, 176-78,
213, 214, 217, 495
— in the Netherlands — 495
— in Russia—22-23, 26-31, 37, 100,
526
— in Spain—15, 49-50, 174, 213,
214, 495
— in Switzerland—12, 176-77, 213-
15, 219, 236, 495
Basis and superstructure—84, 87, 304,
306, 321-22, 367, 467-68, 517, 518,
521
Belgium—136-37, 187, 214-15, 221,
405, 419, 422
See also Working-class and socialist
movement—in Belgium
Bible— 427-35
Blanquism, Blanquists—12-18, 336
Bohemia— 496-98
Bonapartism—189, 224, 279-80
Bourgeoisie— 90, 141, 379, 415-18
— origin and development of—191-
92, 199, 285-87
— petty bourgeoisie—68, 88, 267-69
— struggle against the feudal nobility—
88, 141, 191-92, 285-86, 290,
307, 386, 415
— its role in the development of the
productive forces—39, 40
— its economic domination—194-95,
381, 415
— and state (political) power—179-
80, 192-93, 290, 307, 317, 380,
415, 416
— hindrance to historical development—
193, 319, 322-23, 325,
412-13, 416-18
— British—179-80, 386, 400-02,
416, 574
— French—118, 192, 288-92
— German—11, 103-04, 141, 574
— Italian—175, 178, 217
— Russian—42, 44, 50
Burghers—192, 286, 288, 499
C
Capital
— definition of—316-17, 377-78,
380
— origin and development of—305,
309-11, 316-17, 324-25, 346, 379-
80, 533
— control as its function—317-19,
412-14, 416
Capitalism (socio-economic formation)—
362, 368, 463, 546-47
Capitalist mode of production—308-13,
316-20, 323-25, 468, 535-40
— origin and development of—199-
201, 286-87, 294, 305, 307-13,
316-19, 322, 324-25, 346, 360-65,
367-68, 370, 464
— its distinctive features—92, 193,
195, 305, 316-22, 324-25, 535-
36
— as the basis of bourgeois society—
195, 289, 292, 308, 311, 317-25,
346, 370-71, 415-17, 464
— its historically transitory nature—
200, 289, 304-05, 316-25, 350,
353-54, 357
Chartism, the Chartist movement—304,
344, 376, 385-86, 402, 406
China—116
Christianity— 238, 427-35
See also Anabaptists; Bible; Reformation
Church—97, 435, 450, 452
Civilisation— 21, 95, 293, 391
Class(es)—43, 70-71, 83, 86, 88-89,
92, 174, 191-93, 195, 221-22, 268,
273, 285, 290-91, 293-94, 304-07,
312, 314-15, 320-25, 340, 379, 385-
86, 404, 415-16, 431-34, 463, 477-78,
517, 519, 521
See also Aristocracy; Bourgeoisie; Nobility;
Peasantry; Working class
Class struggle— 89, 193, 215, 263, 265,
267, 304-05, 336, 380, 385-86, 418,
458-59, 519-21
Clergy— 290, 449-52
Commerce—192, 383-84, 553, 558
Commodity— 86, 308-09, 311-12, 531,
533-34, 537-38, 544-48, 550-51
Commodity production—308-12, 318,
319-24, 545-46, 552-53, 557-58
Commune— 45-46, 365-66, 446, 519,
535
— emergence and development of—
350-51, 353-54, 362-63, 365-68,
426
— primitive, archaic—349-51, 356,
358-59, 362-63, 365-67, 550
— rural or peasant—192, 199, 349-
60, 362-64, 366, 368
— agricultural—350-54, 365-68
— Greek and Roman—432, 445
— the mark-association of the ancient
Germans and in Germany—46,
312, 350-51, 365-66, 442-52, 455,
456
— Indian—46, 47, 351, 359, 365,
368, 535
Commune, community in Russia—40-41,
43, 45-48, 349, 352-65, 368, 371, 426,
519
— and the possibility of transition to
socialism by-passing capitalism—
48, 199, 349, 352-60, 362-64, 367-
68, 371
Communism (socio-economic formation)
— general features of communist
society—83-88, 95, 319-25, 573
— as the future of humanity—17,
200, 287, 289, 304-05, 321,
517-19
— as the goal of the revolutionary
working-class movement—17, 70,
215, 229, 340, 387, 569
— prerequisites for the communist
transformation of society—39-40,
43, 48, 83, 193, 200, 289, 295,
305-25, 340, 356-58, 367-68,
517-18
— necessity of proletarian revolution—
39-40, 92, 95, 265, 267-69,
289, 320, 325, 353, 357, 478, 518
— period of transition from capitalism
to communism (socialism)—
68, 70, 106, 320, 321, 325
— stages of communist society—84-
88
— abolition of private property, public
ownership of the means of
production—17, 85-86, 88, 181-
82, 193, 318-23, 325, 340, 349-51,
353, 355-57, 362, 399, 426, 517-
18, 520, 572
— production—39-40, 70, 83-88, 93-
94, 193, 200, 292, 317-25, 349,
351, 353, 355-58, 362
— agriculture—17, 47-48, 70, 356,
456, 517-18
— social relations—11, 17, 39-40,
43, 44, 70-71, 86-87, 92, 193, 261,
287, 290, 292-93, 296, 320-22,
325, 456, 517, 519-21, 570
— communist transformation of society
and the State—70-71, 92-95,
193, 292, 320-21, 325, 477-78,
517-22
— social consciousness—86, 319-25,
340, 576
— communist transformation of society
and the individual—84-88,
96-98, 193, 200, 292, 294-95,
319-25
— criticism of Utopian views on future
society—88, 164, 261, 287,
290, 297, 305, 321, 520
Communism (socialism), scientific—39-
40, 47, 183, 189-90, 285, 297, 304-
07, 325, 326, 335-39, 458, 520-21
Communism, Utopian— 287, 294-97, 326,
565-66
Communist League—51-53, 136, 141,
184-89, 336, 344, 565
Communist trial in Cologne—51-54
Competition— 307, 311-19, 324-25, 376-
78, 383, 392, 398, 402, 412-14
"Corn Laws" (in Britain)—390-91, 400-
01, 416, 557
Corvée (statute labour)—113, 132, 141,
450-55
Crafts, craftsmen— 89, 192, 293-94,
307-12
Crédit mobilier— 273, 277
Crimean war, 1853-56—9, 56, 504, 509
D
Darwinism— 301, 313, 435, 458-59,
463, 467
Despotism— 46-47, 50, 227-29, 252, 288,
353, 363
Dialectical materialism—298-300, 458-59
Dictatorship of the proletariat—13, 71, 95,
320-21, 325, 340, 386, 405, 414, 418,
477-78, 521-22
Distribution— 83-88, 193, 306, 310-15,
379, 381, 386
Division of labour— 87, 96, 308-09, 322,
519, 553, 557
E
Economic crises—193, 274, 315-20, 322,
323, 325, 350, 353-54, 357, 361-62,
383-84, 397, 398, 401, 411-12
Economic laws— 69, 126-27, 194-95,
200, 311-17, 319-20, 322-25, 359,
379-84, 401-03, 468, 537, 557-58
Economy and politics—40, 42, 46, 96,
192-93, 292, 304, 306, 321, 322, 325,
467-68, 507
Education— 85, 96-98, 294-95, 322
Emigration—12-14, 19-28, 52, 131, 169,
187, 262, 343, 344, 415, 425
England (Great Britain)—179, 390, 498
— history—247, 287, 401, 441, 488,
577
— economy—119, 162-63, 289, 293-
94, 384, 385, 390-93, 397-98, 401,
411-14, 416, 425-26
— political system, political relations—
179-80, 248, 394, 396
— electoral system, electoral reforms—
179-80, 182, 386, 394,
396, 405, 406, 416
— colonial and foreign policies—
389-93, 398, 405, 416
See also Aristocracy—British; Bourgeoisie—
British; Peasantry—English;
Working-class and socialist movement—
in Great Britain; Working class—
British; Trade unions, trade union
movement—in Great Britain
Enlightenment, Enlighteners—285-86,
292, 294, 427
Exchange— 85-86, 192, 306, 308, 311-
12, 316, 319, 324, 325, 535-36, 553-
54, 557
Exploitation—17, 44, 156, 161, 193,
195, 305, 318-22
Expropriation—181, 182, 199-201, 346,
354, 359-61, 364, 370
F
Feudalism— 88, 132, 141, 162-63, 192,
195, 199, 286-88, 293, 307-13, 321,
324, 415, 446, 448-54
First International—see International
Working Men's Association
France—18, 221-25, 292
— history—16, 48, 188, 189, 224,
288-91, 344, 441, 527, 530, 577
— economy—118, 224, 273, 274,
279, 289, 291, 390-92
— social and political system—6,
203-04, 221-25, 289-90, 292
— foreign policy—58, 103, 118, 189,
343, 454-55, 488
See also Aristocracy—French; Army—
French; Bourgeoisie—French; Peasantry—
French; Revolution of 1848-49 in
Europe—in France; Working-class and
socialist movement—in France; Working
class—French
Franco-Prussian war, 1870-71—6, 9, 62,
68-69, 125, 271, 273, 279-80, 504,
527-30, 578
Frankish state— 441-46, 448-50
French Revolution of the 18th century—7,
18, 55, 57-58, 141, 192, 224, 248,
285, 288-92, 343, 454, 576
French Workers' Party— 340, 405
G
German People's Party (1865)—68, 77,
95
Germans (ancient)—43, 46, 350-51,
441-52
German Workers' Educational Society in
London (1840-1919)—105, 135, 467,
565-66
German Workers' Society in Brussels
(from 1847)—136, 184, 335-36
German Social-Democrats—21, 69, 184-
87, 211-12, 214, 239, 247, 574
— Social-Democratic Workers' Party,
Eisenachers (1869-75)—10, 13-16,
21, 27-28, 53, 55, 58, 67-72,
77-78, 87-89, 94, 95, 103, 211,
239, 572, 578
— Gotha Congress (1875), criticism
of the Gotha programme by Marx
and Engels—67-73, 77-99, 106,
175, 219, 260, 572
— Socialist Workers' Party—172-73,
202, 209-14, 218, 239, 251,
253-69, 404-05, 407-09, 477,
478, 574
— participation in the electoral
struggle and parliamentary activities—
172-73, 175-76, 209-14,
250, 251, 260-61, 264, 396, 404-
05, 407-09, 423, 574
Germany, German Empire (after 1871)
— 9, 31, 56, 90, 95-96, 121, 252, 279,
441, 455, 574
— history—153, 247, 452-54, 458,
578
— survivals of feudalism and the
process of their elimination—96,
121, 127, 162-63, 172, 454-55
— economic development—163,
273, 453, 458
— industry—161, 162, 164, 272-77,
390-92, 414, 508
— agriculture, agrarian relations—
46, 162-63, 275, 441-44, 447,
453-57
— commerce—90, 117, 119, 124,
272-75, 390-92
— economic crises—204, 274, 277,
323
— social development—141, 268-69,
448-49
— political development, political
system—9, 93-98, 141, 251, 458,
578
— home policy, home situation—56,
203, 210, 231, 248, 251-52, 372,
407-09, 447
— liberal and democratic movements—
53, 68, 72-73, 97-98,
107, 183, 188, 211-12, 232, 267,
423
— prospects of revolution—54, 66,
251-52
— foreign policy—9-11, 56, 103-04,
112, 125, 229
See also Anti-Socialist Law; Bourgeoisie—
German; Nobility, aristocracy
in Germany; Peasantry—German;
Prussia; Revolution of 1848-49 in
Europe—in Germany; Working-class
and socialist movement—in Germany;
Working class—German
Grûndertum—59, 266
H
Hegel, Hegelianism—293, 298, 301-04,
427, 458-59
Historical materialism, materialist conception
of history—191-93, 195, 303-06,
458-59, 463, 467-68
History
— as a class struggle—191-93, 269,
303-05
— as people's activities—323-24
— historical development—9-10, 16-
17, 94, 193, 199, 301-02, 304-05,
426, 468
History (as a science)—21-22, 52, 191-
93, 304-05, 428-29, 441, 467-68
Holy Alliance—125, 343-44, 488
Humanity—191-93, 286-87, 297, 298,
301-03, 313, 428, 463, 467
Hungary—219
See also Revolution of 1848-49 in
Europe—in Hungary; Working-class
and socialist movement—in Hungary
I
Idealism—184, 302-04, 326-27, 431
India— 349, 351, 359, 368
Industrial reserve army—314, 316, 319,
325, 377, 383-84
Industrial revolution— 273, 293, 307,
324, 390
International Alliance of Socialist Democracy—
12, 22, 37, 105, 106, 174-76,
236, 495, 506-07, 524-25
Internationalism, proletarian—57, 68-69,
89-90, 187, 190, 215, 239, 266, 344,
464, 570
International Working Men's Association
(First International)—90, 190-91, 220,
269, 420, 464, 468, 569-72, 575
— foundation of—190-91, 234, 269,
344, 464
— congresses and conferences—20,
215, 234-36, 478
— role of Marx and Engels in the
foundation and activities of—105-
06, 190-91, 234, 269, 339, 420,
464, 468, 478, 564
— in Belgium—105, 213
— in Denmark—106
— in France—106, 237, 239, 470
— in Germany—68-69, 106, 239
— in Great Britain—106, 236
— in Italy—105-06, 213
— in Spain—106, 213, 216, 238
— in Switzerland—213-15, 230-31
— in the USA—576
— cessation of activities, reasons for
it—90, 215, 220, 372, 464, 576
Inventions—192, 390, 392
Ireland— 57, 159, 162-63, 391, 405,
407, 408
Islam—434
Italy—175, 178, 189, 217, 271, 480,
577
See also Bourgeoisie—Italian; Peasantry—
Italian; Working-class and socialist
movement—in Italy; Working class—
Italian
J
Jacobin dictatorship, Jacobins—18, 288,
289, 291
Jews—126, 429-31, 434
Joint-stock companies—273-79, 317-19,
325, 353, 416-17
Judaism— 430, 434, 435
June 1848 insurrection of the Paris proletariat—
9, 138, 141, 221, 344
K
Kant, Kantianism—295, 301-02, 458-59
Katheder socialism— see Academic,
armchair (Katheder) socialism
L
Labour— 81-88, 98-99, 192-94, 201,
309-10, 314, 356, 383, 392, 467-68,
531, 545, 549, 551-53, 557-58
See also Division of labour
Landed property— 45-48, 162-64, 182,
200-01, 224-25, 288, 346-63, 365-69,
398-99, 425-26, 441-56
Language—10, 27, 46, 219, 430, 538-
39, 547-49
Lassalleanism, Lassalleans—67-70, 72,
83-91, 93-97, 105, 263-64, 273, 326,
500, 516-17, 520, 572, 574-75
Law, right
— as superstructure—84, 86-87,
304, 467-68, 553
— kinds of—86, 87, 304, 322-24,
425-26, 431-33, 441-42, 445-47,
449, 451, 452, 517-18
Law-courts, judicial system—42, 52, 97,
156-57, 322, 447-48
League of Peace and Freedom (1867)—
68-69, 90, 95
League of the Just—184-87, 336, 565
Legislation— 95, 217, 219, 386, 409,
444
Levellers—287
Liberal Party (Great Britain)—386-87,
404
Lyons insurrection of workers, 1831—304
M
Machinery (machine production)—293-
94, 313-15, 324-25, 349, 353, 362,
377-81, 383, 390, 392
Man
— and animal—82, 301, 313, 323,
538
— and nature—81, 301, 319-20,
323-25, 538, 550-53
— and society—85-86, 321, 323-24.
351, 366-67, 538, 547, 549,
552-53
— development of—87-200, 292-95,
301, 313, 323-24, 351, 366-67
Manchester School— 389-90, 392, 414
Manufacture—192, 293, 307-09, 313,
318, 324
Marxism (general points)—189-95, 285,
298-307, 325, 326, 335-39, 420, 423,
458-59, 463-68
Marxist philosophy—298-305, 458-59
Marxist political economy—189-90, 194-
95, 305, 463-68
Materialism—15-16, 87-88, 287, 294,
298-305, 326-27, 429-30
Means of production—17, 84-85, 194,
199, 200, 274, 308-11, 316-25, 340,
346, 351, 364, 370, 379-80, 555
Metaphysics— 298-301, 303-05
Middle Ages, medieval society—191, 307-
09, 312, 324, 366, 441, 449-51
Mode of production— 39-40, 84, 87-88,
194, 201, 289, 294, 305-10, 312-
13, 315-17, 319-22, 325, 468, 535,
556
See also Productive forces; Relations of
production
Money— 316, 546, 553-54
Monopolies— 276-79, 317-19, 325
Morals— 53, 85-86, 172-73, 292, 315,
334, 376-78, 395-96, 430, 432-35
N
Napoleonic wars—9, 288, 390, 454-55
Narodnik (populist) movement, Narodniks
in Russia— 252, 372, 426
—criticism of their views—19-50
Natural science— 293, 299-303, 305,
458-59, 468, 470
Nature— 298-303, 319-20, 323-24, 463,
467
—and man, society—81, 298-99,
302-03, 319-20, 323-25, 538-39,
550-53
Needs (wants)—85, 87, 112, 193, 215,
274, 308, 312, 315-16, 320, 449, 451,
468, 538-43, 545
Netherlands, the— 392, 499
See also Working-class and socialist
movement—in the Netherlands
Nobility—192, 286-87, 290, 449-52
Nobility, aristocracy in Germany—449-50,
452-55
Nobility, landowners in Russia—40-41,
47, 49, 104, 126, 204, 205, 226-27
North American War of Independence,
1775-83—55, 57
P
Panslavism—6, 9
Paris Commune, 1871—10, 12, 17-18,
58, 68, 71, 90, 190, 222-23, 266-67,
344, 372-73, 461, 478, 577
Party, proletarian
—its character, tasks and vanguard
role—178, 340, 386, 405-06
—programme, aims of its struggle—
71-72, 78, 81, 94, 215, 340, 378,
399, 456
—struggle against reformism and opportunism—
67-73, 251, 262-69
Peasantry
—in ancient Rome—200, 354, 432
—in feudal society—192, 308, 312,
449-54
—in bourgeois, bourgeois-democratic
revolutions—50, 141, 454-55
—expropriation of—199-201, 346,
354, 360-61, 364, 370
—and the working-class, the working-
class movement—89, 224-25,
456, 517-19
—Austrian—162
—English—179-82, 346, 360, 364,
517
—French—148, 204, 224-25, 288
—German—93, 113, 120, 126-27,
132, 140-41, 146, 148, 151-53,
160-64, 172, 263, 441, 444, 449-56
—Italian—175
—Polish—8, 10, 41, 58
—Prussian—113, 120, 126-27, 132,
148, 162, 163, 453-55
—Russian—40-43, 46-50, 56, 104,
153-54, 204, 226-27, 346-49, 352,
354-56, 361, 363-65
Peasant war in Germany, 1524-25—287,
451, 452
Philosophy—24, 183, 193, 200-01, 286,
293, 298-306, 427-35, 458-59
—English—298, 299
—French—285-89, 298, 302, 305
—German—184, 268, 298, 301-03,
428-31, 458-59
—in ancient Greece—285-86, 298,
429-30, 433-34
—in ancient Rome—429-34
See also Marxist philosophy
Poland
—history—6-11, 55-58, 103, 107,
343-44
—economy—46, 117
—social relations—10, 56, 58, 103
—nationalities question, national
movement—7, 10, 55-58, 103-04,
344
—insurrection of 1863-64—7, 10,
55-58, 103, 190, 228, 344
—policies of European powers in
relation to Poland—6-11, 41, 55-
57, 102-03, 107-08, 227
See also Peasantry—Polish; Working class
and socialist movement—in Polish
lands
Political economy—194, 376, 544-45
—bourgeois—81, 88, 91-92, 304,
326-27, 376-79, 468, 534-53
See also Marxist political economy
Private property—17, 81-89, 181-82,
200, 286, 288, 308, 340, 346, 350-52,
354, 358, 360-61, 363, 365-67, 370-
71, 379-81, 384, 396, 425-26
Production
—and nature—538, 552-53
—and society—273, 304, 306, 311-
12, 416, 467-68, 538-39, 549
—and man, the individual—193,
311-12, 323-24, 538-39, 552-53
—and property—87-88, 200, 307-14,
319-21, 324, 354-56, 362
—conditions of—87-88, 93-94, 192
—process of—292, 321, 535, 539,
549, 552-53
—forms of—200, 308, 311-12, 325,
449, 456
—and exchange, distribution, consumption—
87-88, 192, 193, 306,
308, 311-12, 315-16, 319, 324-
25
— social production, social nature
of production—308-14, 316-20,
323-27, 415-18, 535, 538, 549,
553
—development of—84, 193, 308-09,
313, 315-17, 320-23, 325-27, 332-
33, 415-18, 549, 557-58
Productive forces— 39-40, 87, 92, 193,
200, 289
Property
—and appropriation—309-11, 320,
322-24, 351-52, 355-56, 366-67
—and production—85, 87-88, 194,
199, 200, 309-11, 313, 317-25, 340,
346, 354-56, 359, 362, 379-80
—and the social system, the State—
317-21, 325, 351-52, 366
—development, historical forms—
200, 286, 533
See also Communism—abolition of
private property, public ownership of
the means of production; Private
property
Proudhonism— 218, 326-27, 520-21
Prussia—112-13, 119-21, 126-27, 132,
343-44
—history—113, 121, 126-27, 132,
145-46, 152-55, 161-63, 454-55
—economy—111-27, 140-56, 161-63,
318
—social and political system—52-53,
97-98, 120-21, 127, 162, 279,
454-55
—foreign policy and diplomacy—6,
8-11, 56, 57, 107-08, 121, 126-27,
229, 578
See also Army—Prussian; Peasantry—
Prussian
R
Reformation— 247, 287, 291, 453,
499
Relations of production— 304, 306, 307,
311, 313, 317-19, 324, 552-53
Religion—15-16, 70, 97, 192-93, 285,
304, 427-30, 433-35, 467-68, 571,
576
See also Christianity; Church; Clergy;
Islam
Revolution, bourgeois, bourgeois-democratic—
50, 56, 103, 141,221,289, 291,
454-55
Revolution of 1848-49 in Europe—107-
08, 136, 141, 187-88, 267-68, 344,
426, 455
—in Austria—107-08, 138
—in France—58, 107-08, 118, 136,
141, 165, 187-88, 221, 224, 270-71,
455
—in Germany—58, 107-08, 121,
137-48, 158-59, 161, 162, 164-69,
188, 231, 265, 270, 272-73, 336,
344, 455, 566, 575
—in Hungary—107-08, 164-65, 344
See also June 1848 insurrection of the
Paris proletariat
Revolution, proletarian, socialist
—essence, tasks, and goals of—39-
40, 43, 325, 340, 478
—historical necessity of—92-95, 193,
265, 289, 340, 426
—prerequisites for—39-40, 83, 180,
193, 200, 289, 304-08, 311, 313,
316-25, 361-62
—as the highest form of the proletarian
class struggle against the
bourgeoisie—96, 265, 269
—peaceful and violent ways of its
accomplishment—95-96, 248-50,
405, 406, 576
Russia— 40-50, 103-04, 204-05, 226
—history—40-43, 47, 49, 50, 100,
104
—economy—11, 40-43, 46-47, 50,
125-26, 199, 200, 204-05, 227, 252,
346-49, 352-53, 355, 361, 362,
425-26
—social and political system—11, 24-
26, 29-33, 36-37, 42-43, 46, 50,
56-57, 227-28
—science, literature, culture—24, 27-
28, 46, 227, 229
—revolutionary movement, prospects
of revolution—9, 11, 23, 27-28,
30-31, 43, 50, 56, 103, 104, 196,
199, 205, 226, 227, 229, 239, 252,
372, 425-26
—contacts of Marx and Engels with
Russian revolutionaries—19-28,
361, 370-71, 469
—foreign and colonial policies—6-
11, 41-42, 56-57, 103-04, 107-08,
125, 138, 227-29, 252, 488, 508-09,
515-16
See also Army—Russian; Bourgeoisie—
Russian; Commune, community in
Russia; Narodnik (populist) movement,
Narodniks in Russia; Nobility, landowners
in Russia; Peasantry—Russian;
Working class—Russian
Russo-Turkish war, 1877-78—204,
228-29
S
Science—116, 291-93, 322, 325, 349-50,
353-54, 398, 428, 449, 455, 463-68,
547, 571
—scientific cognition—191-95, 303-
05, 463, 467-68, 536
—historical development of—70, 91,
97, 133-34, 183, 191, 299, 322,
325, 335, 449, 463-71
Scotland—163, 415
Serfdom—132, 141, 152-53, 320-21,
367, 415, 450-55
Slavery— 320, 354, 367, 415, 535
Socialism (first stage of communist society)—
83-88
Socialism (theories and trends)—71-72,
89, 99, 194, 281, 285, 297, 304-05,
335, 451, 457
Socialism, Utopian—281, 287-90, 297,
304-05, 326, 520, 574
Social relations— 46, 193, 286, 311, 321,
323, 325, 351, 366
Société des saisons (Paris, 1837)—12-13,
336
Society
—basis of—304, 306
—laws of—200, 218, 376, 378, 379,
463, 467-68
—and nature—313, 319-20, 323-24,
325
—and production—273, 304, 306,
311, 320-22, 416, 468, 538-39, 549
—and classes—39-40, 43, 285, 293,
306, 320-22, 379, 415-16, 463
—and the State—40, 53, 68, 71, 82,
93-96, 318-22, 477-78
— and the individual—85-86, 320,
323, 351, 367, 538-39, 546-47, 549,
552-53
—development,progress of—46, 53,
82-83, 85-87, 94-95, 293, 306, 321-
22, 326-27, 349, 362, 463, 467-68,
551
Society, bourgeois— 94-95, 195, 277-78,
288, 291-307, 349-50, 353-54, 368,
379, 385-86, 415, 458-59, 468, 521
—emergence of—289, 293, 307, 324
—bourgeois social system—267, 290,
292, 293, 296, 307, 395-96
— classes, social strata—285, 385-86,
415, 463
—and the State—17, 68, 94-96,
318-19
—historically inevitable downfall of—
40, 83, 85-86, 350, 353-54, 361-62,
458-59
Society, feudal—192, 287, 307-13, 324,
367, 386
Society, primitive—39, 304, 358-59, 362,
366-67, 426, 441-42
Society, slave-owning—358-59, 367,
431-32
Spain— 21-22, 118-19, 216, 350
State, the
—as superstructure—40, 46-47, 94,
321, 467-68
—and society—40, 53-54, 68, 71, 82,
94-96, 317-22, 477-78
—as an economic power—126, 349,
354-55, 363
—and law—431-32, 467-68
—and religion—97, 429
—and classes, the class struggle—96,
320-22, 477
—and revolution—71, 141, 320
— withering away of under communism—
70-71, 292, 320-21, 325,
477-78, 519-22
—criticism of anarchist and Lassallean
views on—67-71, 93-94, 97,
263, 321, 477-78, 499
See also Dictatorship of the proletariat
State, bourgeois—17, 68, 94-96, 141,
150, 317-21, 333, 475, 546
State, feudal—320-21
State, slave-owning— 320-21, 429-31
Surplus value— 92, 194-95, 305, 324,
463, 535, 557-58
Sweden—442
Switzerland— 44, 70, 94-97, 141, 169,
218-19
See also Working-class and socialist
movement—in Switzerland
T
Taxes, taxation— 41 -42, 96, 431, 572
Theology— 236, 429-30
Theory and practice—19, 34, 86, 268,
285-87, 290, 304, 325, 428, 463-64,
468, 538
Thinking— 238, 239, 285-86, 290, 297-
303, 307
Thirty Years' War, 1618-48— 453-54
Trade unions, trade union movement—70,
210-11, 379-88, 403
—in Germany—70, 210-11
—in Great Britain—296, 376, 379-
82, 384-88, 403
Tribe(s)— 441-42
Tribal system— 350, 365, 366, 441-43
"True" socialism—268, 458
U
United States of America, the
—history—248, 577
—economy—97, 390, 392, 397-99,
413-14, 425-26, 456
—social and political system—95-97,
248
—immigration, its role—398, 425
See also Working class—US; Workingclass
and socialist movement—in the
USA;
Usury— 41-42, 44, 47, 50, 364, 392,
431, 455
V
Value— 85-86, 194-95, 533-49, 550-52
—exchange value—533, 536, 544-45,
549, 550, 551
—use value—81, 82, 533-34, 544-49,
554
—law of value—537, 558
See also Surplus value
W
Wage labour— 70, 91-92, 194, 305, 309-
11, 346, 365, 379-80, 415
Wages— 69, 92, 181, 314, 376-85,
402-03
War(s)— 69, 228-29, 313, 450
—influence on socio-economic development—
9, 103-04, 450, 451,
557
—and revolution, revolutionary
movement—9, 50, 103, 228-29
Wars of the First French Republic (late
18th-early 19th centuries)—390, 528
Working class— 40, 88-89, 193-94, 199,
311, 324, 376-77, 379, 385-86, 415,
519
— origin and formation of—89,
273, 289, 293, 313-14, 320-21,
324
—as a revolutionary class—13, 88-
89, 193, 320-21, 325, 340, 519,
569-70
—development of its class consciousness—
211, 215, 468
—and the peasantry—89, 224-25,
456, 517-18
—British—180, 248, 384-88, 392-93,
396, 404-06, 517, 573
—French—93, 141, 221-25, 289-90,
573
—German—89, 93, 98, 114-16, 120-
21, 141, 163, 172, 211-12, 221,
263, 273, 441, 458, 573
—Italian—174-76, 178, 217, 221
—Portuguese—216-17
—Russian—36, 43-45, 226
—US—248, 405, 573
Working-class and socialist movement—
67-70, 89-91, 184-91, 209-11, 213-15,
219-20, 229, 247, 372-73, 380, 387-
88, 403-04, 464, 575-76
—in Austria—203, 218, 219
—in Belgium—176-77, 214, 216-18,
239, 405
—in Denmark—218, 219, 239
—in Great Britain—175, 179-82,
297, 304, 335, 344, 376, 385-88,
404-06, 572
—in France—13, 16-18, 70, 87, 93,
203-04, 222, 237, 297, 304, 340,
344
—in Germany—10, 18, 31, 52-53,
68-69, 175, 184, 210-12, 251, 267-
69, 273, 408, 423, 458-59, 572; see
also Anti-Socialist Law
—in Hungary—203, 218, 219
—in Italy—174-78, 182, 214, 217,
218, 239, 405
—in the Netherlands—239, 405
—in Polish lands—239, 344-45
—in Portugal—216-18, 239
—in Russia—20, 23-24, 36-37, 226,
229, 425, 572
—in Spain—216, 572
—in Switzerland—176-77, 203, 214,
216, 218-19, 239
—in the USA—203, 239, 405,
572-76






MECW VOL 25





A
Abstraction— 23, 37, 39, 49, 503, 512,
593
— and reality—25, 34, 37, 39, 89,
92, 95, 195, 356, 480-81, 515-16,
546-49, 614
— as method of investigation—37,
188, 196-97, 362, 368, 408, 429,
436, 440, 509, 547, 557
Agnosticism— 315-16, 340, 513-16,
519-21
See also Kant, Kantianism—agnosticism
Aim
— and means—62, 66, 94, 148, 245,
254, 266, 598-99, 635, 636
— and the result of men's activity—
105, 333, 460-62
See also Teleology
Albumen— 62, 68, 71-77, 329-30, 460,
479, 492, 506, 531, 535, 573-74,
576-79, 601
Alchemy—186, 253, 320-21, 465-66
Algebra—118, 127-28, 320-21, 360,
380, 390, 430, 444, 536, 540, 542,
546, 550, 608
Algeria— 627
America—97, 462
See also American War of Independence,
1775-83; United States of America,
the
American War of Independence, 1775-
«3—98, 156, 159, 177, 624-26
Anabaptists—631
Analysis and synthesis—40, 341, 503,
508-09
Anarchism— 268
Anatomy— 22, 304, 321, 326, 465, 475-
77, 501
Ancient Greece—95-96, 149, 164, 165,
167-70, 215, 318, 319, 322, 461,
471-73, 602-03, 607, 609, 613
Ancient Rome—95-96, 143, 148, 164,
165, 168, 300, 318, 473, 602-03, 609,
613, 617
Animals
— origin and development of—63-
70, 322, 324-25, 329, 457, 492,
495, 579-84, 585, 586, 633
— domestication and alteration of—
63, 65-66, 329, 399, 458-60,
601
— study of—63, 322, 324-28, 476,
633
Antiquity—148-49, 168, 318-19, 458,
602, 611, 613
See also Ancient Greece; Ancient Rome
Apriorism (criticism of Dühring's a
priori axiomatic method)—33-43, 89-
95, 99, 140, 153-54, 173-74, 208,
597, 604
Arabs, the— 22, 155, 318-20, 462,
471-73
Arithmetic— 36, 220, 320-21, 536-38,
545
Armaments, weapons—154-58, 459-60,
615, 623, 625, 627-29
Army—154-56, 158-59, 609, 610, 615,
623, 625, 626
— Austrian—626
— English—627
— French—119, 156-59, 625-27
— Prussian—156-58, 200, 265, 625-
26, 628-29
— Swiss—628
— US—156, 158, 625
See also Armaments, weapons; Artillery
; Infantry
Art— 82, 168-69, 268, 318-19, 454, 458,
474
Artillery—155, 157, 615-16, 624, 625,
627
Asia
— natural features—583
— Asian community—149-50, 163-
64, 168
— the state in Asia—137, 163-64,
167, 168, 613
See also Arabs, the; China; Despotism,
Asian (Oriental); India; Orient, the
Astronomy
— its place in system (classification)
of sciences—81, 315, 317, 475,
528
— history of—24, 53-54, 320-24,
326-28, 365-66, 465-70, 472-75,
496, 594
Atheism—16, 19, 300-02, 323, 479-80,
591, 605
Atom
— as discrete part of matter—61-62,
358, 362-63, 371, 529-30, 534,
548, 564, 570-71
— and molecule—56, 61-62, 71, 81,
254, 339, 358-59, 362-63, 371,
431-32, 436-37, 485-87, 524, 529-
31, 534, 548, 564, 566, 568-71,
598
— motion of atoms—56, 61-62, 362-
63, 371, 451, 470, 529-31, 534,
567, 598
Atomistics— 339-42, 470, 485, 570
Australia—164
Austro-Prussian war, 1866—157
B
Bacteria—68, 573-75
Basis and superstructure—26-27, 82, 254-
55, 634
See also Art; Economy and politics;
Law; Morality; Philosophy; Religion;
State, the
Being
— general characteristics—22-23, 27,
33-36, 39-44, 48, 598, 605, 634
— space and time as its basic
forms—48-49, 515-16
— and consciousness—27, 33-36, 39-
41, 128, 342-43, 458, 492, 517,
544, 549, 596-98, 605, 634
— social being, existence of man—
27, 105-06, 458-59, 596, 597, 605,
634
Belgium—265
Biology
— its place in system (classification)
of sciences—61-62, 81-82, 315,
475, 476, 528-31, 534-35
— history of—11-14, 81-82, 304,
321-27, 341, 476, 478, 480, 533
— and dialectics—13-14, 315, 326-
27, 341, 361, 476, 478, 492-502,
572-87
Botany— 69, 304, 321, 327, 345, 465-66,
498-501
Bourgeoisie
— general characteristics—19, 145,
153, 255-57, 278-79, 592
— origin and development of—19,
96-99, 140, 151-53, 155, 244, 255-
57, 258, 318, 319, 473, 592, 603,
610, 635, 637
— and economic development—145,
169, 255-56, 462
— and state power—26, 60-61, 145,
148, 160, 255, 265, 269, 319, 462,
584-85, 639, 640
— as hindrance to historical development—
139, 145, 153, 169, 255,
265, 269, 641
— English —152, 610
— French—19, 152, 159-60, 244-47,
592, 636-37
See also Society—bourgeois
Buddhism—503
Burghers—19, 98, 155, 244, 472, 473,
592
Byzantium— 318, 472
G
Capital—141, 191-95, 264
— prerequisites for its appearance —
123, 141, 187-94
— wage labour as basis and condition
of its development—27, 141,
150, 169, 257, 258, 266, 267,
611-12
— conversion of money into capital—
115-17, 119-20, 187-92
— historically transient character
of—192-95
— criticism of bourgeois conceptions
of capital—26, 187-204
"Capital" by K. Marx (general characteristics)—
9, 97, 114, 117-19, 123-24,
130, 150, 188-90, 194, 195, 295, 343,
614
Capitalist mode of production
— and specific social form of labour
process—256, 257, 263, 266, 267,
279-80, 295, 642
— commodity production as its universal
form—150, 151, 190, 256,
257, 259, 260, 295, 297, 614, 639
— laws of—139, 140, 190, 198-99,
259-60, 262, 266, 267, 269, 270,
297, 614
— antagonistic contradictions of—
20, 137-39, 145, 153, 245, 248,
249, 254, 255-58, 260-64, 266,
268, 269, 279-80, 281, 297, 460-
62, 585, 636, 641, 642
— origin and development of—20,
27, 123, 139, 150, 152, 191, 214-
15, 254-55, 258
— emergence of prerequisites for its
destruction under capitalism—
123-24, 138, 245, 253, 254-55,
266, 268, 269, 283-84, 303, 636,
639-40
Carbon—118, 360, 531, 571, 574-77
Catholicism— 86, 320, 325, 474
Causality
— its objective character—373, 509-
10, 515-16
— and practical activity of man—
509-11
— dialectical and metaphysical conception
of—21-24, 43-45, 129-30,
161, 482, 485, 497, 498-501, 502-
03, 509-10, 532-33, 558
Cell
— as structural unit of the organic
world—72-74, 327, 328, 329, 475,
477, 485, 492, 549, 582
— origin and development of—23-
24, 73-74, 76, 329, 460, 477, 485,
492, 495, 549, 573-74, 578-82,
586, 594, 600
— structure of—71-72, 329, 482,
578, 580
— discovery of—11-12, 14, 81-82,
326, 328, 466, 475-77, 485, 488
Celts, the—\b0, 167, 301, 399, 610
Chartism—26
Chemistry— 62, 81, 358-59, 362, 530-31,
535, 569
— its place in system (classification)
of sciences—62, 81, 316, 317,
358, 362, 475, 476, 528-31,
533-34
— history of—118, 128, 254, 321,
326, 327, 339, 344, 352, 362, 402,
427, 451, 465-66, 475-78, 518,
527, 531, 532, 570
China— 473
Christianity— 86, 93, 96, 98, 461, 603,
606
See also Catholicism; Protestantism
Church— 244, 319, 320, 474
Civilisation—129-30, 248, 459, 612,
637
Class, classes
— origin of—27, 145, 166-69, 269,
462-63, 634-35, 640
— economic bases of their existence—
26-27, 87, 166-69, 254,
462-63, 634-35
— and the state—137, 167, 267-68
— in pre-bourgeois society—19, 96,
136, 168, 318, 592
— in bourgeois society—87, 148,
209, 248, 254
— class antagonisms, contradictions
between proletariat and bourgeoisie—
16, 19-20, 136, 139, 145,
245, 254, 258, 295, 592, 636, 637,
642
— abolition of classes, class distinctions
under communism—20, 88,
99, 106, 145, 267-69, 462, 592,
604, 639
See also Bourgeoisie; Class struggle;
Nobility; Peasantry; Working class
Classification of sciences—26, 81-84, 315-
16, 342, 363, 475, 486, 527-35
Class struggle— 26-27, 155-61, 246, 254,
462, 585, 634-35, 638
Commerce (trade)—96, 135-36, 152, 153,
191, 245, 263
— history of its development—96-
98, 191, 319, 458, 472
Commodity
— definition of—150, 183, 291
— dual character of—291-93
— conditions of turning product into
commodity—149-50, 259-60, 291,
295-96, 641
— historically transient character
of—270, 294
Commodity circulation—141-42, 150,
188, 256, 259, 260, 263, 291, 292,
296, 638-39, 641
Commodity production—150, 215, 256-
60, 270, 291-96, 297, 614, 641
Common sense—16, 20, 22, 48, 111-12,
486, 487, 494, 498, 503, 542, 591,
597
Communism (social formation)
— Marxist methods of foreseeing
future communist society—246,
253-54, 270, 271, 634-35
— as necessary outcome of the historical
development of, human
society—124-25, 128, 144-45,
153, 169, 245, 253, 268, 271,
333-34, 585, 635, 636
— prerequisites of communist transformation
of society—106, 123-
24, 139, 145, 153, 169, 245, 250,
253-71, 278-83, 303, 585, 634-36,
640-42
— communist transformation of society
(period and complexity)—121,
282, 603-05
— necessity of proletarian revolution—
120-21, 125, 144-45, 153,
180-81, 245, 462, 585, 606, 610,
636, 641-42
— period of transition from capitalism
to socialism—86-88, 267, 268,
303, 603, 610, 641-42
— abolition of private property, social
ownership of the means of
production—120-25, 128, 139,
180-81, 265-70, 279, 282, 294,
302, 585, 606, 641-42
— production—114-15, 121-25, 128,
138, 139, 180-81, 186, 245, 247,
254, 264-70, 278-83, 294, 302,
306-07, 331-32, 462, 619, 639-40,
641-42
— labour—121-24, 169, 186, 187,
278-83, 294-95, 306-07, 331-32
— social relations—268, 270, 605,
641-42
— abolition of class antagonisms and
distinctions—20, 88, 99, 106, 144-
45, 267-69, 462, 604, 641-42
— abolition of antithesis between
town and country—277, 278-79,
281-83
— establishment of social equality—
20, 95, 99, 247-48, 592, 602-04
— withering away of the state—247,
267-68, 641-42
— role of consciousness in communist
transformation of society—
106, 123-24, 144-45, 169, 266-70,
294, 301-02, 331-32, 462, 604,
605
— all-round development of the individual—
139, 186, 269-70, 278-
82, 307, 331-32
— genuine freedom under communism—
106, 121-22, 139, 269-70,
279, 302, 303, 641-42
Communism, scientific—8-9, 26-27, 139,
145, 168, 186, 189, 254-55, 271, 283,
630, 634-35
Communism, Utopian—12, 20, 26, 250-
53, 286, 474, 592, 632
Community (commune)—95, 136-37,
148-50, 163, 166-68, 170, 294, 296,
610, 616, 621
Concept
— as mental reflection of things,
relations and processes of reality—
22-25, 35-36, 89, 593, 594,
596
— as abstraction—25, 194-95, 503,
515-16, 533
— and dialectical thinking—14, 22-
25, 378, 503, 593, 594
— development of concepts—132,
387, 499
Conquest (role in history)—170, 609-11
Consciousness
— and being—26-27, 33-36, 39-41,
128-29, 342-43, 459, 492, 517,
544, 553, 596-98, 605, 634
— and labour, production—254,
266, 269-70, 330-31, 455-56, 458,
478
— development of—320, 330-32,
455-56, 458, 460, 474
— idealist conception of—26-27, 39-
40, 78, 254, 342, 458, 605, 634
Consumption—150, 189-90, 259, 262-
63, 269, 272-73, 294, 295, 611, 641
Content and form—36-38, 544-45,
579-82
Contradiction
— its objectivity—110-13, 255, 606
— and opposition—43, 46, 58, 113,
130, 254, 258, 261, 435-36, 606
— development and resolution of
contradictions—35-36, 48, 80,
111, 112, 121, 245, 248, 253-54,
261, 263, 264, 266, 282, 485, 609,
635-36, 641-42
Craft, craftsmen— 96-98, 136, 149, 152,
255-57, 259-60, 277, 319, 465
Crimean war, 1853-56—160
Cuba— 463
D
Danish war, 1864—386
Darwinism
— historical significance of—63-70,
327, 331, 345, 475, 478, 501, 582,
599, 633
— and dialectics, dialectical understanding
of nature—11-14, 315-
16, 327, 475, 478, 492, 493, 498-
501, 507, 508, 533-34, 582, 633
— and scientific socialism — 353, 482,
485, 486
— and the problem of the origin of
man—452-54, 459, 478, 633
— drawbacks of Darwin's theory —
64. 65, 68, 69, 583, 584, 599
See also Heredity; Natural selection;
Struggle for existence
Death (its dialectical-materialist conception)—
23, 112, 495, 572
Deism— 62, 67, 68
Democracy—19, 158-59, 267-68, 592,
602
Despotism, Asian (Oriental)—150, 167,
168, 611, 613
Development—11, 21-25, 159, 161, 339,
356-57, 593-94, 606-07
— laws of—11, 24, 25, 70, 131,
135-36, 140, 356-57, 361, 545-46,
595
— criticism of idealist conception
of—25, 320, 517
Dialectical materialism—8-14, 21-27,
128, 593-94, 606
Dialectics
— general characteristics—21-28,
125, 338-44, 356-57, 492-94, 543,
593-94, 633
— definition of—131, 315-16, 356,
545
— and logic—26, 83, 84, 125-26,
338-39, 485-86, 491, 502-03, 520
— and natural science—10-14, 22-
27, 116-19, 248, 315-16, 321-28,
338-44, 354, 356-61, 364-65, 378,
388, 433-34, 459, 474-78, 485-86,
491, 493-94, 496-99, 500-01, 511,
520, 522-23, 527-29, 530-32, 537,
541, 544, 550, 551, 570-71, 588,
593-94, 633, 635
— its opposition to metaphysics—21-
27, 58, 111-13, 125-26, 127, 131-
32, 315-16, 340-42, 356, 365, 433-
34, 483, 486, 491, 493-94, 544,
545, 633-35
— laws of—11, 12, 14, 24, 25, 110,
121, 125, 131, 161, 315-16, 354,
356-57, 545, 594
— objective and subjective—486,
492
— spontaneous and conscious—10-
12, 21, 132, 343, 360-61, 593
— in nature—11-14, 21-27, 110-12,
131, 132, 248, 322, 327-28, 334-
35, 339, 340, 356, 357, 361, 433-
34, 474-78, 484, 492, 527-29, 535,
545, 551, 552, 568-69, 572-73,
579, 588, 593-94, 606-07, 633
— in society—11, 21-22, 24-27, 124,
128-32, 150, 158, 161, 248, 356,
361, 399, 486, 492-93, 545, 594,
606-07
— in thinking—11, 14, 21-25, 83,
112, 113, 128, 130-32, 338-41,
354, 356, 361, 378, 388, 486, 491,
492, 502, 545, 551, 593-94,
606-07
— dialectical method—8-9, 21-26,
114, 125, 338-39, 343, 493-94,
502-03, 593-94, 606
— Marxist—8-13, 114, 120-25, 130,
343-44
— and scientific socialism—120-25,
128
— opposition of materialist dialectics
to idealist dialectics—10-12, 24-
26, 114, 125-26, 342-44, 486
— in history of pre-Marxian
philosophy—10, 21, 22, 23-24,
111, 322,' 327-28, 339, 340-42,
485, 502-03, 593-94
See also Hegel, Hegelianism—
dialectics; Law of negation of the negation;
Law of transformation of quantity
into quality; Law of unity and struggle of
opposites
Dictatorship of the proletariat—267-68,
641-42
Distribution—136-40, 141-46, 148, 174,
186, 254, 262, 284, 294, 331, 617-19
Division of labour—117, 149, 166-69,
186, 215-16, 256, 268, 276-84, 298,
306, 319, 325, 619, 639
E
Economic crises—138-39, 151, 263-65,
269, 270, 271-74, 280-81, 301, 331,
464, 584, 641
Economic laws—135-36, 141, 144, 198,
259, 266, 270, 281, 297, 584, 613-14,
618
Economy and politics—96-99, 137, 140-
42, 146-53, 160-61, 169-71, 180, 202,
246-47, 255, 611-14
Education
— in bourgeois society—278
— under communism—187, 249,
269, 278-82, 303-07
Egypt— 465, 619
Embryology— 69, 304, 326, 475, 477,
501-02
Energy—13, 357, 363, 364, 366-72, 388,
437-40, 450-51, 477, 563
England (Great Britain)—19, 101, 102,
165, 592
— economy—123, 149, 160, 208,
213, 227, 245, 248-49, 273, 283,
610, 611
— classes—152, 209, 248; see also
Bourgeoisie—English; Working
class—of England
See also Army—English; English
philosophy; English revolution of
1640-60
English philosophy—15, 21-22, 341-42,
345, 593
English revolution of 1640-60—19, 145,
152, 592, 631
Enlightenment, French philosophers of the
18th century—16, 19-20, 139, 244-45,
247, 249, 484, 591-93, 632
Equality (social)—19-20, 95-99, 592,
602-04
Essence and appearance—81-82, 198-99,
485, 504-05, 525, 586-87
— Hegel's doctrine of essence—43,
113, 485, 494, 519-21, 523
Ether— 324, 363, 398, 407-08, 523, 524,
548, 554, 563-64
Europe— 26, 96-97, 158, 163-64, 168,
461-63, 466, 471, 623
Evolutionary theory—11-14, 62-64, 327,
477-78, 486, 492, 493, 508, 585
See also Darwinism
Exchange
— and production—87, 135-42, 150,
254, 256, 259-60, 263, 266, 463,
606, 641-42
— and division of labour—149, 169,
256, 639
— and emergence of money—136,
293-94, 296
— under communism—138, 245,
266
Experiment— 344, 355, 376, 402-03,
408, 410-11, 412, 415, 422-24, 437,
442, 451, 466, 503, 510, 574
Exploitation—27, 143-44, 169, 194, 269,
272, 641
— of the labour power by capital—
123-24, 141-42, 143-44, 181, 262,
266, 272, 280-81, 639
F
Factory, factory system— 256, 261, 280-82,
306
Family and marriage—90, 167, 180, 187,
245, 249, 251, 257, 259, 262, 302-04,
307-09, 459, 638
Feudalism— 96, 255, 259, 613, 640-41
— feudal, medieval mode of produc
tion—115, 123, 164, 191, 255-59,
640-41
— classes, class struggle—19, 98-99,
136, 151-52, 155, 316, 473-74,
592
— emergence of capitalist relations,
of the classes of bourgeois society—
19, 96-99, 139-40, 151-53,
155, 191, 193, 244, 255-60, 318,
474, 592, 602-03, 610, 640-41
See also State, the—feudal
Force— 55-60, 371, 372, 374, 558-59,
561
— criticism of the concept of force—
12, 13, 317, 325-26, 334, 363-68,
369-77, 404, 407, 437-40, 450-51,
477, 526, 558-61, 562, 567
Force (coercion)
— its role in history—92, 137, 146-
55, 161, 169-71, 200-01, 609-15
— and economic development—141-
42, 146-55, 159-61, 168, 169-71,
188-89, 200-01, 242, 609-15
— criticism of Dühring's idealist
theory of force—91, 141-42, 146-
54, 159-62, 165, 169-71, 200-01,
242, 609-15
France—102, 471, 493, 626
— economy—241, 245, 636-37
— classes—245-46, 636-38; see also
Bourgeoisie—French; Working
class—of France
See also Army—French
Franco-Prussian war, 18 70- 71 —154,
157-58, 628-29
Freedom—105, 106, 194, 269-70, 461,
605, 642
— and necessity—99, 105-06, 270,
461, 586, 605
— of science—6-7, 315-16, 320, 337
— real freedom under communism—
106, 120-22, 139, 269-70,
280, 302, 642
French philosophy—16-21, 25, 27, 244-
45, 319, 323, 476, 478, 482, 490,
499-501, 529, 532-33, 591-93, 634
See also Enlightenment, French
philosophers of the 18th century
French Revolution (18th cent.)—19, 95,
98-99, 101, 152, 153, 156, 157, 158-
60, 170, 177, 244-46, 248, 603, 610,
626, 627, 630-31, 636-37
G
Geographical discoveries—96-97, 260,
462, 466, 472
Geographical environment—456-57, 458-
61, 510-11, 583
Geography— 321, 324, 326, 475
Geology— 82, 475, 496, 530
— its place in system (classification)
of sciences—475
— and dialectics—82, 84, 126, 131,
324-25, 328, 475-77, 496
— history of—321, 324-25, 328, 466,
475-77
Geometry—127'-28, 320, 321, 400, 430,
468, 469, 497, 509, 540-42, 543, 546,
596, 598, 608
German philosophy—6-7, 10, 21, 24-26,
125, 134, 336-37, 340-44, 475-77,
479-80, 482, 592-94
See also Hegel, Hegelianism; Kant,
Kantianism; Neo-Kantianism
German Social-Democracy—5, 7, 171,
337
Germans, the (ancient)—96, 150, 300,
301, 399, 471, 511, 610
Germany— 7, 92, 102, 163, 164, 171,
337, 482, 511, 595
— economy—26, 63, 160, 165, 171,
209-10, 273, 296, 340, 610
See also Germans, the (ancient); Prussia;
Working class—of Germany
God, gods— 41, 301, 346, 480-81, 605
Gravitation—12, 71, 322, 374, 523,
541-52
Greco-Persian wars, 500-449 B.C.—148-
49
Greek philosophy— 21-22, 82, 111, 128,
212, 215, 319, 322, 327, 339-42, 372,
467-69, 479, 485, 489, 502-03, 520,
558, 593, 606, 609, 630-31
H
Hegel, Hegelianism
— Hegel's system—12, 24, 25, 343,
356, 517, 594, 595, 597, 633
— Hegel's method—21, 24-25, 343,
593
— idealism—12, 24-25, 34, 35, 40-
41, 125-26, 133, 342-43, 356, 485,
487, 545, 566, 595, 634
— dialectics—11-12, 21, 24-25, 43,
110, 113-22, 125-26, 129, 130,
132, 248, 315, 339-44, 356, 359-
61, 434, 482-87, 502-04, 529, 532-
33, 545, 593-95, 634
— logic—34, 38, 42-43, 61-62, 116,
133, 356, 482-86, 494-95, 500-07,
520
— philosophy of nature—11-12, 25,
34, 323, 342, 343, 372, 403, 404,
406, 488, 523, 524, 529-30, 549,
552, 558, 561, 566, 594
— philosophy of history—24-25,
105, 517, 594-95, 634
— philosophy of state and law—94,
299
— history of philosophy—467-69,
532-33
— history of Hegel's philosophy—
340, 342
— place of Hegel's teaching in the
history of philosophy—21, 24-26,
323, 342, 343, 359-61, 502, 520,
545, 593, 595, 597, 633, 634
— and Marxism—24-26, 114-24,
343, 344, 595, 634
Heredity—6S-64, 66, 67, 492-93, 545,
578, 583, 600
Historical and logical, the—460, 503
Historical materialism, materialist conception
of history—10, 25-28, 254, 597,
605, 634-35
History
— historical laws, objective character
of historical development—24,
25, 170
— historical development (historical
process, course of history)—24,
87, 105-06, 107, 331, 401, 493,
544
— as human activity—269-70, 330
— as struggle of classes—26-27, 585,
634
See also Historical materialism,
materialist conception of history; Idealism—
idealist conception of history
History (as science)—21, 26-27, 82,
147, 491
Holland— 177
Holy Alliance, the—8
Human activities
— and material conditions of life of
society—270, 476, 510-11
— material, productive, practical—
329-31, 461, 462, 510-11
— and consciousness—255, 372, 510
Hungary—471
Hypothesis
— and thinking, cognition—405-08,
422-24, 512, 520, 535
— and dialectics—365, 368, 520, 535
— and proof, verification of—53,
59, 422-24, 510, 535, 567
I
Idealism
— and reality—25, 34, 342-43, 485,
594-95, 605
— and materialism, their opposition—
10-11, 25-27, 34, 35, 128,
458-59, 476, 478, 479, 520-21,
544-45, 597, 606, 613
— and religion—128, 478, 606
— and natural science—345, 354-55,
459, 478-79
— idealist conception of history—26,
27, 147, 479, 597, 605, 634
— history of—10-11, 24-27, 128,
342-43, 458, 476, 478-79, 594-95,
606, 634
Ideology (as idealist conception of reality)—
35, 38, 40, 89-90, 459, 490, 597
India— 97, 137, 150, 163, 166-68, 294,
300, 611
Individual, the—
— origin and development of—93,
106, 129, 139, 186, 247-50, 260-
61, 270, 277-83, 307, 322-23, 329-
31, 452-54, 478, 490, 492, 503,
510-11, 516, 584-85, 633
— and animal—14, 63, 65-66, 79-80,
93, 106-07, 129, 166, 168, 180,
260-61, 270, 327-29, 399, 452-60,
476, 477, 492, 503, 511, 584-86,
588, 596-97, 613, 633
— activity of—330-31, 372, 374,
452-64, 510-11
See also Nature—and the individual,
society; Society—and the individual
Individual, particular, and universal,
the— 487-88, 504-08, 513-14
Induction and deduction—345, 486, 503,
506-09
Industrial revolution—248-49, 462
Industry— 96, 149, 152, 155, 160, 165,
168, 245, 260, 279, 282-84, 510
Infantry—155-56, 158, 623-29
Infinity
— as contradiction—44, 47-48
— finite and infinite—47-48, 56, 363,
514-17
— of the universe, space and time—
44-49, 56, 332, 334, 363, 515-17,
545-46
— and cognition—36, 80-81, 112,
512-17, 588
Instruments of labour—330, 453, 457
Internal and external
— internal as essence and external as
phenomenon—24, 199, 485, 587
— their dialectical correlation—112,
150-51, 198-99
— and cognition—513, 560
— internal and external world of
man—25, 36, 37, 38, 106, 372,
374, 459, 460, 578, 596
Inventions—154, 399, 472, 623
Iran—148, 167, 300
Ireland—101, 163, 462, 611
Italy—164-65, 195, 318-19, 466, 617
J
Joint-stock companies— 264-66, 639, 642
K
Kant, Kantianism
— idealism—521
— dialectics—12, 24, 46-47, 53-54,
248, 323-24, 327, 342, 364, 366,
475, 484, 487
— agnosticism—58, 316, 340, 519-21
— "thing-in-itself" (the main concept
of Kant's philosophy)—58, 340,
520-21
— and natural science—12, 24, 53-
54, 248, 323-24, 326, 327, 342,
364, 366, 378-80, 392, 394, 395,
475, 594
Knowledge, cognition
— dialectical character of—20-26,
79-86, 112, 593-94
— infinity of—25, 36, 60, 79, 80,
112, 315-16, 337, 512-21, 594-95,
597
— relativity of—35-36, 79-86, 107,
112, 292-95, 337, 373, 514, 519,
521, 597
— organs, instruments and means
of—60, 80, 503-04, 513, 515, 516,
519-20
— historical development of—25,
35, 79-80, 84, 88, 112, 362, 461,
476-77, 504-06, 520, 594-95
L
Labour— 83, 297, 510, 616
— and nature—330, 452, 455, 459-
64, 476, 510-11
— its role in the development of
man—316, 330-32, 452-60, 476,
588
— development of—121-23, 141,
150-51, 168, 169, 186, 187, 255-
70, 277-80, 294-95, 306, 331-32,
455, 456, 611-12
— productivity of—166, 168-70,
180, 280-81
Labour power
— as commodity—27, 97-98, 186,
189-94, 295, 297, 615
— value (price) of—115-16, 167,
187, 189-90, 203, 295, 297
— and means of production—258,
264, 294
Labour time— 98, 169, 175, 178-79, 185,
190, 193, 262, 280, 292-93, 294-97
Landed property—128, 148, 150, 162-64,
173, 208, 243, 296, 463, 610-11
Language— 78, 305, 340, 454-56, 458,
471
Law— 26, 82, 89, 96, 140, 153, 169,
278, 458, 605, 614, 616, 634
— and morality—78, 88, 89, 100,
104, 133, 138, 140, 142, 144
— Roman—96, 104
— English—102, 104, 163
— French—100-01, 104, 163
— German—163
— Prussian—101-04, 133, 213, 284
Law(s)
— objective character of—144, 198,
259-63, 281, 297, 373, 618,
641-42
— as a form of universality—513-14
— as abstraction—37, 130-31, 356,
503
— concreteness of—503
— cognition, study of laws of nature,
society and thinking—11, 24, 70-
71, 105-06, 132, 259, 266, 321,
326, 328, 330, 339, 344, 361,
372-73, 461, 497, 505, 514, 520,
545, 595
Law of conservation and transformation of
energy—IS, 50, 315, 339, 363, 364,
370, 405-06, 411-12, 421-22, 424,
429, 430-31, 432-33, 439, 443, 450-
51, 477, 499-500, 503-06, 518-19,
558, 562-63, 570
Law of negation of the negation—120-32,
315, 356, 472, 502, 606-08
Law of transformation of quantity into
quality— 42-43, 61, 115-19, 122, 315,
356-61, 494, 513, 530, 531-32, 538,
564, 570-71
Law of unity and struggle of opposites—
23, 47, 54, 110-13, 315, 354, 356,
374, 433-34, 463-64, 492-502, 539,
606-07
Law of value— 97-98, 199, 297-98, 615
Life— 74-77, 578, 601-02
— as a form of motion of matter—
55, 61-62, 112, 332, 357-58, 362,
506, 511, 525-28, 599
— origin and development of—61-
62, 68, 70, 73-74, 112, 328-30,
334-35, 474-75, 477-80, 495, 525,
530, 573-85, 602
— and metabolism—23-24, 74-77,
112, 495, 578-79, 601-02
— and death—23-24, 112, 495, 572-
73, 594
— other-worldly—490, 574-77
Light— 62, 325, 332, 372-74, 398, 401,
405, 407, 477, 508, 510, 511, 528,
534, 548, 552-54, 556, 565-66
Linguistics—305, 497-98
Literature—319, 471
Logic
— as science of thinking—26, 84,
338-39, 491, 520
— historical character of—84, 338-
39, 356, 503-04, 520
— and formal—26, 125, 339, 491,
503-04, 520
See also Dialectics—and logic; Hegel,
Hegelianism— logic
M
Machines (machinery)—145, 175, 255-56,
261-62, 278
Malthusianism— 63-64, 70, 583, 584
Manufacture—97, 117, 152, 211, 248,
255-57, 260, 278, 319, 641
MarkeL-27, 180, 188-89, 215, 256,
258-60, 262-63, 272, 295
Marxism (general characteristics)—145,
168-69, 254-55, 271, 630, 634-35
— theoretical sources of—12, 16, 26,
591, 630
— component parts of—8-10, 26-28,
33, 135, 138-39, 244
— emergence and development of—
9, 26-28
— as theoretical basis for the proletarian
movement—255, 271,
634-35
— dissemination of its ideas—9, 15,
145
See also Communism, scientific; Marxist
philosophy; Marxist political
economy
Marxist philosophy
— essence of—10, 14, 24-26, 35-36,
128, 131, 356, 491, 545, 593, 604
— its place in the history of
philosophy—8-15, 25-27, 128,
606
— and scientific communism—26-
27, 606
See also Dialectical materialism;
Dialectics ; Historical materialism,
materialist conception of history
Marxist political economy—135-40, 211-
15, 291-92, 616-18
— and materialist conception of history—
26-28
— and scientific communism — 26-
28, 189, 190
Materialism
— materialist outlook—128, 469-70,
479, 489
— and idealism, their opposition—
10, 25-27, 34, 35, 128, 459, 476-
77, 479, 480, 521, 544-45, 597,
606, 612-13
— and natural science—10-11, 25-
26, 41, 128, 322, 340, 342-43,
346, 353-54, 459, 467-70, 476-82,
488, 499, 501, 521, 528, 533, 634
— and religion, atheism—35, 319,
346, 476, 480, 606
— history of—10, 25-27, 55, 128,
319, 323, 340, 341, 469-70, 476-
80, 482, 606
See also Dialectical materialism; Historical
materialism, materialist conception
of history; Matter
Mathematics— 33, 36-38, 315, 354, 468,
469, 495, 536, 544-50, 588, 597-98
— its place in system (classification)
of sciences—81, 315, 317, 475
— history of—37-38, 81, 113, 125,
127-28, 319-21, 465, 466, 476,
485-87, 537, 545
— and dialectics—11, 80-82, 111-13,
125-28, 131, 132, 315, 317, 484-
86, 495, 536-50
Matter
— matter in general—511-12, 515-
16, 522-23, 533-34, 570-71
— conception, abstraction of matter
and reality—515-16, 522, 533
— forms of its existence—334-35,
362, 515, 525, 570-71
— composition of—522-24, 530-31,
533-34, 548-51, 564-65, 570-71
— uncreatability and indestructibility
of—56, 60, 332-35, 363, 514, 523,
531-32, 562-63
— and consciousness, thinking,
spirit—34-35, 128, 322, 334-35,
362, 461, 474-77, 479-80, 487-88,
502-03, 511-12, 515-16, 527, 544-
45, 588-99
— cognition of—511-12, 515-16, 527
See also Motion—and matter
Mechanics— 82, 367-68, 374, 377, 517,
550
— as a science dealing with the
motion of terrestrial and celestial
bodies—61, 358, 362, 397, 398,
528-30
— its place in system (classification)
of sciences—61, 81, 316, 317,
358, 362, 475, 476, 524-29, 534
— history of—12, 37, 316, 319, 320,
362-63, 372, 465-66, 471-77, 485
Mechanism— 25, 316, 324, 476-77, 489,
499-501, 513, 527, 529-34
Metabolism—23, 75-77, 112, 457, 493,
576, 601-02
Metaphysics
— metaphysical thinking—15, 21-24,
53, 111-13, 131, 134, 340-41, 365,
434, 449-50, 493-95, 551, 593
— and natural science—14, 22-24,
25, 27, 113, 316, 321-27, 340-42,
354, 365, 434, 485-86, 491-99,
513, 532, 543, 544, 551, 557, 593,
633, 635
See also Dialectics—its opposition to
metaphysics
Militarism—158, 160-62
Military science
— material base of—154-61, 615,
623-29
— and production—154-55, 167
— military art—155-60, 615-16,
623-29
— military training—159, 609-10
See also Army; Navy; War, wars
Molecule
— as discrete part of matter—55,
61-62, 358, 362-63, 373, 524, 527-
29, 544, 546-49, 564-65, 570-71,
598-99
— and mass—52, 55, 61, 281, 358,
362-63, 368, 371, 388, 395, 399-
400, 529-30, 534, 541, 546-47,
563, 564, 569, 598
— motion of molecules—13, 52,
59-60, 61-62, 81, 281, 315, 357,
358, 362-63, 368, 371, 386, 388,
395, 397-98, 407, 495, 523, 524,
527, 529-32, 534, 541, 548, 558,
563, 564, 569, 598
See also Atom—and molecule
Monarchy—152, 155, 157, 316, 472,
588
Money— 66, 188, 216, 225-27, 263, 290
— origin and development of—187,
293, 295-96, 616
— metallic—136, 187, 288-90
— paper—177, 220-21
— conversion of money into capital—
115-17, 120, 187-92
Monopoly—123, 143, 145, 151, 160,
176-77, 179, 193, 269, 639
Monotheism—128, 301, 604
Morality— 78, 86-88, 89, 99, 104, 134,
138, 140, 142, 144, 603-04
Motion
— as the mode of existence of matter—
55, 362, 525, 532-33, 598-99
— and matter—25, 54-56, 60, 112,
133, 320-22, 326-28, 332-35, 342,
343, 357, 362-65, 371-72, 404-08,
468, 474, 475, 489, 490, 509, 511,
515-16, 522-34, 541, 542, 558,
559, 562-63, 567, 598-99
— universal character of—21-25, 53,
55, 56, 327, 369, 459, 492, 518-
19, 593-94
— eternity, uncreatability and indestructibility
of—13, 55, 60, 61,
315, 326-28, 332, 334-35, 363,
364, 366, 475, 516, 524-25, 532-
33, 559, 562-63, 594
— laws of—11, 13, 24, 25, 131, 161,
320, 321, 326, 328, 334-35, 356-
57, 394-95, 474, 475, 499-500,
505, 545, 594
— basic forms of—55, 61, 112, 317,
325-26, 332, 362-65, 476-77, 511,
526-32, 588, 599
— conversion of motion from one
form into another—13, 59, 325-
26, 329, 332-34, 357, 359, 369-71,
384-85, 387-89, 395, 397, 398,
409, 410, 450, 451, 476-78, 501,
503, 509, 526-29, 558, 559, 568,
570, 587
— in nature—21-25, 53, 55, 131,
320, 321, 327-28, 362, 395, 459-
60, 474-76, 485, 492, 494, 500,
509-11, 545, 593, 594
— in society, history—21-25, 131,
320, 474, 485, 493, 509-10, 545,
593-94
— in consciousness, thinking—21-
25, 131, 320, 474, 485, 492, 494,
504, 545, 593-94
— cognition of—21-25, 112, 198-99,
342, 343, 362-63, 505, 509-11,
515-16, 527, 531, 550, 593-94,
632, 633
N
Napoleonic wars— 92, 119, 157, 200,
244, 247, 627
Nation— 87, 91, 96, 97, 305, 318, 458
Natural science—342, 527
— as history of nature—25, 474,
633
— empirical—11-14, 338, 341-42,
476, 515
— theoretical—7, 10-14, 23-24, 332,
338-43, 357, 476
— and philosophy—10-14, 21-27,
41, 50, 55, 116, 128, 248, 315-16,
318-28, 332, 338-46, 353-55, 363-
65, 378, 388, 400, 403, 406, 459,
467-71, 473-89, 493-94, 496-99,
500-01, 507, 510-11, 520-21, 522-
25, 527-29, 532, 544-45, 549, 592,
593-95, 633, 635
— and material production, industry—
321, 461, 465-66
— and political economy—63, 116,
315-16
— and religion—320, 322-23, 325,
473-75, 479-81
— history of—12-14, 21-23, 25, 41,
50, 69, 128, 248, 318-28, 337-44,
362, 370, 372, 443, 450, 461,
465-81, 485, 500-01, 511, 523-25,
527, 529, 594, 633
— under communism—107, 331
Natural selection— 63-66, 69, 70, 133,
345, 353, 533, 583, 599
Nature
— dialectical-materialist conception
of—11-14, 22-26, 131-32, 311,
321-28, 339-41, 356-57, 363, 434-
35, 459, 478, 485, 492, 528, 545,
548, 569, 579, 588, 593-94, 633
— and the individual, society—33-
35, 64, 105-06, 117, 131, 153,
162-63, 166, 260, 266-67, 270,
300-01, 327, 330-31, 334, 356,
361, 372, 374, 399, 402, 452, 454,
458-61, 501-02, 510-11, 518, 547,
584-86, 596, 597, 598, 633, 642
— criticism of idealist and metaphysical
conception of—13, 22-23, 24-
25, 27, 33-35, 38, 63, 66, 323-27,
341, 342, 356, 434, 461, 475, 487,
516-17, 594, 633, 634
Navy—155, 158-61, 609
Necessity and chance—11, 24, 151, 268,
281, 316, 326, 331-32, 497-503, 582,
594-95
Neo-Kantianism— 340, 342, 373
New Zealand—164
Nobility—19, 98, 151-53, 155, 173, 200,
232, 246, 268, 318, 473, 592
Normans—472
O
Organism (biological)—14, 454, 494-95,
529, 560
— development of organisms—23,
25-26, 63-70, 324-27, 477, 495,
496, 502, 516, 573-74, 576, 577-
79, 582, 583, 594
— study of—14, 22, 82, 325-27, 477,
563-64
Orient, the—164, 472, 609, 613
P
Palaeontology— 69, 321, 324-27, 466,
475-77, 501
Pantheism—62
Part and the whole— 21-23, 35-36, 38-39,
56, 324, 341, 449-50, 454, 494, 632
Party, proletarian—171, 609-10
Peasantry— 98, 149-50, 158-59, 164-65,
172-73, 255, 256, 258-60, 318, 475,
611, 617, 635
Peasant war in Germany, 1524-25—19-
20, 99, 145-46, 318, 603, 631
Philosophy—14-15, 18, 24-27, 35-36, 82,
128, 254, 338, 491, 519, 597, 606,
634
— history of—12, 14-15, 21-27, 111,
128, 318-27, 336-44, 473-74, 476-
80, 482, 510, 519, 532, 565
See also Dialectics; English philosophy;
French philosophy; Greek philosophy;
Idealism; Marxist philosophy; Materialism
Philosophy of nature—6, 11-12, 15, 34,
318, 323, 327, 336, 342-43, 345, 353,
403, 474, 488, 549, 552
Physics—11-13, 81, 358, 363, 397-98,
403-05, 485-88, 491, 569
— its place in system (classification)
of sciences—61, 81, 315, 317,
358, 362, 475, 476, 526-31,
534-35
— history of—12, 13, 56-57, 319-26,
339-40, 343-44, 400-01, 404, 465-
66, 474-77, 508-09, 531, 532, 570
Physiocrats—15, 138-39, 229-38, 243-44
Physiology— 23, 108, 321, 326, 327,
465-66, 475, 477, 485, 495, 535, 561,
572, 586-87, 601
Plants— 73-74, 457, 492, 529, 583, 601
— emergence and development of—
63-69, 126, 131, 322, 324-26, 330,
457, 459, 495, 579-83, 633
— study of—63, 322, 323-27, 475,
633
Poland— 466, 471
Political economy—135-36, 138-40, 179,
192, 211, 212, 220, 227, 293, 463
— and dialectics—114, 343
— and natural science—63, 116,
316, 391, 486, 586-87
— bourgeois—26, 97, 139-41, 166-
67, 194, 211, 212, 218-19, 266-67,
301-02, 613
— classical bourgeois—15, 139, 179,
194-95, 211-12, 463, 613
— vulgar bourgeois—6-7, 179-80,
194, 211, 241-42, 337
See also Marxist political economy
Politics
— political superstructure—21-27,
82, 89, 91, 97-98, 148, 152-53,
155, 161, 170-71, 202, 247, 254,
461, 605, 610, 634
— withering away of the political
superstructure under communism—
247, 268
See also Economy and politics; State,
the
Population—64, 165, 167
Production
— and nature—330, 460-61
— and individual—139, 186, 259,
267, 269-70, 278, 281, 330-31,
584-86
— and society—26-27, 89-90, 139,
148, 255, 259, 267, 330-31, 462,
606, 634
— and property—123, 124, 128,
149-51, 256, 257-58, 260-61, 266-
68, 641
— and classes—26-27, 87, 136-37,
143, 245-46, 255, 267-69, 463,
634, 641-42
— laws of—135-36, 138, 139, 259-
63, 641
— means of—120-21, 143, 151, 180,
193-94, 255-58, 264, 266-70, 277,
279, 283, 294, 297, 301,
640-41
— and exchange, distribution, consumption—
87, 135-42, 148, 150,
157-59, 174, 186, 254, 256, 259-
60, 263, 266, 331, 463, 606,
640-42
— development of—123-24, 128,
135-40, 148, 150-53, 154, 167, 186,
254-56, 261-64, 267-70, 277, 281,
296, 472, 609, 619, 641-42
See also Capitalist mode of production;
Communism—production; Productive
forces; Relations of production
Productive forces—106, 146, 153, 159,
166, 169-70, 250, 254, 255, 269, 280,
283, 613
— under capitalism—139, 146, 153,
245, 250, 255-56, 263-67, 269,
280, 584-85, 635, 641-42
— under communism—106, 254,
264-66, 269, 280, 282, 283, 584-85,
641-42
Profit—177, 179-81, 194-201, 208-11,
225-26
Progress—24, 36, 319, 514, 516, 517,
593
— historical, social—12, 107, 129,
180, 268, 400, 492, 517
Property—120-21, 123, 124, 128, 143,
149-51, 193, 255, 257-58, 261, 264-
70, 279-80, 283, 290, 294, 301, 642
— historical forms of—19, 83, 87,
121, 124, 143, 149-51, 163, 243,
606; see also Communism—
abolition of private property, social
ownership of the means of
production
Protestantism^-86, 319-20, 474
Prussia— 38, 92, 102-04, 157-58, 200,
493, 628
See also Army—Prussian
Q
Quality and quantity—13, 37, 126-27,
332, 358-59, 485, 512-13, 531-32,
534, 537-38, 563, 570-71
See also Law of transformation of
quantity into quality
R
Reality
— materialist conception of—25, 34,
41-42, 255, 342-43, 483
— criticism of idealist conception
of—25, 34, 35, 39-40, 89, 92,
149, 151, 342, 343, 485, 614-15
— and possibility—81, 112, 269-70,
539
— cognition of—198-99, 403, 515-
16, 549, 596
Reason—16-21, 24, 36-37, 105, 244,
502-04, 511, 591-93, 594, 630-31
Reformation—19, 145, 318-20, 472,
474, 592, 631, 637
Relations of production—26, 141, 255,
611, 634
Religion—16, 26, 68, 86, 91, 166,
300-02, 304, 319, 320, 459, 474, 479,
480, 569, 591, 605, 634, 636
See also Buddhism; Christianity;
Church; God, gods
Renaissance (epoch)—318-20, 466, 474
Rent of land—177-78, 181, 195, 197-98,
207-13, 222-23, 234-35, 615
Revolution—171, 254, 267-68, 274, 462,
493, 637, 642
— bourgeois, bourgeois-democratic—
152-53, 158-59, 245-46, 636
— proletarian, socialist—120, 122-
24, 138-39, 145, 153, 180-81, 462,
585, 606, 610, 636, 642
See also English revolution of 1640-60;
French Revolution (18th cent.)
Revolution of 1848-49 in Europe—158,
171, 342, 476, 493
Russia—168, 171, 177, 296, 607, 612,
613
S
Scandinavia—471
Scepticism— 347', 350, 424, 510, 521
Science
— its tasks—513, 530
— and production—123-24, 128,
168-69, 247, 269, 282, 306, 325,
458-59, 465-66, 637
— and social relations, social system—
82, 140, 167-68, 246-47
— and religion—320, 322, 481-83,
499, 637
— history of—22, 24, 35-38, 69,
107, 135-36, 137-39, 163, 168,
211-15, 220, 227, 238, 304, 316,
318-28, 338-39, 361, 362, 370,
403, 404, 408-09, 465-83, 485,
489, 519, 528-29, 531-33, 594
— under communism—107, 123-24,
128-29, 169, 269, 282, 306, 331
See also Classification of sciences;
Natural science
Slavery— 98, 136, 143, 148-49, 168-70,
173, 258, 267, 603, 609-11
Slavs—m, 164, 294, 301, 471, 610,
617
Socialism (theories and trends)—16, 20,
26-27, 29, 271, 591-95, 630, 632,
634-35
— scientific—20, 27, 189, 271, 284,
592, 606
— Utopian—19-20, 26-27, 30-31,
137, 245-46, 253-54, 278-79, 303,
593, 595, 632, 634-35
Society
— conditions of its existence—97,
138
— laws of—131, 171, 270, 356, 361,
584
— and nature—64, 117, 131, 153,
260, 266, 270, 300-01, 356, 361,
454, 584-86, 596, 642
— and production—26, 138-39, 254-
55, 259, 267, 268-69, 292, 293,
294, 296-97, 454-56, 461-64, 584-
85, 606, 634
— and classes—16, 87-88, 106, 137,
166-70, 173, 194, 249, 255, 267-
69, 591
— and the state—37, 83, 95-97, 137,
166-67, 168-70, 265-68, 613,
639-40
— and the individual—82, 95-96,
267, 269-70, 279-80, 282-83, 295,
296-97, 300-02, 456-57, 459,
461-64
— emergence and development of—
82-83, 88, 107-08, 131, 169, 170,
180, 248-49, 255, 268, 291, 356,
361, 455-57, 459, 545, 603, 606,
638
— primitive—82, 149-50, 166-69
— slave-owning—148-49, 168, 609
— feudal—16, 19, 96-98, 255, 259-
60, 267, 591, 640-41
— bourgeois—20, 97-99, 153, 179,
183, 190, 209, 215, 227, 244-45,
249, 255-56, 259, 264-66, 277,
291-93, 296, 301, 318, 463, 585,
592, 603, 635-36, 637-38
See also Communism (social formation)
Solar system—12, 24, 53, 55, 321-24,
327-28, 332-35, 342, 366, 371-77,
480, 496, 500, 523, 528, 546, 548-49,
552, 570-71, 594
Space and time
— as the basic forms of being—48-
49, 515-16
— and matter—49, 332, 515-17,
524, 564-65
— and motion—43, 48-52, 524
Spain—170, 319, 471
Spirit
— and matter, material—36, 320,
335, 401, 474, 475, 477-78, 558,
598
— and nature—461, 502, 517
— and religion—319, 461, 473-74
— physical and intellectual in man—
36, 105-06, 269-70, 278-80, 460,
461
— cultural and intellectual development—
12, 24, 180, 269, 320, 460,
474, 477-78, 517, 594
Spiritualism— 40-41, 66, 91, 345-55,
606
State, the
— as superstructure—161, 268-69
— and society—19, 37, 82, 94-97,
137, 141-42, 167, 168-70, 265-68,
592, 613, 640
— and mode of production—26,
202, 266, 267, 611, 634
— origin of—137, 166-67, 458, 613
— slave-owning—96, 168, 215, 268,
613
— feudal—268, 613
— bourgeois—265-68, 640, 641-42
— its withering away under communism—
247, 267-68, 641-42
See also Asia—the state in Asia;
Democracy; Dictatorship of the proletariat;
Monarchy
Stock exchange—135, 265
Struggle for existence
— in organic nature—63-65, 70,
133, 260, 269, 331, 486, 582-87,
609
— in class society—260-61, 268, 269,
331, 486, 584-85, 587, 609
— criticism of social Darwinism—
315-16, 484, 486, 584-87
Substance—12, 489, 490, 515, 522, 527,
548, 559
Surplus-value
— as the basis and aim of capitalist
production—27, 115-16, 190-95,
465
— its production and distribution —
115-16, 188-89, 190, 191, 196-99,
203-05
— Marx's elaboration of the theory
of surplus-value—27, 176, 181,
188-91, 194, 202-03, 242, 287
System
— nature as a system—25-26, 35-36,
53, 363, 476, 478, 512-13, 597
T
Technology and engineering—107, 128,
400, 467-68, 472, 623
Teleology— 62, 66-67, 322, 476, 489-90,
533, 599
Theory and practice—16, 19-20, 26, 37,
83, 87, 98-99, 208-09, 238, 246,
301-02, 306-07, 339, 463, 465-66,
518, 591, 630
— practice as a criterion of truth—
16-17, 510-11
Thirty Years' War, 1618-48—92, 171
Thought
— as a form of motion of matter—
362, 527, 598
— as a product of development of
matter—34-35, 335, 476, 478,
488, 585, 598
— and brain—34, 335, 455-56, 478,
480, 488, 527, 606
— as reflection of reality—22-23, 25,
36, 255, 459, 492, 593, 594, 606
— and being—33-41, 128, 342, 492,
544, 549, 596
— and practice—338-39, 456, 458-
59, 504-11
— laws of—11, 14, 24-26, 34-35,
37-38, 84, 131, 338-39, 356, 361,
505, 544-45, 595, 596, 606-07
— forms of—21, 34, 338-39, 491,
504, 519, 595, 596
— contradictions of—79-81, 112,
494, 514, 604-07
— criticism of idealist conception
of—25, 33-41, 344, 358, 361-62,
544-45, 595, 596
Town—152, 276, 277, 282-84
— antithesis between town and country
and its abolition—152, 276-80,
282-84, 613, 637-38
— in slave-owning society—215-16,
610, 613
— in Middle Ages—255, 260, 465,
472-74, 613
— under capitalism—137, 249, 282,
283-84, 637-38
Trusts— 639-40, 642
Truth
— and cognition—20, 25, 79-86, 592
— absolute and relative—20, 25, 79-
86, 592
— "eternal"—19, 78-88, 99, 107,
139, 254, 339, 341-42, 485, 594,
603-04, 631
U
United States of America, the—96, 98,
101, 102, 149, 156, 159, 164, 177,
609, 617, 625
Universe, the— 23, 41, 56, 362-66, 370-
71, 468, 517, 525, 533, 562-63, 594
V
Value—116, 119, 174-87, 188-92, 218-
19, 225-27, 292-97
See also Law of value; Surplus-value
W
Wage labour—123-24, 141, 149-51, 169-
70, 257, 258, 264, 295, 611
Wages— 64, 115-16, 179-82, 185, 187,
202-03, 208-10, 257, 261-62, 297,
587
War, wars—159, 167, 260; see also
American War of Independence, 1775-
83; AustrwPrussian war, 1866; Crimean
war, 1853-56; Danish War,
1864; Franco-Prussian war, 1870-71;
Greco-Persian wars, 500-449 B.C.;
Napoleonic wars; Thirty Years' War,
1618-48
Working class
— essence of—191, 194, 642
— emergence and development of—
19-20, 26, 123, 137, 146, 153,
191, 194, 245, 246, 249, 261, 318,
462, 474, 592-93, 595, 603
— world historic role of—146, 261,
267, 270, 641-42
— and revolutionary theory—8-9,
255, 270
— of England—137
— of France—98, 246, 637
— of Germany—7, 337
See also Dictatorship of the proletariat;
Revolution—proletarian, socialist
Working-class movement—26, 95, 98,
145, 251, 595
World market—177, 191, 260, 272, 290
Z
Zoology— 69, 207, 304, 319, 327, 345,
353-54, 465-66, 501





MECW VOL 26





A
Abstraction, abstract and concrete—337-
39, 365-67, 377, 381, 404
Abyssinia—161
Aesthetics— 362, 388
Africa—160, 247
Agnosticism—367-68
Agriculture— 36, 60, 138, 163, 209,
248-49, 254, 261-63, 265, 266,
341-42, 431, 437-39, 556-59, 602,
603
Aims and means—126, 127, 133, 155,
173, 212, 219-20, 275, 290, 292,
296, 307, 319, 321, 373, 379, 386-
87, 390, 400, 436, 440-41, 480,
481, 502, 553, 604-05, 615-16, 619-
20
Alamanni (Swabians)—18, 54, 59, 82,
95-101, 104, 106, 199
Albigenses—395
Alienation, estrangement—215, 269, 270,
273-74, 276, 360, 364, 370, 383,
450
Alsace— 411, 485, 491-93, 495-97
America—131, 136, 137, 159, 160, 162,
204, 558
American Indians— 7, 129, 136-38, 140,
156, 157, 163, 191-97, 200, 202, 209,
210, 216, 225, 240, 243, 244, 246,
256
Analogy— 83-90, 145, 232-33, 357, 375,
387, 390, 404, 501, 508, 517
Anarchism, anarchists—364, 382, 422,
426
Ancient Greece—139, 149, 165, 170-72,
176, 184, 190, 204-22, 229, 244, 245,
266-68, 388
Ancient Rome—15, 16, 24, 29, 31, 36,
39, 53, 55, 149, 166, 168, 177, 184,
188, 201, 222-31, 239, 243-45, 247-
55, 266-69, 271, 275, 376, 393, 394,
437, 553, 601-03
Angles— 38, 48, 49, 54, 55
See also Anglo-Saxons
Anglo-Egyptian war, 1882—411-12
Anglo-Saxons—43, 57
Annexation—495
Antagonism, contradiction—113, 121,
125, 132, 144-45, 166, 173, 175, 178,
181, 214, 216, 222, 226, 268-70,
275-86, 317-21, 327, 329, 359-65,
378, 387, 390, 393, 438, 476-77,
479, 500, 528, 599, 600, 601, 604-05,
619
Antiquity—159, 161, 174, 177, 183,
184, 209, 211-12, 214-16, 219, 222,
229, 231, 248-49, 253-55, 265-75,
379, 437, 553, 607 .
See also Ancient Greece; Ancient
Rome; Athens (ancient)
Antithesis, opposites—\2l, 122, 125, 139,
144, 173-75, 181, 183, 216, 222, 264,
268-69, 276, 317, 321, 329, 339,
359, 366, 378, 381, 384, 387-88,
395, 436, 438, 463, 500, 501, 601,
619
Antwerp—548
Appropriation—139, 273, 337, 401, 436,
603, 608, 610
Arabs—62
Aristocracy, mobility— 212, 215, 251, 264,
266-75, 296, 553, 556-57, 559,
562-64
—English—389, 523, 547
—French—346, 404
—German—68, 73, 75, 123, 342-46,
450, 476, 498-502, 506-09, 555-59
579, 580
— Italian—463
Armaments, weapons—6, 7, 15, 41, 135-
36, 203, 219, 243, 260, 261, 262, 557,
562-64
Armchair socialists—427
Army—10, 26-30, 72, 78-81, 198-99,
219, 245, 246, 251, 252, 269, 323,
346, 417, 473, 479, 484
—Austrian—478, 626
—British—203, 562-63
—French—459, 496, 497, 563
—German—423, 444, 450-51, 563,
580
—Prussian—443, 450, 471-74, 478,
578, 595
—Russian—496
See also Armaments, weapons; Artillery
; Infantry ; Navy
Art—139, 147-48, 276, 388
—of ancient Germans—40-42
Artillery— 562, 564
Aryans—8, 59, 137
Asia—160, 232, 259, 437
Assimilation (national)—493-94, 559-
60
Association— 216, 272, 553, 619
Atheism— 363-65, 368-73, 375-77
Athens (ancient)—184, 213-22, 266-71,
275
Australia— 6, 135, 499, 524
Austria (before 1867)—124, 410, 412,
413, 422, 456, 458-64, 465-66, 468-69,
474, 477-78, 482-84, 492
See also Army—Austrian; Austro-
Italo-French war, 1859; Austro-
Prussian war, 1866
Austria-Hungary (from 1867)—410-15,
482, 488, 510, 543, 578
See also Hungary
Austro-Italo-French war, 1859—421-22,
461-63, 473, 478
Austro-Prussian war, 1866—307, 412,
450, 481-87, 504, 578
Average rate of profit—282
B
Babouvism—313, 604
Baden— 418-19, 423, 482, 594, 595
Balkans, the— 293, 412
Banks— 296, 349, 464
—in Proudhon's theory—427
See also Stock Exchange
Barbarians— 24, 31, 255-56
Basis and superstructure—118, 183, 259,
267, 283, 303, 317-18, 390-95, 517,
535
Bastarnae (ancient Germans)—10, 15,
18, 56, 246
Batavi (ancient Germans)—12, 19, 23,
53, 101, 240
Bavaria— 62, 482
Being-—365-68
Belgae—12, 55, 240
Belgium— 485, 494, 558
Berlin—123, 425, 456
Bible—112-17
Biology—118, 403, 517
See also Darwinism
Blanquism, Blanquists—313, 316, 317
Blood revenge— 25, 202, 208, 240,
256
Bonapartism— 271, 460-62, 476-77
—Prussian—271, 475, 477, 480, 498,
503, 505, 579-80
Bosnia— 410, 411
Bourgeoisie—187, 283, 303, 359, 376,
389-93, 397, 455, 456, 472, 517, 535,
597-600
—British—295-300, 331, 389, 400,
546-50
— French—125, 271-72, 303, 331,
389, 396, 404, 407, 409, 460-62,
476-77, 546, 547
—German—121-22, 304, 309, 331,
363, 456, 459, 464, 469-71, 476-80,
482-84, 498-503, 505-07, 523, 546,
547, 578-80
— Italian—463, 470
— Prussian—123, 305, 469-71
—US—462, 526
Brandenburg— 34, 54, 196, 342, 347,
348
Britons—150
Buddhism— 376
Bulgaria, Bulgarians—410-15
Bureaucracy—121, 123
Burghers—185, 393, 395, 561, 597
Burgundy, Burgundians—43, 44, 47,
236, 237, 485, 563, 564
Byzantium—39
C
California— 400, 456, 499, 524
Calvinism—186, 395-96, 554
Cannibalism—135, 138
Capital— 391, 528-29, 600
See also Concentration of capital
"Capital" by Karl Marx, Vol. One—279-
80, 335-40, 403, 426, 500, 589-90,
600-01, 606-14
Capitalist— 296, 359, 390, 400, 401,
404, 433, 462, 535-36, 550, 608, 610,
619
Capitalist mode of production—186, 188,
282, 283, 286-88, 300, 390, 399, 438,
524, 533, 536, 599-600, 602
Capital punishment—202
Categories— 281, 336, 369
Catholicism— 395-96, 597
Causality—\4S-44, 156, 158, 162, 182-
84, 189, 230, 262, 264-65, 268-69,
297, 308, 325, 333, 370, 388-91, 400,
401, 412, 430, 431, 435-38, 443,
469-70, 496, 523-24, 534-36, 548,
554, 560, 564, 608
Cell— 372, 385
Celts— 9-11, 13, 33, 53, 96, 159-61,
232-35
Censorship—123, 358
Chartism, Chartist movement—295-97,
316, 318, 319, 566-77
Chatti (Hessians) —18, 19, 23, 26, 53-
55, 82, 101, 102, 104
Chauvinism— 413, 415, 449, 460, 462,
484
Chemistry— 329, 367, 370, 371, 375-76,
386, 529
Cherusci (ancient Germans)—18, 20-23,
26-27, 49, 53-55, 101
Christianity—112-17, 249, 320, 366,
376-77, 394-96, 597
Church— 61-68, 76, 77, 178, 187, 250,
253, 275, 366, 376, 395, 396, 504,
509, 597-98
—clergy—61-64, 66-68, 75, 76, 561,
597
—monasteries—64, 67, 80, 82, 254,
343
Cimbri—10, 11, 14, 18, 35, 38, 48, 56,
236
Civilisation—134, 139, 173, 175, 247,
270, 275-76, 401
"Civil society"— 318, 339-40, 377, 391
Civil War in the USA, 1861-65—358,
525, 527
Class (es)—118, 132, 173, 177, 181,
183, 203, 261, 265-67, 275, 303, 378,
379, 389, 391-93, 396, 472, 512, 517,
523, 536, 549-50, 557, 559, 601-04,
615
—in ancient society—214-15, 219,
221, 231, 263, 268, 271, 274, 608
—in feudal society—253-55, 270-72,
556, 598
—in bourgeois society—121, 122,
125, 181, 187-88, 316-18, 329, 381,
389-90, 403, 436-38, 463, 499-503,
523, 536, 598-99, 601, 619
Class struggle—118-21, 181, 216, 231,
255, 268, 270, 271, 302-03, 306, 317,
319, 321-22, 376, 389-91, 393, 395,
404, 427, 434, 439, 441, 460, 472,
499, 502, 512, 517, 554, 556, 597-98,
600
Code civil—123, 392, 506
Cognition— 273-74, 359-62, 367, 383-87
Cologne Communist Trial (1852)—312,
328-29
Commodity— 216, 265-66, 336-39, 400,
402, 602, 605
Commodity circulation—273-75
Commodity production—186, 213, 261,
273-74, 283, 287-88, 598, 602, 605,
606
Communism (social formation)—118-
19, 183, 272, 276, 289, 317-19, 321,
323, 359, 403-04, 426, 427, 436-39,
455-56, 517, 553, 591-92, 602, 605-
06, 615, 619-20
Communism (theories and trends) —
281-82, 403-04, 426, 517, 605
— Icarian (Cabet's)—516-17, 604
— "workers'", simplistic, egalitarian—
313, 314, 320.
—Utopian—313, 314, 318-20, 516-17
—in France—313, 318, 320, 516
—in Germany—306-07, 313, 322,
326, 329, 472
—in Switzerland—320
See also Babouvism; Owenism, Owenists
; Weitlingianism, Weitlingians
Communism, primeval—149, 157, 158,
161, 181, 203, 236, 259
Communist League—120-28, 306-07,
312-30, 512, 515
Communist movement—120-21, 321-30,
441-42, 517, 518
See also Cologne Communist Trial
(1852); Communist League; German
Workers' Educational Society in London
(1840-1918); International Working
Men's Association (First International)
Community— 59, 155, 163, 205-06, 220,
232, 237, 241, 251, 260, 261, 263,
266, 268, 273
—in England—232-33, 243, 251
—in Russia—59, 167-69, 242, 345
—Mark community among Germans—
58-60, 169, 197, 201, 234,
236, 242, 251, 252, 253, 255, 269,
341, 342, 432
Competition— 282, 283, 286-88, 298-
301, 400, 404, 528, 535, 536, 548,
598, 619
Concentration of capital—267, 400, 529
Concept (ion)— 146, 149, 187, 232, 236,
275, 284, 367, 383-84, 394
Confederation of the Rhine—463, 466,
469
Conquest—137, 250-52, 268, 270, 558
Consciousness—118, 121, 122, 154, 208,
273-74, 282, 305, 317, 329, 357, 361,
362, 366-69, 374, 383, 386-89, 391,
393, 394, 396-97, 435, 463, 517, 546,
626
—reason—269, 348, 358-59, 365
Content and form—110, 213, 280-81,
337-38, 361, 365, 366, 368-70, 377,
383, 385-88, 390-93, 598, 599
Corn Laws (in England)—295, 296,
400, 521, 523, 528, 566, 569, 570,
571, 574
Court, judicial system—123, 243, 344,
507-08
Crimean war, 1853-56—460-62, 473
Culture—136-39, 564
Customs Union (Germany, 1834-71)—
469, 470, 484, 529, 578
D
Danish-Prussian war, 1848-50—450,
473
Danish war, 1864—478-79, 578
Darwinism—118, 371, 372, 385-86,
517, 612
Day labourers— 290, 344, 345, 348, 429,
500, 508
Democracy, ancient (social and political
system)—209, 211-13, 222, 229, 263,
267, 269
Democracy, petty-bourgeois (political
movement)—125, 325-28
Democratic Association in Brussels
(1847)—319, 521
Denmark—196, 456, 474, 554
Development— 114, 118, 120, 132, 136,
143, 145, 152, 153, 155-57, 166,
174-75, 178, 182, 192, 204, 246, 253,
256, 259, 263, 265, 269-75, 303, 317,
332, 358-60, 362, 366, 368-73, 383-
87, 390, 400, 402, 403, 422, 433, 436,
439, 441, 457, 459, 470-71, 502, 506,
526, 561, 600, 603, 604, 608
Dialectical materialism—362-63, 369,
371, 381-98, 519-20
Dialectics, dialectical method—359-63,
369-72, 382-87, 397
Dialect (s)
—Alamannic—82, 87, 93, 96, 98-
101, 106
—American Indian—196, 200, 201,
209
—Bavarian—106
—Bergish—83-86, 89, 92-95, 99
—Dutch—81, 86-90, 92
— Franconian—18, 50, 55, 57,
81-106
—German living dialects—18, 48,
57, 83-90, 92-95, 103-06, 335, 485,
494
—Gothic—18, 48, 57
—Hessian—82, 93, 101-03, 106
—High German —82-85, 87, 89, 92-
93, 95, 104-07
— Ingaevonian—49, 56, 83-85, 87,
90
— Lancashire—89
—Latin—97, 247
—Main-Franconian—82
—Markish—82, 84, 95
—of Palatinate —87, 104-07
—Ripuarian—87-94, 97, 98, 100-04,
107
—Salic—57, 84, 86-91, 96-98, 100,
102, 104
—Saxon—18, 49, 50, 55, 56, 81-95,
99, 100, 102
—Thuringian—82, 93, 102
—Wallonian—91
—Westphalian—55, 83-85, 93, 94,
97, 99
Dictatorship of the proletariat—426, 436-
37, 455-56, 518, 550, 615
Discovery— 369, 372, 385
Distribution— 253, 273, 605
Division of labour—158, 164, 173, 213-
14, 217, 259-65, 267, 268, 272-73,
275, 390
Dogmatism— 359, 361, 597, 598
Domestic industry—7, 42-43, 135-36,
262-63, 428-33, 530
E
"Eastern question"—410-16
Eclecticism— 325, 372, 397, 520
Economic categories— 281, 287, 337-38
Economic crises— 265, 274, 288, 295,
296, 298-300, 327, 404, 524, 530, 535
Economic history—520, 601
Economic laws— 273-74, 282, 287-88,
299-300, 399, 402, 534
Economic relations— 318, 389-93, 396,
536, 598
Economics and politics—118, 121, 213,
271, 285, 318, 376, 389, 393, 456,
458, 459, 462, 470-71, 499, 502, 505,
506, 557, 559, 562, 579, 598
Embryology—361, 385
Emigration— 292, 293, 313-16, 319-24,
326-30, 418, 447, 448, 457, 532
Engels about Marx—118-20, 278, 302,
303, 317-19, 330, 335, 336, 382, 403,
442, 515, 517, 519, 520
England (Great Britain)—390, 506
—history (before 19th cent.)—6, 7,
9, 43, 50, 242, 247, 255, 308, 396,
429, 506, 522, 563-64
—in 19th cent.—298-301, 389, 402,
404, 522-25, 546-47
—commercial and industrial monopoly,
causes for loss of dominant
position—288, 296, 300, 430, 521-
23, 525, 528, 535
—industry—297, 298, 300, 301, 400,
429, 430, 524, 525, 528, 534, 535
—commerce (trade)—298, 430, 521-
23, 531
—economic crises—295, 296, 298-
301, 524, 530-31
See also Angles; Anglo-Egyptian war,
1882; Anglo-Saxons; Army—British;
Bourgeoisie—British; Britons; Chartism,
Chartist movement; Corn Laws (in
England); Free Trade; International
Working Men's Association (First International)—
in England; London;
Peasantry—in England; Petty
bourgeoisie— B ritish ; Protectionism ;
Scotland; Socialism (theories and
trends)—in England; Socialist movement,
international (after the First
International); Trade unions in England;
Truck system; Wales; Working
class—in Britain; Working-class and
socialist movement—in Britain
English bourgeois revolution (17th
cent.) —396, 506, 554, 598
Epoch—118, 132, 136, 138, 165, 170,
171, 204, 212-14, 219, 229, 245, 262,
274, 391-92, 393, 517
Equality—181-82, 187, 200, 202-03,
206, 256, 379-80, 599, 604
Essence and phenomenon—192, 281, 287,
364, 372-73, 387
Europe— 254, 327-28, 450, 597
Exchange— 59, 132, 217, 260, 263, 265,
272-74, 288, 303, 390, 391, 517, 598,
600
Exchange value—337-39
Experience— 135, 188, 518
Exploitation— 268, 271, 274, 276, 317,
342, 350, 402, 438, 457, 517, 536-37,
547-48, 608
Expropriation— 432-33, 437-38
F
Factory, factory system—400, 429, 431-
33, 522, 530, 610-11
Family and marriage—131-32, 139-89,
206, 212, 225-28, 233, 255, 259, 261,
263, 274, 290
Feudalism— 265, 271-74, 342-45, 366,
371, 376, 378, 390, 393, 395-96,
437-38, 500, 553-55, 597-99, 601,
603, 608
—subsistence economy — 557-58,
597-98
See also Community; Guilds, guild
system; Middle Ages; Monarchy—
absolute; Serfdom; Society—feudal;
State, the—feudal
Feuerbach, Feuerbachianism— 364-65,
367-69, 371-82, 519-20
Finland, Finns—8, 13
Flanders— 98, 100, 493, 563
Force (violence)—295, 390, 455, 479,
495, 511, 578-79
Foreign trade— 33-34, 186, 213, 215,
430-32, 456, 522, 531, 532, 557
Fourierism, Fourierists—179, 255, 276,
516, 599
France— 255, 271, 272, 297, 302-03,
308-10, 313, 315-16, 319, 331-34,
346, 357, 375, 389, 392, 395, 396,
404, 407, 409, 411, 415-17, 429, 432,
459-65, 469, 473, 476-77, 479-82,
484-92, 494-96, 525, 532, 533, 546,
547, 556, 564, 578
See also Alsace; Bonapartism; French
Revolution of the 18th century; Lorraine;
Paris; Paris Commune of 1871;
Petty bourgeoisie—French; Workingclass
and socialist movement—in
France
Franconia— 62, 82, 342
Franco-Prussian war, 1870-71—346,
411, 483-91, 495, 497, 509-10,
578-80
Frankish state— 50, 58-81, 246, 251-55,
560
Franks—18, 32, 44, 50-55, 81-82, 85-
87, 95-97, 99, 100-03, 244, 247,
251-53
Freedom—121, 122, 128, 185-89, 215,
272, 275, 365, 391, 404, 457, 492,
503-04, 507, 512
Free Trade— 296, 297, 299, 521-26,
534-36
French philosophy— 357, 364, 370-73,
393
French Revolution of the 18th.century—
125, 218, 303, 309, 346, 350, 358,
375-76, 396, 489, 493, 502, 522
Frisians— 18, 19, 21, 23, 37, 38, 48-49,
53, 55, 59, 87, 99
G
Gaul— 9-11, 17, 19, 21, 28, 30, 55,
61-65, 77, 116, 240, 247, 250, 491
Gens, gentile constitution—59, 149, 152,
155-56, 163, 166, 206, 212, 262, 264,
266-70, 275, 517
—among Australians—151, 154
—among American Indians—132,
163, 199-211, 216, 223, 225, 231,
240, 243, 244, 256, 259
—among Germans — 59, 132, 196,
232, 236-45, 251, 256, 267, 268
—Greek—132, 149, 190, 191, 196,
202, 204-23, 228, 229, 231, 237,
245, 256, 267, 268, 269
—among Indians, Caucasians, Kalmucs
and Samoyeds (Nentsi) — 232
—among Celts—232-36
—among Mexicans — 212, 237
—Roman—132, 149, 190, 191, 202,
223-31, 238, 245, 256, 267-69
See also Ancient Greece; Ancient
Rome; Community; Family and marriage;
Society—primitive; Tribe(s)
Geography, geographical discoveries—44,
186, 558-59
George, Henry, teaching of—437-39
German Confederation (1815-66) — 307,
308, 456, 460, 480, 481
German Empire (after 1871) —271, 272,
307-09, 329, 397, 411-15, 417, 424,
450, 471, 475-76, 480, 484, 490, 491,
495-505, 507-10, 578-80
German Party of Progress (1861-84) —
500, 501
German philosophy— 357-59, 362-65,
367-72, 374, 381-84, 397-98, 403,
519-20
German Social-Democracy—307-09, 407,
417, 427-28, 442, 500, 510, 540, 580,
624
—Anti-Socialist Law, 1878—309,
329, 428, 578, 580, 624
German Workers' Educational Society in
London (1840-1918)—314-16
German Workers' Society in Brussels
(from 1847) —277, 319
Germany
—history—9, 81-83, 85, 87, 132,
455, 466, 493, 496, 497, 510
—in Middle Ages —255, 309, 341-
45, 485, 554-59
—in 17th-18th centuries —345, 429,
485, 563
—and French Revolution of the 18th
century —309-10, 346, 350, 459,
469, 493-95, 502
—in 19th century—121, 310, 314,
329, 346-51, 357-58, 362-63, 390,
397, 457-60, 492-93, 499, 501-03,
507-09, 546, 558
—fragmentation of the country and
ways of its unification—124, 307-
10, 397, 424, 455-60, 462, 464-66,
469-70, 473-74, 477, 479-89, 498-
501, 503-10, 530, 554-55, 565, 578
—economy—121-22, 329, 397, 424-
25, 428-33, 457, 458, 474, 493,
498-502, 522, 523, 525, 529-31,
539, 555, 558, 578, 580
—social and political system—120,
121, 307-08, 342-44, 392, 395, 397,
457, 477, 481-85, 499, 503, 546,
553, 554
—social estates, classes—121, 306,
309, 310, 317, 318, 397, 428, 450,
457, 476, 490, 500, 502, 507
—bourgeois liberalism — 357-58, 363-
64, 465, 470-77, 479, 480, 482-83,
501, 507
—democratic movement— 124, 125,
325, 327, 364, 457-59, 500, 501
—science and culture—112, 363,
365, 371-72, 397-98, 470, 471, 484,
507, 520
—foreign policy — 484, 498
—and Britain — 459
—and France —460, 462, 464, 469,
477-82, 494-95
—and Holland—395-96
—and Hungary —307, 456, 481
—and Italy —307, 421, 463, 555
—and Russia —414, 460, 466, 497-98
—and oppression of Slavs — 341,
481, 560
— and Switzerland—124, 458
See also Aristocracy, nobility—
German; Army—German; Baden;
Bavaria, Berlin; Bourgeoisie—
German; Brandenburg; Burghers;
Confederation of the Rhine; Customs
Union (Germany, 1834-71); German
Confederation (1815-66); German Empire
(after 1871); Hesse (Hesse-
Darmstadt); Holy Roman Empire of the
German Nation (962-1806); Language—
German ; Literature— classical
German; National Association (Germany,
1859-67); North German Confederation
(1867-71); Peasant war in
Germany, 1524-25; Petty bourgeoisie—
German; Prussia; Rhine Province;
Westphalia
God(s)—114, 367, 377, 394
Gold and silver—187, 261, 263, 456,
506, 558
Goths—17-18, 43, 44, 47, 54, 56, 237,
247
Gotland— 35, 37-39
Greek philosophy— 394, 612
Guilds, guild system—185, 187, 390,
547, 553
H
Handicrafts, handicraftsmen— 262-63,
265, 317, 390, 500, 556, 557
Hegel, Hegelianism
—Hegelian philosophy — 359-61,
365, 381-84, 519-20
—Hegelian system — 357, 360-65,
368, 374, 382
—Hegelian method —359-63, 369,
370, 383-84
—Hegelianism and reality — 358-59,
361, 366-69, 383-84
—Hegel's absolute idea — 360-61,
364, 367, 369, 370, 386
—idealism —364, 366-68, 373, 377,
382-84, 388, 391
— Hegelian dialectics —359-62, 370-
71, 382
—phenomenology of the mind — 361
—Hegelian logic —359-62, 369, 383
—philosophy of nature — 361, 364,
370, 383
—philosophy of the mind — 361
—philosophy of history — 358-62,
378, 386, 388
—philosophy of state and law — 269,
358, 361, 377
—philosophy of religion — 361
—aesthetics — 362
—and Prussian state — 357-58, 361,
363-64, 470
—and natural science — 360, 368,
370
—history of Hegelian philosophy —
357, 362-65, 381-84, 519-20
—and Feuerbach —364-65, 367, 368,
377-78, 382, 519-20
—and Marxism —364, 382-84,
519-20
Helvetii— 12, 32
Heresy, heretics-—395-96
Hermi(n)ones (ancient Germans)—18,
47, 53, 54, 57, 101, 237, 247
Hermunduri (Thuringians)—11, 13, 17,
18, 20, 23, 34, 53, 54, 67, 101
Hesse {Hesse-Darmstadt) — 82, 482
Historical approach—140-41, 148, 151-
52, 163, 274, 360, 370-72, 377-81,
387, 391, 470, 599, 600, 603-04,
607-08
Historical materialism, materialist understanding
of history—118-19, 131-32,
278, 303, 318, 360-62, 369-72, 382-
83, 386-98, 458-59, 519-20, 599,
601
Historiography, historians—10-19, 32-34,
48-49, 80, 113, 118-19, 132-33, 166-
68, 206, 210, 213, 225, 340, 377, 389,
393, 397-98, 479
—bourgeois—126, 132-33, 142-43,
158, 166-68, 206-08, 225-27, 229,
232, 241-42, 254, 269, 308, 376,
389, 393, 479
—Marxist—118-19, 131-32, 169,
302-03, 458-59, 608
History— 29-30, 118, 273-74, 303, 308,
318, 359-61, 370-71, 386-91, 393,
440, 455, 458, 502, 576-79, 607
Holland— 395-96, 485, 522, 554, 557,
558
Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation
(962-1806) —309-10, 459, 465,
491-93, 554
Housing question—401, 424-25, 428,
433
Hundred Years' War, 1337-1453—555,
563-65
Hungary— 298, 307, 410, 455, 456, 466
Hypothesis— 165, 237, 368
I
Iberians—8, 9
Ideal—193-94, 208, 318, 359, 372-73,
385-89, 591
Idealism— 366, 373
—history of—364, 366-69, 371-73,
382-83
—and fundamental question of
philosophy—366-67
—and materialism — 364, 366-74,
382-83
—and religion —364-66, 368, 374-77
—Feuerbach's idealistic understanding
of history —372, 374-82
Idea(s) —143, 204, 376, 384, 475, 597
See also Hegel, Hegelianism—Hegel's
absolute idea
Identity—367
Ideological struggle in the working-class
movement— 320-21, 325-28, 515
Ideology— 283, 303, 376, 388, 389, 392-
98, 458, 470, 519, 553
Impoverishment of the working class—267,
298-301, 391
India— 6
Industrial reserve army—298, 535
Industrial revolution—424, 425, 432-33
Infantry—122-28, 319, 623-24
Ingaevones (ancient Germans)—18, 47-
56, 247
Intellectual, the—465, 585
Interests— 59, 120, 122, 124, 165, 184-
86, 203, 217, 264, 267, 269, 296, 322,
344-46, 381, 390, 395-96, 398, 414,
415, 433, 436-38, 440-43, 450, 459,
462-63, 466, 497, 499, 503, 506, 523,
549, 550, 601, 615
Internationalism, proletarian—312, 322,
330, 406-07, 449, 455-56
International Working Men's Association
(First International) —312, 322, 330,
422, 426
Inventions—135-36, 138, 529, 534,
564
Ireland—9, 232-34, 295, 296, 429, 431,
432, 571, 573-75, 577, 602
" Irony of history"— 60, 186, 188, 304-05
Italian wars, 1494-1559—5
Italy— 8, 9, 33, 138, 297, 308, 411, 422,
455, 460, 462-65, 470, 488, 494, 507,
555-57, 578
See also Aristocracy, nobility—Italian
J
Judaism—113-14
Junkers, Prussian— 342-51, 450, 480,
489-90, 495, 498-502, 505, 507-09
Jurisprudence— 123, 395, 504, 597, 599
Justice— 358, 435, 507, 579
Jutland, Jutes—10, 14, 38, 55, 478
K
Kaffirs— 203
Kant, Kantianism— 359, 367, 368, 370,
373, 381
Knights—177-78, 184, 187, 341, 343,
558, 561-65
Knights of Labor (USA) —437, 439-40
L
Labour— 132, 250, 261, 264, 283, 285,
288-89, 339, 340, 350, 398, 605, 619
See also Division of labour; Labour
power; Labour time
Labour power— 261, 274, 291, 299, 401
Labour time— 287, 336, 400, 610
Langobardi— 11, 22, 23, 45, 49, 54-55,
66, 236, 237
Language— 8, 50, 86-88, 90, 105, 106,
209, 247, 252, 335-40, 485, 494-95,
559-60, 564
—American Indian—196, 200-02
—Anglo-Saxon —43, 49-50, 56, 83,
84-86
—Castillian — 564
—Danish—14, 87, 88, 105
—Dutch —81, 83, 86-92, 94, 104,
107
—English — 50, 89, 336, 508
—Flemish —87, 88, 90
—French —50, 81, 88, 90, 98, 100,
103, 485, 493, 494
—Frisian —18, 48-50, 56, 83-85, 90,
99
—German—18, 50-51, 53-54, 57,
81-85, 87-89, 92-95, 99-100, 104-
07, 236, 335, 336, 485, 492, 494-
95, 559-60
—Gothic—17-18, 43, 47-48, 56-57,
85, 87, 102
—Greek —56, 89, 209, 247
— Italian —89
—Latin —56, 89, 97, 247, 252
— Portuguese, Provençal — 564
—Roman (old French) —96-100,
252, 559-60
—Scandinavian—18, 43, 56, 57, 90,
237
Large-scale industry— 262, 299-300, 317,
359, 389, 390, 391, 397, 424, 430-32,
435, 500, 599, 602
Lassalleanism, Lassalleans—275, 278,
500, 515
Latifundia— 30, 36, 248, 254, 348
Law, right— 24-25, 58-59, 65-72, 74,
78-79, 152, 154-55, 160-68, 170, 173,
179-81, 186, 194, 205-07, 210, 212,
214-15, 218, 223-25, 234, 237-39,
241, 242, 244, 247, 250, 255, 262,
266, 275, 283, 341, 343, 346-47, 377,
379, 391-93, 395, 458, 486, 506, 507,
558, 561-62, 597-609, 614-15
See also Jurisprudence; Justice;
Lawyers, jurists
Law(s)—273-74, 387, 389, 548
—of nature —371-72, 384-86
—of society —282-83, 287, 299, 391,
393, 402, 440, 599-600, 615
—of thinking —369, 384, 394, 397
Lawyers, jurists— 230, 234, 259, 344,
392, 393, 506-07, 561, 600-02
See also Legislation
League of the Just— 313-21, 517
Legislation—160, 180, 232-35, 266,
270, 346, 391-93, 457, 483, 506-07,
598, 615
Liberalism— 357
Linguistics—40, 57
Literature—109, 110, 138-39, 147, 170-
71, 178, 206, 208-12, 235, 238, 239,
335-36, 423, 471, 564
—English —235
—classical German—147, 184, 237,
262, 423
—classical Greek—111, 138-39, 147,
170-72, 184, 208-12
—classical Roman—111, 537
—classical Scandinavian—147, 239
—French—178, 373, 496
—German—110-11, 147, 178, 373,
423, 493, 496
—Provençal—177, 184
—Swedish—178
Lithuania, Lithuanians—8, 46, 342, 565
Logic—see Hegel, Hegelianism
Lombardy— 494
London— 299, 314, 425, 547-49
Lorraine— 92, 96, 100, 103-04, 411,
485, 491-95, 497, 559, 578
Lutheranism—186, 395-96, 554
Luxemburg— 103, 104, 485-86, 494
246, 410
Machines— 275, 298-99, 389, 429-30,
433, 436, 535, 602, 609-10
Man, individual— 6-8, 131-32, 134-35,
139, 143-45, 160, 216, 255, 313, 362,
364, 373-81, 383, 386-87, 389, 391,
392
Mankind—118, 134-39, 143, 182, 254,
359-62, 365, 367, 373, 404, 517
Manufacture— 186, 390, 432, 463
Marcomanni (Bavarians)—11, 12, 18,
21, 23, 45, 54
Materialism— 364-75, 382-83, 388, 397
See also Dialectical materialism; Historical
materialism, materialist understanding
of history
Matter, material— 203, 366-70, 380, 391-
94, 429, 458, 465, 506, 507
Means of production—183, 381, 401,
426, 427, 436-38, 521, 599, 602, 605,
607, 609
Merchants— 265-66, 496, 500
— Hanseatic—557
Metaphysics— 368-72, 384-87
Method—see Hegel, Hegelianism
Mexico—136, 137, 161, 187, 212
Middle Ages—185, 255, 366, 371, 376,
395, 438, 556, 558-62, 564, 597,
602-03
Migration of the peoples—8-14, 21-22,
33, 37, 40, 41, 43-44, 51, 59-60, 103,
237, 243-45, 554
Military art—10, 31-32, 237-38, 478,
562-63
See also Army
"Military democracy"— 211, 229, 263
Mind— 360, 361, 366, 369
Mode of production— 216, 303, 391, 431,
517, 521-22, 597-603
Monarchy— 211, 303, 361, 554, 561-65
—absolute—123, 271, 306, 455-56,
554-55, 598
Money— 33, 39, 216, 260, 265-67, 273,
274, 557-58
Monopolies— 531-33, 547-50, 553,
579
Morality—147-48, 177, 178, 204, 235,
373-75, 377-81
Mortgage— 215, 266, 274, 323, 432,
499, 626
Motion— 303, 370, 383-87
Mythology—139, 170-71, 173, 197, 208,
238-39, 394
N
Napoleonic wars—123, 307, 309, 345,
346, 347, 449, 455, 465, 469, 489-90,
493, 564
Nation— 200, 247, 254-55, 371, 455-56,
493, 559-61, 564
National Association (Germany, 1859-
67)—474, 476
Nationalisation of land—323, 437-39
National Liberals (Germany, from
1866)—307, 501, 505, 507
Nationalities question—394, 455-56
—criticism of the Bonapartist
"nationalities principle"—462, 477
Nationality— 254, 394, 559, 560
Natural science— 360, 369-72, 384-86,
397, 597, 612
Nature—134-39, 145-46, 204, 216, 273,
360, 364, 366, 370-72, 375, 381,
382-85, 394, 397, 439
Navy—558
Needs, requirements—122, 138, 157, 183,
217, 261, 267, 271, 286-88, 364, 375,
376, 379, 390-92, 394, 404, 458, 505,
506, 555-56
Neo-Kantianism—368
New York— 581, 582, 585
Mc«—463, 494
Nomads—14
Normans— 37, 39, 138, 252
North German Confederation (1867-71)—
307, 308, 480-85, 503, 505
Notion—158, 367, 394
Nuremberg—491 -92
O
Officials— 270, 271
Old Hegelianism— 363, 397
Organisation of social labour and production—
272, 287-89, 390, 619
Organism— 370, 385
Outlaws' League—313
Owenism, Owenists—301, 516, 599
P
Paganism—114
—priests—174, 193, 205, 211-12,
229
Palaeontology—141, 361
Paris— 313, 316, 425, 490-91
Paris Commune of 1871—406-07, 426,
432, 497, 518, 595
Parliament, British— 501, 508, 568-74,
577.
Party of the Centre (Germany, from
1870)—504, 509
Party, political— 317, 501, 529, 615-16
Party, proletarian—120-28, 272, 306,
307, 319-25, 327, 330, 332, 404, 407,
416-17, 426-28, 436-41, 512, 518,
615-16
See also Communist League; International
Working Men's Association (First
International); Proletariat's tactics in
class struggle; Socialist Labor Party of
North America (from 1876); United
Labor Party (USA); Workers' Party of
France
Pastoral peoples—137-38, 162, 164
Peasant labour services and dues—64-65,
248-49, 342-44, 347-49
Peasantry— 67, 71, 78-81, 203, 231, 255,
344-46, 348-50, 432-33, 437, 499,
556-59, 562-63, 603
—in Belgium—558
—in England—429, 563
—in France—252, 254, 255, 346
—in Germany—255, 341-43, 428-29,
432-33, 464, 499-501, 555, 558
—in Ireland—234, 300, 571, 574
—in Italy—463
—in Russia—345
—in Spain—161
— in Switzerland—563
See also Day labourers; Peasant labour
services and dues; Peasant war in Germany,
1524-25; Serfdom
Peasant war in Germany, 1524-25—342,
554
People, popular masses—11, 14, 18, 33,
55, 59, 81, 113, 202, 204, 209, 263,
388-89, 394, 395, 470, 479, 493, 524,
559
Period of transition from capitalism to
communism—426-27, 437
Petty bourgeoisie—125, 283, 306, 317,
500
—British—295, 584
— French—125, 332
—German—121, 123, 306, 309, 317,
464, 500, 501, 507, 584
—Prussian—123, 471
Philosophy—141, 283, 303, 314, 315,
357-78, 380-89, 393-95, 403, 470,
520, 597, 599, 612
See also Dialectical materialism; Dialectics,
dialectical method; Feuerbach, Feuerbachianism;
French philosophy; German
philosophy; Hegel, Hegelianism; Historical
materialism, materialist understanding
of history; Idealism; Kant, Kantianism;
Materialism; Metaphysics; Morality;
Natural science; Neo-Kantianism; Old
Hegelianism; Philosophy of nature;
Stoicism, stoics; " Thing-in-itself"
(Kant); World (philos.); Young Hegelianism
Philosophy of nature— 386-87, 397
Physiology— 371, 385
Plebeians, pUbs— 231-32, 268, 395, 598
Poetry—108-11, 177, 184, 423, 471, 536
Poland—124, 324, 410, 455, 466
Police— 221, 270
Political struggle— 301-02, 318, 389-91,
393, 598-99
Political system— 60, 78, 310, 358, 391,
502
Politics—118, 141, 283, 302, 318, 357,
389-93, 395, 462, 516-17, 529, 546,
558, 559, 591, 599-600
Pomerania—Z5, 342, 347
Pope, papacy— 61, 509, 597
Population—138, 161, 204, 242, 246,
247, 256, 263, 265, 270, 342
Possibilism, Possibilists—542-44
Possibilist Paris Congress (1889)—542,
543
Press, the—122-28, 319, 623-24
Prerequisites—177, 267, 269, 450, 470
Prevision, forecasting—189-90, 318-19,
327, 417, 428, 451, 484, 486, 503-04,
580, 624
Price— 282, 286-89, 429-31, 610
Principle*—120, 281, 296, 312, 322,
'367, 441, 462, 477, 495, 515, 523,
535, 579, 584
Private property—132, 163-64, 173, 186,
188, 205, 216, 218-19, 259, 260, 266,
275, 321, 561, 600
Production— 118, 131-32, 134-39, 181-
82, 186, 188, 204, 213, 216, 242-43,
246, 249, 250, 253, 256-68, 272-75,
286-88, 303, 327, 365, 368, 380,
389-92, 429, 432, 433, 463, 517,
523-25, 530, 535-36, 549-50, 557,
597-99, 602-03, 609-11
See also Domestic industry; Means of
production
Productive forces—134-39, 327, 390,
391, 523-24
Proletariat's tactics in class struggle—120-
22, 333-34, 441-42, 512
Proof— 366-68, 396
Property—132, 163-64, 182, 188, 213,
218, 241, 253, 259, 261, 266, 427,
437-39, 561, 599-600, 605, 608
—landed—60-67, 76-79, 167-68,
213, 216, 218, 220, 224, 231,
241-42, 263, 266-67, 275, 296, 323,
342-43, 389, 390, 437-39, 498, 517,
523, 531, 602
See also Private property ; State property
Prostitution—142-43, 172, 174, 175,
179, 182-83, 266
Protectionism— 521-23, 526-30, 532,
534-36
Protestantism—395-96, 554
See also Calvinism; Lutheranism
Proudhonism, Proudhonists—278-80, 283-
85, 289, 325, 382, 426-28, 515,
604-06
Prussia—123, 124, 305-06, 308, 309,
341-51, 358, 392, 414, 443-44, 449-
50, 456, 459-60, 463-64, 466, 469-92,
494, 497-500, 504, 506-10, 532, 578,
579
See also Bourgeoisie—Prussian; Junkers,
Prussian; Petty bourgeoisie—
Prussian; Working class—Prussian
Q
Quality and quantity—336, 338, 340,
385
R
Race—7, 8, 9, 140, 585
Radicalism, radicals—180, 333, 426
Railways— 323, 391, 400, 424, 499
Rate of profit— 282, 431, 432
Reality, real—140, 180, 182, 207, 302,
358-61, 364, 367-70, 373, 374, 377,
381-84, 386, 436, 439, 456, 499
Reflection—178, 208, 302, 360, 361,
364, 367, 368, 373, 374, 377, 383-84,
389, 516, 607
Reform— 323, 348-49
Reformation—186, 395-96, 554, 555,
564, 598
Reformism— 298-99, 427
Regularity— 273-74, 387
Relations of production—327
Relativity— 359-62, 384
Religion—113-15, 141, 187, 197, 208,
303, 364, 366, 374-78, 393-96,
597-99
See also Buddhism; Calvinism;
Catholicism ; Christianity ; Church ;
God(s); Heresy, heretics; Judaism;
Lutheranism; Paganism; Pope, papacy;
Protestantism
Republic—222, 271, 333
—bourgeois—181, 271-72, 306
Revolution—121, 308-09, 317, 327, 357,
472, 481, 499, 500, 592
—bourgeois—121, 122, 125, 126,
218, 297, 306, 309, 322-23, 348-49,
376, 390, 421, 456, 472, 546,
554-55
—lasting—125, 126, 271
—social—182, 404, 433, 524
See also Revolution of 1848-49 in
Austria; Revolution of 1848 in France.
Second Republic; Revolution of 1848-49
in Germany; Revolution of 1848-49 in
Hungary; Revolutions of 1848-49 in
Europe; Revolutions of 1848-49 in
Italian states
Revolution of 1848-49 in Austria—304,
324, 456, 466, 472
Revolution of 1848 in France. Second
Republic—121, 122, 126-28, 295-96,
302, 303, 324, 326-28, 432, 456, 460,
472, 512, 604
Revolution of 1848-49 in Germany—109,
120-28, 297, 304-07, 309, 324-26,
346, 348-49, 357, 365, 411, 419-21,
423, 430, 446-47, 456, 465, 472,
479-80, 493, 499-501, 503, 546, 578,
579, 594-96
—German Democratic Legion—324
Revolution of 1848-49 in Hungary—127,
297, 326, 456, 462, 578
Revolutions of 1848-49 in Europe—121,
126-27, 295-97, 306, 326, 371, 456,
472, 512, 578
Revolutions of 1848-49 in Italian states—
127, 419, 456, 578
Revolution, proletarian, socialist—118,
218, 307, 328, 432-33, 436, 440-41,
455-56, 516-18, 524, 536, 546, 602,
619, 622
See also Paris Commune of 1871
Rhine Province—11, 14-15, 31-32, 123,
305, 342, 350, 456, 463-65, 469,
471-72, 480, 493, 558
Rights of man—188, 256, 271, 379-80,
503-04
Russia— 292-94, 311, 410-17, 421, 456,
459-61, 463, 466, 533, 565, 591-92
See also Community—in Russia;
Slavophiles; Tsarism, autocracy in
Russia
Russo-Turkish war, 1877-78—410, 412
S
Saint-Simonism, Saint-Simonists— 5 99,
606
Saxons—14, 32, 37-39, 44, 49, 50, 59,
62, 67, 85, 97, 99, 102
Saxony— 348, 456, 470, 482
Scandinavia—8, 13, 16-18, 36, 43, 56,
239, 565
Schleswig-Holstein—10, 35, 37-39, 243,
474, 477, 493
Science—112, 117, 275, 290, 316-19,
397, 403, 597, 600, 606-09, 612
See also Economic history; Palaeontology
Scotland— 232, 235, 395, 554, 602
Scythians—8, 146
Self-consciousness— 363-64, 383, 435-36
Sensuousness— 369, 373, 377
Serbia, Serbs— 410-14
Serfdom— 72-81, 166, 239, 249, 252-55,
274, 342-50, 379, 380, 438, 493, 500,
508, 555-57, 559-61, 603
Seven Years' War, 1756-63—347
Shipbuilding— 39, 42, 44, 527
Silesia— 34, 342, 344, 347, 348, 428,
456, 459, 498, 509
Singular, particular and universal—120,
217-18, 264-65, 369-70, 384-88, 392,
436-38, 440-43, 615
Slavery— 36-37, 163, 220, 231, 248-49,
254, 255, 263, 267, 274, 437
Slavophiles— 413, 417
Slavs—11, 14, 196, 341, 411, 560
Socialisation of the means of production—
182-83, 426, 427, 436-39, 605
Socialism (theories and trends)—113,
278-90, 325, 375, 406, 428, 433, 518,
597-616
—Utopian—122, 516-17, 599
—bourgeois—427, 433, 517
—petty-bourgeois—325, 375, 427-28,
433
—state—283
—scientific—118-19, 122, 307, 318-
19, 321, 322, 330, 381-84, 403-04,
406, 426, 427, 438-39, 441-42,
515-20, 599-602, 607-09
—in England—279-81
—in Germany—427, 442, 471-72
See also Armchair socialism; Babouvism;
Blanquism, Blanquists; Fourierism,
Fourierists; Lassalleanism, Lassalleans;
League of the Just; Outlaws'
League ; Owenism, Owenists ;
Proudhonism, Proudhonists ; Saint-
Simonism, Saint-Simonists ; Weitlingianism,
Weitlingians
Socialist Labor Party of North America—
(from 1876)—434, 437, 439-42
Socialist movement, international (after
the First International)—330, 406-
07, 416-17, 425-27, 437-39, 442, 516
Social labour—262
Social relations—162, 181, 275, 287,
317, 327, 360, 381, 435-36, 559, 598
Social system— 60, 78, 118, 132, 267,
288-89, 517, 602, 607
Société des saisons (Paris, 1837)—313,
316
Society—118-19, 132, 152, 155, 157,
162, 166, 170, 174, 175, 189, 200-01,
206, 217-18, 222, 245, 256, 269-76,
300, 318, 323, 372, 391-92, 401, 404,
426, 437, 438, 547, 553, 608, 614-15
—gentile—204, 214, 268, 517
—primitive—16, 145, 164-65, 181-
83, 203, 204, 517
—slave-holding—149, 212-16, 219,
231, 261, 263, 267-69, 274, 393,
602
—feudal—60, 78, 255, 343, 376,
. 395, 500, 556-65, 597-98
—bourgeois—118, 132, 178, 286,
288-89, 306, 327, 377, 380, 389-90,
396, 403, 434-36, 517, 524
See also Organisation of social labour
and production; Social labour; Social
relations; Social system
Space and time—370
Spain—8, 9, 11, 161, 247, 308, 555,
558, 564
Sparta—171-72, 176, 201
State property— 224, 231, 323, 426-27,
438, 579
State, the
—as superstructure—59-62, 71-79,
318, 391-92
—and society—132, 166, 201, 206,
213, 214, 217-18, 221, 222, 245,
267-72, 275, 318, 377, 391-93, 450,
559, 598
—and mode of production—521-22
—origin of—132, 201-02, 211-12,
230, 245, 263-64, 267-72, 392-93,
559-60
—and consolidation of nations—559-
61, 564
—eastern—59
—slave-holding—30-31, 208-09, 213,
215, 217-22, 224, 268-71
—feudal—59-62, 73-79, 254-55, 271,
560-63
—bourgeois—270-72, 390-92, 598
See also Court, judicial system; Democracy,
ancient (social and political system);
Dictatorship of the proletariat;
Police; State property
Stock Exchange— 272, 296, 380, 399-
400, 461
Stoicism, stoics—113, 394
Suebi (ancient Germans)—11-15, 18,
20, 32, 49-54, 196, 236, 241
Suffrage—211, 272, 323, 407, 461, 546,
566, 569
Sugambri (ancient Germans)—18-21,
23, 26, 28, 29, 53, 55
Surplus value— 281, 282, 401, 608-14
Sweden—18, 35, 37-39, 56, 442, 554
Switzerland— 7, 124, 308, 314, 395, 418,
458, 494, 522, 525, 554, 563
System—140-42, 357, 360-65, 369, 370,
382, 385-86, 397, 470, 535-36
T
Taxes— 270, 323, 504, 557
Terrorism— 292-94
Teutonic Order—342
Teutons—10, 11, 14, 48-49, 236
Theology— 395, 597, 598
Theory and practice—114, 121, 142, 184,
188, 279-83, 288-90, 299, 312-20,
322, 359, 361, 363-64, 367-68, 371-
72, 380-82, 393, 397, 404, 427, 439,
442, 455, 466, 512, 518, 584, 598,
600, 601, 605, 607
Theory of evolution— 371, 372, 385-86,
612
"Thing-in-itself" (Kant)—367
Thinking, thought—138, 187, 221, 283-
85, 359-62, 364-73, 377, 383-84, 394,
397, 597, 620
Thirty Years' War, 1618-48—Mb, 429,
451, 459, 491
Town and country— 24, 33, 36, 139, 185,
209, 217, 253, 262-65, 267, 275, 298,
309, 342, 393, 395, 424, 493, 553-57,
559, 560, 598
Trade, commerce—13, 33-40, 44, 60,
186, 213-15, 219-20, 222, 243, 248,
263, 265-67, 399, 456-57, 522-24,
527-35, 547-48, 557
Trade unions in England—298, 515,
543-44, 626
Trade unions, trade union movement—
298, 325
See also Trade unions in England
Transport—212, 323, 524-25
Tribe(s)— 8-11, 13-18, 46-57, 139-41,
142, 152, 156, 165, 185, 196-204,
208-12, 223, 224, 228, 232, 256, 259,
263, 269
Truck system—400, 402
"True socialism"—320, 365
Trusts and rings— 531, 533, 549-50
Truth— 283, 301, 359-62, 384, 404, 480
Tsarism, autocracy in Russia—414-15
Turkey—410-12, 415
U
Unevenness of capitalist development—
288, 401, 533-35
United Labor Party (USA)—435-37
United States of America, the—270-72,
308, 402-03, 434-37, 439, 525-27,
529-30, 533-34, 581-82, 602
See also New York; Trusts and rings;
Working-class and socialist movement—
in the USA
Usury, usurers— 215, 219, 248, 266, 274,
432, 558
V
Value— 279-84, 286, 288, 429-30, 605,
609-10
Vienna Congress of 1814-15—410, 455,
459
Vindili—17, 47
W
Wage labour—183, 271, 274, 289, 536,
600, 603
Wales— 232-33, 235
War of Austrian Succession, 1740-48—
459-60, 469
War of Bavarian Succession, 1778-79—
458
War (s)—496
—between tribes—198, 203, 212,
256
—in slave-holding society—30, 37,
261, 264
—in feudal society—67, 555, 556,
569-62, 565
—in capitalist society—307, 443-44,
450-51, 580
—and revolution—415-17, 456, 592
See also Austro-Italo-French war,
1859; Austro-Prussian war, 1866; Crimean
war, 1853-56; Danish-Prussian
war, 1848-50; Danish war, 1864;
Franco-Prussian war, 1870-71;
Hundred Years' War, 1337-1453;
Italian wars, 1494-1559; Military art;
Napoleonic wars; Peasant war in Germany,
1524-25; Seven Years' War,
1756-63; Thirty Years' War, 1618-48;
War of Austrian Succession, 1740-48;
War of Bavarian Succession, 1778-79;
Wars of the First French Republic (late
18th-early 19th cent.)
Wars of the First French Republic (late
18th-early 19th cent.)—462, 492,
493
Wealth—132, 139, 262-63, 267-68, 275,
337, 536
Weitlingianism, Weitlingians—279, 315,
316, 317, 319-20, 326, 517
Westphalia— 32, 97, 428, 469
Will—187, 264, 275, 333-34, 373, 387,
391, 476, 478, 480
Workers' aristocracy—299-301, 403, 626
Workers' Party of France— 333-34, 407,
415-17
Working class—118, 121, 272, 317, 319,
322, 329, 330, 365, 390, 401, 404,
424-25, 432-33, 435, 438, 440, 456,
500, 515-18, 535, 536, 550, 599-600,
602
—in Britain—296-301, 389, 400, 626
—in France—122, 125, 271, 303,
389, 456, 472, 512
—in Germany—121-22, 305-06, 317-
18, 329-30, 407, 428, 431-32, 472,
476, 500, 502, 539, 541
—in Italy^-463
—in Prussia—305
—in the USA—402-03, 434-37,
439-40
Working-class and socialist movement—
120, 128, 313, 316, 318, 321-22, 391,
404, 406, 425, 435-37, 439-41, 455-
56, 512, 515, 517, 599-600
—in Austria—543
—in Belgium—426, 442
—in Britain—299, 432, 545, 626
—in Denmark—442
—in France—303, 313, 316, 409, 442,
546
—in Germany—122, 305-06, 312,
314, 315, 317, 319, 325, 328-30,
397-98, 407, 418, 428, 432, 472,
476, 499, 502, 539-41, 546, 580
—in Holland—442
—in Hungary—543
—in Ireland—626
—in Italy—426
—in Portugal—442
—in Spain—442, 544
—in Sweden—442
—in Switzerland—314, 320, 442
—in the USA—402-03, 434-41
See also Chartism, Chartist movement;
Communist League; German Social-
Democracy; German Workers' Society in
Brussels (from 1847); Ideological struggle
in the working-class movement; International
Working Men's Association
(First International); Knights of Labor
(USA); League of the Just; Paris Com
mune of 1871; Possibilist Paris Congress
(1889); Socialist Labor Party of North
America (from 1876); Société des
saisons (Paris, 1837); United Labor
Party (USA); Workers' Party of France
World (philos.)—366-70, 374, 377, 381
World market— 296, 300, 429-31, 457,
522-34, 536
World outlook— 328, 369, 383, 475, 519-
20, 597-98, 607
See also Idealism; Materialism
Writing—40, 43
Y
Young Hegelianism— 3 63 -64






MECW VOL 27





A
Abstraction, abstract and concrete—226,
261, 284, 289, 314, 435
Adventurism (political) — 85, 188,
439-40
Africa (division of, by imperialist powers)—
210, 448, 460
Agnosticism— 283, 286-88
Agricultural workers—486, 487, 492,
499-502
Agriculture— 443, 483-87, 489, 493,
495-501
See also Landed property; Nationalisation
of land
Agronomy— 341
Aims and means— 21, 23, 24, 42, 47, 49,
177, 190, 225, 263, 313, 316, 345,
366, 373, 417, 438-39, 489, 490, 496,
512, 537, 547
Albania, Albanians (Arnauts) — 47
Albumen— 288
Alexandrian school of philosophy—453,
456, 461, 469
Algeria— 390
Alsace— 7, 41, 45, 180, 242, 243, 373,
392, 514, 537, 552
America— 291, 295, 298, 484
American Indians—208, 210-12
Analogy— 212, 261-62, 313, 447-52,
457-60, 491, 523-24
Analysis— 92, 283, 288, 468-69, 507
Anarchism, anarchists—58, 93, 233, 344-
46, 404, 414, 420
See also Adventurism (political);
Bakuninism, Bakuninists
Ancient Athens—428, 454, 478
Ancient Egypt—453, 454
Ancient Greece—30, 453, 454, 474
Ancient Rome—181, 219, 447, 453, 454,
460, 461, 464-66, 474, 478, 523-24
Annexation—7, 29, 33, 40, 45, 180,
242, 373, 392, 514, 552
Antagonism— 20-21, 114, 234, 410, 425
—of classes —50, 98, 181, 361, 410,
423, 441, 474, 510
Anti-communism (criticism and exposure
of, by Marx and Engels) — 58, 187,
239, 447, 472
See also Anarchism, anarchists;
Bakuninism, Bakuninists; German Empire
(after 1871) — Anti-Socialist Law,
1878; Lassalleanism, Lassalleans; Paris
Commune of 1871; Proudhonism,
Proudhonists; Socialism (theories and
trends); Terrorism
Anti-Corn Law League (England, the
1840s) —296
See also Corn Laws (in England)
Antiquity— 206, 207, 212, 329, 437,
447, 460, 461, 474, 478
See also Ancient Athens; Ancient Egypt;
Ancient Greece; Ancient Rome
Anti-Semitism— 50-51, 385, 496, 499,
533
Appropriation— 201, 434, 435, 508-09
Arabs— 448
Argentina— 325
Aristocracy—297, 478
—English —262, 292-95, 298
—French — 2 6 1 , 314'
Armaments, weapons—7, 9, 46, 377-78,
514, 518, 519, 545
See also Artillery
Armchair (Katheder) socialism—299, 301,
394, 395
Arming of the people—111, 181, 371-72
Army— 27, 49, 76, 177-78, 189, 240,
295, 371-85, 388-91, 393, 432, 466,
502, 514, 518, 545, 551
—Austrian—373, 375, 381, 390
—French—177-78, 275, 373, 374,
381, 382, 384, 389-90, 513, 517-20,
536, 547, 551
— G e r m a n — 5 , 178, 240, 373-76,
378-83, 388-91, 502, 536, 551
—Prussian—372, 373, 375, 382-83,
388
—Russian—16, 383-84, 430, 536,
551
See also Armaments, weapons; Artillery;
Cavalry; Infantry; Militarism;
Navy; War(s)
Artillery— 377, 378, 518
Asia— 207, 210, 523
Asia Minor—18, 454, 455, 467
Astronomy— 286, 290
Atheism— 285, 293
Australia— 228, 258, 308
Austria— 20-24, 26-27, 29, 32, 35, 36,
39, 4 1 , 44, 47, 50, 398, 512, 513
See also Austro-Prussian war, 1866;
Schleswig-Holsteinian question
Austria-Hungary (from 1867)—41, 47,
215, 251, 396, 398, 442, 505, 521
Austrian Social Democrats—74, 215, 251,
303, 505
Austro-Italo-French war, 1859—39, 414
Austro-Prussian war, 1866— 39, 40, 182,
382, 513, 544
Average rate of profit—436
B
Bakuninism, Bakuninists—58, 68, 93,
233, 340, 344-46, 404, 414, 420, 421,
457
See also Adventurism (political);
Anarchism, anarchists ; International
Working Men's Association (First International)—
struggle against Bakuninists
and Bakuninism
Balkans, the—17, 18, 4 1 , 44
Banks, bankers— 263, 315, 325, 432,
496, 536
Barbarians— 460
Bar, the—230
Bavaria—544-45
Bedouins—448
Being— 284, 329
Belgium—485
—Marx's arrest and expulsion
from—336
See also Bourgeoisie—Belgian; Peasantry—
Belgian
Berlin— 409-10, 518, 519, 546
Bessarabia—28, 29, 41, 44
Blanquism, Blanquists—74, 186-88, 414,
417, 457, 514
See also Adventurism (political); Conspiracy
Blocs and alliances of workers' parties with
other parties— 439-40, 492
See also Party, proletarian; Proletariat's
tactics in class struggle; Working-class
movement
Bohemia, Bohemians—398
Bokhara—43
Bonapartism—\8, 182, 513-14
Bosnia—41
Boulangism, Boulangists—43, 74
Bourgeoisie— 38, 181, 182, 197, 223,
231, 232, 263-64, 273, 285, 289-302,
315-37, 329, 365, 437, 438, 483, 509
—Belgian—399
—Dutch—330
—English—259, 263-66, 285, 289-
90, 292-300, 311-12, 315-16, 319
—French—43, 181, 182, 237, 245,
262, 275, 291-92, 294, 295, 297,
514, 536
—German—4, 5, 8, 232, 300, 301,
331, 514
—Italian—365, 437-39
—Jewish—51
—Norwegian—82, 83
—Polish—274
—Russian—37, 38, 45, 234, 247,
250, 274, 431-33, 535
— U S — 5 1 , 297
Bourgeois political economy—195, 200,
227, 257-58, 307
Bulgaria, Bulgarians—17, 36, 4 1 , 44,
47, 483
Bureaucracy—189, 228
See also Officials
C
Californian gold-fields— 258, 308, 406
Calvinism—291
Campaign of 1812 (in Russia)—28
Canada— 228
Capital— 50-51, 98, 435
—concentration of—259, 311
—accumulation of—201
"Capital" by Karl Marx—194-95, 281,
339-41, 503
"Capital", Vol. 1—98, 138, 341
—Engels on the content and significance
of—196, 261, 313, 434, 435
—significance of, for the working
class—192, 238
—bourgeois and petty-bourgeois circles
on—100-27, 131, 135-62,
165-76
—English edition of—260, 342
"Capital", Vol. II— 434, 435
"Capital", Vol. Ill— 251, 418, 434, 503
"Capital", Vol. IV— 434, 503
Capitalism (socio-economic formation)—
425
Capitalist— 38, 201, 231, 259, 264, 266,
290, 293, 295, 311, 315, 434-36, 492
See also Bourgeoisie; Capital; Capitalist
mode of production; Exploitation;
Labour conditions of workers; Petty
bourgeoisie
Capitalist mode of production— 197, 224,
231, 257, 259, 260, 267,'282, 307-08,
319-20, 425, 428, 435, 437, 485, 488,
491, 497-98, 512
Carbonari—30
Cartesianism—294
Catholicism—8, 289-90, 456
Caucasus—34
Causality— 20-21, 182, 259, 264, 288,
289, 291, 316, 329, 339, 386, 448,
484, 506-08, 514, 517, 552
Cavalry—376, 378
Centralisation, state (political)—188
Chaldeans—454, 465
Chartism, Chartist movement—66, 263,
264, 297, 299, 300, 301, 315, 316,
394
Chauvinism—24, 29, 87, 184, 275, 298,
391-92, 514
Chemistry— 288, 304-06, 413, 548
Child's labour—129, 265
China—258, 298, 330
Christianity—291, 447-69, 523
See also Catholicism; Church; Clergy;
Protestantism; Reformation; Religion
Church—18, 184, 229, 286, 289-300,
468
Circulation—435
Civilisation—18, 30, 177, 243
Clan— 424
Class(es)— 50, 51, 89, 98, 173, 177, 181,
183, 189-90, 200-01, 215, 224, 225,
231, 232, 261, 264, 274-75, 289-93,
295-99, 301, 302, 314, 321, 329, 365,
381, 401, 410, 425, 430-31, 438,
441-43, 447-48, 474, 478, 495, 507,
510, 512, 518-22, 535
See also Bourgeoisie; Class struggle;
Nobility; Peasantry; Petty bourgeoisie;
Working class
Class struggle—45, 47-48, 70, 89, 228,
259, 261-62, 271, 289-91, 293, 296-
97, 311, 438, 447, 448, 477-78, 509-
13, 518-20
See also Class(es); Economic struggle;
Political struggle; Proletariat's tactics in
class struggle; Revolution, proletarian,
socialist; Socialist movement, international
(after the First International);
Working-class movement
Clergy—262, 290, 314, 400
Code civil—294, 490
Cognition— 284-88
Cologne—546
Colonies, colonial policy—258, 308
Commodity circulation—282
See also Circulation; Commodity production
; Exchange
Commodity production—213, 282, 295,
424
See also Commodity circulation; Production
Commune (community)—38, 54, 282,
421-26, 433, 478, 547
—in Russia—38, 54, 57, 248.50, 384,
386, 418, 421-33
—Mark—community of ancient Germans
and in Germany—281-82,
422-24, 486
See also Clan; Gens, gentile constitution
; Tribe(s)
Communism, primitive—424-25
Communism (social formation)—54,
57, 87-88, 178, 188-91, 201, 223-
29, 231-32, 261, 271-72, 314, 345,
398, 407, 413, 417-18, 424-31, 438-
39, 443-44, 472, 474-75, 483-84,
489, 490, 493, 496-501, 520, 547, 548
See also Dictatorship of the proletariat;
Period of transition from capitalism to
communism (socialism); Revolution, proletarian,
socialist
Communism (theories and trends)—59,
238-39, 447-48, 452, 457, 508
—in France—59, 238, 448
—in Germany—237
—in Switzerland—450, 451
Communist League—58-59, 237, 336,
457, 508-12
Communists, communist movement—59,
340, 417-18, 438-39, 448, 457
Competition—123, 188, 259-61, 266-67,
311-13, 319-20, 329-31
Concentration and centralisation of means
of production and of labour power—
496-97
Concept(ion)—195, 281, 284, 286
Confederation of the Rhine—26, 28
Congo, the— 267, 319
Connection (interconnection)—484, 506-
08
Consciousness—189, 204, 224, 232, 268,
269, 284, 300, 320-21, 324, 396, 442,
461, 511-13
See also Cognition; Communism (social
formation); Marxism; Notion;
Reason ; Reflection ; Self-consciousness ;
Socialism (communism), scientific;
Thinking, thought
Conservative Party (Great Britain)—
322
Conspiracy—188, 439
Constantinople—17, 24, 27, 41
Constitution (political)—81, 225
Consumption— 200
Content and form—227, 270-71, 288,
435, 510
Contradiction—17', 196, 198, 201, 210,
213, 284, 314, 423, 424, 457
Cooperation, cooperative movement—185,
188, 496-501
Copenhagen— 496
Corn Laws (in England)—258, 263,
296, 298, 308, 315
Corruption— 7, 189, 356-62, 483
Counter-revolution—181-82, 187, 244,
508
Coup d'état— 523, 544
Credit— 434, 497
Crete—44
Crimean war, 1853-56— 33, 36-39, 42
D
Danubian principalities—31, 33, 35
See also Wallachia
Darwinism— 212, 281
Deism— 285, 293
Democracy (social and political system)—
190-91, 509-10
Denmark— 35, 39, 43, 78
Despotism—15, 430-33, 483
Development (phil.)—3, 37, 44, 51, 57-
59, 66, 70, 81, 84, 180-81, 195, 201,
203-05, 209, 212, 238-39, 241, 243,
249, 259-62, 273, 274, 282-84, 289-
92, 297, 308, 313-14, 324, 329, 348,
365, 375, 376, 379, 380, 383, 386,
409, 418, 421-31, 436-38, 453, 456-
57, 469, 479, 484, 489, 498, 500,
506-07, 510, 512-14, 535
Dialectics—305
Dictatorship of the bourgeoisie—190
Dictatorship of the proletariat—184, 188-
90, 227, 242, 271-72, 275, 438, 442,
484, 493, 496, 500-01, 537, 547, 548
Diplomacy—28, 37-38, 243
Disarmament— 371-72, 373, 381, 392
Discipline— 410, 442, 515
Discoveries— 304-05
— geographical—201
Discussion—59, 405
Diseases (epidemics as a social phenomenon)—
131, 260, 312
Distribution— 201, 231, 434-36
Division of labour—188, 189, 282, 379
Doctrinairism, doctrinaires—187-88
Dogmatism
—religious—452-53, 457, 468-69
—in the working-class and socialist
movements—550
E
"Eastern question"—31-33, 41-43, 45-48
Economic crises—258, 262, 263, 265-67,
314, 317-19, 324-25, 438, 507, 510,
552
Economic history—507
Economic laws—117, 196, 257-58, 260,
266, 307, 313, 429
See also Law of the tendency of the rate
of profit to fall; Law of value; Law(s);
Economic relations—84, 295, 300, 307
•Economics and politics—28, 49, 231, 247,
292, 345, 484, 501, 506-08, 510-12
See also Economic relations; Politics
Economic struggle—49, 345
See also Factory legislation; Trade unions,
trade union movement
Education—201
Egypt— 31-33
Emigration— 54, 74, 336, 354, 355, 421,
450
England (Great Britain)—20, 65-66, 78,
82, 128, 131, 226, 228, 260-63, 265-
69, 285, 286, 291-300, 312-25, 393,
394, 483, 552
—industrial and trade monopoly—
42, 258, 263, 266-68, 308, 313,
315, 319, 329-30, 393, 546
— rise of industry and commerce in
the mid-19th cent.—126, 128-30,
258-61, 263-67, 299, 307, 308, 313,
316, 317, 431
—budget, finances, taxation—227,
263, 308, 316, 493
—economic crises—258, 263-67, 308,
316-19
—causes of industrial monopoly's decline—
260-61, 266, 313, 315, 319,
320
—Radical clubs (1880s-90s)—62, 63,
65
—Factory legislation—130, 316
— acts on factory coalitions and
unions—296
—bills regulating working hours—
259, 311
— fulfilment of some of the People's
Charter demands by the
bourgeoisie (latter half of the 19th
cent.)—284, 299-300, 317
—efforts to introduce the Free
T r a d e principles—262-64, 266,
314-15, 318, 330
— prerequisites and prospects of social
revolution—234, 261-63, 314-
15, 330
— t h e Established Church and religion—
286, 293, 295-97, 300
—colonial policy in Ireland—263,
316, 553
—foreign policy—21, 41-42, 393,
507, 546
—and France—294, 393
—and Poland — 34
—and Russia—42
—and US Civil War—128
English bourgeois revolution (17th
cent.)—291, 293, 511
Enlightenment, philosophers of—20, 22,
293
Equality— 225, 232, 264, 317
See also Freedom
Essence and appearance—290
Europe—Ab-49, 245, 371, 373, 433,
506, 512, 513
Exchange— 282, 289, 424, 426, 470, 509
Exploitation—224, 231-32, 259-60, 474,
500-02
Export of capital—324
Expropriation— 461
F
Fabian Society, Fabians—268, 321, 470,
550
Factory legislation—60, 259, 326
Family and marriage—203-14, 282, 348-
49, 486
Famine—246
Federation, state—228
Female labour—129, 265
Feudalism—$0, 223, 232, 289-92, 294,
297, 366, 437, 448, 455, 474, 478,
486, 521
See also Commune (community); Middle
Ages, the; Monarchy—absolute; Natural
economy ; Serfdom
Finland, Finns— 25, 27, 29
Force (violence)—225-29, 240-41, 245,
263, 271, 314, 438
Foreign policy—27-31, 37-38
Foreign trade—1, 258, 291, 298, 308,
310
—and England's monopoly on
foreign markets—257-58, 295, 308
Fourierism, Fourierists—59, 202, 213,
459
France—7, 19, 20, 23, 25-26, 28, 29-33,
39, 43, 47, 74, 81, 82, 177, 180-82,
185, 188, 226-28, 242-44, 246, 249,
260, 285, 292, 294, 297, 300, 354,
355, 373, 381, 388, 389, 391, 393,
396, 400, 417, 442, 472, 483-85, 487,
488, 491, 492, 494, 495, 508, 509,
512-15, 517, 533, 536, 537, 545, 546
See also Paris Commune of 1871;
Revolution of 1848 in France. Second
Republic ; Socialism, socialists in France ;
Working-class movement in France
Franco-Prussian War, 1870-71—1, 39-
41, 45, 179, 180, 182-84, 241-42,
373, 374, 391, 514, 515, 552
Freedom— 49, 83, 201-32, 285, 321-22,
406, 439, 442, 489-90, 505, 515-17,
520-22
See also Man, individual
Free Trade— 259, 266, 299, 311, 315,
319
See also Anti-Corn Law League; Competition;
Corn Laws (in England)
Freisinnige, the—8, 240, 543, 549
French Revolution (18th cent.)—23, 24,
47, 227, 228, 261, 275, 285, 292,
294-96, 486, 519, 538
French Workers' Party— 74, 75, 487-99,
520
See also Socialist movement in France
Frontiers (state)—475
G
Gaul— 523
General Association of German Workers—
58, 238
See also Lassalleanism, Lassalleans
Genoa, Genoese—30
Gens, gentile constitution—212, 425, 426
German Confederation (1815-66)—35,
513, 522
German Conservative Party (from
1876)—4, 7, 240, 331, 551
German Empire (after 1871) —3-10, 48,
49, 77, 179, 180, 223, 226-29, 232,
234, 239-42, 265, 317, 331, 362, 372,
373, 381, 391, 406, 501, 513-16, 520,
523, 544-47
—Anti-Socialist Law, 1878—3, 7, 10,
49, 78, 84-85, 179-80, 202, 226,
234, 239, 240, 306, 410, 472, 515,
552
—and prospects of European war—
5, 7, 9, 40, 48, 180, 241-43,
391-93, 544-45, 551
—and prospects of revolution—48,
234, 241, 302
—and France—42, 241, 242, 537
—and Poland—414
—and Russia—40, 42, 48, 180, 241-
44, 388, 414
—and the USA—330
See also Bourgeoisie—German;
Peasantry—German; Petty bourgeoisie—
German; Working class in
Germany
German Party of Progress (1861-84) —
240
Germans, ancient—282, 421
German Social Democrats—3, 6, 49,
69, 74, 84, 178, 239-42, 244, 373,
410, 417-18, 460, 514-16, 520-23,
547-53
—Social-Democratic Workers' Party,
the Eisenachers (1869-75)—239,
241
—and the International—220, 457-
58; see also International Working
Men's Association in Germany
—Gotha Unity Congress (1875) and
formation of Socialist Workers'
Party—92, 239, 278
—Gotha programme, criticism by
Marx and Engels—92-93, 219
—politics and tactics under the Anti-
Socialist Law (1878-90)—3-6, 10,
49, 67-71, 76-79, 239, 306, 405,
406, 410, 472, 478, 515, 553
—Wyden Congress, 1880—77
—Right, reformist wing—67-69, 77-
78, 84-85, 225-27, 479
—politics and tactics after the repeal
of the Anti-Socialist Law (1890-
9 5 ) _ 7 6 , 78-79, 85, 239-42, 244,
304, 306, 409-10, 472, 477-78, 515,
521-23, 544-45, 552-53
—Halle Congress, 1890—92
—Erfurt Congress, criticism of 1891
draft programme by Engels—217-
32
—Frankfurt am Main Congress,
1894—479
—the "Young"—67-71, 80-85
—participation in election campaign—
3-4, 10, 49, 79, 239-40,
396, 406-07, 409-10, 514-16, 546-
50, 552
—parliamentary activities—3, 68,
77, 84-85, 227, 238, 239, 271,
322, 484, 516, 547, 549, 551, 552
—attitude to war threat in Europe—
237, 244-45, 537, 543, 551
—and prospects of revolution in
Germany—239-41, 244-45, 271,
484, 523, 537, 547, 553
German Workers' Educational Society in
London (1840-1918)—254-55, 412,
504
German Workers' Society in Brussels
(from 1847)—194
Germany—8, 9, 19-20, 23-26, 35, 51,
81-83, 179, 223, 232, 241-42, 278,
281, 285, 291-92, 365, 382, 383, 394,
400, 409, 452, 459, 485, 501, 521
—fragmentation of, and task of unification—
19-20, 23, 264, 274,
365-66, 392, 501, 513, 523
—economic development—298, 313,
410
—industry—7, 260, 298, 308, 313,
410, 512, 514
—agriculture and agrarian relations—
421, 485-94, 501
—foreign trade—7, 298, 331, 546
—economic crises—233-34, 552
—political development—227-29,
232, 234, 290, 382, 431
—and France—19, 20, 23-26, 182
—and Hungary—265, 274, 317
—and Russia—19, 22-27, 49, 180,
365, 414
—and Sweden—19
See also Emigration; German Empire
(after 1871); Prussia; Revolution of
1848-49 in Germany; Working-class
movement in Germany
Gnosticism—454
God(s)— 205, 455, 463, 466-67
Gold and silver—291
Great Exhibition (London, 1851)—286
Greece—17, 27, 29-32, 44, 47
H
Handicraft, handicraftsmen—282, 485,
489, 495, 499
Hawaii—210
Hegel, Hegelianism— 238, 288, 305, 335
See also Young Hegelianism
Heresy— 294
Historical approach—14, 437, 442, 448,
489
Historical materialism, materialist conception
of history—84, 506-07
—the term "historical materialism"—
283, 289
See also Being; Class(es); Class struggle;
Consciousness; Economics and Politics;
Historical approach; History; Material
conditions of life; Production;
Productive forces
Historiography, historians— 128, 179,
203-14, 282, 292, 348, 448-60, 506
History— 289, 297, 478
—as a science—203-05, 212-13, 452-
53, 506-08
See also Historical materialism,
materialist conception of history; Historiography,
historians
Holland— 78, 291
Holy Alliance— 29-31
Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation
(962-1806)—19, 20, 23, 26,
290-91
See also Germany
Home policy— 37-38
Homoiomeriae (Anaxagoras)—283
Housing question—131, 260, 261, 312
Humanism—21, 262
Humanity— 31, 117, 186-87, 259, 311
Hungary— 35, 39, 47, 443-44, 512
—national question, national liberation
movement—265, 274, 317,
366
See also Austria-Hungary (from
1867); Emigration; Working-class and
socialist movement in Hungary
Hussite movement—448
Hypothesis— 209-11, 214, 286-88
I
Idea— 287, 300, 454
Ideological struggle in the working-class
movement— 58-60, 77-78, 84-85, 93,
238, 339-40, 353, 404, 458-59
Impoverishment of the working class—133-
34, 145-46, 201, 223
Income, revenue—436, 492
Independent Labour Party (England,
1893)—322, 470, 526
India— 42, 258, 308, 325, 330, 421,
425, 484
Indian mutiny of 1857-59—42
Individual, particular, universal, the—81,
189, 190, 283-85, 434
Induction—283
Industrial reserve army—265, 317
See also Impoverishment of the working
class ; Pauperism
Industrial revolution—296, 378, 410,
443, 512, 552
Industries—128-30
Infantry— 375, 377-78
See also Armaments, weapons; Army
Inner and outer, the—37, 287, 339,
424-25, 506, 507
Inquisition—51
Instruments of production—551
Intellectual, the—16, 17, 37, 195, 201,
231, 284, 285, 380, 383, 422, 453
Interests—15, 17, 20, 46, 181, 185,
189-90, 234, 238, 241, 262-63, 265,
293, 295-96? 315, 322, 398, 438-39,
461, 484, 492, 494, 497, 499, 507,
510-11, 533, 536
International Alliance of Socialist Democracy—
68, 343-46
See also Bakuninism, Bakuninists; International
Working Men's Association
(First International)
Internationalism, proletarian—60, 87-90,
180, 184, 193, 215, 275, 276, 340,
396-97, 398, 402, 477, 514
International, Second—193, 233, 234,
276, 326-27, 404-05
—1889 Paris congress of the revolutionary
socialists, its significance
and resolutions—60, 63, 75
—1893 Zurich congress, preparation
for, resolutions of—326-27,
404-05
International solidarity of workers—60,
87, 180, 215, 237, 275-76, 340, 398,
475
See also International Working Men's
h Association (First International); Internationalism,
proletarian; May Day;
Paris Commune of 1871; Working-class
movement
International Working Men's Association
(First International)—58, 59, 193,
276, 339-41, 345, 404, 448, 457-58,
513
—first programme documents (Inaugural
Address and Provisional
Rules)—58, 220, 340, 345
—and Franco-Prussian War, 1870-
71—40, 242, 513-14
—and the Paris Commune—187-89,
275-76
—struggle against Proudhonists and
Proudhonism—58-59, 187-88, 340,
345, 457, 514
— struggle against Lassalleans and
Lassalleanism—58-59
—struggle against Bakuninists and
Bakuninism—233, 344-46
—and Blanquists—457
—role played by Marx and Engels in
foundation and activities of—58,
193, 327, 339-41
—cessation of activities, causes of—
58, 193, 275, 340-41, 404
International Working Men's Association.
Congresses and Conferences
— Geneva Congress (1866) — 60,
345
—London Conference (1871)—68
—Hague Congress (1872)—233, 340,
346, 404
International Working Men's Association
in Belgium—457
International Working Men's Association
in France— 58-59, 187-89, 275-76,
340-41, 457, 513
International Working Men's Association
in Germany—58, 457
International Working Men's Association
in Italy—S46, 457
International Working Men's Association
in Spain—457
Inventions—46, 117, 200
Iran— 43, 448
Ireland— 263, 316, 421, 553
Irish question—228
"Irony of history"— 21, 48, 187-88, 513,
522
Islam—289, 448
Israel—463
Italian Socialist Party—437-40, 472, 477,
478
Italian War—see Austro-Italo-French war,
1859
Italy—$0, 31, 39, 227, 265, 274, 317,
356-62, 365, 366, 390, 400, 437, 438,
478, 483, 533
J
Jacobin dictatorship, Jacobins (May 31,
1793-July 27-28, 1794)—47, 245,
292, 294, 295, 538
Jesuits—14, 15, 18, 21, 116
See also Catholicism
Jews—52, 82, 385, 459, 463, 465, 468
Judaism— 452-57, 459, 460, 462-65,
467-69
June insurrection of the Paris proletariat of
1848—181, 509, 511, 517-518
Junkers, Prussian—8, 389, 501-02
See also Nobility—German
K
Kant, Kantianism—287
Khiva—43
L
Labour—195, 200, 201, 496
See also Child's labour; Division of
labour; Exploitation; Female labour;
Labour conditions of workers; Labour
power; Means of labour; Organisation
of social labour and production ; Production;
Social labour; Wage labour;
Working day
Labour aristocracy— 62, 265-69, 317-21
See also Reformism; Trade unionism;
Trade unions in England
Labour conditions of workers—127-30,
231, 232
See also Child's labour; Exploitation;
Female labour; Labour; Labour power;
Worker (as an agent of production);
Working day
Labour power—195-201, 259-61, 312
See also Labour; Worker (as an agent of
production)
Land— 423, 490, 495-500
Landed property— 54, 57, 282, 296, 421,
423-28, 460, 479, 486-502
See also Landowner; Lease, tenant;
Mortgage ; Rent
Landowner— 201, 436, 443
Language—18, 295, 298, 341
Large-scale industry—89, 98, 188, 273,
307-09, 317, 366, 386, 425, 486, 489,
512
Lassalleanism, Lassalleans—58-59, 67,
69, 92, 116-17, 219, 238-39, 417, 515
See also German Social Democrats;
International Working Men's Association
(First International)
Latifundia—437, 460
Law of the tendency of the rate of profit to
fall— 436
Law of value—196, 266, 318
Law, right— 22, 23, 39, 42, 205-09, 212,
294, 300, 421, 426, 460, 489-90, 498,
521
See also Legislation; Suffrage
Law(s)—196, 260, 266, 278, 285-86,
288, 297, 305, 313, 318, 434, 490
Lawyers—115, 214
Lease, tenant—487, 492, 495
Legislation—85, 98, 486
Liberalism— 181
Liberal Party (Britain) —66, 264, 299,
316, 322
Literature— 28, 81, 115, 134, 204-06,
366, 449-50, 474
—drama, dramatic art—83
— poetry—28, 366
Lithuania, Lithuanians—18, 25
Living conditions of workers under capitalism—
130, 259, 311, 317-18, 443-44
Logic—137, 145, 197, 223, 278, 324
London— 61, 65, 266, 268, 269, 301,
318, 321, 489
Lorraine—7, 4 1 , 45, 180, 242, 243, 373,
392, 514, 537, 552
Lumpenproletariat— 438
Lutheranism—291
M
Machinery (machine production)—123,
197, 265, 282, 317-19, 423, 461, 492
Management of production—224, 413,
424
See also Organisation of social labour
and production; Planned production;
State, the #
Man, individual— 30, 83, 84, 199, 224,
254, 285, 291, 313, 329, 379, 380,
383, 390, 431, 437, 444
See also Communism (social formation);
Consciousness ; Development
(phil.); Freedom; Humanism; Labour;
Mankind; Nature; Production; Society;
Thinking, thought
Mankind— 210, 262, 457, 546
Market— 234, 247, 248, 258, 267, 319,
324-25, 330, 331
See also Foreign trade; Trade, commerce;
World market
Marxism—58, 59, 70, 111, 188, 273,
313, 417, 477, 512, 550
See also Dialectics; Historical materialism,
materialist conception of history;
Marxist political economy; Socialism
(communism), scientific
Marxist political economy—195, 196, 198
See also "Capital" by Karl Marx;
"Capital", Vol. I; "Capital", Vol. IT,
"Capital", Vol. Ill; "Capital", Vol. IV
Material conditions of life—30, 205, 231,
489
Materialism— 81, 283-89, 293-95, 300,
461
See also Dialectics; Historical materialism,
materialist conception of history;
Matter, material ; Philosophy—
English,— French,— Greek
Mathematics— 252, 300, 454-55, 465
—arithmetic—380, 514
—geometry—284, 454-55, 465, 466
Matter, material—111, 231, 297, 301,
305, 489, 518
May Day (the day of the international
solidarity of workers)—201, 394-99,
400
Mazzinism, Mazzinists—39, 340
Means of communication—231, 258, 299,
308, 458
Means of labour— 220, 223, 231, 486
Means of production—197, 271, 282,
387, 417, 424-26, 470, 489-90, 508-
09, 547, 551
Mechanical movement—283, 285
Mechanics— 290
Mecklenburg—485, 521
Merchants-*- 30
Metaphysics— 84
Method (phil.)—80-81, 283, 506-07
Middle Ages, the— 289, 297, 366
Militarism— 7, 46, 48, 177-78, 371-73,
390, 393, 514
Mind—16, 17, 37, 195, 201, 231, 284,
285, 380, 383, 422, 453
Mode of production— 289, 437, 486, 497,
499-500
Moldavia— 27, 35
Monarchy—189, 190, 295
—absolute—21, 22, 226, 232, 295,
335
Money circulation—356-62, 432
Money economy—486
Monopolies—5, 185, 224, 330
—trusts—202, 224, 330
Monopoly prices—7
Monotheism—467-69
Montenegro— 41
Morality— 266, 281, 300, 340, 518
Mortgage— 495-97
Moscow—18, 273
Motion— 281, 283, 285, 288
Mythology— 205-06, 469
N
Napoleonic wars—16, 27-28, 179, 244,
373, 390, 520
Narodism, Narodniks in Russia—39, 54,
421-33
Nation— 47, 188, 269, 293, 321, 365,
460, 501, 513
Nationalisation of land—424, 426, 488,
489, 496-500
Nationalism—298
National Liberals (Germany, from
1866)—4, 9, 240, 551
National liberation war of 1848-49 in
Hungary— 35, 297
National movement—274, 365-66
National question—18, 46-47, 215, 242-
43, 274, 365, 366, 398, 437, 513,
537-38, 552
See also Colonies, colonial policy; Dictatorship
of the proletariat; Internationalism,
proletarian; Irish question;
National movement: Polish question;
Working-class movement
Natural economy—486
Natural science—283-88
Natur«—284, 290, 474
Navy— 42, 295, 393, 546
See also War(s)
Necessity und chance—5, 41, 196, 267,
320, 442, 511
Needs, wants— 282, 298, 373, 386, 511
Neo-Kantianism— 287
Neo-Platonism—453
See also Alexandrian school of
philosophy
Neutrality (in international relations)—
23, 42
Nobility— 30, 442
—German—4, 5, 7, 8, 115, 183, 409
—Polish —18, 274
— Russian—37, 248, 383, 386, 387,
534
Nominalism—283-85
Northern war, 1700-21—17
Norway— 24, 27, 29, 81, 82
See also Bourgeoisie—Norwegian;
Peasantry— Norwegian
Notion—454
O
Officials—189, 247
Opportunism (in socialist movement)—
70, 85, 191, 225-30, 479-80, 488-96,
498, 499
See also Reformism; Trade unionism
(views)
Organisation of social labour and production—
188, 224, 231, 282-83, 496-501
Orient, the— 30, 448, 473
Owenism, Owenites— 59, 202, 268, 285,
320, 425
See also Socialism, socialists in England
P
Paganism, pagans—449, 456-58, 467,
523
Palestine—453
Pan-Slavism—45, 247
Paper money—356, 432
Paris—180-81, 188, 518
Paris Commune of 1871—177, 179, 180,
183-92, 244, 275-76, 340, 404, 441,
513-14
Parliament, British—100, 139, 295, 299
— two-party system as an instrument
of the ruling classes' domination—
189, 322, 323
Parliament (in bourgeois state) — 322-
23, 417, 505, 516, 546
See also Suffrage
Party of the Centre (Germany, from
1870)—4, 8-9, 240, 543, 551
Party, political— 70, 71, 84, 362, 417,
478, 507, 522
Party, proletarian— 3, 6, 10, 48-49, 69-
71, 76-79, 84, 87-90, 92-93, 191, 215,
219-20, 224-32, 237, 240-42, 244-45,
251, 271-72, 278, 282, 296, 373, 395,
404-07, 410, 417, 438-40, 442, 451,
470, 477-80, 483-502, 505, 508-09,
515-23, 543, 547-53
See also Communist League; Communists,
communist movement; Marxism
Patriotism—177
Pauperism— 129
Peasant risings—291
Peasantry— 29, 223, 224, 231, 232, 290,
291, 410, 437, 438, 443, 460, 461,
479, 481-501, 512, 513, 521, 522, 535
— Belgian—485
—Danish—496
—English—127, 291, 292, 483
—French—82, 248-49, 291, 484-87,
495, 496, 512, 513, 521, 535
—German—290-91, 485-88, 491-92,
496-502
— Hungarian—443
— Irish—267, 483
— Italian—437-39, 474, 483
— Norwegian—82
—Polish —18
— Prussian—290-91, 483, 485, 502
— Russian—38, 248-50, 427, 431,
433, 483, 534-35; see also Commune
(community)—in Russia;
Russia
—Spanish—82, 483
Peasant War in Germany, 1524-25—290,
448
Period of transition from capitalism to
communism (socialism)—54, 57, 189-
90, 201, 227, 242, 271-72, 395, 398,
413, 418, 423-30, 433, 438, 441,
443-44, 484, 493, 496-500, 509, 511-
12, 537, 547, 552-53
See also Dictatorship of the proletariat;
Party, proletarian
Perception— 284-85, 286-88
Petty bourgeoisie— 50, 81-82, 223, 224,
231, 232, 410, 438, 512, 513, 521
—Austrian—50
—English—315
— French —82, 181
—German—50, 81-82, 521
— Prussian — 50
Philosophy—190, 238, 261, 278-81, 283,
293, 343
—English—283-85, 289, 393
—French—285, 294, 297
—German—84, 190, 261, 278-81,
295, 314; see also Hegel, Hegelianism;
Kant, Kantianism
—Greek—283, 453, 469
—Roman—453
See also Dialectics; Historical materialism,
materialist conception of history;
Materialism ; Metaphysics
Physics— 283, 290, 305
Physiology— 290, 305
Planned production— 201, 224, 231, 425
See also Communism (social formation);
Management of production; Organisation
of social labour and production
Plebeians, plebs— 291, 448
Poland—18-20, 22-24, 28, 29, 33, 34,
36, 47, 273-74, 391, 512
Polish national uprising, 1863-64—39,
273
See also Poland; Polish question
Polish question—24, 33, 35, 242, 274
Political economy—194-98
See also Bourgeois political economy;
Marxist political economy
Political struggle—345, 442, 507
Political system—49, 54, 225-26
Politics—189, 271, 361, 362, 382, 437
Popular masses, people—47, 204, 212,
438, 511, 515, 516, 518-20
Population—16, 197, 265, 381, 383,
483, 485
Possibilism, Possibilists—188
Possibility— 201, 246, 258, 267, 308,
320, 371, 372, 424-30, 433, 469,
512-14, 543
Prerequisites— 341, 435, 448, 497, 502
Press, the— 76-77, 251, 404, 439, 505
Prevision, forecasting—7, 9-10, 41-49,
57, 178-80, 224, 241-45, 260-61, 271-
72, 305, 325, 329-31, 393, 426-27,
433, 474-75, 496, 499, 500, 507-14,
552
Principles—4, 185, 281, 284-85, 405,
461
—communist and socialist—58, 77,
238-39, 405, 488, 492
Private property—SO, 54, 183, 188, 223,
425-26, 489-90, 495-500
Production— 82, 231, 249, 282, 329,
413, 424-25, 435, 484, 485, 497-98,
500, 506
See also Productive forces
Productive forces—202, 425-26
Product of labour—199-200, 231
Profit— 436
Progress— 258, 288, 308, 311, 489
Proletariat's tactics in class struggle—438-
40, 492, 515-16, 520
See also Class struggle; Communists,
communist movement; German Social
Democrats; Socialist movement, international
(after the First International);
Working-class movement
Proof— 287
Propaganda— 47, 194, 195, 220, 477,
516, 521
Property— 282, 417, 421, 423-25, 486,
487, 489-90, 497, 508, 547
See also Appropriation; Private property
Protectionism— 329-30, 536
See also Taxes, taxation
Protestantism— 290-91, 468
See also Church; Reformation
Proudhonism, Proudhonists—58-59, 187-
88, 192, 340, 345, 417, 457, 514
Prussia—7-9, 19-28, 33, 35, 39, 40, 42,
180, 225-27, 240, 243, 373, 380, 392,
485, 501, 513, 544-45
See also Confederation of the Rhine;
German Empire (after 1871); German
Social Democrats; Germany; Workingclass
movement in Germany
Public opinion—24, 26, 37, 268, 321
Q
Quality and quantity—199
R
Radicalism, radicals—188, 192, 335
Railways— 258, 299, 308, 427, 431, 458
Rate of profit— 434, 436
Rate of surplus value—436
Raw materials—197
Reality, the real—15, 17, 20, 70, 117, 196,
204, 246, 287, 304, 305, 417, 439-40,
453, 469, 490, 511, 521
Reason—192, 283-84, 286, 511
Reflection—205
Reformation
—as a form of bourgeois revolution—
81, 290, 302
See also Calvinism; Lutheranism; Protestantism
Reformism—64, 226-27, 265-66, 268-69,
301, 321
See also Lassalleanism, Lassalleans;
Opportunism (in socialist movement);
Possibilism, Possibilists; Proudhonism,
Proudhonists; Trade unionism (views)
Relativity—133-34, 146
Religion—184, 185, 205, 229, 286, 289-
91, 293-95, 297, 300-01, 447-49, 452-
53, 455-59, 461, 467-69
See also Atheism; Calvinism; Catholicism;
Christianity; Church; Clergy;
Deism; God(s); Islam; Judaism;
Lutheranism; Mythology; Protestantism;
Reformation ; Theology
Rent— 436
Republic—18, 189, 478
—bourgeois—181, 227
—proletarian—181, 227; see also
Dictatorship of the proletariat; Paris
Commune of 1871
Revolution—59, 188, 225, 433, 438,
509-11, 520-23
See also Prevision, forecasting; Revolutionary
situation, revolutionary
crisis; Revolution as continuous process;
Revolution, bourgeois, bourgeoisdemocratic;
Revolution, proletarian,
socialist; War(s)
Revolutionary phrase-mongering—233
Revolutionary situation, revolutionary
crisis— 263, 315
See also Revolution
Revolution as continuous process—271,
438-49, 509-12
Revolution, bourgeois, bourgeoisdemocratic—
180-81, 261, 271, 274,
290-97, 314, 316, 365-66, 438-40,
486, 507-12, 520
See also English bourgeois revolution
(17th cent.); France; French Revolution
(18th cent.); Reformation; Revolution as
continuous process; Revolution, social;
Revolutions of 1848-49 in Europe; US
Civil War, 1861-65; War of North
American Colonies for Independence,
1775-83
Revolution, economic—38, 44, 271
See also Industrial revolution
Revolution of 1848-49 in Austria—34,
35, 365, 509, 517
Revolution of 1848 in France. Second
Republic—180-82, 263, 265, 297, 315,
317, 336, 339, 365-66, 417, 438-40,
484, 507-12
Revolution of 1848-49 in Germany—34-
35, 49, 66, 76, 82, 194, 237-38, 265,
274, 292, 297, 336, 339, 365-66, 507,
509, 511, 516-17
Revolution of 1848-49 in Hungary—35,
194, 297
Revolution of 1848-49 in the Italian
states—214, 297, 365-66, 509
Revolution, proletarian, socialist—48, 5 1 ,
59, 88, 189-91, 201, 225-29, 231-32,
240-42, 262, 271-72, 275, 301-02,
314, 413, 425, 433, 438-44, 483-84,
486-87, 495-500, 502, 509-13, 520,
522-23, 538, 547
See also Communism (social formation);
Dictatorship of the proletariat;
Internationalism, proletarian; June insurrection
of the Paris proletariat of
1848; Paris Commune of 1871
Revolution, social— 38, 44, 88, 178, 245,
261, 276, 314
Revolutions of 1848-49 in Europe—13,
34-35, 44, 54, 263, 264, 274, 297,
315, 317, 336, 365-66, 507-12,
516-18
Rhine Province—25, 51, 182, 332, 486
Right to work— 508
Romania, Romanians—17, 29, 4 1 , 44,
47
Roumelia (Eastern)—41
Russia (Russian Empire)—7, 16-50, 53-
54, 57, 233-34, 242-43, 245-50, 273,
355, 383-88, 402, 418, 421-33, 512,
521, 534-37, 545, 546
Russo-Swedish war, 1808-09—27
Russo-Turkish war, 1806-12—27, 28
Russo-Turkish war, 1828-29—32-33
Russo-Turkish war, 1877-78—41, 44,
545
Russo-Turkish wars of 1768-74 and 1787-
91—23
S
Saint-Simonism, Saint-Simonists— 87,
202, 459, 537
Saxony—485
Schleswig-Holstein— 243, 392, 485
Schleswig-Holsteinian question—35, 39,
243, 392
School— 229, 379, 391
Science—145, 195, 200, 203, 212, 219,
261, 281, 283-85, 287-88, 290, 293-
94, 304-05, 313, 341, 429, 452-53,
552
See also Discoveries; History; Natural
science; Philosophy; Political economy;
Socialism (communism), scientific
Scotland—291
Sectarianism— 59, 64-65, 457-60, 512
Self-consciousness—457
Sensualism— 283, 285, 287
Serfdom— 290-91, 479
Servia, Servians—17, 27, 29, 4 1 , 44, 47
Seven Years' War, 1756-63—21
Sicily— 474, 483
Slavery— 231, 474
Slavs—17, 30, 34, 44, 47
Small-scale production—129-30, 282
Social-Democratic Federation (England,
1884)—63-65, 74-75, 470, 550
See also Socialist movement in England
Socialisation of the means of production—
417, 424, 426, 470, 490, 508-09, 551
Socialism (communism), scientific—58-59,
187-88, 192, 219, 261, 271, 272,
278-82, 313, 402, 404, 417-18, 477,
490, 508, 512, 550, 552
—the term "scientific socialism"—58,
187, 261, 313
Socialism in Germany (theories and
trends)
— and the working-class movem
e n t — 2 3 Ö , 300; see also Communist
League; Lassalleanism, Lassalleans;
Weitlingianism, Weitlingians
—struggle against bourgeois and
petty-bourgeois interpretations of
socialism—67, 69, 84; see also
Armchair (Katheder) socialism; Lassalleanism,
Lassalleans; "State
socialism"
See also Communism (theories and
trends)—in Germany
Socialism, socialists in England—268-69,
286, 301, 320-22, 327
See also Fabian Society, Fabians ; Social-
Democratic Federation (England,
1884); Socialist movement in England
Socialism, socialists in France—59, 192,
417, 440
See also Communism (theories and
trends)—in France; Fourierism,
Fourierists; French Workers' Party; Possibilism,
Possibilists ; Proudhonism,
Proudhonists ; Saint-Simonism, Saint-
Simonists
Socialism, socialists in Russia—402, 418,
422, 431
See also Narodism, Narodniks in Russia
Socialism (theories and trends)—51, 59,
67, 69, 84, 192, 219, 237-38, 261,
268, 269, 278, 313, 320, 322, 327,
439, 440, 447-48, 457, 508, 512
See also Communism (theories and
trends); Socialism in Germany (theories
and trends); Socialism, socialists in
England; Socialism, socialists in France;
Socialism, socialists in Russia; Socialist
movement, international ; Working-class
and socialist movement in Italy
Socialism, Utopian—59, 238, 509
See also Fourierism, Fourierists; Owenism,
Owenites; Saint-Simonism, Saint-
Simonists
Socialist movement in England
—at the initial stage—285; see also
Owenism, Owenites ; Socialism,
socialists in England;
—conditions necessary for the
emergence of mass socialist movement—
268, 321, 330
—revival and character of, in the
1880s—62, 66, 268, 269, 320-21,
391, 395, 405; see also Social-
Democratic Federation
—influence of Marxism—63, 550
— a n d the Second International—63,
74, 75
See also Fabian Society, Fabians; Independent
Labour Party (England, 1893)
Socialist movement in France—237, 242,
276, 300, 355, 396, 414, 417, 472,
484, 494, 496, 520, 521
See also French Workers' Party; Possibilism,
Possibilists; Socialism, socialists
in France; Working-class movement in
France
Socialist movement, international (after
the First International)—45, 60, 87,
193, 215, 245-46, 271, 273, 275, 276,
301, 327, 398, 402, 409, 417, 438,
440, 458, 470, 492, 496, 508-09, 512,
514-16, 520, 522, 549, 551
See also International, Second; Party,
proletarian; Working-class movement
Socialist Workers' Party of Spain—326,
470, 478
See also Working class and socialist
movement in Spain
Social labour— 491-500
Social system—181, 185, 201, 444, 520
Society—189-90, 197, 201, 213, 224,
226, 227, 229, 231-32, 261, 267, 289,
291-92, 314, 319, 384, 422-26, 448,
474, 478, 508, 547
—primitive—203, 206-07, 211-14,
348, 421, 425
—slave-owning—447, 478
—feudal—288-89, 293, 448
—bourgeois—51, 181, 185, 200-01,
260, 285, 293-301, 311, 423, 424,
426, 436, 468, 477-78
See also Antiquity; Capitalist mode of
production; Civilisation; Clan; Commune
(community); Communism, primitive;
Corruption; Exploitation; Feudalism;
Gens, gentile constitution; Impoverishment
of the working class;
Labour conditions of workers; Middle
Ages, the; Pauperism; Productive forces;
Social system; State, bourgeois; Town and
country ; Tribe(s)
Sophism— 324
Spain—29, 30, 31, 82, 400, 414, 419,
420, 515, 517
Spanish Working Men's Socialist Party—
see Socialist Workers' Party of Spain
Sparta— 478
Speculation (econ.)—246, 436
Spiritualism—284, 288
State, bourgeois—189-92, 489-90, 516
State power—188-89, 247, 516
State, slave-owning—460
"State socialism"—230
State, the—184-85, 189-90, 227-30, 274-
75, 417, 418, 447, 453, 478, 510, 521,
523
Statistics—506
Stock Exchange— 51, 246, 263, 308, 315,
436
Stoicism (Stoics)—453, 461
St. Petersburg—17', 234
Subject and object—284
Substance—284
Suffrage—190, 229, 240, 264, 297,
299, 322, 395, 399, 406-07, 439, 442,
505, 515-16, 520-22, 550
Surplus profit—436
Surplus value—200, 259, 312, 410,
434-36
Sweden—17, 20, 24, 27-29
Switzerland—78, 228, 515, 521
Syria, Syrians—454
T
Tartars— 17
Taxes, taxation—5, 230, 493, 509
Terrorism— 47', 186-87, 294-95, 430
Theology— 283-85, 324, 452, 453, 459,
469
Theory and practice—59, 195, 212, 219,
238, 261, 266, 286-89, 294, 313, 319,
324, 488, 494, 495, 506, 512
" Thing-in-itself" (Kant)—288
Thinking, thought— 283, 284, 287, 288,
457
Thirty Years' War, 1618-48—19, 23, 82
Town and country—290, 317, 448, 460,
483, 496, 552
Trade, commerce—251, 258, 299, 308,
506
Trade unionism (views)—64-65, 265,
268-69, 321
See also Reformism
Trade unions (coalitions) in Germany—
240
See also Working-class movement in
Germany
Trade unions in England—58, 59, 62-65,
72-75, 130, 233, 263-69, 297, 301,
311, 318, 321, 322, 326, 340, 394,
470
See also Working-class movement in
England
Trade unions, trade union movement—97-
98, 130
—criticism of trade union leaders'
views—65, 265, 268-69, 318, 321
See also Economic struggle; Trade unions
in England; Trade unions (coalitions)
in Germany
Traditions— 294, 300-01, 377, 378
Treaty of Unkiar-Skelessi, 1833—33
Tribe(s)— 208, 209, 211, 460
See also Commune (community); Gens,
gentile constitution; Germans, ancient;
Popular masses, people; Society—
primitive
Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria-
Hungary, Italy)—46
Truck system— 259, 261, 311, 313
See also Commodity production ; Product
of labour
Truth—190, 261, 287-88, 314, 324, 453
Tsarism, autocracy in Russia—14, 15, 37,
44, 46, 242, 430, 432-33
Turkey—17-18, 24, 27, 30, 31-32, 41,
44, 45, 47
U
Ukraine, Ukrainians—18, 24
Unevenness of capitalist development—54,
260-61, 265, 312-13, 315, 329-31
United States of America, the—54, 189,
226-27, 258, 260, 297, 298, 308, 329
Universe, the—-286, 288
Uprising, armed—365, 517-20
See also Arming of the people; June
insurrection of the Paris proletariat of
1848; Paris Commune of 1871; Peasant
risings; Revolution, proletarian,
socialist
Urquhartism, Urquhartists—13-14
US Civil War, 1861-65—128
Usury, usurers— 249, 386, 427, 461, 486,
490-91, 494, 535
—usurer's capital—490
V
Value—195, 200
Vatican— 361-62
Venice, Venetians—30
Vienna—407
Vienna Congress of 1814-15 and treaties
of 1815—28
See also Holy Alliance
Vladimir—273
W
Wage labour— 51, 98, 500, 508
Wages—117, 123, 197, 199-200, 259,
266, 311, 313, 318, 436, 487
Wal es—129
Wallachia—21, 35
War of Austrian Succession, 1740-48—
241
War of Bavarian Succession, 1778-79—
23, 25-26
War of North American Colonies for
Independence, 1775-83—23
War(s)— 5, 7, 9, 40-47, 49, 87, 180,
208, 242-43, 245-46, 371, 372, 392,
393, 429, 441, 513-14, 520, 534, 545,
546, 551
Wars of First French Republic (late 18thearly
19th cent.)—23-25
Wealth— 223, 231
Weitlingianism, Weitlingians—59, 238,
271, 448, 450-51, 457
White Russia (Byelorussia)—18, 24
Will— 37, 291, 329, 365, 373, 395, 495,
497, 523-24
Worker (as an agent of production)—
98, 195, 197-201, 232, 233, 260-61,
266, 282, 311, 499
See also Agricultural workers; Exploitation;
Labour; Labour power; Wage
labour; Wages; Working class; Working
day
Working class— 4, 38, 51, 59-61, 65, 89,
197, 200, 224, 225, 231, 232, 259-60,
262, 264, 273, 296, 312, 317, 365-66,
395, 398, 410, 438, 442, 443, 483-87,
489, 495, 498-99, 512-14, 521
See also Agricultural workers; Class
struggle; Dictatorship of the proletariat;
Internationalism, proletarian ; Party,
proletarian ; Popular masses, people ; Revolution,
bourgeois, bourgeoisdemocratic
; Revolution, proletarian,
socialist; Working-class movement (in
various countries)
Working-class and socialist movement in
Austria— 61, 251, 303, 365, 396-99,
407, 442, 505
See also Austrian Social Democrats;
May Day
Working-class and socialist movement in
Belgium— 478, 484, 521
See also International Working Men's
Association in Belgium
Working-class and socialist movement in
Bohemia—398
Working-class and socialist movement in
Denmark—14, 496, 521
Working-class and socialist movement in
Holland—74
Working-class and socialist movement in
Hungary— 89-90, 353, 443-44
Working-class and socialist movement in
Italy— 366, 437-40, 472-74, 477-78,
521
See also International Working Men's
Association in Italy; Italian Socialist
Party
Working-class and socialist movement in
Portugal— 74
Working-class and socialist movement in
Romania— 402, 521, 552
Working-class and socialist movement in
Spain— 74, 192, 230, 326, 327, 400-
01, 414, 470, 478
See also International Working Men's
Association in Spain; May Day
Working-class and socialist movement in
Sweden— 74
Working-class and socialist movement in
Switzerland— 450, 478, 521
Working-class and socialist movement in
the Polish lands— 273-74
Working class in England—62, 65-66,
128, 264-69, 297-301, 316-18, 320-
23, 330, 395
Working class in France—43, 60, 180-85,
297, 365-66, 511-14
See also June insurrection of the Paris
proletariat of 1848; Paris Commune of
1871
Working class in Germany—8, 82, 299,
300, 302, 552
—rural workers—485, 491, 501, 552
Working class in Holland—330
Working class in Italy— 366, 437, 438
Working class in Scotland—127
Working class in Spain—400-01
Working class in the USA—54, 260, 297,
313
Working-class movement—4, 54, 59-61,
65, 73, 87-90, 97-98, 130, 180, 192,
193, 202, 215, 223, 224, 231-33,
239-44, 251, 273-76, 299-300, 303,
321-22, 340, 345, 396, 398, 399, 402,
406-07, 410, 438-39, 442, 447, 451,
474-75, 505, 513-17, 521-22, 546-48
See also Chartism, Chartist movement;
Class struggle; Communist League; International,
Second; International solidarity
of workers; International Working
Men's Association (First International);
May Day; Party, proletarian;
Proletariat's tactics in class struggle;
Trade unions, trade union movement;
Working class
Working-class movement in England
(Great Britain)—51, 61-66, 268-69,
296-97, 299-301, 316, 320-22, 326-
27, 394, 395, 405
See also Chartism, Chartist movement;
May Day; Socialist movement in England;
Trade unions in England
Working-class movement in France—183
See also French Workers' Party; International
Working Men's Association in
France; June insurrection of the Paris
proletariat of 1848; May Day; Paris
Commune of 1871; Socialist movement
in France
Working-class movement in Germany—76-
77, 85, 93, 237-41, 302, 305, 322,
514, 515
See also Communist League; General
Association of German Workers; German
Social Democrats; International
Working Men's Association in Germany;
Trade unions (coalitions) in Germany
Working-class movement in Russia—53
Working-class movement in the USA—
260, 297, 313
Working day—60, 200, 259, 260, 265,
313, 318, 326
See also Child's labour; Female labour
World (phil.)—284, 286-87
World market—1, 258, 267-68, 308, 324,
329-31, 430, 506
—England's monopoly of—258, 263,
266-68, 308, 313, 315, 319, 329-30
World outlook—294
—Marxist—70, 80, 83
Y
Young Hegelianism—332-35






MECW VOL 28





A
Abstraction— 37-45, 75, 80-81, 101, 107-
09, 153-55, 157-58, 166, 179-81, 222-
23, 229-30, 232, 253, 256, 284, 334,
353-54, 362, 412
— economic category as an abstract
form of real relations—8, 9,
38-45, 165, 179-80, 256, 354-55,
413
— abstract determinations—223, 334
— abstract and concrete—37-42
Accountancy and book-keeping—80, 90,
93, 96
Accumulation of capital—165-66, 205,
2.45, 268, 271, 273, 292, 298, 299,
313, 319, 320, 321, 345, 361, 373,
430, 431, 455-56, 508-10
— in the form of money—73, 100,
118, 134, 151, 162-66, 178, 182,
184, 214, 388, 427-28, 436
— in the form of commodities—165
— and surplus value—370-72
— and production—372, 373
— primitive—245, 388, 427-28
— bourgeois economists on—271,
274, 276-78, 296, 298, 427
Advanced capital— 306, 313, 314, 316,
319-22, 356, 357, 455
Agriculture— 43-44, 106, 188, 206-09,
225, 253-54, 287, 399, 400, 402, 405,
409, 412-16, 417, 418, 432, 450-52,
468-69, 508, 521-22
Alienation— 87, 97-98, 158, 233, 235,
248, 381, 382-83, 389-90, 412, 438,
439, 465
America— 35, 112, 120, 159, 208, 415
See also United States of America, the
Anatomy—42
Antiquity— 40, 46-48, 94-96, 109-10,
127, 155-57, 158, 162-63, 176-77,
362, 401-04, 405-07, 410-11, 417,
418, 425, 435, 452-53, 523, 526
See also Rome, Ancient; Community,
commune; Greece, ancient; Slavery;
Tribal system
Army—15-16, 40, 45, 84, 116, 117, 119,
156, 395-96, 453
See also War
Art— 30, 38, 46-48, 109, 163, 212, 231,
328
Asia—116, 120, 159, 161, 163, 213,
406, 414, 455
Australia—120-21, 208
B
Banknotes— 51, 56-60, 63-65, 69-71,
73, 90-92, 163
Banks— 51-52, 55-60, 62-64, 68-71. 96,
121, 130, 163, 210, 216-17, 257-58,
378
Barter— 80, 86, 87, 103, 110, 116, 127,
132-33, 135, 139-40, 149, 158, 237
Basis and superstructure—45-48, 391,
464
See also Law, legislation; Relations of
production; Religion; State, the
Bill of exchange, rate of exchange—45,
51-52, 56-58, 59, 62, 69, 70, 96, 98,
171
Bourgeois political economy—5-7, 10, 11,
13-15, 17. 18, 23-28, 30-34, 37-38,
40-42, 65, 87, 106, 132-33, 165,
172, 179-82, 189, 195, 203, 204, 219,
220, 229, 247, 251-56, 259, 324,
337-39, 343, 344, 388, 428, 436, 481,
500-02, 510, 535
Byzantium— 430
C
California—121
Capital—182, 222-23, 437, 443-44
— as a relation of production—188-
89, 195, 206, 228, 229, 230, 235,
243, 480
— its physical substance and
economic form—23, 235, 236,
247, 292, 510-11
— as dominating power, in bourgeois
society—44, 256, 435, 455,
506-10
— appropriation of alien labour—
170, 255, 384-87, 390, 399, 508
— genesis of—184, 236, 246, 387,
391-92, 396-97, 399, 412, 422,
427-36, 438, 452, 506-07
— basis of capitalist production —
234, 237-40, 243, 245, 246, 456,
459, 468, 480
— tendencies of development—326,
337-38, 342, 424-25, 451, 463-64,
466-67
— and value—158, 168, 180, 181,
182, 183, 185, 189-91, 193, 196,
199, 201, 205, 224, 229, 232,
233, 235-39, 242-44, 249, 253,
257, 264-67, 272, 278, 283, 284,
289, 292, 311, 312, 315-22, 326,
330-32, 334, 350, 351, 376,
436, 455, 458, 460-63, 465, 468-71,
528
— and labour—189, 197-98, 202,
204-06, 208-09, 211-13, 220-25,
227-38, 242-45, 247-49, 250,
275, 282, 289-92, 331, 333, 346,
350, 382-86, 397-99, 412, 421-24,
427-30, 433, 434, 435, 439,
441, 444, 452, 457, 469, 473,
474, 498-501, 504, 507-10, 512,
514
— and surplus labour—267, 271,
282, 289-90, 324-27, 336, 340,
345, 349, 350, 361, 381, 382, 457,
508, 535
— and surplus value—260, 269-73,
293-96, 329, 334, 350, 369-73,
379-81, 442
— and development of productive
forces—204-06, 234-35, 250, 251,
265-66, 272, 317-21, 326, 336-38,
342, 351, 463-65, 505
— and profit—189, 205, 260, 275,
457
— and interest—152, 181, 205, 244,
260, 372, 378
— depreciation of—243, 329, 330,
343, 351, 375, 376, 443, 455-56,
469-71
— and agriculture, landed property,
and rent—34-35, 44, 183, 184,
207-09, 253, 399
— and wages—513, 514, 515
— component parts of—279, 311-
15, 317, 369-72, 376-77, 383-84,
440-42
— as a commodity—185, 192,
330-32
— and the capitalist—229, 242, 247,
248, 291, 390, 436, 437, 460
— necessity of increase—259, 350-
51, 448
— and labour capacity (power) —
212, 214, 292, 351, 380-81, 384-
86, 444, 527
— and production costs—244, 329
— and pre-capitalist socio-economic
formations —44, 218, 223, 251,
335, 436, 464
— productive capital—438, 454, 505
— bourgeois theories of—182-83,
185, 188-90, 201, 235-36, 255-56,
337, 338, 341, 342, 436, 437, 470,
471, 473, 474, 475-77, 510-13,
530-31
See also Accumulation of capital; Advanced
capital; "Capital in general";
Circuit of capital; Circulation of capital;
Constant capital; Exploitation of the
worker under capitalism; Export of capital;
Fixed capital; Industrial capital;
Joint-stock (share) capital; Money as a
form of capital; Organic composition of
capital; Reproduction; Technical composition
of capital; Variable capital;
Wealth
"Capital in general"— 236, 272, 334,
378, 443, 444
Capitalist relations of production—see
Capital; Relations of production
Caucasus—109
Chemistry— 237, 286, 451
China—10, 59, 119, 120, 445
Circuit of capital— 439, 440, 460-61
Circulation—131-32, 136-37, 138, 143,
184, 245, 448, 458, 460
— conditions of—123, 457, 458
— simple (of commodities and
money)—51-52, 56-57, 61, 64, 70,
121-23, 128-33, 135-37, 143, 148-
54, 156, 157-58, 160-63, 165-70,
172-74, 177-78, 179, 184-86, 189-
93, 196-97, 198-99, 203-05, 212-
14, 227, 237-38, 241, 242, 244-
46, 271, 272, 291, 329, 330, 333,
334, 393-96, 439-41, 445, 460
— of capital—152, 166, 168, 184-85,
190-93, 198, 237-38, 244, 245-46,
291, 329-31, 332, 333, 338, 428,
439-43, 461, 462, 463, 466-70,
472, 502, 503, 522
— and production—152, 167, 168,
186-88, 331, 333, 335, 341, 379,
391, 435-45, 447, 458, 459, 466,
469, 470, 472, 513
— and relations of production—60,
61, 172-76, 178-80, 447, 448
— and exchange—36,44,151-52, 333
— circulation time and labour
time—457, 462-63, 466-70, 471,
472, 480
— and value—167-68, 187, 193-94,
196-97, 233, 241-42, 440, 443,
460, 461-63, 470, 471
— and surplus value—246, 334, 463,
468, 470-72
— and circulation (turnover) of capital,
circulating capital—441, 445,
460, 522
— and credit—52, 447, 459, 466,
467, 469
Circulation of capital—439, 440, 441,
442, 443, 445, 462, 521, 522
Civil society—17, 18, 45
See also Society, bourgeois
Classes— 45, 71, 96, 101, 195, 217, 249,
328, 345, 362, 396, 425, 467, 516,
517
See also Working class
Classical bourgeois political economy—6,
34, 175, 251-53, 256, 258, 259, 274-
78, 279, 473, 474, 476-84, 515-17
See also Bourgeois political economy
Coin— 69, 89, 90, 121, 137, 159-60,
161, 162, 169, 171, 199, 214, 268-70,
274, 278-80, 334, 357, 359, 361-66,
367-68, 374, 377
Colonisation—157, 208, 484
Commodity— 78-84, 87-88, 90-91, 102-
07, 109, 110, 132, 143, 148-54, 157-
59, 161, 163-66, 168, 191-92, 197-99,
202, 204-05, 227, 246, 331, 333, 445,
446, 458-60, 461
See also Realisation
Communism (socio-economic formation)
— presuppositions of—95-96, 108-
09, 250-51, 337, 389, 390, 464,
466
— necessity of socialist revolution—
60, 72, 96, 101, 160, 337
— social relations—95, 96, 98
— character and organisation of production
and labour—90, 92-93,
95, 108-09, 149, 250-51, 433-34,
530
— absence of money relationships—
90, 149
— law of economy of time—109
— development of the productive
forces—439, 464, 466
— reproduction process—250, 298
— wealth—250, 411
— science under—250
— consumption—108, 291
— development of the individual —
131-32, 251, 411, 439, 465
Community, commune—13, 18, 25, 41,
43, 94, 96, 106-07, 139, 159, 184,
333, 393, 399-411, 414-21, 423-24,
426, 433, 448-49
Competition— 8, 10, 17, 93, 96, 138,
173, 212, 265, 349, 361, 363, 364,
376, 444, 454, 457, 471, 475, 478,
480, 487, 499
See also Reproduction
Concentration and centralisation of capital—
8-9, 60, 96, 194, 205, 210, 435,
454, 505, 506, 507, 509, 510
Concept(ion)— 27, 38, 46, 256
Conquest, role in history—25, 33, 34-35
Consciousness— 38, 45, 131, 337, 390-91,
464
Constant capital—279-91, 316
Consumption— 26-32, 36-37, 86, 97-98,
106, 108, 113, 136, 148, 164, 194,
203, 204-05, 211, 213, 215-17, 219,
227, 231-33, 237-38, 242, 246, 286-
88, 290, 291, 312, 331-34, 335, 339-
40, 345, 346, 349, 350, 351, 365-66,
368-73, 394-97, 454, 459, 508, 513,
519, 527
Content and form—152, 154, 170, 171,
173, 176, 184, 188, 191, 202-03, 228,
230, 235-36, 238, 239, 258, 285, 286,
449-50, 459-60
Cooperation-- 96, 504-06, 527
Costs of circulation, of exchange—447-48,
458, 459, 472
Credit— 52, 60-63, 96, 292, 343, 447,
459, 466, 467, 469, 472
D
Demand and supply—15, 57, 61, 71, 75,
82, 88, 90, 95, 100, 102, 107, 112,
133, 135, 166, 232, 334, 339, 345-46,
349, 352, 364, 395, 436, 470
Dialectics— 36-42, 45, 46, 181, 257-58,
386, 438
See also Abstraction; Content and form;
Freedom ; Generality—Particulari ty—
S/ngularity; Hegelianism; Quality and
quantity
Disposable, free time— 325, 327, 531
Distribution— 25, 26, 32-36, 60, 90, 165,
340, 353, 362, 364, 378, 470, 471,
514
Division of labour—15, 36, 39, 83-84,
87, 95-96, 108, 134, 135, 179, 188,
255, 307-08, 327, 336, 393-94, 441,
450, 452, 471, 478, 487, 504, 505,
527
Dual character of labour—81, 107-09,
222-23, 230, 292
E
Economic categories—9, 38-45, 165, 179-
80, 256-57, 413
Economic crises— 63-68, 70, 86, 98, 133-
35, 160, 165, 215, 217, 290, 338-40,
344, 351-52, 375-76, 462, 503, 520
Economic laws—69, 73, 75, 77, 109,
354, 388-89, 397-98, 475, 480
Economic relations—18, 40, 44, 45, 160
See also Relations of production
Egypt— 47, 120, 452
England (Great Britain)—6-7, 9, 46-47,
119, 151, 433
— domination on the world market—
8, 9, 188, 445
— industry and railways—454, 507
— agriculture and landed property—
35, 207-08
— Bank of England—13, 58, 63,
69, 71, 90
See also Ireland; Scotland
Etruria—452
Europe—6, 9-10, 46, 159, 161, 455
Exchange
— necessity, conditions, forms of—
85-87, 93, 94, 108, 132-35, 158,
174, 448
— development of—87, 139,158,527
— of activities—36, 80, 94, 96, 108,
451-52
— between communities—40, 96, 106,
139, 159, 160, 184, 187, 332-33
— in pre-capitalist socio-economic
formations—96, 345, 431
— simple (of commodities and
money) —78-85, 90, 104-06, 197-
98, 204-05
— and money—102-03, 121, 151,
152, 154
— in bourgeois society—83, 86-89,
95, 96, 99, 100, 179-80, 345, 376
— and surplus value—351
— between capital and labour—204-
05, 211-14, 216-18, 219-23, 224-
29, 231, 232-34, 247-50, 259, 261,
268-69, 270, 289, 313, 325, 326,
329, 332-33, 345, 353, 368, 377,
379, 381, 382, 383-87, 391-92,
397, 412-13, 422, 427, 440, 443,
444, 452-54, 469, 473, 474, 476,
482, 483, 485, 497-99, 506, 507,
509, 512, 513, 515-17, 519, 528
— between capitalists—362, 365,
368-74, 377, 469
— of equivalents—170, 173-82, 185,
214, 216, 238, 275, 286, 352, 386,
428, 433, 438, 439, 476, 482
— non-equivalent—428, 433, 438,
474, 481, 515
— and circulation—36, 37, 151-52,
332-33
— and production—26, 36, 112,
249, 448, 451, 460
— and division of labour—36, 83-84,
95, 108, 450
— and consumption, needs—79, 81-
82, 84-86, 112, 174, 175, 177,
451, 452, 456, 459
— and value—139, 275, 352, 376,
451
— of revenue—203, 394-97
— and means of communication —
129, 448, 454
Exchange value—see Value
Exploitation of the worker under capitalism—
220, 469-71, 474, 499-500
See also Capital; Surplus labour; Surplus
value; Worker; Working class
Export of capital—58-59
F
Factory—435
Family— 38, 39, 94, 399-400, 531
Fantasy, imagination—17, 47
Feudalism— 6, 7, 13, 17, 44, 94-96, 208,
406, 413-15, 421-22, 424, 428-30, 433,
434-35, 464, 530
Fixed capital— 447, 457, 487
Formations, social—14, 25, 39-45, 95,
132-33, 188, 195, 464, 465
See also Antiquity; Communism (socioeconomic
formation); Community,
commune; Feudalism; Pre-capitalist
socio-economic formations; Slavery; Tribal
system
France—1, 9-11, 35, 51, 55, 57-59, 62,
63, 89, 120, 414, 437
Freedom— 46, 175-81
French Revolution, 1789-94—180
G
General (average) rate of profit—363-68,
442, 470, 475, 478
Generality—Particularity—Singularity—
23-26, 40, 41, 194, 201-02
Gold and silver
— as a commodity—64, 70-74, 105-
07, 110-13, 114-21, 124, 127, 128,
135, 138-39, 140-42, 159-60, 169,
269,- 272, 362, 363, 365-66, 370
— as money—65, 68, 70-74, 89-90,
103, 105-07, 143, 148, 151, 152,
161, 166, 169, 171, 172, 202, 253
— gold standard of money—69, 70,
71, 72-73
— bullion reserves—51, 52, 55-60,
63, 69
— deposits and extraction of—106,
120-21, 157, 169, 269, 334
— natural properties—110-12
— as a form of wealth—106, 113,
162-65
— accumulation of—151, 162-66
— luxury articles—151, 162-63, 171,
269, 336, 362, 451-52
— and economic crises—64-65, 68,
72, 159, 165
— value ratio of gold and silver—
115-21
See also Money—in the form of gold
and silver; Wealth—in the form of
gold and silver
Greece, ancient— 46-4«, 404, 436, 525
H
Hegelianism—Sl, 38-39
History— 43, 46, 180, 183
Holland— 208, 253
I
Idealism—46
Ideas (as expression of social relations)—
101
India— 7, 34, 401, 414, 452
Individual
— in bourgeois society—17, 195-96,
336, 351, 411-12
— his social nature—18, 175, 420
— his historical development—47-
48, 525
— and development of productive
forces—351, 465
— his reproduction—413, 416, 523,
525, 526
— need in labour—530
— in ancient society—411-12
— under communism—131-32, 251,
411, 439, 465
Industrial capital— 207, 244, 253, 257,
428, 443, 454
Industry—44, 157, 207-08, 251, 255,
434-35, 442, 451, 480, 505, 506, 527
Instruments of production—33-34, 103,
110, 112, 113, 115, 120, 150-52, 161,
164, 210, 235-237, 238-240, 247, 249,
268, 287, 288, 297, 301, 312, 355-57,
461, 510, 511
Interest (econ.)—83, 152, 181, 185,205,
210, 217, 244, 260, 371-72, 377, 445,
448, 454
Interests— 93, 95, 96
Ireland—34
Italy—115, 120
J
Jamaica—251
Japan—120
Joint-stock (share) capital—206, 210, 455
— joint-stock companies—45, 60, 96,
257
L
Labour—40, 41
— as substance of value—66, 67, 73,
74, 76, 77, 78, 105, 109, 345
— alienation of, under capitalism—
158, 233, 235, 247-48, 381, 382-
83, 389-90, 438, 439
— as use value—197-99, 204, 224,
232, 233, 237, 292, 497, 498
— individual and social—140, 149,
195, 325, 398-99, 438, 441, 530
— industrial and agricultural—253-
54, 328, 459
— simple and skilled—249, 265, 531
— living and objectified—189, 194,
202, 222, 224, 226-29, 233, 245,
246-47, 262-63, 266, 273, 275,
278, 280, 281, 282, 284-86, 288-90,
299, 326, 330-31, 333, 334, 363,
373,375-77, 379-83,384-86, 389-91-,
392-94, 396, 425-26, 430-31, 434,
438, 440, 446, 452, 453, 473, 476,
481-83, 487, 490, 493, 494-97, 532
— forced and free—176, 251, 530
— in pre-capitalist socio-economic
formations—176-77, 223, 506,
507, 530
— under communism—109, 149,
250, 251, 433-34, 531
— conditions and prerequisites of—
281, 282, 286, 289, 290, 379-82,
384, 389-91, 398-99, 409, 420-22,
427-34, 435-36, 438, 439
— as self-realisation of the individual—
530
— and wealth—222, 233, 381-84,
386-87, 389-90, 433
— and property—221-22, 249, 292,
381, 382, 384, 386-87, 425-26,
433, 435, 438
— "price of labour"—246, 250,
261-62
— and labour capacity (power) — 390,
391, 513
— bourgeois economists on labour
under capitalism—398, 529-31,
532, 533
See also Division of labour; Dual
character of labour; Necessary labour;
Productive labour; Property; Services;
Surplus labour; Wage labour
Labour capacity (power)—197, 204, 210-
14, 215, 218, 220, 221, 224, 233,
247-50, 259, 264, 267, 268, 270,
288-90, 292, 298, 321, 322, 350, 351,
353, 358-59, 361-62, 375, 379-86,
390-93, 396-97, 425-26, 427-28, 432-
35, 444, 450-52, 456, 457, 467, 483,
490, 491, 497-99, 510, 513, 514, 519,
522, 527-28
Labour money—61, 74, 97
Labour time—66, 72-74, 76-78, 97, 104-
07, 109, 139-40, 186, 246-47, 292,
441, 462, 463, 467-70, 471, 472, 480,
521, 522
See also Labour
Landed property— 34-35, 43-44, 101, 183,
184, 206-09, 253, 259, 394-95, 399-
411, 414-17, 420-24, 426, 432, 438,
476, 478, 516
Language—18, 23, 59, 99, 400, 414,
416
Law—see Economic laws
Law, legislation— 26, 35, 45, 69, 129,
146, 175, 177, 178, 203, 245, 381,
386, 387, 392, 397, 401, 438
Loans— 59, 210, 244, 378
M
Machinery— 307-10, 315, 444, 451, 487,
499-500, 514
Malthusianism—279, 328, 344, 346,
487-99, 517-19, 524-27
Manufacture— 207-08, 253, 429, 434,
435, 505, 507, 508
Market— 63, 66, 75-78, 182, 205-06,
210-11, 431-32, 434-36, 444, 445,
448, 458, 463, 465
See also World market
Mathematics— 69, 74-76, 379
Means of communication—122, 129, 445-
50, 451-58
Mediation— 27, 28, 29, 257-58, 526
Mercantilism—65, 157, 159, 165, 253
Merchants—134, 136, 428, 432-34, 459,
509
Method of political economy—17, 18, 34,
37-45, 181, 305, 307, 308, 322, 354,
387-88, 485-87
See also Political economy (Marxist)
Mexico—171, 401
Middle Ages—see Feudalism
Mode of production— 33-35, 188, 418-19
Monetary system—40, 148, 157, 161,
165, 253^ 520
Money— 40, 65, 74, 78-83, 84, 86, 87,
99, 104-06, 109, 343
— as a relation of production—61,
82-84, 97, 150, 154-56, 158, 171,
172, 182, 185
— and development of productive
forces—156, 158
— as a hoard—151, 163-64, 460,
520
— as a universal commodity—77,
79, 83, 127
— and division of labour—87, 134,
135
— as an instrument of production —
150-52, 156-57, 444-45
— in the form of gold and silver—
64-65, 68-69, 70-74, 103, 106,
117-20, 121, 124, 138-39, 141,
142-49, 150-55, 159-60, 161, 163,
166, 169, 171, 202
— bimetallism — 71
— depreciation of—70, 72, 74, 135,
147
— and exchange value — 83, 88, 90,
94, 97, 102-04, 123-25, 134, 147,
149, 152-54, 155, 177, 185, 193,
196, 198, 199, 227, 257, 274, 377,
379
— amount of in circulation—53, 64,
70, 129-31, 135, 143, 147-48, 169,
503, 504
— money relationships—84, 89, 95,
97-98, 100, 110, 133, 148-49, 150,
177, 180
— and exchange—102-03, 121, 151-
52, 153, 154
— and prices—116, 154, 169
— and commodity—87-88, 102-07,
110, 143, 148-51, 153, 154, 159-
60, 161, 166, 168, 199, 444, 459,
460, 461
— and wage labour—156-57, 158
— and contradictions in bourgeois
society—83-84, 87-89, 97, 102,
132-34, 135, 158, 166-67, 171-72,
343
— during economic crises — 63-68,
71, 135, 165, 520
— in pre-capitalist socio-economic
formations—40-41, 158, 432
— quantitative theory of money in
bourgeois political economy—64,
127, 148, 160-61, 253, 256
Money as a form of capital—83, 151-52,
182, 184, 185, 190, 192-94, 200-02,
222, 224, 232, 245, 272, 274, 283,
284, 291, 292, 330, 362, 376, 377,
379, 387, 428, 430, 432, 434, 435,
437-38, 443, 469, 503, 505, 507, 508,
519
Money as a form of wealth—134, 137,
138, 141-42, 144, 145, 149-69, 171,
178, 185, 190, 191, 200-02, 214, 226,
253, 259, 271, 272, 273, 274, 277,
292, 428-32, 435, 436, 460, 505, 509-
10, 519
Money as a means of circulation—77,
123, 129-31, 132-35, 137, 138, 142-
53, 154, 156, 158-62, 165-67, 169,
185, 190, 204-05, 214, 218, 219, 221,
227, 377, 394-95, 503, 520
Money as a means of payment—130, 131,
152, 168, 503
Money as measure of value—77, 109-10,
123, 124-28, 131, 138, 142, 147-48,
150, 151, 156, 160-62, 166-67, 169,
171, 177, 190-91, 377
N
Natural science— 336-37, 389
See also Science
Nature—6, 23, 110-12, 151, 255, 285,
336, 337, 388, 399, 400, 402, 404,
409, 412-13, 421, 441, 443, 466, 478,
508, 525-26
Necessary labour— 260-68, 278, 284,
325-28, 330, 342, 343, 351, 353,
450-51, 456, 457, 478, 490, 491, 496
Needs— 26, 29-31, 79, 81, 85, 95, 100,
134, 148, 153, 158, 174, 175, 177,
184, 187, 197-98, 214, 215, 216, 217,
220-21, 250, 331, 335, 336, 337, 451,
452, 455, 456, 530
O
Organic composition of capital—315, 316,
318-23, 363, 364, 372, 487, 500, 501,
502
Orient, the— 400-03, 418-19
Overproduction— 338-40, 342, 343, 345,
346, 352, 372, 462
See also Economic crises
P
Paper money—64, 69-70, 74, 103,
147-48
Pauperism— 522, 523, 528
Peru— 40, 171, 401, 414
Petty-bourgeois socialism—7, 15, 73, 74,
134, 176, 229, 234-35, 339-40, 436
See also Proudhonism
Physiocrats— 40, 41, 252-55, 508
Poland—155, 208, 397
Political economy (Marxist)—17-37, 110,
183-84, 246, 388-89, 421
— method of advancing from the
abstract to the concrete—37-42,
45, 181, 354
— historical approach in research —
17, 18, 34, 39-41, 388-89
— economic category as an abstract
form of real relations—8, 9,
38-45, 165, 179-80, 256, 354-55,
413
— working out of the plan of economic
analysis—24, 43-45, 88-
89, 138, 160, 182, 194-95, 205-06,
209-10, 211, 217, 225, 245-46,
256, 266, 287, 292, 312, 315-16,
328, 330, 334, 354, 359, 364,
376-77, 378-79, 420-22, 441, 442,
444, 447, 451-54, 456, 463, 487,
503, 514, 519, 529, 532
— critique of bourgeois political
economy—65, 203, 204, 432-33
See also Method of political economy;
Science; Subject of political economy
Population— 37, 273, 274, 277, 278,
325-28, 346, 409-10, 417, 452, 463,
523-29
Practice and theory— 41, 42, 57, 69, 183,
482
Pre-capitalist socio-economic formations
— social relations—94-96, 98-101,
176-77, 412, 413, 424, 426,
431-33
— character of labour—176-77, 223,
392-93, 419, 506, 509, 510
— development of productive
forces—95, 342, 423, 464, 465
— production and consumption—
213, 362, 412, 414, 436
— reproduction in—438, 465
— surplus product—361, 401, 404,
431
— wealth—253, 254, 411, 412, 431-
32, 464
— forms of property—416-17, 421,
432, 433, 438, 499, 523-24
— handicraft labour—421-23, 426,
430, 435, 451, 452, 453, 507
— guild system—94, 428, 429, 432,
438
— patriarchal system—94-96, 451
— Asiatic societies—395
— landed property—101, 183, 399-
411, 414-17, 421-23, 424, 426,
432, 438
— progress in agriculture—44, 106,
253
— development of money relations
and exchange—95, 96, 100, 133,
134, 345, 431-32
— emergence of wage labour—13,
253
— disintegration of—397, 421-24,
425-26, 428-33, 464
— and capitalist mode of production—
42, 43, 45, 218, 223, 335,
336-37, 389, 392, 396, 397, 436,
464, 465
See also Ancient Rome; Antiquity;
Community, commune; Feudalism;
Greece, ancient; Slavery; Tribal system
Price— 74, 98, 147-48, 152, 188
— and value—74-78, 93, 124-28,
139, 141, 142, 240-41, 271, 272,
353-54, 361-62, 364, 395
— and money—116, 154, 169
— and growth of productive
forces—267-68, 360
— and demand and supply—58,
66, 68, 75, 232, 395, 470
— realisation of, in exchange—122-
23, 129, 130, 133, 144-48, 233
— average —68, 72, 75
— market—75
— and circulation—122, 129, 145-
48, 168, 440
Production—36-37
— social character of—17, 18, 23,
83-84, 413
— and development of productive
forces—441, 442, 466
— barriers (immanent limits) to—
265-66, 278, 331-35, 337-52
— instruments and means of production—
103, 150-52, 237, 238,
240, 268, 288, 297, 301, 312, 461,
510-12
— "production in general" — 23, 26,
225, 245-46, 454-57, 459
— branches of—23-24, 336, 444,
450, 451, 459, 470
— industrial—157, 251, 480
— in agriculture—225, 253-54, 418,
521-22
— physical content and social form
of—25-26, 238-39
— historical character of—245-46,
412-13
— conditions of—24-25, 26,413, 415-
16, 443, 448, 458, 533
— and nature—6, 23, 255, 415-16,
441, 451
— aims of—86, 391-92, 519
— continuity of—459, 461, 462, 469,
472
— capitalist—9, 23, 34, 95, 108, 187,
207, 223, 226-31, 233, 234,
236-39, 242-43, 245-46, 250, 256-
57, 331, 334, 335, 338, 339-43,
345, 346, 349-50, 378, 387-88,
391-92, 398, 411-13, 433, 435-37,
439-40, 455, 458, 466-70, 472,
500-01, 504, 527
— and distribution—25-27, 32-36,
90, 514
— and exchange—26, 36, 112, 249,
448, 451, 460
— and consumption—26-31, 36-37,
97-98, 108, 148-49, 213, 217, 226-
27, 286, 312, 416, 426, 436
— and satisfaction of needs — 29-30,
336, 451, 452, 456
— and circulation—152, 167, 168,
186-88, 331, 333, 334, 341, 379,
391, 439-45, 448, 458, 459, 466,
469, 471, 513
— and wealth—342, 465
— in pre-capitalist socio-economic
formations—213-14, 362, 412,
414, 436, 451
— under communism—90, 92-93,
95, 108-09
— bourgeois economists on production
and distribution—25, 165,
338, 339-40, 474, 475, 480
Production costs—139, 150, 239, 241-44,
256, 329, 359, 455, 458, 472, 507
Productive capital—444, 454, 505
Productive forces
— social character of—325, 452-53
— development of—208, 527
— and relations of production—45-
46, 223, 426, 464, 465
— and development of the individual—
351, 465
— and division of labour—255, 308,
327, 478, 504, 527
— material and spiritual—156, 426
— science as a productive force—
207, 336, 464, 478, 527
— revolution in—373, 465
— of bourgeois society—17, 207,
250, 251, 265-66, 278, 279, 336,
337, 342, 343, 351, 452-53, 464,
465, 504
— and capital—204-06, 234-35,
250, 251, 265-66, 272, 317-21,
326, 336-38, 342, 351, 463-66,
505
— and circulation—273, 458, 468
— and wealth—275, 277, 464, 465
— and means of communication —
447, 454, 455
— in pre-capitalist socio-economic
formations—95, 342, 419, 420,
423, 464, 465
— under communism—439, 464-65
Productive labour— 40-41, 203-04, 231,
234-35, 254, 255, 327, 418, 455-57
Profit—151, 189, 205, 217, 241-42,
244, 252, 255, 256, 259, 260, 284,
296, 298, 300, 301, 306, 307-11,
313, 314, 361, 363, 367-70, 428,
442, 449, 454-57, 493, 500, 515-17,
533
Proletariat—see Working class
Property
— historical character of—245
— as appropriation — 388, 400-01,
409-10, 415-16, 417, 418, 424,
425-26, 433, 438
— as a condition of production — 24-
25, 208, 415-18, 523
— laws of—388, 397
— origin of—209, 412-13, 415, 416,
419
— and development of productive
forces—207, 523-24
— and labour—221-22, 249, 292,
381, 382, 384, 386-87, 425-26,
433, 435, 438
— forms of—25, 44
— pre-capitalist forms of—13, 25,
42-44, 399, 408, 413-22, 423-24,
426, 432, 433, 438, 499, 523-24
— private—25, 170, 175, 399-400,
402, 405, 408, 409-10, 433
— capitalist—170, 233-34, 397, 422,
523-24
— separation of, from labour—221-
22, 249, 380-83, 384, 386-87, 390,
398-99, 421-23, 425-26, 427, 433,
435-36, 438
— of labourer in the instruments of
labour—420-24, 426
— in conditions of labour—433-34,
438, 439, 465
— state property—402, 403, 408,
409-10
— title to—129, 146, 386-87, 438
See also Landed property
Proudhonism—18, 51, 52, 55-65, 67, 71-
77, 89-92, 96-97, 108-09, 142, 163,
172, 180-82, 195-96, 236, 237, 244,
339, 352-54, 362, 412, 468-70, 531
Prussia— 70
Purchase and sale— 85, 123, 128-35, 137,
158, 160, 183, 184, 232, 368, 461
Q
Quality and quantity—76-77, 88, 109,
136-38, 200-01, 205, 212-13, 247,
284, 288-90, 332, 334, 335, 355, 375
R
Railways—see Means of communication
Rate of profit— 268, 297, 311, 322,
366-67, 478, 487, 508, 516
See also General (average) rate of profit
Rate of surplus value— 297, 299-306,
307-11, 313, 314, 323, 324, 357,
358-60, 366, 367, 372-74, 486-88
Raw material— 225-26, 228, 229, 237,
238, 240, 249, 268, 287, 288, 356,
461
Realisation
— of value of commodity—82, 85,
87, 97, 101-03, 104, 105, 133,
138, 139, 143, 144, 177, 232, 233,
330-31, 334, 363, 369-70, 443-45,
454, 457, 502-04
— of value of capital—329, 330-31,
332-34, 338, 339, 342, 350, 362,
369, 373, 374, 376-77, 442, 444-
46, 449, 456, 467, 503, 520
— of surplus value, of profit—246,
331-34, 363, 369-71
Relations of production
— and productive forces—45-46,
223, 426, 464, 465
— genesis and development of—
207-08, 388-89, 412-13
— in bourgeois society—6, 8, 15, 17,
18, 42, 93-95, 97, 99, 100, 101,
171-73, 177, 179-82, 197-98, 204-
05, 207, 217, 218, 220-21, 223-26,
228-29, 235, 236, 243, 245, 248,
250, 253-54, 256-57, 282, 318,
336, 339-40, 346, 385-87, 388-89,
391, 392, 397, 398-99, 412-13,
422, 425, 427-28, 431-32, 438,
439, 462, 465, 466, 475, 476, 480,
481, 499, 515
— objectification of—94, 95, 97-98,
100, 101, 171
— value as a relation of production—
78, 93, 94
— expressed in money—61, 82-84,
97, 150, 154-56, 158, 171, 172,
182, 185
— in pre-capitalist socio-economic formations—
42, 94-96, 98-101, 158,
176-77, 412, 413, 424, 426, 431-33
— under communism—95, 96, 99
— bourgeois economists on relation
between labour and capital—461,
462, 476, 500, 502, 512-13,
515-17
See also Economic relations
Religion— 38, 43, 46, 162, 257, 464
Rent— 42, 206, 208, 209, 254
Reproduction
— conditions of—526, 533
— simple—243
— expanded—390
— of capital—240-43, 268, 281, 282,
283, 330, 383-84, 462, 465, 467,
500, 522, 529
— of wages—283, 291, 299, 300
— of labour capacity (power) — 220,
— 269, 278, 350, 357, 358, 359,
361, 362, 380, 381, 391, 428,
456, 490, 491, 499, 518, 528,
529
— relationship of labour and capital—
387, 389-90, 412
— of individuals as members of society—
413, 416, 523, 525-26
— and development of productive
forces—499, 500
— and circulation of capital—440,
522
— of pre-capitalist relations under
capitalism—500
— in pre-capitalist socio-economic
formations—438, 465
— under communal system—401,
404, 408-11, 414, 415, 416-19
— under communism—250, 298
— in nature—285, 526
Revenue— 203, 394-97, 437, 455-57,
513, 514
Revolution— 33, 157, 160, 373
Revolution, socialist—60, 61, 64, 72,
96-97, 101, 160, 256-57, 337, 338,
389, 390, 463-64
Rome, Ancient— 35, 40, 61, 119, 151,
156, 177, 200, 404-05, 410-11, 417,
430, 436, 453, 498, 523
Russia— 8, 35, 452
Savings banks—215, 216
Science— 43, 99, 207, 250, 328, 336,
337, 449, 451, 454, 464, 478, 505,
527, 530
See also Anatomy, Chemistry; History;
Mathematics; Natural science; Political
economy (Marxist)
Scotland—69, 71
Services— 202, 203, 221, 393-97
Slavery— 33, 35, 157, 176, 328, 362,
391, 413, 415, 417, 419, 443, 507,
509, 526
Social formations—see Formations, social
Society, bourgeois
— relations of production in—6,
8-9, 15, 17-18, 93-95, 97, 99, 100,
101, 171-73, 176-77, 179-82, 197-
98, 204-05, 207, 217, 218, 220-21,
223-26, 228-29, 235, 236, 243,
245, 248, 250, 253-54, 256, 318,
336, 340, 346, 385-87, 388-89,
391-92, 397, 398-99, 412-13, 422,
425, 427-28, 431, 438, 439, 462,
465, 466, 475, 476, 480, 481, 499,
515
— structure and contradictions of—
6-10, 42, 44, 61, 70-71, 77, 83-89,
96-98, 102, 105-07, 132-33, 134,
135, 147, 157, 160, 163, 166-67,
169, 171-73, 178-81, 195, 206,
207-08, 217, 218, 234, 245, 247,
255, 256-57, 265-66, 277, 327-28,
333, 334, 337, 338, 340-43, 346,
349-52, 354, 382-83, 398-99, 424-
25, 452, 459, 460, 463-69, 471,
472, 516
— competition—10, 17, 93, 96, 138,
265, 340, 376
— and capital—44, 256-57, 337,
373, 435-36, 455, 507-10
— and wage labour—158, 207
— classes—45, 101, 516
— domination of value relationships—
93-96, 187, 277, 433, 438,
448, 462
— development of productive
forces—17, 207, 250, 251, 265-66,
336, 337, 342, 343, 351, 452, 464,
465, 504
— and the state—6-8, 45, 160, 195,
257, 455
— and law—177
— and pre-capitalist relations—6,
13, 17-18, 42, 157, 389, 392
— social needs—95, 157, 336, 451,
452, 456, 457
— in bourgeois political economy—
6-10, 34, 45, 165, 480-81, 516,
517
See also Civil society
Spain—157
Speculation—134, 135
State, the— 6-8, 26, 45, 102, 157-58,
160, 161, 195, 209, 257, 280, 282,
292, 298, 315, 362, 400, 407, 431,
449, 452, 453, 455, 457
Statistics—98
Stocks— 361, 388
Subject of political economy—17-37, 41,
110, 183-84, 198-99, 202, 246, 345,
388-89, 421
See also Political economy
Surplus labour— 250, 260-69, 271, 277-
78, 282, 284, 289-90, 312, 313, 316,
324-27, 336, 342, 349-51, 361, 364,
368, 373, 379-81, 383-84, 401, 404,
446, 452, 456, 457, 473, 478, 488,
523, 531
Surplus value
— source of—241-42, 246, 251-52,
253-55, 258, 290, 300, 357, 359,
381-82, 383-84, 488
— and capital—259, 269-73, 293-96,
329, 334, 350, 369-73, 379-81,
442
— and capitalist production—268,
273, 290, 329
— relative and absolute—293, 334,
335, 351, 441, 508, 519
— realisation of—246, 331-35, 369-71
— distribution of—362, 364, 368,
470, 471
— and exchange value—246, 250,
273, 326, 355-57, 481
— and working day—250, 259-68,
270, 285, 292-93, 297, 298, 299-
306, 308-09, 323-24, 342, 351,
441, 463, 473-74
— and surplus labour—262, 264,
312, 342, 343, 349-50, 373, 379,
397, 446, 456, 473, 488
— and profit—311, 442, 477, 485,
486, 515
— and rate of profit—357, 363-64,
478
— and general rate of profit—363-
64, 470, 471
— and development of productive
forces—259-72, 312, 314, 335,
336, 342, 343, 351
— and circulation—246, 334, 463,
468, 469, 470, 471
— and costs of circulation—471
— bourgeois economists on genesis
of_251-52, 254-56, 480-83, 515
— identification of surplus value and
profit in bourgeois political
economy—296, 475-78
System of protection—148
T
Taxes— 70, 450, 452, 454, 456
Technical composition of capital—321
Thinking— 38-39, 80
Town and country— 36, 44, 122, 207-09,
401-03, 405-08, 417, 418, 429-30,
434-36
Trade— 34, 40-41, 44, 45, 80, 86, 88,
96, 97, 134, 136, 137, 155-56, 159,
161, 182, 184-85, 187, 188, 208, 210,
211, 242, 251, 257, 275, 335, 343,
411, 433-35, 448, 451, 478
See also Barter
Transport and communication—see
Means of communication
Tribal system—18, 39, 94, 400-03, 404-
06, 407, 409, 410, 413-17
Tribute—42
U
United States of America, the—6-10, 41,
46, 71, 157, 436, 500
Urals, the—112
Use value—113, 148, 197-200, 202,
227, 232, 237, 241, 244, 246, 259,
274, 280, 284-89, 292, 331-34, 335,
336, 343, 352, 355, 359-61, 376, 443,
446, 450, 457, 460, 465, 495
Usury—185, 428, 433, 459
V
Value
— as an economic category—38, 88,
91, 184-85, 362
— determination of, by labour
time—66, 72-73, 74, 76, 77, 78,
97, 104-06, 109, 112, 139-40, 141-
42, 152, 186, 194, 197, 202, 224-
25, 229, 233, 243-44, 270, 290,
375, 438, 449, 456, 462, 471, 479,
490, 491, 495, 531, 533
— and contradictions of bourgeois
society—97, 171-72, 178-79
— as a social relationship—78, 94
— evolution of—139-40, 179, 431-33
— as a basis of bourgeois society—
93-96, 277, 433, 438, 448, 469
— and development of productive
forces—77, 273-75, 310, 311
— and division of labour—179, 450,
471
— and price—74-78, 124-28, 139,
141, 142, 240-41, 271, 272, 353-
54, 361-62, 363-65, 375, 395, 479
— and money —82-83, 88, 90-91, 94,
97, 102-03, 123-25, 134, 147, 149,
152-54, 155, 177, 185, 193, 196,
198, 199, 227, 257, 274, 377, 379
— and capital—158, 168, 180, 181,
182, 183, 185, 189-91, 193, 196-
99, 201, 205, 224, 229, 232, 233,
235-39, 242-44, 249, 253, 257,
264-67, 272, 278, 283, 284, 289,
292, 311, 312, 315-22, 326, 330-
32, 334, 350, 351, 376, 436, 455,
458, 460-63, 465, 468-71, 528
— and capitalist production—186-
88, 238-42, 379, 433, 448
— and surplus value, and profit—
246, 250, 273, 326, 355-57, 359,
480, 481
— real and nominal—70, 75-77
— average—74-76, 129
— expression of—93, 95, 128,
140-41
— rarity as an element of—112
— law of—75, 124
— and use value—199, 200, 237,
241, 331, 334, 342, 343, 352, 376,
457, 460, 465
— and exchange, and circulation —
139, 167-68, 186-87, 193-94, 196-
97, 233, 241-42, 275, 352, 376,
440, 442-43, 451, 458-60, 462-63,
470-72
Variable capital— 246-47, 316
Vulgar bourgeois political economy—6-15,
18, 23
W
Wage labour—13-14, 15, 61, 84, 156,
157, 158, 180, 206-09, 248-49, 251,
252, 253, 255, 292, 328, 331, 333,
391, 393, 394-95, 396, 397, 399,
412-13, 422, 426, 427, 430, 431, 434,
435, 436, 453, 456, 459, 495, 498,
509-10, 512, 530
Wages
— level of—15, 212, 215-16, 266,
354-55
— and exchange between labour and
capital—220-21, 354-55, 491
— military pay—15, 45, 84, 395-96
— and value of the product—244,
356-57
— and prices — 353-55
— and demand and supply—15, 368
— and capital—511, 513, 514
— and production—461-62, 513
— and productive forces—479, 491,
496, 497, 498-99, 518
— reproduction of—283, 291, 299,
300
— and labour capacity (power)—15,
215-17, 279, 352, 354, 490, 498,
513, 514
— and necessary labour—342, 353,
478, 487, 490, 491, 495, 496
— and profit—353-55, 365-68, 478,
479, 500, 516, 517
— and consumption—290, 513
— bourgeois theories of—11-16,
181, 255, 256, 278, 515-17
Wages fund— 316, 317, 318, 323
Wales— 414
War— 66, 163, 401, 402, 404, 406, 408,
411, 414, 415, 417-18
See also Army
Wealth—156, 411
— and capital (exchange value) —
222, 251, 253, 332-33, 342, 376-
78, 384, 427-30, 454, 456, 465,
466, 509, 510
— social form and material content
of—103, 154, 274, 411, 451
— production and distribution of—
342, 465
— concentration and accumulation
of—162-63, 165-66, 454, 508
— monetary—133-34, 137, 138, 141-
42, 144, 145, 149-69, 171, 178,
185, 190-91, 200-02, 214, 226,
253, 259, 271-74, 277, 292,
428-32, 435, 436, 505, 509,
520
•— in the form of gold and silver—
106, 113, 162-65
— and labour—222, 233, 381-84,
386-87, 389, 433
— and productive forces—275, 277,
464, 465
— as mediator between use value
and exchange value—257, 275
— under communism—250, 411
— in pre-capitalist socio-economic
formations—253, 254, 411, 412,
431-32, 464
— quest for enrichment—155-57,
162-64, 199-200, 250, 251, 253,
266
— bourgeois concept of—251-52,
256, 258, 259, 274, 276-78
Worker—15, 158, 197, 204, 212-18,
219-21, 223, 226, 229-30, 232-36,
243, 247-50, 283, 299, 345, 346,
349-51, 353-54, 355-59, 361, 364-66,
368-72, 381, 392, 398, 399, 412, 420,
422, 425-32, 434, 435, 438, 439, 457,
463, 475, 499-502, 508, 513, 518, 522,
-526, 528, 533
See also Working class
Working class— 249, 467, 517, 528
See also Worker
Working day— 220, 259-68, 269, 279-81,
283, 284, 297, 326, 327, 361
World market— 8-10, 66-67, 96, 97-98,
159, 160, 210, 335, 436, 451, 465






MECW VOL 29





A
Abstraction— 32, 91, 159, 171, 228, 253,
358, 360-61, 365, 367-68, 371, 379,
390, 433, 437, 439, 443, 450, 451,
471, 473, 476, 479, 502-03, 511
Accumulation of capital—87, 135, 138,
140, 147-48, 157, 205, 524, 527, 531
—in the form of money—143, 187,
192-94, 196, 443, 456, 457, 474,
488-89, 491, 495, 509
—and surplus value—157
—primitive—153, 229, 233, 423,
481-82, 512, 513, 525, 527, 531
—bourgeois political economy on—
135, 136, 138, 140, 143, 169, 531
Advanced capital— 36, 137, 144
Africa— 318, 456
Agriculture— 28, 58-60, 75-76, 90, 97,
100-02, 105, 111, 115, 119-21, 125-
26, 129, 132, 136-38, 154, 156-58,
205, 228, 232, 465-66, 481, 516, 517,
527, 531
Alienation, estrangement—64, 70, 175,
209-11, 220, 263, 285, 427, 440, 445,
461-63, 467, 470, 486, 505, 518, 522,
531
America—187, 243, 295, 312, 368, 382,
388, 440, 460-61, 476-77
See also United States of America, the
Annuity—108
Antagonism— 40, 91, 94, 153, 221, 263-
64, 331-32, 469, 529
Antiquity—162, 164, 194, 212, 214,
392-93, 435, 458-60, 475, 524
Art—91, 93-94, 177, 456
Asia—170, 188, 233-34, 275, 361, 368,
382, 388, 428, 436, 440, 448, 456,
460, 508
Australia—11, 342, 368, 384, 388
B
Bank notes—181, 182, 187, 195, 319-20,
337, 399-400, 404, 414, 416
Banks—10, 67, 171, 186, 224, 303, 312,
318-20, 331, 346, 379, 400, 404, 414
Barter— 234, 290-91, 305, 327, 332-33
Baits and superstructure—263
Bourgeois political economy—77-78, 97-
98, 100, 136-43, 210, 221, 276, 297,
302, 345, 412, 438, 448-51
C
California—222, 342
Capital—13-14, 26-27, 39, 62-63, 77-
78, 80-81, 83-85, 87, 88, 91, 93-94,
118-19, 129-30, 141-42, 201, 209-10,
221, 261, 496, 502, 505, 511, 514,
515-16, 518-22, 527
—as a relation of production—66-67
—appropriation of alien labour—22-
23, 26, 34, 51, 60, 64, 83-91, 93,
108, 119, 124-25, 145-46, 150, 151,
201, 202, 210, 503-04
—genesis of—62-63, 120-22, 132,
481-82
—tendencies of development—38,
39, 83-84, 115
—and labour—81, 201, 209-10, 221,
503-04
—and surplus labour—15, 25, 41,
53, 60, 132, 141, 143-45, 157-58,
160
—and surplus value—9, 15, 17-18,
20, 28, 31-32, 40-41, 48, 50, 53-54,
56, 60, 75, 89, 103-04, 107, 126-
27, 129-30, 143-44, 146, 151-53,
155, 157-58, 201, 228, 249, 524-25
—and development of productive
forces—38, 84-85, 88-89, 92, 100-
02, 104, 123-25, 132-35, 149-50,
157-60, 228-29, 512, 516, 522, 524,
529, 531
—and value—89, 127, 129-31, 141-
44, 146, 150-51, 200, 202, 513, 526
—and profit—18-19, 23, 28, 31, 37,
55, 74, 88-89, 107-08, 126, 129-35,
138, 140-47, 151, 155, 201-03, 206,
219, 228, 244, 249-50, 516, 521,
531
—and interest—28, 68, 77, 96-97,
108, 129, 220-21, 228, 249
—depreciation of—11, 23, 53, 107,
134, 524
—and agriculture, landed property—
59, 100, 102, 125-26, 132, 516, 521
—wages—63, 66-67, 71, 86, 121,
140-41
—constituent parts of—50-51, 56-57,
60, 63, 67, 69, 81, 88, 108, 111,
118, 128, 131, 145-48, 151, 154,
156-58, 198, 200-02, 206, 512, 526,
530, 531
—as a commodity—7, 25, 28, 34, 68,
115, 226, 250, 416, 475-76, 497-98,
502
—necessity of increase—17, 25, 38,
48, 100, 104, 138, 512, 516, 522
—and labour capacity (power)—54-
55, 64, 66, 68, 71, 87-90, 98,
121-22, 151-52, 157, 227, 502,
503-05, 511, 521-22, 528
—and production costs—14, 23, 48-
49, 52, 67, 143-45, 161, 223, 522,
530
—metamorphosis of—15, 17, 26, 48,
61-62, 67, 82, 107, 113, 528
—and pre-capitalist socio-economic
formations—38-39, 228-29, 505
—fictitious—49
—bourgeois theories of—52, 77-80,
87-89, 108-09, 143-45, 218, 221,
276, 390, 416-17
See also Accumulation of capital; Advanced
capital; "Capital in general";
Concentration and centralisation of capital;
Exploitation of the worker under
capitalism; Fixed capital; Industrial capital;
Joint-stock capital; Labour capacity
(power); Loan capital; Money as a form
of capital; Organic composition of capital;
Productive capital; Reproduction;
Turnover of capital; Value; Variable
capital
"Capital in general"—11, 47, 84, 227-
28, 247, 511
Capitalist relations of production—-see
Capital; Relations of production
Chemistry— 111, 120, 136, 138, 149,
156
China—115, 224, 312, 313, 352, 382,
388, 460
Circuit of capital—12, 27, 65, 324,
329-32, 357
Circulating capital— 9-11, 24, 27, 28-31,
32-36, 40, 51, 65, 66, 67-78, 81, 84,
86, 88-89, 93, 95, 96, 99-100, 102-08,
111-14, 116-20, 122-27, 143, 148,
150, 202-05, 207, 208, 218, 220, 229,
515-16, 526, 528-31
Circulation— 7-8, 10, 13-15, 18-19, 21-
27, 31, 32, 49-51, 53-57, 60-63, 65,
66-69, 71, 80, 89, 102, 110, 115, 116,
122-23, 125-27, 164, 171, 186, 190-
94, 204, 237-38, 241-42, 248-50, 303-
04, 324, 325, 327-34, 342, 359, 423-
28, 431, 433, 434, 437, 439-48, 456-
58, 461-64, 466-68, 472-75, 478, 480,
482, 484, 485-91, 494, 496-99, 506-
09, 511, 518, 521, 525-28
—conditions of—68, 110, 527, 528
—phases of—26-27, 29, 30, 76, 107,
113, 115-16, 122
—simple—7-9, 12, 13, 19-21, 24, 25,
27, 34, 49, 58, 60-62, 67, 68, 102,
115-16, 127-28, 142, 158, 171, 176,
181, 183, 190, 191, 193, 194, 195,
215, 216, 229, 231, 241-42, 249-50,
329, 333-42, 422-23, 433, 434, 437,
439-40, 443-46, 451, 452, 458, 459,
461-501, 504-06, 508-09, 511, 518,
525, 528
—of capital—7, 11, 15, 18, 23-30,
31-35, 48, 55, 57, 58, 60-63, 66-69,
75-78, 80, 86, 88-89, 102-16, 122-
28, 129, 149-51, 155, 158, 202,
226, 231, 250, 437, 494-98, 501,
514-15, 521, 524, 525, 526, 530
—and production—7-11, 15-17, 19,
22, 26, 33-34, 49, 50, 53-56, 62-63,
65-67, 71-72, 80, 101-02, 106, 110,
123, 127-28, 129, 149-50, 154,
171-72, 452, 466, 480-82, 490-93,
498-99, 521, 524, 525, 526, 528
—and relations of production—27,
28, 466
—and exchange—12-14, 19, 21, 24-
25, 32, 53, 57, 116-17, 127-28,
195, 323, 361, 461, 462, 466-68,
474, 475, 521
—circulation time and labour time—
8, 14-19, 21, 23, 27, 42, 56, 58-62,
68, 72, 76, 89, 104, 105, 126, 128,
150, 526, 528
—and value—10, 14-15, 17-27, 33,
34, 49, 51, 65, 71-72, 76, 104-05,
108, 110-12, 114-16, 122, 127-28,
149-50, 176, 190-94, 202-03, 229,
231, 249-50, 428, 430-32, 434, 440,
442-43, 462-63, 475, 480-97, 498,
499, 511, 526
—and surplus value—50, 54, 89,
495
—and turnover of capital and circulating
capital—70, 72, 76, 77,
103-09, 111-14, 116-20, 122-24,
202-03, 528
—and credit—49, 62-63, 116, 526,
528
See also Reproduction
Classes— 60, 74, 163, 169, 187, 196,
226-30, 261
See also Working class
Classical bourgeois political economy—33,
69, 77-78, 118, 135-38, 163, 191-9*2,
224-25, 238, 297-301, 446-47, 449,
450, 463, 466, 468-69, 476-78, 488,
517, 521-22, 526-30
Coin—166, 171-72, 176, 179, 181, 183-
85, 190-93, 214-15, 243-44, 246-47,
312, 314, 335, 342-56, 359-60, 371,
428, 433, 435-45, 456-57, 485-92,
494, 508-09
Combination of labour—91, 95, 149, 154,
157
Commodity—7, 8, 9, 12, 15, 18, 20-21,
24-25, 28, 33-34, 49, 50, 56, 58, 62,
110, 111, 114-17, 163, 169, 175, 176,
180, 189, 190, 204, 221, 226, 231,
241, 243, 246-47, 249-51, 252-53,
264, 270-72, 281-84, 290-93, 302,
323, 325-26, 360, 424-26, 430-31,
432-33, 440-41, 445, 447-51, 452-68,
471-74, 475, 476, 478-80, 481-88,
490-91, 496-504, 524-25, 530
Communism (socio-economic formation)—
87, 263
—prerequisites for—91-95, 253
—necessity of socialist revolution—
134
—character and organisation of production
and labour—12, 87, 91-
94, 97-98, 210-11
—law of the saving of labour time—
96-98
—development of productive
forces—94-98
—wealth—93-94
—science under—97
—division of labour—21
—consumption—21, 97
—development of the individual—
12, 91-94, 210
Community, commune—125-26, 233,
245, 253, 275, 290-91, 381, 438, 463,
464, 468
Competition— 37-40, 47, 59, 79, 115,
116, 122, 135-36, 138-39, 145-46,
158-60, 294, 514, 524, 526, 528
Concentration and centralisation of capital—
49, 88, 229, 477, 527
Conquest—170, 187, 459
Constant capital—128, 145-46, 150-61,
196-97, 198-209, 512, 524, 528
Consumption—21, 23-25, 27, 35-36, 48,
51, 57, 66, 68, 71, 75, 77, 82, 92, 96,
101, 102, 104, 106, 109-11, 114-18,
124, 127, 135, 142, 155, 202, 217,
234, 240, 251, 269, 278, 283, 290,
362, 427, 450, 457, 458, 478, 480,
485, 490, 492, 493, 495, 502-04, 506,
509, 511, 512, 515, 522, 524
Content and form—16, 19, 20, 28, 34,
38-39, 47, 49, 50, 53, 57, 61-62, 65,
70, 81, 84, 85, 91-92, 94, 98, 118-19,
134, 143, 152, 153, 172, 228-30, 234,
252, 263-64, 270, 272, 275-76, 283,
288-90, 293, 297-99, 303-05, 307,
323, 331, 334, 335, 336, 357, 358,
360, 361, 363, 371-72, 374, 461, 464,
466, 467, 471-74, 484, 485, 489, 494,
496, 497, 504, 505, 507, 518, 523,
529
Costs of circulation, of exchange—7, 8,
13-15, 21-24, 32, 49, 52, 61, 124,
149, 526, 528
Credit—12, 48-50, 56, 60, 62-63, 116,
171, 229, 340-41, 375, 414, 432-33
Credit money— 303, 350, 399-400
D
Demand and supply—11, 35, 47, 121,
138, 163, 176, 197, 204, 226, 302,
515, 525
Dialectics—139, 505
Distribution— 20, 49, 74, 97, 142-44,
169, 211, 235, 512, 516, 521, 530,
532
Division of labour— 8, 13, 15, 17, 21, 22,
62, 90, 139, 149, 154-57, 206, 275,
292-94, 299, 323, 329, 425, 444, 447,
465-70, 513, 518, 531
Dual character of labour— 271-72, 277,
292, 472-74
E
East, the—440
Economic categories—34, 39, 159, 160,
163-64, 219, 297-98
Economic crises—10, 12, 50, 90, 91, 94,
105-07, 133-34, 153, 177, 244-46,
314, 318, 333, 374, 378, 409, 412-14,
425, 427, 433, 436, 441, 525, 532
Economic laws—12, 38-41, 47, 58, 63,
64, 131-33, 134-37, 138-40, 145-47,
151-52, 160, 171, 190, 195, 196, 209,
211, 219, 220, 300, 302, 341, 354-56,
380, 423-24, 425, 434, 437, 443,
449-50, 462-64, 518, 525-27, 532
Egypt, ancient—152, 361, 392-93
England (Great Britain)— 75, 97, 115,
120-22, 153, 166-70, 177-86, 191,
192, 215, 219, 230, 235-37, 247-49,
368, 407-08, 431, 432, 436-37, 447-
49, 465-66, 481, 518, 531
—domination on the world market—
247, 476-77
—industry and railways—105, 166-
68, 197, 198, 205-08, 231, 531, 532
—foreign trade—75, 115, 177, 247-
48, 409, 447-48
—commercial crisis of 1857—314
—finances—63, 172, 175, 178-79,
181, 183, 185-92, 218-19, 227, 230,
237, 246-49, 309-15, 319, 339,
346-48, 357-58, 375-76, 422, 436-
37, 440, 532
See also Scotland
Equilibrium— 294, 333, 382, 405-06
Equivalent^-212, 275, 276, 280, 282,
283, 284, 291, 357
Europe— 232, 344, 368-69, 380, 382,
388, 394, 435-36, 440, 508
Exchange— 8, 13-15, 17, 21-22, 32, 62-
64, 95, 133, 191, 233, 242, 461-62,
468-72, 476-78, 481, 511-12, 521,
525-26, 532
—development of—32
—between communities—126, 245,
253, 290-91, 381, 438, 463
—of surpluses—25, 360-61, 480-82
—in pre-capitalist socio-economic
formations—64, 126, 430
—simple (money-for-commodity)—
57, 143, 221, 282-88, 292, 324,
328, 361, 432, 445-46, 461-65,
467-68, 470-71, 476, 496
—and money—289, 291, 292, 445-
46, 472-73
—between capital and labour—20,
25-26, 37, 59, 63-64, 66-68, 71,81,
86, 87, 90, 111, 123, 124, 130-33,
137, 144-48, 151, 153, 156-57, 176,
201, 202, 220, 221, 244, 502-06,
522
—of equivalents—19-21, 52, 53, 63,
144, 145, 176, 197, 220, 231,
284-85, 462, 471-75, 478, 486-89
—non-equivalent—64, 144, 145, 220,
231, 244, 357
—and circulation—13-15, 19, 21-22,
25, 32, 53, 57, 116, 127-28, 195,
323, 361, 461-62, 466-68, 475, 522
—and production—8, 12, 16, 25, 63,
127-28, 466, 476
—and division of labour—8, 17,
21-22, 62, 299-300, 464-65
—and consumption—466
—and use value—468-69
—and value—19, 232, 468
Exchange value—12-14, 19-20, 25, 34-
35, 48, 63, 64, 70, 92-93, 99, 126,
151-53, 202, 228, 231, 233, 235, 244,
252-54, 269-72, 275-84, 289-91, 295-
96, 300-02, 304-08, 323, 326, 349-50,
361, 365-67, 376, 383, 389-90, 424-
26, 428, 430-33, 437, 443-48, 456,
458-59, 461-67, 471, 473-506, 511,
521-22
Exploitation of the worker under capitalism—
127, 134, 147, 153, 228
See also Capital; Surplus labour; Surplus
value; Worker; Working class
F
Factory— 66, 67, 80, 82, 198, 205, 469
Family— 253, 275, 290
Fetishism— 40, 77, 210, 276, 289-91,
386-87
Feudalism—120, 121, 126, 153, 211,
214, 232-34, 243, 431, 460
Fixed capital—9, 10, 28-33, 34-36, 51-
52, 58, 60, 68-77, 80-89, 92, 93,
95-98, 99-114, 117-20, 122-26, B I SO,
137, 145-50, 201-05, 207, 208,
218, 220, 515, 516, 528, 530
Formations (social)—253
See also Antiquity; Communism;
Feudalism; Pre-capitalist socio-economic
formations; Slavery
France— 63, 141, 167, 178, 181, 188,
213, 220, 236-42, 291-92, 294-95,
310, 313, 318, 400, 422
Freedom— 37-40, 91, 137, 138, 143,
464, 466, 470, 471, 475-76, 518, 521
Free (disposable) time— 22, 29, 91, 93-94,
97, 103, 158, 512, 524, 528, 529
G
General (average) rate of profit—42, 59,
74, 135, 145, 196, 530
Generality—Particularity—Singularity—
289, 308, 331, 382, 492
Gold and silver—190, 245-46, 380-81,
423, 431, 434-35, 452, 456-57
—as the natural substance of value—
223, 289-90, 304-06, 350, 357-58,
380, 385, 387-
—as a commodity—85, 178, 184,
191, 222, 241, 304, 306, 322,
325-28, 345, 381, 383, 385, 433-39,
440-41, 443, 446, 452, 455-59, 478
—as money—14, 85, 172-75, 178-86,
190, 241, 245-47, 290, 304, 325-26,
328-29, 338-39, 355-58, 361, 366,
369, 385-86, 387, 421-22, 428,
434-39, 441-45, 452-59, 487, 495,
502, 503, 508-09
—as a form of wealth—245, 358-61,
363, 370, 428, 433, 435-38, 440-41,
443, 447, 457-58, 479, 495, 509
—gold standard of money—173-83,
193-95, 310-11, 345-46
—deposits and extraction of—11,
387-88, 436, 440, 451, 455-56,
459-61
—natural properties—387, 452-60
—luxury articles—243, 368-69, 428,
442-44, 456-58
—in bullion and coin—181, 183-86,
243, 342-43, 345, 368-69, 436-37,
442-43
—weight unit of—174, 175, 308
—and production—11, 386, 441,
455, 459
—and circulation—327, 338-40, 382,
414, 439, 443
—in world trade—245-47, 382-83,
437
—and economic crises—244-46, 441
—and the world market—381-84,
435-43, 508-09
—value ratio of gold and silver—
313, 387-88, 459-61
—depreciation of—187, 460-61
Greece—164, 212, 361, 460
H
History— 38, 40, 61, 87-88, 100, 133,
149, 172, 181, 210-11, 253, 436, 463,
465, 469, 475, 481-82, 505, 518, 522,
525
Hoarding-—359-70, 379-80, 383
See also Gold and silver; Money—;n a
hoard
Holland— 293, 342, 357-58
I
India—75-76, 152, 192, 227, 233, 236,
253, 275, 313, 363, 436, 446, 448,
460, 464
Individual—12, 21-22, 27, 29, 35, 37,
38, 40, 60, 62, 86, 88, 91-98, 101,
119, 121, 125-26, 133, 228, 253, 426,
437, 451, 461, 465, 470, 471, 473,
474, 487, 504, 506, 518, 521
—in bourgeois society—38-40, 98
—his social nature—93, 94, 464,
465, 469-71
— his historical development—91-92,
97, 98, 133
— relationship of individuals—62,
91, 97, 98. 101, 446, 461, 464-66,
473-74
—and development of productive
forces—29, 38, 91-98, 465-66
—his reproduction—101, 210, 469,
470
—and free time—29, 91, 93-94, 97
—as "fixed capital"—97
—under communism—12-14, 97, 98,
210
—and nature—86, 91-92, 119, 455,
459, 460
—and regeneration of organism—60
—his consciousness—92, 471, 487
Industrial capital—482, 515
Industry— 28, 59, 89-91, 93, 100, 101,
105, 107, 108, 111, 115, 117, 121,
125, 131, 136-38, 145-46, 154, 156,
159, 166, 167, 198, 206, 231-34, 437,
456, 477, 481, 517, 531
Instruments of production—77, 96, 101,
110-12, 120, 124, 141, 146, 148, 149,
199, 200, 435, 455, 516, 529
Interest (econ.)—28, 31, 37, 48, 77,
107, 108, 142, 144, 218-20, 225,
226-30, 235, 249
Ireland—198, 293
Italy—167, 212, 214-15, 232, 234, 295,
448, 481
J
Japan— 388, 460
Joint-stock capital—48
Joint-stock companies—205
L
Labour— 20-21, 34, 84-88, 90-91, 94-95,
127-28, 153-54, 196, 221, 222, 459,
460, 462, 464-65, 472-73, 474, 510,
511, 518, 522-23
—as substance of value—156, 174,
176, 196, 197, 271, 276
—alienation of, under capitalism—
64, 462, 463
—alienation of conditions of
labour—209-10
—as use value—503-04, 505
—private and social, individual and
general—63, 83-87, 89-91, 95,
271-73, 275, 286, 292, 321, 334,
462, 463, 466-73
—necessary and surplus—15, 22, 29,
60, 83, 87, 88, 91-95, 106-08,
130-32, 134, 137, 144, 146-52, 156,
196, 200, 227
—average—272-73
—industrial and agricultural—59-60,
94-96
—simple and skilled—271-73
—living and objectified—14-15, 20,
26-28, 48, 59, 63-64, 66, 83-88,
90-92, 93, 99-101, 107, 108, 119,
120, 123-25, 127-29, 134, 141,
144-149, 151, 156, 160, 176, 196,
198-200, 209, 271, 460-65, 466-68,
502, 503-05, 506, 521
—as condition of human existence—
278
— "co-existing"—86-88, 100-02, 133,
205
—scientific—85, 86, 89-91
— forced—121, 122
—in pre-capitalist socio-economic
formations—121, 156, 229, 469,
470
—under communism—87, 88-92, 97,
98
—conditions and prerequisites of—
82, 201, 202, 209
—intensity of—155, 156, 222
—qualification of—222, 456
—continuity of—204
—reproduction of—127
—as self-realisation of the individual—
89-91
—and wealth—89-92, 94-95, 209,
228, 277, 294, 522
—and property—64, 209, 461-63,
504-05, 510, 518, 523-24
—and labour time—59, 271
—and labour capacity (power)—502,
503-05, 526-27
—system of machines—83
—and population—147, 154
—and mode of appropriation—461-
63
—and circulation—462-64
—and money—466-68
See also Division of labour; Dual
character of labour; Necessary labour;
Productive labour; Property; Surplus
labour; Wage labour
Labour capacity (power)—63, 64, 66-68,
71, 81, 83-84, 87-88, 90-91, 111, 119,
137, 144, 147, 148, 152, 153, 157,
198, 199, 202, 210, 423, 502, 504-07,
511-13, 522, 524, 527, 528
Labour time— 8, 13-14, 27, 28, 29,
40-42, 45-56, 58-64, 68, 71, 72, 75,
85, 87-95, 100, 104-05, 123-24, 127-
29, 132, 146, 152-53, 156-58, 160-61,
172, 174, 176, 178, 180, 196-200,
203, 206, 242, 272-74, 284, 286,
300-01, 308, 320-21, 421, 424, 425,
434, 441, 452, 457, 459, 460, 462,
472, 484, 487, 490, 506, 512-14, 523,
524, 528, 529
See also Labour
Landed property, landed proprietors—99-
100, 125-26, 183, 187, 196, 211-14,
229, 516, 521
Language—177, 195, 447
Law—39, 261-63, 426, 445, 463, 470,
475
Law(s)—see Economic laws
Loan capital— 74, 108, 219, 220, 227-
29, 240, 250
Loans, state—183, 315
M
Machinery— 30, 63, 69, 71, 79-80, 82-
97, 100, 105, 108, 110-12, 120, 122-
25, 131, 134, 145, 148-62, 166, 198-
200, 203-09, 211, 513, 517, 524, 525,
529, 531, 532
Malthusianism— 221
Market— 7, 9, 11, 12, 23-24, 32, 47, 57,
62, 75, 76, 114-15, 126, 128, 133,
149, 169, 204, 227, 442, 505, 516,
526, 528, 532
See also World market
Materialist conception of history—see
Classes; Formations, social; Productive
forces; Relations of production
Mathematics—19-20, 219
Means (medium) of circulation—185, 213,
220, 338-43, 354, 355, 390-91, 394,
404, 405
Means of communication—24, 60, 62, 77,
85, 93, 108, 110, 124-26, 133, 156,
190, 204, 526, 528, 531
Measure—174, 271-72, 320, 321, 361
Measure of value— 303-14, 317-18, 321,
354, 381, 385, 396
Mechanics— 59, 82, 89, 111
Mercantilism—163, 176-77, 182, 234-
35, 243-44, 276, 390-91, 438, 447-48,
468-69, 508-09
See also Monetary system
Merchants—11, 21-22, 24, 60, 62, 65,
228, 231-34, 425, 511, 528, 532
Metallic currency— 309, 370, 389, 413
Method of political economy—196, 261,
476, 505
See also Political economy (Marxist)
Mexico— 215, 428, 440
Mode of production—12, 37-39, 59, 63-
64, 84, 97, 100-01, 104, 112, 114-15,
121, 125-26, 134, 152, 159-60, 211,
221, 228-29, 233-34, 263, 432, 469,
470, 475, 480-81, 505, 526, 532
Monetary system—216, 293, 378, 389-91,
399, 433, 436, 442, 447, 449
Money—12, 57-58, 171-87, 190, 193-95,
215-16, 248, 289-90, 296-97, 303,
305, 333, 345-46, 386, 433-35, 438-
39, 452, 462
—as a hoard—359, 362-64, 368-69,
375, 380, 431, 433, 435, 437-40,
442-44, 448, 449, 457-58, 474,
478-80, 485, 488-89, 491, 494-96,
501
—as a universal equivalent—172,
182, 186-87, 193, 215, 244-48, 430,
433-35, 437-41, 445, 455, 456, 472,
478, 487, 491-92, 501, 508
—depreciation of—182, 183, 193,
248
—and value—33-34, 60-61, 159, 172,
182-83, 186, 229, 232, 246, 365,
392, 434, 439, 449, 473, 479, 480,
483-91, 495-99
—value of—240, 241, 422, 424, 426,
428
—amount of, in circulation—67-68,
171, 190, 192-94, 241, 242, 249,
339-41, 378, 379-80, 391-92, 394,
401-02, 411-13, 434, 444-45, 449,
478
—money relationships—7-8, 228,
431, 468, 472-74
—and exchange—290, 324, 326-27,
356-57, 445, 473
—and prices—339-40, 391, 402-03,
411-13
—and commodity—25, 193-95, 241-
42, 250, 289, 290, 303, 334, 357,
364-65, 458, 478-79, 482-83, 487-
91, 508
—and property—445-46
—and credit—50
—and production costs—14, 67, 238
—and costs of circulation—61
—and contradictions in bourgeois
society—12, 332, 433-34
—during economic crises—10, 245,
332, 378, 412, 433
—in pre-capitalist socio-economic
formations—62, 211-12, 214, 216,
298, 488
— quantity theory of money in
bourgeois political economy—164,
185, 194, 241-43, 249, 291, 294-95,
316-17, 332-33, 375-76, 391-417
Money as a form of capital—7-8, 10,
14-15, 25-26, 34, 57, 60-61, 67-68,
109, 150, 229, 245, 247, 416, 437,
496-98, 501-04
Money as a form of wealth—142, 228,
245, 358, 378, 389-90, 430-31, 433,
440-41, 443, 450-51, 478-79, 494-96,
507, 509
Money as a means of circulation—14, 26,
57-58, 61, 67-68, 171, 186-87, 190-
95, 220-21, 231, 245, 250, 332-42,
357-58, 371, 373-74, 381, 390, 432,
437-41, 443-44, 446, 449, 456-58,
472-73, 478-79, 484-94, 498, 506,
508, 509
Money as a means of payment—191, 229,
245, 334, 370-80, 412, 430-43, 445,
449, 456, 461, 478, 485, 488, 506-08
Money as the measure of value—171-74,
176-79, 182-83, 245, 248, 289, 303-
14, 358, 373, 378, 432, 433, 439, 440,
446, 456, 485-89, 492, 509
Money of account—171-77, 179, 185,
311-12, 313, 315, 317, 378, 379-80,
393, 394, 433-34
N
Natural economy—153, 274-75, 389
Natural science—86, 90
See also Science
Nature— 60, 86, 91-92, 95, 101, 108,
114, 119, 126, 154, 158, 455, 458-60,
470, 474, 529
Necessary labour—15-16, 29, 71, 83, 91,
124, 130-32, 134, 136, 140-141, 146,
148-52, 155-58, 160, 196, 200, 204,
227, 522-23, 531, 532
Necessity and chance— 38-39, 71, 107,
133, 138, 210, 308, 374, 436, 463,
468-69, 528, 530
Needs—11, 29, 50, 84, 85, 86, 94-95,
101, 127, 167, 228, 229, 231, 233,
252, 269-70, 274, 283, 288, 290, 307,
324, 326, 329, 358-60, 362, 374, 435,
436, 441, 443, 444, 458, 464, 465,
466-68, 470, 472, 480, 482, 484, 487,
498, 501, 522
O
Organic composition of capital—131-34,
146-49, 153-59, 196, 198, 209-10,
512, 516, 524, 531
Overproduction—12, 93, 153
See also Economic crises
P
Paper money—14, 63, 181, 185, 188,
193-94, 224, 348-56, 402, 404, 421,
423
Pauperism—120-22, 512, 527, 530
Peasant, peasantry—52, 121, 153, 170,
227, 232, 252, 430, 465-66, 484, 518
Peru— 211, 215, 299, 464
Petty-bourgeois socialism—35, 40, 186,
239-40, 475-77
See also Proudhonism; Socialism,
Utopian
Philosophy— 263, 264, 316
Physiocrats— 37, 187-89, 297
Political economy (Marxist)—28-29, 36-
37, 40-47, 53-56, 98, 130-35, 139-49,
196-97, 227-29, 261-65, 271, 463,
505
—method of—476, 505
—historical approach of—63, 142,
463, 481, 505, 512, 518
—categories of—159, 160
—course of Marx's political-economic
research—261, 264-65
—working out of the plan of
economic analysis—36-37, 62-63,
65, 67-68, 69-70, 99-101, 109, 116-
18, 136, 148, 170-72, 186-87, 196,
229, 421-29, 434, 444, 445, 452,
518-29
Population—93, 94, 133-35, 147-49,
152-54, 157, 158, 169, 481, 512, 514,
527
Portugal—166, 310, 449
Practice— 92, 323
Pre-capitalist socio-economic formations
—social relations—133-34
—character of labour—156, 469-70
—development of productive
forces—133-34
—production and consumption—
469-70
—forms of property—253
—handicraft labour—38, 229
—patriarchal form of production
system—477
—landed property— 125-26, 211,
214
—progress in agriculture—59-60
—development of money relations
and of exchange—60-61, 64, 211-
14, 216, 228, 487-88
—development of wage labour—
153-54, 228
—commodity production—9, 12-13
—and competition—37-38
—and capitalist mode of production—
430, 505
See also Antiquity; Feudalism; Greece;
Rome, ancient; Slavery
Price, formation of prices—47-49, 79,
143-45, 148, 171, 173, 195, 196, 226,
240, 241, 302, 305-09, 311-13, 325,
327, 338-42, 350, 355-56, 391, 392,
395, 401, 402, 412-14, 431
Production— 7, 8, 12, 40, 63-65, 85-86,
252
—social character of—16, 262-63,
446-47, 466, 467
—and individual—7, 252
—and development of productive
forces—154, 263-64
—material—12, 90-92
—instruments and means of production—
92-93
— "production in general"—7
—branches of—59, 100-03, 135-37,
154, 156, 222, 228, 468, 469
—industrial—477
—in agriculture—58-59, 76, 100-01,
111, 119-21, 154
—mechanised—89-91
—physical content and social form
of—16, 27, 30
—conditions of—7, 8, 9, 59, 81, 111,
112, 154, 498
—and nature—85-86, 90-92, 95, 96,
100, 101
—continuity of—15-17, 32, 51, 59,
89-90, 104, 105, 127
—and science—85-86, 90-92, 97, 98,
134, 147
—and bourgeois society—97, 98
—capitalist—8-12, 15, 25-27, 33, 37-
38, 39, 49-58, 65, 71, 80-85, 88-90,
92, 93, 97, 98, 106, 107, 112, 113,
117, 118, 122-24, 128-29, 154,
253, 466, 480, 481, 498, 505
—petty-bourgeois—477
—and turnover of capital—15, 16,
41-42, 46-47
—and distribution—142, 210
—and exchange—16, 25, 64, 128,
466
—and consumption—35, 96, 97,
101, 102, 142, 448
—and needs—252, 480, 481
—and wages—49
—reduction of immediate labour—
86-88
—and circulation—10, 15-17, 19, 22,
27, 129, 159, 171, 452, 466, 467,
480-81, 490, 491
—and wealth—211
—of surplus capital—8
—of means of production and articles
of consumption—92-96, 120,
124
—of commodities—8, 12, 14-15, 17,
464-68
—in pre-capitalist socio-economic
formations—463, 469, 470
—surplus—93, 94
—disproportions of—93, 94
—under communism—12, 91, 94,
97, 98, 210
—bourgeois economists on production
and distribution—12, 142-43,
446-48
Production costs—14, 21-23, 37, 47-49,
52, 61, 67, 97, 100, 107, 124, 144-46,
148, 151, 160, 163, 200, 435, 515,
522, 525, 530
Productive capital— 52, 69, 100, 109,
123, 135, 138, 144
Productive forces— 91-92, 97, 100, 522
—and relations of production—38,
85, 133-35, 210, 262-64, 505
—and development of the individual—
97, 98
—and division of labour—85, 149,
154-57, 206, 469
—science as a productive force—83-
86, 92, 100, 149
—of bourgeois society—84, 85, 95,
96, 133, 135, 505
—and capital—38, 84-85, 88-89, 92-
93, 100-02, 104, 123-24, 132-35,
149-50, 160, 228, 512, 514, 516,
522, 524, 529, 531
—and wealth—94, 133, 134, 446-47
—means of production, fixed capital—
87-89, 92, 95, 96, 99, 100,
123-25, 133, 135, 150, 512, 531
—in pre-capitalist socio-economic
formations—37, 133
—under communism—91-92, 94-95,
97-98, 133-34
Productive labour— 59, 86, 87, 91, 94,
95, 101, 221-22, 516, 521, 522
Productivity of labour— 279, 281, 282
Profit—18, 23, 28, 29, 31, 37, 48, 52,
55, 56, 74, 78, 79, 89, 107-08, 110,
126, 129-48, 151, 155, 163, 168-70,
196, 203, 204, 206-08, 219-21, 225,
226-30, 235, 244, 249, 250, 512,
516-17, 521, 523-24, 526-28, 530-32
Property
— as appropriation—211, 461-63,
470, 518
— and labour—461, 462
— and division of labour—21
— and circulation—26, 27, 462-64
—and money relations—445
— alienation of—70, 445
— communal (common)—125-27,
253
— pre-capitalist forms of—253
— private—21, 64, 126, 127, 462,
463
— capitalist—50
— movable and immovable—125-27,
445
— of a worker in labour capacity
(power)—504
— in product of labour—64
— title to—445, 462, 463
— under communism—21
See also Landed property, landed proprietors
Proudhonism— 29, 35, 106-07, 139, 176,
186, 219-21, 475-76, 513, 516, 521,
524, 527, 528, 532
Purchase and sale—12, 62, 106-07, 219,
230, 325-34, 357-60, 372-75, 432,
443, 461, 465, 466, 487-88, 506
Q
Quality and quantity— 26-27', 67, 81,
85-86, 99, 222, 223, 269-73, 290
304-05, 328, 338-39, 353, 365, 445,
452-58, 472-73, 494-95, 512
R
Rate of exchange—171, 172, 174, 175,
229, 246, 247
Rate of profit—19, 29, 37, 59, 130-42,
145-48, 151, 157, 196, 208, 230, 524,
527, 530-32
See also General (average) rate of profit
Rate of surplus value—130-31, 137, 146,
148, 151, 196, 207-08
Raw material (as object of labour)—13,
16, 17, 26, 28-29, 36, 57, 65, 66, 69,
80-82, 100-02, 106, 110-13, 117, 120-
22, 131, 132, 144-48, 152, 153-59,
163, 166, 196, 198, 199, 202, ?05,
437, 442-43, 456-57, 465-66, 527-28,
529-30
Realisation
— of value of commodity—14, 15,
20, 25-26, 62, 450, 463, 464
— of value of capital—7, 22, 49, 53,
55, 67, 70, 106, 108, 138, 202, 229
— of surplus value—54, 106-08, 128,
144, 150, 229
— of profit—28, 107, 108, 138, 143,
219
Relations of production—37, 39, 77, 128,
252, 291, 436, 463, 505, 521
— revolution in economic relations—
263, 434
— in bourgeois society—37, 39, 91,
92, 127, 128, 134, 142, 176, 186,
228, 252, 436, 463, 464, 474-77
— of commodity producers—461,
464-69, 471-75
— and productive forces—38, 85,
133-34, 210, 262-64, 505
— objectification of—210, 276, 435,
446, 467
— and mode of appropriation—463,
464
— and process of exchange of commodities—
292
— value as a relation of production—
436, 462, 463
— expressed in money—60-61, 431-
32, 436, 438, 446, 473-74, 479,
480, 486-87
— and gold and silver—458, 459
— employment of machinery—85-88,
198-200, 211
— in pre-capitalist socio-economic
formations—37-39, 134,252, 461,
474-75, 505
— in bourgeois political economy—
474-77
Religion—149, 177, 215-16
Rent—34-35, 135, 136, 138, 140, 169,
182, 196, 476-77
Reproduction— 31, 35-36, 47, 50-51, 57,
63-64, 106, 111-12, 114, 116-18, 125-
28, 133-34, 202, 210, 221, 492, 497-
99, 515-16, 525, 530
— simple—492
— of capital—7, 25, 27-29, 33-35, 37,
41, 47, 50-51, 57, 60, 65-67, 71-72,
75, 89
— of surplus value—48, 53-54, 58,
75, 89, 128
— of wages—71
— of labour capacity (power)—22,
63, 64, 66, 67, 127, 133, 147, 155,
210, 514, 528
— relationship of labour and capital—
66-67, 127-28
— of individuals as members of society—
101-02, 210, 470
— and production—7, 41, 47, 53,
127-28, 499, 525
— in industry—104-06, 111-12
— in agriculture—28, 111, 114, 129
— time, duration of—41, 51, 53, 58,
75, 89, 104-05, 114, 127, 515-16,
530
— and circulation—102, 127-30
— and turnover of capital—53-54,
102-06, 129, 130
— under communal system—125-26,
463-65
— under communism—210
— in nature— 111
Revenue— 36, 66, 69, 77, 79, 108, 116-
19, 142, 143, 227, 229, 524
See also Community, commune; Greece;
Rome, ancient; Slavery
Revolution—434
Revolution, social—263, 380
Revolution, socialist— 40, 85-87, 91-92,
94-95, 98, 134, 176, 210, 220
Rome, ancient— 39, 187, 194, 213, 275,
348, 361, 377, 388, 393, 434, 460,
470, 475, 495
Russia— 24, 197, 224, 225, 275, 312,
351, 373, 382, 428, 440
S
Science— 59, 83-86, 89-94, 97, 100, 133,
136, 147, 149, 167, 297, 455
See also Chemistry; History; Mathematics;
Mechanics; Natural science; Political
economy (Marxist)
Scotland—164, 191, 195, 198, 206-08,
237, 293, 298, 312, 348, 424
Siberia— 312
Slavery—133, 152, 162, 164, 212, 221,
252, 464, 522, 524, 531
Social formations—see Formations (social)
Social relations— 92, 102, 275, 276, 292,
431, 435, 473, 487
Socialism— 35, 186, 301, 323, 475, 477
See also Proudhonism
Socialism, Utopian—98, 99, 473
Society, bourgeois— 22, 40, 84, 93-94,
98-99, 101-02, 122, 134, 187, 232,
233, 389-90, 430, 436, 437, 444,
468-69, 475, 487, 505
— and relations of production—37
39, 40, 91, 92, 134, 176, 186, 263,
264, 463, 464, 474, 475
— structure and contradictions of—
40, 90-96, 134, 135, 138, 158, 221,
332, 433, 434, 469, 470, 475
— competition—37-40, 47, 115
— and law of appropriation—463,
464
— classes—187, 188, 227, 228, 469
— domination of value relationships—
253, 270-76, 278, 286, 287,
292, 299-300, 364, 436, 462, 463,
465, 466, 476, 477, 480-81
— development of productive
forces—84, 85, 133, 505
— and production—97, 98, 134, 505
— and law—39, 470, 471, 474, 475
—and pre-capitalist relations—331,
430, 505
— social needs—94, 95, 465, 466,
468-70
— social practice—93
— and state—476
— in bourgeois political economy—
22, 120, 138, 196, 210, 235, 463,
474-77
See also Social relations
Spain— 295, 310, 362, 368, 448, 460
Standard of prices— 308-09, 311, 345
See also Money
State, the—121, 122, 126, 164, 172,
182, 183, 187, 219, 245, 315, 318,
319, 342, 353-54, 430-31, 435, 443-
44, 508, 546
Stocks—11, 204-05, 242, 439, 443
Subject of political economy—16, 34-36,
158-60, 228, 252, 262, 270, 452, 455,
476-77
Surplus labour—15, 25, 29, 37, 42,
53-55, 60, 87, 91, 93-94, 103, 108,
112, 130-32, 134, 137, 141, 144-52,
154, 156-60, 199-201, 206, 208, 244,
423, 513, 522, 524-25, 532
Surplus value—7, 9, 14, 16-17, 18, 20,
28, 29, 32, 40-42, 45-50, 53-61, 75,
89, 103-04, 106-08, 117, 118, 123-24,
126-31, 137, 140, 144, 146-53, 154,
157-60, 170, 196, 198-201, 228, 229,
494-95, 512, 517, 522-24, 526
— source of—60, 144
— and capital—9, 16, 17-18, 20, 28,
31, 40-41, 48, 50, 53-54, 56, 60,
75, 89, 103-06, 107, 108, 127, 129,
130, 131, 144, 146-47, 151-53,
155-58, 201, 227, 249, 524
— relative and absolute—131, 137,
146, 147, 152-53, 423, 513
— realisation of—54, 103-08, 128,
144, 150, 229
— distribution of—20, 49, 59, 108,
144, 169, 524
— and exchange value—75, 111,
114, 202, 494-95
— and surplus labour—53, 54, 59,
103, 524
— and profit—28, 49, 108, 129-31,
134, 137, 151, 169, 201, 202, 228,
244
— and rate of profit—130-31, 137,
146-47, 196, 516, 523
— and general rate of profit—59
— and rent—108, 169
— and turnover of capital—16-18,
31, 40-42, 45-47, 52-54, 56, 103,
104, 129, 130, 150
— and development of productive
forces—29, 155, 158
— and circulation and reproduction—
9, 16-18, 31, 42, 45-50, 53,
54, 56, 58-59, 89, 103-04, 106,
128, 150
— and costs of circulation—8, 50, 61,
107-08, 144
— identification of surplus value and
profit in bourgeois political
economy—137, 140, 144, 297, 523
Sweden— 348
T
Taxes—135, 169, 437
Technology—13, 31, 84-85, 90, 459-60
See also Machinery; Production;
Science
Token of value— 348-53, 355-56, 391,
400
See also Coin; Paper money
Trade (commerce)—11, 23, 32, 60, 62,
65, 121, 162, 166, 174-75, 185, 191-
94, 204, 211, 215, 223, 226, 231-36,
246, 432, 433-34, 438, 439, 445, 447,
477, 480-82, 486-87, 489, 528
Turnover of capital— 7, 8, 11, 12, 14, 15,
18, 26, 28, 32, 41, 42, 45-47, 49, 51,
53, 54, 56-58, 72-76, 81, 102-06, 114,
122, 129, 130, 145-46, 150, 202, 203,
515, 526-27, 528
U
Unit of measure— 309, 310, 313, 316,
320, 439
United States of America, the—132, 166,
476, 477
See also America
Universal equivalent—172, 245, 274,
280, 287, 288, 304-05, 307, 346, 358,
378, 383, 385, 387, 430-31, 434, 437,
438, 501, 506-07
Use value—19-20, 24-26, 27, 30, 34-35,
48, 57, 61, 63, 64, 66, 68-72, 75, 76,
80-82, 84-85, 88, 91, 92, 94, 95-96,
100, 101, 102-04, 106, 108, 110,
112-20, 122-25, 127, 128, 140, 149-
55, 176, 197, 201, 202, 223, 232, 233,
235, 244, 252-53, 269-72, 274, 276,
277-84, 288-92, 295, 306-08, 323-26,
358, 360-62, 372, 374, 396, 427, 430,
435-37, 440, 445, 448, 450, 451, 455,
457-58, 461, 465-67, 471, 473, 478-
86, 488-89, 502-06, 511, 521-23, 530
Usury— 214, 215, 224, 225, 227, 228-
30, 532
V
Value—13-14, 20, 21, 25, 26, 53, 54,
59, 61, 62, 64, 70, 81, 84, 91, 105-06,
126, 127, 131, 132, 145, 172, 174,
176-77, 186, 197, 198, 231, 245, 423,
430, 434, 445, 459, 462-64, 475, 485,
488, 491, 493, 495, 496, 498, 501,
504
—as an economic category—39, 159,
160, 244, 473
—determination of, by labour time—
20-21, 47-49, 59, 63, 64, 156, 174,
176, 186, 195, 197, 198, 222, 272,
273, 320, 489, 490
—as a social relationship—90, 91,
244, 436, 462, 473-74
—substance of—156, 224, 305, 456
—as a basis for the bourgeois society—
253, 300, 436, 462-64, 465-67,
476, 477, 479-82
—and division of labour—465-69
—and price—47, 144-45, 194, 195,
242, 424, 426, 431, 478, 480,
482-87, 494, 503
—and money—26, 33, 61, 128, 159,
169-70, 172-74, 176, 178, 179, 182,
183, 186, 187, 223, 229, 231, 232,
234, 245, 246, 250, 365, 392, 423-
24, 426, 428, 433-34, 436, 437,
438-41, 443, 448-49, 456, 458, 459,
472-74, 478-80, 484-92, 493, 495-
500, 503
—and capital—10, 11, 12, 16, 21, 26,
27, 30, 33-34, 36-37, 41, 42, 48,
49, 51-54, 57, 59, 61, 62, 64, 65,
67, 68, 69, 70-72, 75-77, 80-84,
91-94, 101, 103, 104, 106, 129-31,
134, 141, 142, 144, 150, 160, 201,
202, 218-19, 233, 244, 249, 490-
502, 505, 530
—and capitalist production—12, 25,
39, 63, 90-92, 95, 96, 143, 160,
176, 220, 432, 476, 477, 481-82,
527
—and surplus value and profit—59,
75, 111, 114, 196, 202, 219-20,
494-96
—real and nominal—178, 193, 194
—and turnover of capital—12, 14-
19, 103, 104
—and circuit of capital—27
—and exchange value—244, 494
—and production costs—23, 48, 49,
58, 100, 144, 145, 163-64, 524-25
—and consumption—21, 22, 92,
115, 116, 479-80, 485, 491-92, 495,
497-98, 503-04
—and use value—24-26, 33-35, 48,
60-61, 63, 70-72, 77, 84, 90, 91,
95, 101, 104, 106, 113, 116, 118-
19, 128, 150, 151, 153, 163-64,
171, 197, 201, 202, 231, 244, 252,
253, 436, 445, 448, 455, 458, 468,
469, 478, 481-84, 488, 492-95,
496-500, 502-05, 506, 521
—and exchange and circulation—8,
13-15, 18-23, 25, 26, 27, 51, 53,
57, 63-65, 76, 105, 107, 114-16,
118-19, 122, 143, 144, 176, 197,
203, 220, 232, 233, 430, 458, 468,
469, 471-72, 474-75, 479, 482-85,
488-97, 498-99
Variable capital— 37, 145-46, 155-61,
196, 198, 512, 524, 528
Vulgar bourgeois political economy—29,
139, 476-77, 518-21
W
Wage labour— 25, 29, 88, 90, 115,
121-22, 127, 133-34, 149, 153-54,
196-97, 209-11, 220, 227-28, 261,
301, 423, 475-76, 511-14, 517, 522,
525, 531
Wages— 34-35, 48-49, 86, 136, 140-42,
145, 146, 159, 163, 169, 196, 208,
227, 229, 512, 522, 524, 527, 531
—legislative regulation of—121
—and capital—63, 65-67, 69, 71, 86,
121, 136, 140-41, 146, 196
— and circulating capital — 29, 65,
68-69, 71, 86, 106-08, 113, 202,
208
—and production—142, 516
—reproduction of—66-67, 71
—and labour capacity (power)—63-
64, 71, 119-20, 514, 525
—and necessary labour—196
—and profit—23, 136-37, 196, 207,
227, 516-17, 526
—and circulation—8, 65-67, 71, 86
—distribution of—142, 169, 516
—and consumption—524
—bourgeois theories of—29, 66,
136-37, 140, 163, 169, 512, 517,
524, 528
Wealth—14, 33-34, 39, 79, 90-96, 98,
133, 134, 142, 143, 154, 191, 201,
202, 209, 228, 229, 244, 252, 269,
389, 430, 433, 435, 437, 449-51, 479,
494-95
—in the form of gold and silver—
245, 358-61, 370, 428, 433, 435,
437-40, 443-44, 447, 457, 458, 495,
509
— social form and material content
of—228, 270, 449-50, 479, 496
—production and distribution of—
90, 211, 228
—and labour—90-92, 94-95, 209,
294, 297, 521-22
—passion for enrichment—365-66,
447, 495, 509
—and capital—38-39, 92, 93, 133,
134, 142, 143, 201, 202
—under communism—93-95
—bourgeois concept of—92, 211,
223, 244, 431, 446-47, 449-50
Worker— 22, 29, 31, 36, 39, 54, 55,
64-67, 78-79, 82, 83, 85-91, 94, 95,
98, 99, 121-22, 124, 133, 135, 138,
141-42, 147, 152-58, 160-63, 171,
196, 198-201, 205-06, 208-11, 221,
222, 227, 228, 252, 253, 464, 465,
469, 487, 502, 505-07, 512-14, 516,
521-22, 524, 525-29, 531, 532
See also Working class
Working class—187, 196
See also Worker
Working day—28, 41, 52, 148, 151-53,
156-58, 160, 161, 178-79, 204, 206,
208, 524
World market—37, 261, 311, 381-84,
389, 412, 435-37, 440, 446-48, 476-77,
509, 518
World money—245-46, 381-84, 409,
435, 450, 470-71