MECW VOLS 30-34
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A
Abstract labour—30, 71, 74, 75. 76, 124,
126, 357; 31, 399; 32, 135, 139, 158,
318, 322-26, 388; 34. 128-30. 135, 218
See also Labour
Accumulation of capital — 30, 19-20, 159,
166, 190, 211, 295-96, 305, 312, 411;
31, 25, 26, 127, 151, 445; 32, 103, 105-
06, 109-21, 122-25, 151-52, 164-66,
170-72, 183, 188, 191,206-07,231,251,
257-58, 376, 379-81, 404-07, 434-35,
449, 518-19, 543; 33, 90-91, 144, 168,
176-85, 191-94, 214, 227-28, 263, 271,
302, 338-39, 342, 366, 374; 34, 10, 12,
93, 95, 156, 184-88, 200, 205-06, 208-
09, 218, 222, 226-31, 256, 257, 260,
294, 307-09
See also Capital; Primitive accumulation
of capital; Reproduction — extended
Advanced capital —30, 118-20, 129-30,
158, 162, 167, 172, 174, 176-78, 186,
248-49, 326, 327, 332-33, 386, 392,
394-95, 397-98, 410; 31, 274, 304, 375;
32, 265, 270-71, 381. 476, 478, 504,
512-13, 525; 33, 36, 79-81, 92, 93, 96,
98-100, 103, 105-06, 161, 174, 183,
191, 196, 197, 199-202, 204, 208-10,
217, 221, 233, 248, 312, 317-22, 377,
481; 34, 9-13, 15, 19, 178-80, 182-86,
193, 194, 198-200, 204, 208, 209, 216,
220-21, 231, 232, 347, 348, 363, 384-
86, 392, 446
See also Capital
Agricultural labourers — 30, 212, 226,
364, 365; 31, 455; 33, 218; 34, 41, 45,
56, 101, 291, 295, 468
Agriculture —30, 56, 97, 169, 192-93,
' 198, 206, 209, 243, 295, 298, 304, 314,
352, 355-59, 364-68, 412, 431, 447; 31,
25, 253, 287-89, 293, 296-97, 314, 325-
28, 333, 341, 376, 382, 385, 443, 457-
59, 514, 516-17; 32, 12-14, 28, 31, 95-
96, 98, 100-01, 107-08, 118-19, 123,
268-69, 288-89, 433; 33, 41, 47, 64, 85,
94, 104, 108, 131, 141, 178, 202, 212,
213, 226, 228, 329, 379, 394, 444, 481,
495; 34, 28, 44-45, 54-56, 58, 59, 77, 90,
104-07, 112, 146-49, 197-99, 210, 257,
259, 264, 268, 307, 319, 328, 360, 426,
455
See also Farmers, farm system; Land;
Landed property; landowners — landlords;
Lease, tenant(s); Peasantry; Rent
Alienation —30, 22, 32, 37, 39-40, 52, 68,
87, 95-97, 112-14, 134-35, 139, 160,
171, 261, 263, 279, 311, 312, 399; 31,
213, 241; 32, 51, 135, 318, 393, 398,
405, 427, 429, 446, 449, 463, 473, 489-
90, 492, 494-95, 498, 502, 534; 33, 11-
14, 18, 35, 241, 478, 480; 34, 29, 34, 57,
114, 120, 123, 196, 201-03, 213, 214,
227, 397
America —31, 449; 32, 183, 200, 208, 303;
34, 251, 261, 271, 308, 310
See also United States of America, the
Antiquity —30, 272, 276, 281, 284; 31, 197,
278; 32, 133, 157, 436, 534, 537, 541;
33, 10-12, 20, 334-35
— Egypt — 30, 253, 259, 260, 272, 284
— Greece — 30, 272, 280-85; 33, 20;
34, 104
— Rome — 30, 257, 259; 33, 17, 394-
96, 400; 34, 96, 104, 119, 142, 328,
432
See also Society — slave owning (slavery)
Appropriation —30, 55, 56, 58, 63, 64, 65,
90, 99, 180, 235, 358, 365, 391-92, 399,
400, 412; 31, 179, 220, 255-56, 266,
275, 278, 305, 467, 485, 539; 32, 9, 94,
283, 380, 385-86, 443, 451-52, 469,
482, 494-95; 33, 3, 10, 91, 115, 151; 34,
32, 62, 118, 152-55, 233, 234, 323
See also Property
Aristocracy — see Landowners — landlords
Army — 30, 257, 259, 262; 31, 30, 186; 32,
243
Articles of consumption — see Consumption;
Means of subsistence
Asia —31, 13, 174, 192; 33, 20, 321-22,
333-35, 338, 345, 354, 357, 365; 34, 236
Australia —33, 41, 383
B
Basis and superstructure — 30, 132, 190-92,
196, 303; 31, 183; 32, 248, 398-99; 33,
444; 34, 106, 204, 246
See also Capitalist relations of production;
Social relations; State, the, stale
power
Bills of exchange —31, 86, 217, 224; 33,
46, 59, 216; 34, 334
Bimetallism — see Gold and silver
Book-keeping —31, 58, 59, 282, 382; 33,
157-58, 163
Bourgeoisie —30, 39, 200, 214, 216; 31,
30, 197, 456; 32, 463; 33, 72, 75-
76, 109, 168-70, 372-73, 474, 490-96,
34, 256
See also Society — bourgeois
C
Capital —30, 26-32, 70, 94, 100, 102-03,
150-51, 279, 302; 31, 9, 77, 96, 127,
130, 190, 219, 274, 516; 32, 58, 67-69,
109, 115-16, 123-31, 141-47, 150-57,
175, 182, 200-01, 234-35, 247-48, 271-
72, 279, 287-88, 299, 319, 385-86, 397-
401, 409, 419, 428-29, 432-33, 446,
449-56, 467, 470-76, 487-98, 502-11,
518, 528, 530, 533, 535, 543; 33, 7, 10-
12, 36, 41, 60-82, 92, 97-106, 125-26,
140-41, 143, 158-61, 165, 172-74, 182-
84, 202-04, 214, 223, 230, 248-52, 333,
386, 479-84, 486-88, 492, 498; 34, 25,
30, 32-33, 57, 70-71, 75-76, 78, 86,
102-03, 132-35, 162-66, 208-11, 214,
224-25, 227-28, 305, 373, 382, 385,
412, 415, 417, 420, 442, 447, 455-57,
468
— historical and other prerequisites of
its genesis and development — 30, 9-
23," 36-38, 69, 81, 311-13, 352, 359,
364-65; 31, 9, 96, 190, 274, 355-56,
378, 379, 516, 555-56; 32, 95-96, 98,
100-01, 132-33, 299-301, 317-18,
394-95, 405-06, 443-44, 446, 449,
462-65, 491-92, 518, 531; 33, 8-19,
169, 336; 34, 151, 199, 234-36, 258,
327-28
— as a relation of production — 30,
39, 117, 138-40, 153, 159, 196, 278-
79, 398-99; 31, 77, 274; 32, 36-37,
398-99, 403, 406, 426-27, 458, 463-
64, 484-85, 493-95, 531; 33, 72-73,
333, 339, 341, 343-44; 34, 390. 395,
396
— total — 33, 1, 235, 254, 277, 298,
299; 34, 11, 15, 187, 200, 204, 205,
223, 243
— bourgeois economists on — 30, 12,
13, 47, 95, 98-100, 116-17, 138-42,
147-48, 150-54, 254, 352-54, 399; 32,
36-37, 401, 406-07. 409, 463-64,
470-71, 500-01, 522, 526-30, 537; 34,
18, 105, 106, 127, 149, 162-67, 184,
185, 262, 263, 271-74, 307
See also Accumulation of capital; Advanced
capital; Circulating capital; Circulation
of capital; Commodity capital;
Concentration and centralisation of production
and capital; Constant capital; Exploitation
of labour capacity by capital;
Formal and real subsumption of labour
under capital; Industrial capital; Loan
capital; Mercantile (commercial, merchant's)
capital; Money capital; Primitive
accumulation of capital; Productive
capital; Reproduction; Technological
composition of capital; Turnover of capital;
Usurers' capital, usury, usurers;
Value composition of capital; Variable
capital
Capitalist —30, 9, 25, 37, 40, 63-64, 85,
94, 96, 158, 358, 392, 396, 412; 31, 25,
168, 179-80, 219, 266, 278, 378-79,
441-42, 539; 32, 13, 30-31, 94, 96-97,
117-18, 243-44, 272, 308, 349, 382-83,
385, 405, 407, 422-23, 429, 443-44,
449, 453, 464, 465, 469, 470, 474-76,
490-91, 493, 494-98, 514; 33, 9, 43, 45,
63, 71-73, 79-81, 91-92, 157, 164, 167,
172-75, 178, 179, 181, 182, 185, 195-
97, 205-12, 214, 219, 230, 237, 241,
249-51, 280-82, 322-23; 34, 15, 97, 100,
102, 107-09, 111, 120, 124, 131, 142,
179, 185, 196, 308, 396, 426
See also Bourgeoisie; Capital
Capitalist mode of production — 30, 30, 37-
40, 67-69, 92-97, 99, 105-06, 111-12,
115-16, 358-62, 398; 31, 18, 83, 97, 107,
177, 180, 184, 190, 192, 200, 254, 294,
296-97, 335, 347-48, 378-79, 464, 500;
32, 30-31, 33-34, 41-43, 58, 73-74, 93-
94, 107-10, 116-17, 120-26, 131-35,
142-44, 245-49, 252-53, 263-65, 272,
274-75, 288, 299-301, 303-10, 352-53,
355, 360-61, 463-68, 473-76, 478-79,
486-89, 491-94, 497-98, 500, 527, 528,
531, 533-35; 33, 10, 19, 34, 38, 46, 57,
67, 82-83, 114, 125-26, 142, 144, 149-
50, 157, 162, 255, 275-76, 283-85, 299,
479, 480, 495; 34, 100-04, 106-13, 116-
28, 142-45, 205, 227-31, 237-38, 262,
300, 323-25, 327, 418-19, 426-27, 430-
33, 457, 459-64, 468
— bourgeois theories of—30, 69-70,
99, 145-47, 352-54, 358-70, 385,
387, 395-96; 31, 30-31, 77-78, 345-
51, 354-55, 376-77, 381-82, 390,
399-402, 432-33, 458-61, 468-69,
544; 32, 134, 244-45, 247-48, 374,
393-94, 399, 406-07, 409-10; 33, 33-
34, 64, 75-76, 101-02, 104-05, 108-
09, 112-14, 130, 144-45. 214. 263,
265, 301, 320, 342-43, 354; 34,
390, 402-03, 407, 414-16, 419, 452,
459
— criticism of, by Utopian socialists —
32, 395, 452-53, 463-64, 470-71,
500, 528
— and socialist Ricardians' views —
32, 374, 391-95, 399, 407, 409-10,
445-46, 452-53; 33, 253-55
— historically transient character
of— 31, 83;' 32, 156-57, 190-91, 203-
05, 248, 274, 303, 305-08, 310, 405,
407, 433-34, 443-44, 449, 500, 528;
33, 114-15, 142, 144-45, 277, 282,
284-85, 340, 345-46, 368; 34, 106-07,
109-10, 143-44
Capitalist relations of production — 30, 38,
40-41, 63, 64, 105, 137, 145-46, 153,
180; 31, 13, 14,77, 182-83,383-85,391,
394, 432, 555-56; 32, 149-50, 203-04,
247-48, 278-79, 316-17, 365-66, 374,
393-94, 406, 427-29, 433-34, 449-50,
473-74, 489-91,507, 531; 33, 14-15, 73,
379-80, 389, 478; 34, 25, 81, 97-103,
118, 142, 200-02, 221, 233-37, 255,
424-25, 435, 439
See also Exploitation of labour capacity
by capital
Castes, caste system —30, 131-32, 272, 284,
289; 34, 101
Centralisation of capital—see Accumulation
of capital; Concentration and centralisation
of production and capital
Child labour —30, 47, 220, 222-23, 227-
29,302,319, 331, 338; 31, 112; 33, 425-
40, 458-63, 465-66, 471-77, 485-88,
491-95, 499-500; 34, 24, 27, 40-41, 62,
108, 176, 294, 307, 310
Circulating capital —30, 101-02, 139,
334. 353; 31, 83, 262, 361, 421; 32. 27-
28, 104, 203, 413-14, 468, 522-23; 33,
39, 78-79, 88, 94, 96-97, 105-08, 136,
231, 242, 314; 34, 217, 223, 226, 287,
309
Circulation —30, 22, 37, 40-41, 54, 86,
88, 105-06, 140, 160, 168, 303; 31, 171,
204-08, 262, 415; 32, 115, 126, 138-39,
140-41, 143-44, 413-17, 467-69, 478-
80, 482-83, 523-24, 527; 33, 8, 13, 15-
16, 36-39, 49, 56-57, 69, 72-74, 78-81,
89, 158, 176, 188-89, 192, 196, 204,
213-14, 244-45; 34, 228, 270-71, 360,
382, 412
--• criticism of bourgeois theories of—
30, 348, 351-52, 358, 363, 366, 370-
71, 374; 32, 211-12, 214-15, 267, 280,
355-56, 359-60, 372, 475, 487-88,
489; 33, 72-74, 76, 213-16. ,225-26
Sec also Commodity circulation; Money
circulation
Circulation of capital—33, 58, 63, 69,
176, 185, 186, 189, 195, 199, 204, 220-
22, 225, 242, 312, 316
Coin —33, 43, 45, 167, 169, 171, 187-88,
193, 197, 230-31
See also Gold and silver, Money
Colonies, colonial policies and system —
30, 74-75, 116, 256-57; 31, 449-50, 460,
515, 520, 521, 524-25, 529, 569; 32, 70,
467; 33, 72, 442; 34, 325, 328
Commodity —30, 9-14, 15-16, 18-23, 25,
27-29, 33-36, 37-41, 50, 53-55, 67-69,
72, 74, 76, 80-81, 86, 91, 94-95, 96-99,
100-02, 103-04, 105-06, 107-08, 110-
11, 115, 117, 131, 132-33, 135-38, 149,
152-53, 158, 187, 192-93, 198, 234-35,
242-44, 261, 264-72, 274, 278-79, 281,
286, 296, 298-99, 310-16, 332, 334-35,
336, 345-46, 377-80, 392-93; 31, 14-16,
19, 26-28, 98, 199-200, 212-13, 250-51,
296, 467, 481-82; 32, 33-34, 39, 46, 58,
122, 124, 126, 131-33, 135, 137-47,
161-62, 167-68, 210-13, 215-16, 248,
264-66, 271-72, 273, 278, 290-92, 299-
301. 308, 314-18, 321-26, 331-32, 345-
47, 352, 371, 410, 414-22, 428-29, 462-
63, 468-69, 477-81, 494-95, 507, 518,
520-21, 523-24; 33, 12-16, 21, 37-43,
44, 47, 49-50, 52-57, 62, 63, 72, 79-80,
105, 126-27, 147, 148, 156-58, 160,
161, 163-64, 167, 170, 191-92, 232,
240, 244-46, 300; 34, 107, 110-11, 113-
14, 139, 143-45, 198, 203, 246, 274,
295, 302, 304, 357-62, 373-77, 380,
381, 386, 390, 398-401, 409, 418, 443,
450
Sec also Commodity capital; Commodity
circulation; Commodity production; Exchange
value; Price; Product of labour;
Purchase and sale; Supply and demand;
Trade (commerce); Use value
Commodity capital —32, 140-41, 419, 468-
69, 478, 486-87; 33, 15, 42-45, 48, 50,
57, 58, 60, 87-89, 157, 158, 164, 166,
167, 215-17; 34, 186, 187
Sec also Capital; Circulation; Circulation
of capital; Turnover of capital
Commodity circulation — 30, 9-14, 15-21,
23-26, 28-30, 32-35, 38-40, 69, 102,
105, 265, 266, 269, 310, 312, 314; 31,
83, 133, 171, 204, 210-11, 223-24, 225,
237; 32, 143-44, 246, 300, 317, 347,
401, 413, 415, 417, 423-24, 453, 468,
478-79, 518; 33, 12-16, 18-21, 62, 164,
299-301
See ' also Circulation of capital; Commodity;
Commodity capital; Commodity production;
Competition; Exchange; Market;
Mercantile (commercial, merchant's) capital;
Purchase and sale; Supply and demand;
Trade (commerce); Turnover of capital
Commodity production — 30, 38-39, 67-69,
97, 105, 265-69, 312, 313, 378; 31, 17,
26-27, 99, 101-02, 131, 133, 192, 207,
223; 32, 58, 132, 133, 138-40, 212-13,
246-47, 263-65, 300-01, 316-17, 321-
22, 324, 388, 390, 391, 401-03, 412-13,
415, 417, 418, 421-25, 428, 445-46,
453,467, 491,494, 507, 518; 33, 12, 14-
18, 39, 60-61, 159-60, 164, 377; 34, 328,
360
Sec also Commodity; Mode oj production;
Production
Competition — 30, 142, 195, 197, 239, 271,
287, 310, 312, 334-35, 361, 362, 381;
31, 132, 253, 260, 262-65, 274-75, 303,
356, 390, 413, 435-36, 440, 456-57,
459, 464, 485, 511, 520, 542, 560; 32,
70-71, 116, 158, 162, 225, 258, 277,
434, 441, 461, 514, 516; 33, 11-13, 35-
36, 72, 74-76, 80-81, 92, 101-02, 108-
09, 111, 113, 135, 142, 149, 153, 179-
80, 211-12, 243, 279, 282-83, 374, 386,
492-93; 34, 24, 28-29, 42, 56, 59, 77, 93,
153, 21.6, 217, 238, 257, 262, 291, 316,
317
Compulsion —34, 93, 95, 102, 103
Concentration and centralisation of production
and capital —30, 142, 168-69, 259,
260, 269-70, 289, 295, 296; 31, 26, 114,
128, 341; 32, 151-52, 404-06, 444-46,
449, 535; 33, 108, 140, 144, 368, 376,
425-33, 458-70, 478; 34, 15, 107, 108,
113, 125, 187, 188, 189, 192, 198-99,
230, 238, 307
See also Accumulation of capital
Concrete, useful labour — 30, 55, 60, 71,
74-79, 81-83, 90-91, 124-27, 261; 31,
12, 13, 21, 27, 177; 32, 316-18, 325-26,
408-09, 519
Constant capital—30, 96, 116, 118, 129-
30, 165-68, 176-79, 188, 189, 202-03,
208-09, 236, 248-49, 296, 303, 322,
326, 329, 332-35, 346, 347, 387, 404,
409-13, 431, 433, 439, 442, 444-51; 31,
13, 69-70, 86-87, 90-91, 93, 113-14,
130, 139-40, 143-49, 152-53, 256, 287,
295, 400-01, 469; 32, 49-51, 87, 88,
91-92, 94, 103-07, 112, 117-22, 203,
282, 363, 379, 383-84, 468, 482, 524-
25; 33, 36, 70, 77-80, 84-88, 97, 106-
07, 111, 118, 131, 136-37, 139, 152-
53, 185, 190-94, 196-202, 209, 211-
14, 217-19, 227, 232-36, 255-56, 273,
306, 375-82, 477, 480-81; 34, 12-15,
107, 125, 126, 167, 175, 178, 182, 188,
199, 203, 204, 216, 218-28, 241-43, 259,
269, 316-17, 324, 358, 363-65, 376,
394
Consumption —30, 38, 63, 65, 68-69, 94,
97, 103, 105-07, 133, 146, 157, 235,
237, 238, 240, 244-45, 265, 280-81,
290, 330, 408; 31, 82, 178-80; 32, 101,
132-34, 146-50, 156-57, 163-64, 203-
04, 248, 307-08, 391, 415-17, 420-21,
425-26, 479, 527; 33, 38, 39, 79, 126,
131, 134-36, 149, 176, 209, 228, 244,
245, 477; 34, 55, 63, 65, 76, 83, 96, 98,
112, 133, 137, 167, 195, 198, 217-
23, 225, 226, 229, 267, 268, 271, 279,
280, 294, 303, 308, 409, 427, 442,
449
— productive (industrial)—30, 57-
58, 60-63, 65-66, 68, 76, 79, 88, 93-
94, 103, 106, 115, 135, 137, 146, 156,
323, 404, 408, 418, 438; 31, 85-93,
135-40, 143, 147-48, 152-53, 195,
208, 226, 227; 32, 103, 113-18, 122,
146-48, 408, 411-12, 479, 481, 527;
33, 39, 50-51, 79, 165, 172, 209,
211, 227, 230, 235, 244
— individual (personal)—30, 59, 62,
63, 65, 76, 135, 137, 138, 146, 404-
05, 407-08, 417-19, 438, 444; 31, 85-
93, 130-31, 133, 135-39, 143, 148,
152, 227; 32, 114-17, 118, 146-48,
157, 410-12; 33, 39, 51, 79, 165, 182,
185, 207, 209, 211, 228, 234, 235,
244
— worker's — 30, 51, 115-18, 135,
138-40, 144, 174, 236. 240, 244-45,
290, 330; 32, 40, 191-92, 423-26; 33,
126, 131, 134-36
— capitalist's — 30, 99, 396; 32, 197,
384-85; 33, 149, 213
— unproductive — 30, 135, 137-38
— of services — 30, 135, 137
—- costs of— 30, 116, 355-56; 33,
39-40
— consumption fund — 30, 94, 140,
141, 144, 145, 157, 404, 407-09, 413;
33, 169, 213, 222, 236
— bourgeois economists on — 30, 48,
69, 114, 135, 137-38, 156, 157
Contradiction —30, 28, 41, 48, 85, 86, 89,
106, 184, 358, 360, 373, 377, 378, 380,
393-95, 397, 398, 408, 411; 01, 11, 28,
56, 81, 128, 168, 177, 254, 266, 289,
338, 359, 377, 390-91, 394, 399, 401,
431, 546, 560, 566; 32, 33, 131-32, 142,
148-49, 163, 223, 247-48, 261, 274,
275, 277-78, 308, 317, 324, 349, 353,
391, 393-95, 409, 449, 474, 494-95,
497-98, 500-01, 519; 33, 125, 170, 241,
284, 378, 480, 482; 34, 17, 19, 28, 71-
73, 109, 110, 116, 118, 142, 234, 278,
280, 308, 403
Cooperation —30, 168-69, 255-63, 267,
269. 271, 278-79, 288, 290-92, 311,
320-21, 340; 32, 151, 157, 404, 497-98,
504; 33, 89, 107, 124, 140, 375-76, 381,
390, 420, 422-24, 439, 441-42, 444,
477-78, 480-81, 483, 484, 489, 497; 34,
14, 17, 25, 30, 31, 60, 108, 113, 123,
146, 150, 165, 166, 456
Costs of circulation — 31, 235; 33, 44-45,
155-60, 163-66, 176, 178, 185, 195,
244-45
Costs of consumption — see Consumption
Costs of production —30, 43, 47, 50-51, 116,
133-34, 140, 162-63, 169, 182, 253,
287, 355, 390; 31, 23-24, 30, 38, 107,
132, 170, 186, 197, 220, 261, 274, 287,
304-05, 368; 32, 253-54, 265, 269-71,
334-35, 349-50, 476, 478, 504, 512-13;
33, 7-8, 36-37, 39-41, 74-75, 78-79, 81-
82, 85-86, 89-92, 109, 113, 126, 128,
134-37, 143, 154, 158-60, 163, 164,
173, 221-22, 229-30, 232, 245, 250-51,
280, 420-21; 34, 100, 125, 139-41, 153,
154, 157-59, 228, 266
— as value — 30, 79, 162-63, 413; 31,
40, 48, 59-60, 65, 68, 105; 32, 54-55,
270-71, 513; 33, 39-41, 78-79, 81-82,
91-92, 126, 154, 221, 229-30, 245
— as price of production — 31, 424;
32, 30, 54-55, 253-54, 269-73, 512-
13; 33, 36-37, 173-74, 232, 250-51
See also Price of production; Value
Countryside —31, 384, 453-56; 32, 108,
403, 541; 34, 101, 162, 438
Credit and banking system — '31, 209, 217-18,
352, 434-35; 32, 114, 116, 125, 127,
141-46, 162, 257, 309-10, 453-62, 464-
65, 487-88, 508-09, 518-19, 527-29,
531;.33, 11, 170, 177, 180, 184-85, 223;
34, 257, 272, 288
— banks — 31, 224-25, 352; 32, 125,
154; 33, 74, 183, 211
— bankers — 31, 217-18, 352; 32, 116,
257; 33, 184-85
— banknotes — 31, 221, 224, 239; 33,
194
See also Interest (econ.); Loan capital; Paper
money; Usurers' capital, usury, usurers
Crises of overproduction — see Economic
crises
Customs duties —34, 257, 283, 285
See also Foreign (international) trade
D
Depreciation (wear and tear) of fixed capital—
30, 63, 118-20, 127-29, 165, 325-
27, 332-33, 417, 435, 438-40, 444, 448-
51; 31, 68, 70, 253, 291; 32, 69, 112,
251, 257; 33, 136-38, 146-47, 153, 167,
176, 185, 199, 204-05, 209-10, 218-19,
247, 372-73, 377; 34, 8, 11, 14, 19-22,
25, 31, 32, 195, 225-27
Depression — see Economic crises
Discoveries (scientific)—33, 442; 34, 58
Distribution —30, 24, 30, 32, 64-65, 69,
145, 148, 155, 158, 179, 195, 389, 399,
412; 31, 74-76, 111-13, 130-32, 175,
264, 275, 281, 302, 362, 378-79, 416;
32, 53, 88, 94, 115, 151, 248, 274, 276,
460, 478, 499; 33, 75, 83-84, 93, 99,
103, 104, 216, 281, 351; 34, 221, 224,
225
See also Accumulation of capital; Consumption;
Profit; Rent; Reproduction; Revenue
(income); Surplus value; Wages
Division of labour —30, 55, 163-64, 198,
199, 255-56, 264-69, 271, 273, 287-93,
299-300, 310-16, 320-23, 445-46; 31,
182, 194, 203, 383, 455; 32, 40, 58, 115,
133, 139, 151, 157, 161, 182, 207, 401-
05, 406, 413, 422, 423, 498, 535; 33, 18,
39, 53, 124, 140, 149, 165, 168, 191,
218, 241-42, 254, 275, 385, 396, 478,
480, 481, 483-85; 34, 17, 19, 24-26, 40,
54, 61, 101, 102, 108, 123, 126, 146,
167, 185, 187, 204, 269, 286, 288, 359,
458
Duties — see Customs duties
E
Economic crises —30, 53, 78, 96, 219; 32,
101-02, 116, 122-37, 138-47, 150-54,
157, 162-63, 242-45, 246-47, 248, 252-
53, 274, 306-10, 415, 517-18; 33, 18, 92,
142, 178; 34, 47, 109, 221-23, 225-26,
408
— criticism of bourgeois theories of—
32, 101-02, 124-25, 128-35, 142-45,
147, 154-55, 156-64, 242-48, 289-90,
308-09
Economic laws — 30, 66, 89, 101, 159,
170, 182, 250, 271, 287, 310, 313, 317,
320, 353, 380, 383, 386-87, 393-97; 31,
25, 241, 270, 380; 32, 14, 33-36, 163,
204, 207, 274; 33, 72-73, 75, 129, 143,
148, 383; 34, 71, 133, 193, 196, 236,
258, 295, 452, 453
— laws of surplus value — 31, 37, 69,
281, 418; 32, 9-10, 45-47, 59-60; 33,
101-02, 155-56, 185; 34, 19
— profit as the stimulus, aim and regulator
of capitalist production—31,
251, 543, 545
— laws of profit — 31. 275, 301-05,
325-26; 32, 9-10, 46, 59-60; 33, 69,
91, 94, 96-97, 99, 104-07, 110-15,
118, 150
— law of supply and demand — 31,
132, 253, 265,'430-31, 464; 34, 81,
253, 305
— laws of circulation and exchange--
30, 34, 52-53, 67, 72, 73, 86-89.105-
06; 32, 39, 210-11, 214-15, 482-83,
529; 33, 49; 34, 233, 259-61, 301
— laws of wages- -33, 109: 34, 64, 65,
77, 139
See also Law of value: Rent— Ricardian
law of; Tendency of the rate
of profit to fall
Economic relations — 30, 38-39, 42-43, 45,
47, 51, 53-55, 56, 69, 74, 89-90, 94, 95,
103-06, 131-32, 137, 145-46, 158, 159,
174, 180, 182-83, 211, 398; 31, 377.
390, 469; 33, 34, 72, 73, 147, 439, 441,
469; 34, 142, 143, 199, 200
See also Capitalist relations of production;
Social relations
Efficiency of labour — see Productivity (productive
power) of labour
Egypt — see Antiquity — Egypt
England (Great Britain)—30, 168, 181,
193, 200, 215-30, 232, 303-04, 317,
331, 336, 337, 338, 343, 359; 31, 252,
279, 289, 350-51, 367, 384, 449, 458-
59, 519, 542; 32, 14, 44, 72, 93-95, 107,
114, 129, 155, 160-61, 170, 199-200,
204-05, 207-08, 243, 253, 309, 370,
394, 420, 465, 497. 531, 537; 33, 38-39,
84, 92, 107, 212, 223, 224, 229, 230,
231. 243, 278-81, 322-23, 325-26, 329-
30, 333-35, 341, 349-50, 353, 364-65,
367, 372-74, 383-84, 386-87, 392, 399,
402, 406-09, 421, 425-39, 448-53, 455,
457-70, 471-77, 489-501; J f 32, 37, 39,
40. 41, 43-54, 56-59, 62-63, 67, 69, 77,
78, 101. 119-21, 141, 146, 147, 173,
193-95, 197, 251-52, 268, 273, 275,
278, 283, 291-300, 304-08, 310, 313,
316, 318, 321, 340
See also Ireland; •Scotland
Europe —33, 333, 341, 353-57, 367; 34, 96,
270-71, 293, 421
Excess surplus value — 31, 253, 265
Exchange —30, 9-10, 21-22, 24-26, 33-38.
313-14; 31, 12-14, 16, 83, 208, 212; 32,
33, 35-36,39, 105, 121-22, 139,210-11,
214, 279-80, 294, 313-19, 325-28, 336-
37, 381-85, 527, 529; 33, 13-15, 19-21,
55, 171-87, 192-93, 212, 214, 234-37,
479; 34, 89, 130-34, 137-40, 152, 167,
203, 209, 222-26, 231, 233-34, 303-04,
360, 447
See also Commodity; Commodity circulation;
Competition; Exchange value; Money;
Price; Purchase and sale; Reproduction;
•Supply and demand; Value; Wage labour;
Wages
Exchange value —30, 11-13, 16-21, 23, 25,
28, 35, 40-41, 67, 78-79, 84, 97, 99,
134, 168, 172, 197-98, 291, 298, 382,
449; 31, 99, 100, 168, 179, 199, 208; 32,
127, 135, 227, 246, 313, 314, 316-
18, 323-24. 3.35, 429, 461; 33, 12-13,
90, 147, 179; 34, 90, 98, 100-01,
114-15, 130, 137, 138, 200, 221,
281. 457
See also Commodity; Market value;
Money; Value
Exploitation of labour capacity by capital—
30, 164-65; 171, 173, 174-75,
178, 181, 183-86, 194, 195, 196, 214,
216, 218-20, 222, 235, 250, 263, 269,
304, 330-32, 338-39, 386-89, 392-94;
31, 70-71, 77-78, 176, 264; 32, 73, 253,
272, 379-80, 385-86, 407, 423-24, 434-
35, 438, 440-44, 452, 457-58, 494-98,
503-06; 33, 10, 29, 33-34, 41-42, 63, 73,
77-80, 89, 90, 106-07, 110-12, 125,
140-42, 149, 165, 208-09, 385-86, 423,
434, 494-96; 34, 9, 119-20, 175, 196,
392, 428, 429
See also Economic laws; Industrial reserve
army; Intensity of labour; Labour; Pauperism;
Surplus value — relative; Surplus
labour; Wage labour; Wages; Working
day
F
Factory, workshop —30, 180, 216, 217, 220-
24, 228-29, 231, 255, 267-71, 274, 286,
288, 300, 303, 312-14, 316, 317, 320-
21, 325, 329-31, 337; 31, 271; 33, 151,
381, 404, 439, 441, 491, 493, 495, 496,
498-99; 34, 31, 33-39, 41, 43, 45-46,
67, 113, 120, 123, 125, 144, 191-93, 204,
219, 223, 279, 294, 353
See also Industry — large-scale; Machines,
machinery
Farmers, farm system —30, 206, 209, 212,
215, 405-06; 31, 309; 33, 92, 206, 207,
218; 34, 96, 104, 105, 253, 254, 262-
63, 267, 278-79, 285, 320, 321, 432
See also Landed property; Lease, tenant(s)
Female labour —30, 46, 227, 302, 319,
331; 33, 425-31, 435-37, 440, 458-63,
466, 473, 475-76, 485, 488, 491-92,
494-95, 499-500; 34, 24, 27, 43, 108,
294, 307, 315
Fixed capital—30, 62-63, 102, 118-20,
127-29, 140, 149, 165-67, 224, 259,
273, 279, 296, 305, 319, 321-30, 340,
341, 353, 408-10, 413; 31, 83, 141-42,
223, 262, 295, 361, 421; 32, 27-28, 103-
04, 201-03, 413, 468, 522-23; 33, 38, 79,
84, 88, 94, 103-05, 108, 114, 125-28,
133, 136-38, 140, 146-48, 153, 166-67,
176, 199, 205-07, 209-10, 242, 247,
310-11, 359, 376-77, 379-80, 482; 34,
19-30, 37-39, 217, 218, 222, 223, 226,
242, 286-88, 326, 456
Sec also Depreciation (wear and tear) of
fixed capital
Foreign (international) trade — 30, 210,
296, 357; 32, 9, 11-12, 58, 70-73, 110,
123, 187, 294, 376-81, 387-88, 531; 33,
19, 113-14, 169, 190, 352, 366, 383-84,
386-87, 402, 406, 442; 34, 27, 46-48,
52, 221, 223, 257-58, 268, 277, 278,
323, 324
See also Market; Trade (commerce)
Form of value —30, 155, 359, 392-94,
401; 31, 27, 29, 98-99, 214-15, 365,
397-99; 32, 315-20, 326-27, 340-42,
346-47, 520-21; 33, 64, 70
See also Exchange value; Money; Value
Formal and real subsumption of labour
under capital—30, 92-94, 136-37, 143,
188-89, 262-63, 270-71, 279, 291, 311;
33, 348, 349, 355-56, 386, 480; 34, 93-
96, 102-08, 112, 116-21, 187,327,426,
427, 429, 440
See also Exploitation of labour capacity
by capital; Labour
France —30, 220, 221, 359, 361, 373-
74; 31, 22, 279, 349, 449; 32, 252, 529;
34, 58, 62, 264, 293, 299
Free time —30, 180, 190-92, 196, 199, 301;
31, 112; 32, 390-91; 33, 386; 34, 431
See also Labour time; Working day
Free Traders —34, 262, 316
Funds
— labour (wages) fund — 32, 185, 187,
191, 202, 204, 376; 34, 212-16, 231
— reserve fund — 30, 214; 31, 25; 33,
43-45, 51, 59, 178, 193; 34, 228
G
Germany —31, 22, 117, 354, 383-84, 459-
61; 34, 58, 92, 264
Gold and silver—30, 34, 96; 31, 10, 28-
29, 179, 199, 425, 513; 32, 9, 321-22,
457, 531, 543; 33, 11, 46, 130, 176.
Î90-204, 228-37, 324; 34, 12, 100,
198, 274, 275, 347, 404
Government securities — 31, 545; 32, 127-
28; 33, 184
Greece — see Antiquity — Greece
Guilds, guild system--30, 94, 135, 187.
270, 294, 316; 31, 459; 32, 465, 466,
533, 534; 33, 64, 406, 444; 34, 25, 96-
97, 101-02, 306, 438
See also Middle Ages; Society—feudal
(feudalism); Handicrafts, handicraftsmen
H
Handicrafts, handicraftsmen — 30, 32, 94,
187-90, 231, 277, 282-85, 295, 297-98,
302, 304, 316-17, 323-25, 330-31, 343,
344; 31, 20; 32, 196, 419, 465-66; 33, 10,
295. 442, 444, 481, 483-84, 498; 34. 24-
27, 29, 54, 96-98, 103, 104, 109, 113,
141-43, 145, 153, 269, 300, 328, 424,
434, 435, 440
Historical materialism, materialist conception
of history —30, 38-39
Holland—32, 169, 531, 537; 33, 341,
367; 34, 280, 282. 294, 299, 315
I
India —32, 42, 114, 371; 33. 9-10, 20, 334,
348, 356, 361; 34, 48, 92, 118, 119, 193,
214. 313
Industrial capital—32, 463-66, 531, 533;
33, 11, 14, 36, 43, 53, 63-64, 67-68,
155-57, 205-06, 344
See also Productive capital
Industrial {»-oft (employer's profit) -—32,
490, 492-95, 497-98,' 504
Industrial reserve army — 31. 111-12, 128-
29, 155-56. 186, 252; 32. 110, 180, 182-
87, 188-89, 196. 206, 244, 255, 377
See also Relative overpopulation
Industrial revolution — 30, 329; 33. 352,
388-94, 403. 421, 442, 468. 480
Industry
— manufacture — 30, 267-70, 274,
276, 285, 286, 292, 295-96, 304, 310-
11, 316, 320-25, 329-30, 355, 357,
358; 31, 455; 32, 182, 207, 404, 419,
465. 466, 537; 33, 381. 388-90, 392,
393, 402-06, 409, 412-15, 418-21,
424, 439-48, 484, 486-89, 495, 500;
34. 25-27, 60, 96, 123, 145, 255-56,
258-60. 295-96, 324, 328
— domestic — .?/, 15, 20; 32, 207, 466;
33, 340, 366; 34, 103, 119-20
— large-scale — .'», 287, 312, 358,
362,368; 31, 253, 256, 277, 281, 341;
32, 117, 153, 158,204,207,288,418-
19, 432-33, 461, 465, 466, 530; 33,
441, 444, 481, 494-95; 34, 56. 62,
109, 113, 119. 120, 146, 291, 296,
316, 324, 327
See also Factory, workshop: Guilds,
guild system; Handicrafts, handicraftsmen;
Machines, machinery; Production
Instrumental materials — see Matières instrumentales
Instruments of labour (tools) — see Means
of labour
Instruments of production (tools) —See Means
of production
Intensity of labour—30, 169-70, 197-98,
301-02, 335, 338; 31. 251, 252, 483; 32.
42, 435, 440-41, 443, 497; 33, 123. 382-
87, 473, 500; 34. 20, 23, 40, 74, 98-104,
181, 343, 395, 424
Interest (econ.) — 30, 94, 273, 453, 456-59,
461-64, 469-72, 474-78, 487-90, 492-
98, 507-13, 519-22, 526, 527, 540-41;
33, 7-12, 16, 22, 63. 69, 99, 104, 157,
159. 170, 172, 188, 190, 204, 206, 207,
210, 212, 217, 223, 225, 347, 348; 34.
42. 119, 173-74, 184. 229, 241, 242,
243. 284, 329-55
- - rate of— 31, 449; 32, 431-32. 458-
62, 465, 469, 471, 509, 540-41;
33, 10, 17, 21-22, 155, 278, 348,
368; 34, 91, 119, 173, 272. 330,
333-36
— Price's compound interest — 33, 71,
222-25
Interests —30, 185, 198, 361, 396; 32, 197,
209, 244, 253, 275, 388, 394, 429, 501;
34, 99, 201
Inventions —30, 11, 216, 305, 309, 322,
332-33, 338-41; 33, 140-41, 349-50,
352, 374, 385, 391, 396-97, 400, 403,
404, 406, 408, 421, 448, 451, 468, 474,
488; 34, 26, 29, 32, 35, 37, 58, 127, 151,
166, 454
Ireland—31, 196, 266, 335; 34, 56-57,
69, 153, 250, 258, 296, 298, 313, 321,
467
Italy — 31, 265; 32, 160-61, 465; 33, 19-
20
L
Labour—30, 11, 54, 56, 58-61, 63, 70-71,
75, 79, 93, 94, 95, 97, 98, 124, 127, 131-
34, 136, 143, 155, 160-61, 169, 171,
252-53, 292, 357, 360; 32, 51-52, 147-
48, 264, 279-80, 303, 331, 364-66, 388,
397-402, 404-06, 408-09, 427, 445-46,
449, 467-68, 473, 488-91, 494, 502-03,
506, 528, 535, 542-43; 33, 264, 343,
354, 356, 444, 479; 34, 146, 167, 291,
296, 297, 403, 411, 425, 459-60
— as a source of wealth — 30, 40, 112,
160, 171, 382-84; 32, 118-19,265-67,
269-70; 34, 231, 232, 285
— as a source of value — 30, 34, 35,
40-42, 44, 77-79, 81, 82, 83, 96, 112,
126, 171, 243, 354-55, 357, 391, 399;
31, 26, 98, 359, 389, 399-400; 32,
232-33, 273, 315-16, 321-23, 325-26,
340-41, 345-48, 365-66, 477-78, 482-
83, 530-31; 34, 71, 81, 99, 138-
40, 190, 201-03, 395, 400, 413,
420-21
— dual character of— 30, 67, 77-79,
81, 89, 95, 124, 126, 127, 131-33,
140, 160, 408; 32, 49-50, 103-04,
299-300, 303, 317-18, 322-23, 325-
26, 493-94; 34, 88, 129, 130, 134-36,
217, 361, 398-401
— living and past, objectified — 32,
33-36^ 51, 55-56, 105-06, 269-71,
279-80, 344, 407-12; 33, 37, 73, 89-
90, 96, 98, 108, 111, 135, 151, 219,
256, 298, 303, 376, 477, 479-81; 34,
25-28, 30, 71, 80, 81, 122, 123, 130-
36, 145, 185, 188-205, 212, 214, 219,
228, 231-33, 245-47, 271, 308-09,
323, 390, 395-97, 400-01, 413-15
— simple and complicated, skilled
and unskilled — 30, 90, 100, 231,
281,285, 305, 320, 321, 331, 341;.?2,
18, 196, 294-95, 322, 334-35, 350,
377-78, 440; 33, 351-52, 483-88, 499,
500; 34, 23-24, 57, 100, 148, 165,
169, 217, 311
— mental and manual — 34, 87
— of superintendence — 30, 262, 279,
387, 413; 32, 494-98, 504, 506; 33,
279-80, 349, 441, 486; 34, 245, 246,
263, 287
— value of— 30, 44, 48, 108; 33, 128-
29
— price of— 30, 74-75, 108, 132, 143,
194, 251
See also Abstract labour; Child labour;
Concrete, useful labour; Cooperation; Division
of labour; Exploitation of labour
capacity by capital; Female labour; Formal
and real subsumptwn of labour
under capital; Intensity of labour; Labour
capacity; Labour lime; Means of labour;
Necessary labour; Product of labour; Productive
and unproductive labour; Productivity
(productive power) of labour; Services;
Social labour; Surplus labour; Wage
labour; Working day
Labour capacity —30, 36-44, 46-58, 64-69,
71, 74, 81-89, 103-06, 109-19, 131-40,
152, 155, 170-74, 181-84, 194-95, 234-
38, 240, 253, 272, 277-80, 290, 300,
313-14, 321-23, 326-30, 359-60, 378-
80, 394, 400; 31, 14, 16, 21-23, 26-27,
104, 212-13, 219, 349; 32, 36, 44, 219,
279, 299, 334-35, 405, 470, 524; 33, 73-
74, 172, 275, 365; 34; 13, 20-21, 24-25,
28, 32, 64-65, 67-68, 70-77, 82-84, 86,
93, 96, 99-101, 111-12, 115-17, 128,
129, 132-36, 148-49, 154, 161, 168,
172, 180-83, 199-201, 212, 214, 217,
231, 232, 234, 245-46, 305, 339-40,
348, 389, 392-94, 409-13, 415, 417,
420, 455, 459-62
See also Labour; Variable capital; Wage
labour; Wages; Worker (as an agent of
production)
Labour time — 30, 23, 33, 34, 42-44, 52, 70-
73, 78-80, 110, 113, 129-31, 162, 180-
85, 200-02, 218-19, 237-38, 319, 327-
28, 382-86, 391, 392; 31, 70, 203; 32,
276, 315-16, 440, 442-43; 33, 76, 84, 93,
109, 149, 232; 34, 19, 22, 29, 42, 62,
110-12, 129, 155, 291, 307, 315, 417
— necessary — 30, 42, 44, 79, 80, 82,
93, 118, 128, 167, 173-76, 178-80,
184-87, 191, 194-97, 210, 211, 212,
225, 233-52, 255, 258, 260, 272, 315,
318-21, 327-30, 336, 338-40, 344,
378; 31, 112, 127, 131-32, 201, 251,
254, 272, 359; 32, 58, 138, 150, 174,
302, 322, 323, 444; 33, 107, 109, 123,
151, 378, 385, 387, 477; 34, 9, 17, 26-
29, 64, 69, 73-75, 78-79, 83-85, 93,
94, 115, 129, 155, 382, 394, 418
— surplus (unpaid)—30, 175-76,
185-87, 190, 191, 210, 216, 224, 233,
234, 236, 238, 240-42, 244, 245, 247-
55, 258, 264, 319, 322, 328-30, 338-
40; 31, 9; 32, 344, 389, 444, 505; 33,
110-11, 123, 128, 134, 142, 149, 151,
163; 34. 9, 22. 64, 65, 67, 69, 79, 83,
99
— bourgeois economists on — 50,200-
04, 227-28, 281-83, 287, 333-34,
342-43
See also Free time; Necessary labour,
Period of production of capital, Surplus
labour; Working day
Land
— fertility of— 30, 253-55; 31, 337,
367-70,'374-76; 32, 123, 422, 433,
442; 34, 94, 155, 325
— monopoly of— 31, 265, 270-71,
276-79, 326, 333, 335, 336, 379-81,
385, 387-89, 464, 514-17, 523, 529,
541; 32, 14, 31, 98, 366-67, 434, 470;
34, 154, 305
— monopoly price on — 31, 174, 270,
327, 387, 542. 552
— price (value) of— 31, 358, 521; 32,
298-99, 477, 485, 519, 521-22; 34,
149, 152, 276, 278
See also Agriculture; Landed property;
Landowners; Nationalisation of land;
Rent
Landed properly — 30, 111-12, 131, 358,
360-61, 373, 380, 388, 393; 31, 252,
271, 275-77, 326-27, 335, 385, 389,
464, 515, 522-23, 541, 542, 546, 568-
70; 32, 14, 30-31, 70, 264, 305, 433,
450, 470, 472, 484-86, 514-15, 519;
33, 69, 224-25, 283, 319-20, 322-23,
346; 34, 87, 89, 98, 162, 257, 273,
329
See also Land—price (value) of
Landowners —30, 212, 215, 355, 356, 358-
67, 406, 412; 31, 278, 279, 326, 335,
379; 32, 31, 243: 34, 142, 161, 252, 258,
285
— landlords — 30, 388, 403; 31, 256,
289, 304, 305, 309, 334, 375, 485,
538-39; 32, 96, 98, 148, 209, 252-53;
33, 16, 92, 205-08, 210, 212-14, 216,
285; 34, 96, 257, 269, 277-80, 320
Law of value —31, 24, 99, 155, 213, 215,
270-71, 290, 326, 333, 381, 397, 403,
410, 415-16, 419, 463, 488; 32, 27-28,
39, 58-60, 209-11, 214-15, 223, 258,
261-65, 272-73, 275-83, 285-86, 294-
95, 313-23, 326-27, 333-34, 336-37,
359-61, 373, 392-93, 482, 510-11; 33,
11, 83, 148, 155, 299-300, 377-78; 34,
81, 193
Law(s)—32, 10, 59-61, 120, 214, 223,
258, 261-65, 273-74, 276-77, 279-81,
283, 285-87, 294, 359, 361, 373, 392,
443, 445, 482, 510; 33, 96, 101-02, 104,
109, 185
See also Economic laws
Lease, tenant(s) —31, 272, 304, 328, 334,
335, 382, 384, 519, 544; 32, 30; 34, 153,
251, 255, 257-60, 271, 278, 285, 315
See also Farmers, farm system; Landed
property; Peasantry; Rent
Legislation
— factory — 30, 169-70, 216, 218-19.
227, 228, 317-18, 336-38; 33, 470-74,
476-77, 485, 491-93, 499; 34, 33, 38,
62, 67, 68, 295
— Corn Laws (England)—.'#, 47, 63,
315, 316, 318
See also Law(s); State, the, state power;
Working day
Liverpool —33, 39, 250
Loan capital — 30, 30-32; 32, 30, 114, 450-
58, 460-65, 467-69, 470-73, 475, 478,
487-90, 492-95, 498, 499, 502, 506-11,
518-19, 522, 523, 525-30, 531, 535; 33,
8-19, 42-49, 59-61, 74, 166, 169-70,
177, 194; 34, 118, 186, 187, 229, 237
See also Credit and banking system —
banks; Money capital; Usurers' capital,
usury, usurers
Loans —31, 128, 353; 32, 94, 116; 33, 46;
34, 90
See also Credit and banking system; Loan
capital
Luxuries —30, 210, 303; 31, 113, 200-01;
32, 57, 235, 378, 380-81, 386; 34, 56,
225, 294, 297, 299
M
Machines, machinery— 30, 62-63, 92-93,
103, 117-25, 129, 132, 140, 144, 149-
50, 164, 169, 211, 216, 231, 255, 271,
273-75, 296, 318-36, 338-42, 430-31,
437-44, 447-51; 31, 13, 86-87, 92-93,
105, 109, 111, 128, 142-54, 148, 253,
313-14, 335, 342-43; 32, 93, 119-21,
151, 157, 161, 177-200, 202, 206, 254-
55, 377, 379, 418, 424, 522; 33, 79-80,
85, 89, 94, 107, 123-27, 132, 136-38,
141, 146, 148, 151, 153, 159, 192, 194,
228, 232-34, 247, 273, 288-90, 372,
374-81, 384-85, 388-92, 395-423, 425,
436, 441, 446-50, 453-54, 469, 477,
480-81, 483-85, 488, 492-94, 498-500;
34, 8, 11, 14, 16, 19-32, 34-43, 54-56,
58, 61, 106, 108, 112-13, 119, 125-29,
145, 151, 162, 165-66, 181, 189-91,
193-95, 197-98, 204, 224-27, 241, 264,
271, 296-97, 456
— bourgeois economists on — 30, 149-
50, 287, 318-21, 324-25, 327-29,
331-45; 32, 177-201, 202
See also Factory, workshop; Fixed capital;
Industry — large-scale
Management of production — 30, Î90-91; 31,
12; 32, 258, 443-44, 449, 491, 492-98,
503-06; 34, 96-98, 102, 103, 120, 133,
134
See also Labour — of superintendence
Market~30, 37, 43, 51, 86, 113-14, 134,
187, 189, 265, 266, 281, 296-97, 302,
311, 313; 31, 58, 99, 155, 183, 506-07,
519, 534, 543, 558; 32, 58, 114-16, 126,
128-29, 153-54, 187, 254-55, 402, 414-
15, 417, 420-21, 423, 460-61, 466; 33,
40-41, 43, 46, 51, 60, 113, 194, 199,
233, 240, 244-45, 249, 250; 34, 11, 47,
181, 223, 253, 259, 262, 266, 276, 279,
360, 390, 394, 418, 455-
— world — 30, 296-97, 314; 31, 252,
516; 32, 58, 101, 128-29, 154, 206,
378, 388, 466-67, 535; 33, 43, 383-84,
387, 403
See also Foreign (international) trade;
Purchase and sale; Trade (commerce)
Market price —30, 44, 133; 31, 328, 369,
419, 429, 431-33, 435-36, 457, 461,
485, 488, 530; 32, 316-17, 417-18, 460-
62, 510, 512, 515-16, 518; 33, 35, 75,
242; 34, 113, 125, 302
See also Price; Price of production
Market value —31, 131-32, 356, 428-32,
461, 485-86, 488-89, 508-09, 520, 521;
32, 87-88, 94, 150-51, 433, 470, 516; 33,
380
See also Exchange value; Price of production;
Value
Material of labour — 30, 56-66, 68-82,
84, 89-96, 97, 98, 105, 107-08, 113-14,
118-20, 123-27, 130-34, 142-44, 146-
48, 152, 162, 173, 264; 33, 479, 480,
487; 34, 122, 124, 181, 183, 188, 193,
194, 199, 203, 217, 402, 404, 426
Mathematics —32, 230, 330, 345-46, 477,
519; 34, 58, 331, 333
Matières instrumentales — 30, 57, 117, 133,
140, 143-44, 187, 298, 439; 31, 144,
146; 33, 107, 132, 136-38, 142, 148,
190-93, 205, 209, 210, 217, 229, 230,
234, 377; 34, 216, 227, 393
See also Raw materials
Means of communication — sec Railways;
Transport, transport system
Means of labour—30, 56-65, 69-80, 83-
84, 98, 105, 107, 114, 118, 126-27, 129,
132-35, 139, 140, 142, 143, 146-48,
151, 152, 162, 170, 173, 174, 187, 188,
201, 254, 262, 265, 270, 280, 295-96,
298, 324-27, 386-87, 404, 411; 31, 147,
256; 32, 89, 104, 147-48, 149, 397-98,
404-07, 411-12, 424, 426, 491; 33, 228,
229; 34, 30, 122-25, 180-83, 185, 188-
89, 194, 198-201, 203-04, 216, 233,
309, 360, 388, 404, 415, 458
See also Machines, machinery; Means of
production
Means of production — 30, 56-63, 70-73, 76,
81, 114, 117-19, 133, 140, 142-44, 147,
150, 157, 162, 168-69, 211, 270, 294,
305, 315, 320, 323-28, 330, 332-33,
394, 404, 450, 451; 31, 255, 261; 32, 91,
119, 146, 157-59, 166, 175, 204-05,
220, 398, 407, 408, 423-24, 468, 472,
478-79, 488, 520, 533-34; 33, 81, 139-
41, 153, 228, 229, 247, 306-07, 479,
486; 34, 25, 96, 107, 108, 122, 185-86,
188-89, 191, 194-98, 201, 219, 224,
337-38, 390-92, 395, 413-14, 427-29,
461
See also Land; Machines, machinery;
Means of labour
Means of subsistence — 30, 40, 42-44, 45,
48-50, 52-53, 65, 94, 98, 104, 107, 109,
113-18, 133-34, 138-40, 142-44, 146-
47, 152, 173-74, 180, 195-98, 234-38,
244, 245, 252-53, 258, 260, 265, 272,
295, 298, 302, 304, 320, 355; 31, 250,
512, 550; 32, 40-41, 52-54, 147-49, 204,
379-80, 423-24, 426; 33, 17, 94, 131,
152, 174, 181-82, 185, 191-94, 199-202,
204, 206, 209-13, 218-19, 227-29, 233-
36, 375; 34, 21, 23, 25, 55, 63, 65, 77,
94-95, 100, 104, 108, 112, 118, 160-62,
178, 200-03, 205-06, 222, 225-26, 233,
241, 243, 246, 284, 286, 291, 303-05,
309, 315-17, 324, 341, 366, 393, 410-
11, 414, 416, 421, 462
Mercantile (commercial, merchant's) capital—
30, 29-30, 103; 31, 149-50, 221;
32, 116-17, 464-67, 469, 518, 531; 33, 8,
11-12, 13-16, 35-39. 41-44, 47-50, 57-
64, 67-68, 154-67, 170, 174-78, 180,
185, 187-88, 215-16, 219, 226-28, 236,
239-40; 34, 118, 120, 146, 167, 243,
279, 280, 328
See also Merchant(s); Profit from trade;
Purchase and sale; Trade (commerce)
Mercantilism (Mercantile System)—30,
155, 348, 352, 358, 370-71, 374; 31, 9-
10, 29, 33, 98-99, 103, 180-81; 52, 211-
12, 267, 355-56; 34, 276, 290, 312,
322
Merchant (s)—30, 29-31, 270; 31, 150,
453; 32, 465-67, 531-33; 33, 11-12, 36,
45, 47, 50-61, 63, 67, 68, 156-58, 164,
167, 170, 190, 205, 219, 227, 228, 239;
34, 90, 92, 98, 120
See also Mercantile (commercial, merchant's)
capital; Profit from trade
Middle Ages —31, 174, 182, 187, 197,
254, 453, 456, 528; 32, 403, 537, 541;
33, 401-02, 404, 414
See also Guilds, guild system; Society —
feudal (feudalism)
Mode of production — 30, 31, 32, 38, 39, 63,
69, 105-06, 118, 135-37, 150, 168, 180,
188, 212, 252, 262, 268, 270, 271, 279,
292, 294, 296, 299, 305, 379; 31, 192;
32, 16-17, 19, 106, 109, 132, 151, 157,
207, 300, 317, 413, 424, 436, 440, 464,
465, 473, 487, 491, 514, 515, 528, 534-
35; 33, 10, 114, 147, 149, 480, 481; 34,
25, 29, 95, 105, 122, 204, 236
See also Antiquity; Capitalist mode of
production; Society — slave owning (slavery),—
feudal (feudalism)
Monetary System —30, 352, 358; 31, 28-29,
199-200; 32, 241, 267, 355-56; 33, 67;
34, 248, 277, 322
Money — 30, 25-26, 41, 50, 55, 66, 68-69,
74, 84, 87-89, 92, 94-95, 99-103, 105,
112-14, 134, 137, 139, 312, 359, 374,
398, 400; 31, 29, 98, 199, 216, 221, 389-
90, 425; 32, 21, 72, 124-26, 132-35,
137-46, 156, 161-63, 227, 232-33, 246,
278-79, 290, 302, 307, 317-18, 320-28,
331, 336, 341, 346-48, 388, 414-15,
451-58, 461-63, 468-71, 473-74, 478-
79, 487-88, 492, 494-95, 508-10, 518-
19, 522-23, 526-30; 33, 9, 11-14, 17-21,
42-49, 55-56, 61-62, 70, 72-74, 79-80,
167-74, 176-79, 181-82, 184-90, 192-
204, 206-07, 209-12, 214-16, 218, 227,
230-32, 235-36, 290-91, 302, 325-27,
361-62, 383-86; 34, 149, 152, 168, 184,
236-37, 253, 274, 277, 281, 282, 288,
291, 296, 299, 304, 325, 358, 402, 404,
409-11, 427, 432, 435
Sec also Coin; Gold and silver, Money
capital; Money circulation; Paper money
Money capital — 30, 11, 15-21, 30-32,
102; 31, 238; 32, 279, 451-55, 457-58,
462-63, 468, 470, 473-74, 478-79, 487-
88, 492, 518-19, 526-28; 33, 10-12, 14-
16, 17-19, 35-38, 42-50, 53-56, 59-62,
74, 164-67, 169-70, 187-88, 204, 216,
219-20, 229, 231-37, 315-16, 323; 34,
218, 242, 328
See also Loan capital; Money; Money
circulation
Money circulation —30, 39, 102, 312; 31,
150, 171, 204; 32, 143, 300, 317, 468-
69, 478-79; 33, 12, 15, 55-56, 171-
85, 187, 198-201, 203-04, 208-12,
229-31, 233-34, 236; 34, 241-42, 274,
360
See also Credit and banking system —
banks; Gold and silver; Loan capital;
Money; Money capital
Mortgage —34, 118, 143
N
National debt —32, 94, 442; 33, 223; 34,
257, 272, 299, 315, 469
Nationalisation of land — 30, 373; 31, 278,
335, 347, 379
Nature —30, 63, 65, 97, 98, 111, 134, 357,
359, 368; 31, 77, 182, 296, 341, 359,
380, 467, 485; 32, 157, 268, 277, 304,
366-67, 397, 428, 433, 450, 485-86,
496; 33, 146; 34, 18, 32, 106, 124
Necessary labour —30, 85-86, 91, 129,
165, "177-81, 185-86, 191, 193-96, 203,
212-15, 231, 236, 240, 244, 247-55,
258-59, 322, 412-13; 31, 70, 107, 110,
112, 127, 251, 272; 32, 138, 150, 174-
75, 322, 380-81; 33, 79-82, 89-90, 156,
162-66, 174, 382-83; 34, 9, 16-19, 20,
24, 63-64, 68, 70, 74, 78-85, 104, 112,
116, 155, 191, 200-01
See also Labour; Means of subsistence;
Variable capital; Wages
Needs —30, 18, 19, 40, 44-52, 56, 61,
116, 180, 196-99, 203, 214, 244, 265,
272, 282, 284-85, 298, 309, 313-16,
396; 31, 28, 59, 96, 100, 131, 179, 251,
435, 516; 32, 43, 136-37, 139, 149, 150,
156-58, 163-64, 196, 204, 247, 287,
304, 306, 308, 316, 330, 403, 421-22,
425, 461, 518; 34, 65, 94, 98, 102, 122,
139, 150, 217, 281
Nobility —34, 256, 265, 279, 298, 301
See also landowners — landlords
O
Objects of consumption — see Consumption;
Means of subsistence
Organic composition of capital — 30, 166;
31, 58-59, 113, 262-63, 281, 291, 304,
325, 328, 340, 471-72, 477, 492-503,
511, 512, 520, 528, 535, 550; 32, 11-13,
15-21, 27-31, 50-51, 68-69, 73, 88-89,
98, 122-23, 191-92, 201-04, 433-35,
438-39, 442-44, 515; 33, 41-42, 88-
90, 93, 95-97, 99-101, 105-08, 111-12,
124-25, 130, 137, 141-44, 147-50, 168-
69, 199-200, 242, 286-87, 295-96, 298-
99, 305-10, 318, 331, 380; 34, 15, 203-
06, 211
See also Technological composition of capital;
Value composition of capital
Overproduction —34, 109, 221, 223, 277
Sec also Economic crises
P
Paper money —31, 221; 33, 176-77, 190,
203, 214-15
See also Credit and banking system —
banknotes; Money
Pauperism —31, 112, 155; 32, 110, 197,
244, 249. 313, 393, 438; 33, 17-18, 263,
277; 34, 166, 264, 278, 286, 291, 310
Peasantry —30, 32, 116, 167, 189-90, 198,
374;.?/, 13, 515; 32, 465, 533-34; 33, 17,
64, 233, 293, 394; 34, 56, 90, 96, 99,
109, 118-19, 214-15, 259, 295, 310
— serfdom — 30, 167, \97; 34, 96, 101,
235
— corvée —30, 180-81, 212-14; 33, 320-
21; 34, 99, 213-15
See also Agriculture', Farmers, farm system;
Landed properly; Lease, tenant!s ) ;
Middle Ages; Society — feudal (feudalism;
Period of production of capital — 31, 262,
405; 32, 276, 390-92; 33, 69, 73, 95, 97,
403, 493
Period of turnover of capital — 33, 90-95,
126-28, 142, 147; 34, 13
Political economy— 30, 28, 69; 31, 345,
354; 32, 35,134-35, 388, 500-02, 514;
33, 104, 345-46, 477
— method of— 32, 46-47, 223, 278,
499-500
— bourgeois — 30, 13, 14, 22-23, 26-
28, 4l", 47-48, 64, 69-70, 89, 96, 97-
99, 104, 116-17, 137, 138-42, 145-46,
149-54, 159, 192, 205, 210, 212, 216,
222, 232, 238, 253, 256-57, 266, 272-
76, 282, 286-87, 290-92, 296-97,
299-303, 305, 306, 345-46, 348, 352-
54, 358-62, 379-80, 391-92, 394-95,
398-99, 401-03, 429-30; 31, 31, 83,
98, 162, 178, 182, 203, 253-54, 267,
270, 347, 349, 378, 380, 393, 400-02,
432; 32, 9-10, 21-22, 30, 36-38, 40-
41, 69, 72-74, 99-102, 124-25, 128-
36, 142-43, 147, 159, 163-64, 191,
195-98, 205, 209-10, 225, 229, 242-
45, 250-51, 261, 277-79, 290, 309,
316-17, 320-22, 324-28, 331-34, 341-
42, 344-45, 349, 363, 374, 388, 397-
401, 403, 405-10, 428-29, 458, 462-
64, 489, 495-502, 508; 33, 255, 257-
58, 262-63, 285-87, 294, 296-97,
299-300, 322-23, 331, 333, 335, 336,
338-39, 344, 372-73, 375, 378-79,
388-89, 467-68, 474-77, 489-90, 494-
96. 499-501; 34, 87-88, 247, 248,
273-74, 290, 311, 416, 418
— classical bourgeois — 30, 93, 117,
139-41, 149-51, 252, 266-67, 271-77,
282, 287, 289-92, 296-97, 310, 362,
377-78, 385-86, 395, 402; 31, 30, 338,
378, 390-91, 487, 558; 32, 41-42, 60-
61, 101, 134-35, 156-58, 201-04,
246-48, 274-75, 303, 312, 374, 392-
95, 450, 485, 499-502; 33, 19-20, 33-
34, 64, 71-73, 76, 82, 92-93, 101-04,
130, 216-24, 231, 284, 299-300, 319,
345-46, 416-17, 482
— vulgar bourgeois — 30, 27, 48, 54,
104J10, 114,' 135, 137, 138, 140-42,
144-47, 160-61, 200-03, 232, 306,
333; 31, 187, 195, 198, 344-48, 484,
556; 32, 101-02, 147-49, 158-64, 174,
211, 214-17, 220-22, 244-45, 254,
298, 308, 312, 318, 336-40, 357, 359-
60, 364-70, 400, 407-08, 450, 476.
486, 507, 510, 520-22, 526-27; 33, 7,
71, 73, 76, 102-03, 108-09, 343-44,
351, 378-79, 424-25, 441; 34, 55, 57-
58, 71, 153-62, 170, 228-29, 303,
312, 410, 448
— Ricardian school of—30, 26-27,
117, 151, 158, 210, 252-55, 303, 304.
326-27, 334, 361, 367, 373; 31, 36-37,
46, 50, 379, 416; 32, 41, 60-61, 217,
223, 243-44, 262-70, 273-78, 297-98,
308-09, 311-12, 353, 355-57, 361,
366-71, 373, 380-81, 470-71, 505-06;
33, 73-74, 76, 82, 103, 105, 492-93
— Physiocrats — 30, 155, 167, 192,
352, 372, 374-77, 391, 392; 31, 28,
240, 562; 32, 18-19, 174, 202, 304,
367, 476; 33, 72, 369; 34, 150, 154-
56, 159, 172-74, 216, 249, 250, 279-
90, 302, 303, 307, 311-14, 322, 454
— Malthusianism — 30, 14, 28, 138,
152, 205; 31, 77-78, 195-96, 345-51.
372, 388; 32, 201, 209-34, 238, 242-
45, 248, 250, 252-54, 261-62, 267,
269, 308, 377, 380, 439; 33, 70, 71,
73, 76, 100, 103-05, 113-14, 128,
223; 34, 170
— Proudhonism — 30, 153-54, 180,
345-46, 372, 416; 32, 464, 526-31,
535; 34, 378-81, 417
Sec also Economic laws; Mercantilism
(Mercantile System); Monetary System;
Quesnay's Tableau économique; Socialist
Ricardians
Population —30, 163-64, 169, 186-90,
194, 205, 233, 253, 290, 293, 294, 295,
302-03, 314, 412; 31, 360, 362, 369, 370,
385, 458, 523-24, 534; 32, 73, 108, 123,
166,169-70,184-85,228,294-95,297-98,
376, 378-81, 393, 403, 432-33, 438-39,
543; 34, 18, 94, 101-04, 158, 162-65,
170, 176, 181, 265, 271, 296, 305, 468
Sec also Industrial reserve army; Political
economy — Malthusianism; Relative
overpopulation
Price — 30, 15-18, 24, 25, 30, 34, 50, 66,
67, 70, 85, 107, 129-30, 235-36, 310,
328, 335, 351-52, 376, 400, 414, 426;
31, 132, 252, 267, 482, 542-43; 32, 9,
44, 53, 93-94, 106-09, 125-27, 135-36,
145-47, 162, 333-34, 508-10, 518-21,
529; 33, 12-13, 16-18, 22-26, 29-30, 32-
35, 60, 75, 84, 93, 156, 158, 241, 247-
50, 324; 34, 63, 77, 113, 115-17, 142,
148, 155, 157, 162, 166, 251-53, 259-
62, 264-66, 278, 284, 285, 287-88, 295-
98, 304, 315-19, 364-75, 381
See also Costs of production; Exchange
value; Form of value; Land—monopoly
price on, — price (value) of; Market
price; Price of production; Value;
Wages
Price of production —31, 260, 262-64, 274-
75, 304, 325, 356, 358-59, 373, 402,
424, 431-37, 462-63, 485, 511, 539,
542; 32, 21-32, 69, 70, 253-54, 262,
269-73, 289, 349-53, 460, 509-10, 515-
16, 524-25; 33, 35-37, 40-41, 67-68,
156, 170, 173-74, 179, 230-32, 261; 34,
153, 377
— production costs as — 33, 36, 37,
173, 174, 232, 250, 251
— law of- -31, 301-05, 326
— bourgeois economists on identity of
value and price of production — 31,
260-62, 268-69, 359, 361, 381, 388,
402, 424-25, 432, 439, 441, 456-57,
462-63, 465, 514, 529-31, 537, 546-
47; 32, 9, 21-23, 30, 55, 60, 69, 100,
223, 225, 258, 261, 269-70, 344, 349.
363
See also Economic, laws; Law of value;
Market price; Price
Primitive accumulation of capital—30,
111-12, 131, 136, 188, 290, 311-12; 32,
110, 244, 392-93, 438-39; 33, 336; 34,
232, 235-36, 258, 307, 327, 328
Product of labour —30, 58-59, 67-69, 71,
73-75, 80-81, 86, 94-95, 98, 140, 143,
149-54, 158, 162, 172-74, 179, 190-91,
200, 260-61, 264, 313; 31, 99, 107, 108,
116-17, 140, 293-94, 296; 32, 106-07,
119, 132-33, 146, 264-65, 271-72, 300-
02, 382-86, 407-08, 411-13, 422-26,
445-46, 514; 33, 12, 14, 55, 60, 136,
193, 213, 235
Production—30, 38-39, 48, 69, 74, 89. 91,
132, 148, 149, 176, 180-81, 190, 192-
93, 197-98, 252, 259, 273, 275, 287,
298, 301, 303, 321, 325-27, 333-34,
352-53, 358, 366; 31, 13, 15, 20, 30-31,
94, 106, 112, 181-85, 189, 192, 347-50;
32, 109-10, 169, 180, 182, 243-44', 247-
48, 308, 313-14, 348, 391, 403, 420,
421, 426, 449, 461, 479-82, 496, 500,
507, 508, 518; 33, 9, 13-15, 18, 38, 69-
70, 134, 141, 142, 144, 217, 246, 300-
01, 340, 342, 354, 365, 386, 403, 493;
34, 32-34, 56, 101, 102, 109-10, 113,
143, 144, 186, 187, 192, 198, 204, 205,
207-08, 212, 221, 230, 245, 325, 327,
328, 349-50, 358-59, 385, 412, 416-17,
438-40, 443, 446, 451-52, 461, 468
See also Agriculture; Capitalist relations
of production; Factory, workshop; Industry—
large-scale; Labour; Means of
production; Mode of production; Reproduction
Productive and unproductive labour — 30, 65,
159-60, 190-91, 231, 312, 354-56, 358-
59, 377, 392; 31, 8-22, 26-28, 80, 82, 97,
118-19, 156, 166, 193-94, 197, 342; 32,
174, 186-87, 196, 390; 33, 44, 123-24,
126-27; 34, 32, 64, 87, 90, 104, 128-46,
153, 165, 227, 237, 308, 381, 442-52,
461
See also labour
Productive capital—30, 31, 65, 89, 103,
111; 31, 156, 238, 365; 32, 147, 462,
467, 468; 33, 35-36, 38, 40-42, 47-53,
58-64, 108, 155-57, 164-68, 180-84,
190, 210-13, 234-36; 34. 98, 146, 167,
218, 237, 324, 452
Sec also Capital
Productive forces —30. 38, 112, 118, 136-
37, 145, 160, 168, 187-88, 237. 242-45.
247-50. 252-53, 257-64, 267, 272, 274.
276, 277, 280, 289, 302, 305, 309, 311.
318. 321, 322, 330; 31. 110, 168. 177,
255. 345, 348; 32. 51, 153, 157-60, 163,
167-68, 191, 201, 204. 243, 246-48,
274, 303, 306, 310, 390, 392, 419, 430,
433-34, 449, 489, 543: 33. 73. 110. 114,
125, 144, 146-47, 340, 353, 386, 442:
34, 10, 11, 13-18, 121-30, 185. 196,204,
230, 324, 340, 453-56
Productivity of capital — 34. 122, 127-30,
150, 455-58
Productivity (productive power) of labour - -
30. 43-44, 79, 80, 112. 127,' 160, 167,
194, 195. 204. 234-37, 243-45, 247.
250, 252, 255. 257-62, 264, 271-74,
276-78, 280, 305, 319, 322-28, 334.
357. 376-77; 31. 16, 55, 60. 77. 83. 177.
187, 191, 194, 200, 201, 251. 314, 327,
341, 348, 362. 374, 375, 459. 465, 512.
532, 577; 32. 41-42, 51, 53-54. 58, 70,
73. 102, 149-51, 160, 168-69, 183. 193-
94. 196-98, 204. 254, 271, 296, 304,
306, 310, 3.35, 379-80, 392, 394, 397.
399. 404, 406, 427, 433-35, 443, 444,
466, 488. 516, 542; 33, 23, 25, 26. 29-
35, 84. 88-90. 94, 98, 106. 108-11. 120.
130-31, 133, 135-37, 138-40. 144-45,
147-50. 152, 191. 287. 289. 296, 305,
314, 355, 374-75, 382, 385-86. 467.
477-78; 34. 8-11, 14-15, 21, 27. 29. 45,
61, 64-66, 93-94, 106-10, 117, 126-29,
143. 150. 167. 186, 188. 191-95, 198.
204. 227, 230, 323, 372
Profit —30, 14, 29, 31, 109-10, 113, 128-
29, 152. 158, 162, 163, 165, 178, 201.
203, 206-09, 219. 224, 234-35, 247-49,
303, 332-35, 338, 345, 348. 355-56,
367, 385-88. 391-92, 395-97, 400. 413;
31, 176, 511, 54.3, 545; 32, 12-13, 15,
30-31. 54-55, 87, 91, 97, 102, 118-19,
212-14, 225-26, 230-31, 253-54. 256-
57. 261-62, 271, 273, 274, 294-95, 304,
307-08, 310, 318, 360-61, 464, 477-78,
483-87, 498, 506-07, 512-13, 530; 33, 7-
10, 37, 41-42, 139, 155-58, 165, 170-72,
175, 181, 187-88, 190, 196-202, 206-13,
217, 219-22, 229-30, 233, 245, 247,
249-51, 283, 337-40, 380, 480; 34,8, 10,
13, 23, 67, 71, 90-93, 105, 120, 125,
150, 153-54, 160-61, 168, 210, 241-42,
264. 283-84, 290, 308, 321, 409
— gross — .?/, 169; 32, 493-98,
503-08
- average — .?/, 270, 274, 275, 290,
302-04, 325-26, 402, 415-16; 32, 22,
223, 258, 273, 289, 460, 483, 484,
512-13; .?5, 36,49, 63, 67, 75,97-100,
102. 104, 154-56, 233, 242
- - excess — 31, 253, 256, 268, 305,
325-29, 332, 335, 355, 373, 461, 526;
32, 11-12, 31, 71-72,88, 103, 304; 33,
311, 320, 322-23, 332
rale of— 30. 169, 178, 229, 333,
410-1 1;.?/, 36-38, 60, 69-70, 73, 256,
319-20, 416, 418; 32, 11-12, 17-21,
23, 28, 60-61, 71-73, 93-94, 100-01,
103, 288, 294-95, 432-33, 462, 469,
475: .?.?, 7-10, 16, 23-35, 77-78, 85,
87-94, 104-10, 1 12-16, 120, 128, 141,
147-50, 160-61, 233, 269, 292, 312,
335-36, 368, 377, 494; 34, 16, 148,
157-58, 210, 310, 316-17
— average (general) rate of—31, 260,
264, 301. 304, 305, 326, 401, 408,
413, 431-32, 436, 530; 32, 28, 57-58,
63-64, 68-73, 258, 261, 277, 289,
296, 451, 483; 33, 91-101, 104, 111,
130, 142, 209, 242, 247, 261, 278,
280, 351, 365
— capitalists' and bourgeois economists'
notions of—31, 377, 444, 446:
32, 10, 46, 51, 54, 63-64, 67, 100-02^
211, 214-17, 229, 275-77, 289, 297-
98, 359, 365, 372, 373, 388, 451, 471,
474-75, 484-85, 492-93, 495-96, 505;
33, 64, 71-76, 78, 82, 100-03, 108-09,
112-14, 130, 242-43, 251, 351
See also Economic laws; Industrial profit
(employer's profit); Profit from trade;
Profit upon alienation; Rent; Revenue
(income); Tendency of the rate of profit
to fall
Profit from trade —31, 150; 32, 11-12, 71-
72, 103, 498; 33, 11-12, 35-37, 41-42,
48-50, 62-64, 67-68, 107, 154-58, 165,
170, 173-76. 185-86, 188, 207, 208,
226-28, 241, 242, 317
Profit upon alienation- 31, 38, 45-46; 32,
211, 215, 267, 269, 280, 356, 359, 372,
475, 487, 541; 33, 35, 241
Properly —30, 37-38, 93, 98, 111-12, 131,
132^ 135, 139-43, 157, 160, 170, 173-
74, 180, 189, 196-97, 212, 214-15, 252,
303, 422; 31, 274-75; 32, 423, 454, 458,
488, 533-35; 33, 9-10, 277, 343; 34, 42,
51-52, 54, 87-89, 95, 106-09, 118, 119,
142, 183, 201, 213, 227, 233-34, 245-
46, 256, 264, 271, 275, 286, 293, 302,
328-29, 462
— private — 30, 37, 98, 111-12, 131.
135, 140, 142, 143, 157, 160, 172-73,
196, 214, 384, 391; 31, 271; 32. 405,
470-71, 473-74, 491, 492, 534; 34. 87
See also Appropriation: Landed property
Purchase and sale — 30, 2-29, 35-41, 54.
65-66, 74, 82, 87, 99, 104, 105, 106.
112, 116, 132, 138, 159, 183-84, 265,
270, 313-16, 370; 31, 149, 193, 236-39;
32, 122, 126, 131, 133, 135, 144, 161,
248, 267, 278, 301-02, 307-08, 468-69,
478-79, 522-23; 33, 44, 64, 74, 157-58,
164-66, 227; 34, 82, 95, 96, 99-103, 117,
215, 223, 290, 312, 325
See also Commodity; Commodity circulation;
Competition; Exchange value; Price;
Supply and demand; Trade (commerce)
Q.
Quesnay's Tableau économique— 30, 362;
31, 204, 207-12, 225-40
See also Political economy—Physiocrats;
Reproduction
R
Railways — 30, 257; 31, 113; 32, 419-20;
33, 140, 153, 393; 34, 56, 108, 113. 193.
218, 223, 440
Rate of surplus value —30, 169, 176-79,
186. 194, 210, 229, 253. 257, 269, 332;
31, 41, 54-55, 61-62, 70-73, 76, 254,
319-20, 416, 418, 432; 32, 44-45, 60,
72-74, 93, 97, 100-01, 294-95, 433-34,
483-84, 524; 33, 96-98, 106-07, 109-16,
119, 123, 127-28, 135, 142-43, 147,
150, 160-61, 379, 423; 34, 8-9, 14, 16,
19, 64, 76. 78-79. 110, 157, 368-69,
371. 372
See also Profit — rate of
Rate materials — 30, 57, 60, 62, 64, 66,
76-77, 109-10, 130, 153, 155, 161-62,
165-67. 170. 174-76, 179, 187, 188.200-
03, 236, 264. 296, 298, 321-23. 326-28,
343, 346, 439; 31. 25, 113-14. 295. 309-
10, 314, 343; 32, 15. 72, 145-46. 162,
468; 33, 17, 70. 79-81. 84-85, 88, 105,
108, 130-37, 148, 159, 171, 178-79,
205, 209, 210, 211, 228, 229, 232-34.
237, 290-91. 376. 382-84; 34. 20, 22-23.
59, 95, 120, 125, 144, 156, 157, 181.
191, 200. 204, 216. 218, 219. 224, 232,
241, 388. 412
See also Circulating capital: Matières
instrumentales; Material of labour
Relations of production see Capitalist relations
of production; Economic relations
Relative overpopulation —31, 155, 252; 34,
10, 11, 16, 18, 25. 26, 28, 31, 69, 101,
107, 113, 181, 205-07. 229. 230
See also Industrial reserve army
Religion -30, 361; 32. 157. 158, 409
Rent —30, 147, 155. 158, 179, 206. 212-
14, 345, 348, 351, 356. 358-68, 388-92,
398. 400; 57, 252, 255, 269, 271, 275-
77, 305. 309-12, 334-36, 373-74, 512,
519. 523, 539, 541, 543, 546. 551-52,
568-70; 32, 9-10, 12, 18, 29-31, 91, 94,
173-74, 288, 304, 367-68, 422, 450,
476-77, 484-87, 489, 498-99, 502, 511,
519-22, 530-31; 33, 69, 104, 159,
188, 190-93, 205-08, 210-11, 217. 233,
283-84. 292, 311, 320-22, 325-26, 332-
33; 34. 89. 142, 153-54, 158-61, 172-75,
241, 249, 251-53, 265-66, 269-72, 276-
80, 283-84, 287, 301, 306-07, 320-21,
333, 453
— absolute — 31, 325-27, 332, 370,
388-89, 462, 464, 473-74, 485, 508,
509, 514-16, 523, 529, 539-41,.546,
551-52, 556; 32, 13, 22-23, 29-31,
289
— differential — 31, 305, 309, 355-56,
370, 373, 431, 461-62, 474, 486,
489, 505, 508-09, 522, 539; 32, 18,
31, 87, 93, 293-94, 470, 516; 33, 285,
326-27; 34, 175
— differential, I— 31, 253, 327-28,
332, 461, 487, 523, 524, 572
— differential, 11 — .?/, 276-77, 327,
487, 529, 541-44
— Ricardian law of— 31, 265-68, 322,
327-29, 335-37, 344-45, 352, 354,
362, 388-89, 457, 462-63, 490, 513,
522-26, 546-47; 32, 73-74, 92-93, 97
See also Landed properly
Rentier —33, 205, 207, 208, 210, 279, 283
284
Reproduction —30, 43-44, 48-49, 52, 53,
104, 119, 139, 142, 144, 146, 157, 173-
75, 177-78, 180, 212, 234-37, 240, 242,
244, 264, 272, 290, 302, 314, 319, 322,
328-33, 335, 353, 380, 411, 451; 31, 8,
84-94, 113-14, 141-52, 204-08, 218-26,
238-40, 292, 296-97; 32, 103-06, 114-
17, 121-22, 124-26, 140, 143, 169, 233,
282, 335, 386, 402, 412-13, 416-20,
425, 449, 453, 478-82, 512-13; 33, 15-
19, 40, 49-58, 61, 63, 79, 98, 105. 161,
164, 167-69, 176-82, 185, 187, 189-215,
217-22, 228-38, 244, 245, 247-51; 34,
11. 64, 72, 197-200, 207-12, 216, 219,
223-28, 243, 245, 322. 326, 327, 376.
462
— simple —J?/, 130-49; 32, 109. 113,
121, 382-83, 480. 517; 33. 17-18,
168-69, 187, 209-13, 233. 235, 248,
303
— extended— 31, 130, 199-200; 32,
151-54, 382, 385-86, 405-07, 449; 33,
263, 287
See also Quesnay's Tableau économique
Revenue (income)—30, 31, 146, 155, 158,
303, 312, 314, 355, 361, 367, 399, 400^
402, 404-08, 411, 427, 444, 446, 449-
51; 31, 7, 12-13, 115-19, 134, 150-51,
154, 186-87, 317; 32, 67-68, 109, 173-
75, 184-89, 193-98, 200, 381-86, 449;
33, 10-11, 43, 60-62, 93-94, 169-73,
175, 177, 183-86, 188-90, 192-93, 198,
201, 203-05, 207-14, 217-20, 228, 230-
33, 235, 237-38, 330-32; 34, 11, 104,
124-25, 153, 183-85, 223-24, 241-43,
257, 287-88, 301, 445, 446, 453, 469
See also Interest (econ.j; Profit; Rent;
Wages
Rome — see Antiquity — Rome
S
Scotland —31, 351, 449, 519, 533, 569;
34, 251-53, 257, 271, 321
Securities—see Bills of exchange; Government
securities; Loans; National debt;
Shares, joint-stock companies
Services —30, 136-37; 31, 15-17, 19, 22,
24, 112, 164, 179, 186, 194, 199-200;
32, 132, 385, 426, 537; 34, 94, 137-40,
145, 178, 223, 226, 227, 302, 445, 446,
448, 451
Shares, joint-stock companies — 31, 545; 32,
127-28, 423; 33, 184; 34, 252
Slavery—see Society — slave owning (slavery
]
Social labour —30, 11, 55, 60, 79, 136,
199, 231, 359, 392; 31, 27, 29, 83, 99,
101, 272, 399; 32, 393, 446, 519; 33,
321, 340
Social relations —30, 154, 262, 292, 314-
15. 360; 31, 13, 14, 27, 182; 32, 36-37.
53-54, 204, 227, 278-79, 316-17, 324,
334, 398-99, 401, 406, 426-27, 433,
451, 472-73, 484-85, 493-95, 513-14;
33, 71; 34, 95, 234, 327
See also Capitalist relations of production;
Economic relations
Socialist Ricardians — 30, 163-65, 203,
252, 289-93, 305; 32, 373-76, 388-95,
397-401, 407-08, 429-46, 496-97, 500;
33, 253-55
Society — 30, 30, 31,44, 63, 78-79,92, 131,
144, 190-92, 196, 237, 252, 271-72,
303, 310-13, 316, 321, 353, 360, 412;
31, 21, 182, 242, 455; 32, 49, 96, 156,
158, 179-80, 183, 189, 215, 263, 306,
308, 422, 426, 428, 461, 488, 492; 34,
18, 67, 166, 167
— primitive — 30, 65, 97-98, 292, 297,
306, 412; 33, 20, 340
— slave owning (slavery)—30, 131,
143, 183, 184, 196-98, 214, 262, 276;
31, 197, 446, 516; 32, 70, 96, 133,
157, 282, 378, 496; 33, 13, 16, 321,
336, 486; 34, 70, 96, 98-101, 103,
108, 246, 247, 268, 295, 328
— feudal (feudalism)— 30, 358, 360-
62; 31, 174, 182, 453, 456; 32, 403,
531-35, 540; 34, 119, 257, 270, 273,
313, 468
— bourgeois — 30, 38, 53, 87, 92, 140,
147-48, 159, 160, 168, 174, 184-85,
189-92, 197, 198, 252, 257, 260, 292,
302-03, 312-14, 316, 358, 360-62; 32,
124, 198, 204, 243-44, 278-79, 287,
317, 324, 434, 472-73, 493-95, 531,
534-35; 33, 20, 92, 340, 369, 396,
403; 34, 86, 142, 242-43
State, the, state power — 30, 182, 184, 216,
259, 282, 361, 373; 31, 30, 179, 182,
197, 209, 278, 335, 379; 32, 101, 188,
204, 243, 244, 463, 465; 33, 103, 184,
192-94, 338, 357, 491; 34, 28, 96,
291-92, 295, 300
See also Law(s); Legislation; Taxes,
taxation
Supply and demand—30, 310, 401; 31,
133, 261, 362, 488, 490; 32, 125, 135-
36, 196, 254-55, 284-87, 290-93, 299,
378, 444-45; 33, 46, 178, 248, 386; 34,
11, 23, 64, 81, 219, 253, 284, 291, 297,
324
See also Competition; Economic crises;
Market; Market price; Price; Purchase and
sale
Surplus labour —30, 85-86, 88, 110, 166-
67, 172, 175, 193-99, 202, 204, 212-16,
224-25, 231, 239-42, 247-54, 257, 262,
303, 318-20, 322, 332-33, 357-58, 391,
399, 412; 31, 25, 107, 110, 112, 377,
500, 539; 32, 15, 41-42, 151, 174, 272,
376-78, 380-81, 387, 433, 483, 511,
543; 33, 11-12, 17, 23, 81-83, 89, 98,
108-09, 111, 379, 493; 34. 8, 13, 17, 21.
22, 62, 63, 74, 80, 93-95, 97, 99, 102,
123, 153, 154, 155, 200, 213, 215, 246,
315, 428
See also Labour; Necessary labour
Surplus product —30, 32, 180, 190-92,
229, 231; 31, 9, 107, 176, 187, 366; 32,
53, 61-62, 87, 117-23, 157, 237, 374,
376-80, 387; 33, 98; 34, 94, 155, 172,
179-80, 191, 443
See also Surplus value
Surplus value —30, 12, 25, 28, 90-92, 95-
96,99, 115, 117, 119, 121, 136-37, 143,
165-66, 168, 171, 176, 185-86, 190, 191,
202, 218-20, 229, 234-35, 237, 239-
40, 242, 243, 260, 269, 303, 311,
319-20, 322, 328-29, 338-39, 348,
351, 363, 372-73, 413; 31, 70, 107-08,
126, 179, 274, 397, 416, 418, 422, 444,
539; 32, 11-13, 60-61, 68, 87, 91-92, 94,
109-10, 117-20, 125-26, 170, 175, 204,
253, 276-77, 335, 343, 374, 382, 440-
41, 452, 469, 478-80, 482-87, 510, 513,
516, 524, 526-27, 543; 33, 7, 8, 23, 37,
69-71,90-93, 108-11, 115, 118-20, 123,
128-31, 133, 135, 139, 143, 147-50,
157, 161-63, 168, 172, 174, 175, 182,
189, 209-13, 216-18, 228-30, 232, 235,
236, 245-46, 259-60, 293, 372, 423,
477, 493; 34, 8-10, 15-23, 64, 69, 77, 80,
86, 87, 93, 94, 104, 105, 119, 125-26,
129-31, 142, 151, 155-57, 178-79, 190-
91, 194, 198-205, 207-09, 211, 215,
219, 220, 222, 227-29, 231, 241-43,
251, 254, 311-12, 363, 366, 368-74,
376, 379, 381-84, 399, 421
— absolute — 30, 165, 167, 172, 180,
192, 194, 233, 241-42, 246, 251, 257,
311,357, 374; 31, 251,255,304,319;
32, 41-44, 73-74, 392; 33, 84, 130,
292, 324, 375, 385, 479; 34, 9-10, 15,
19, 61, 93, 95, 105-06, 425, 429, 439
— relative — 30, 159, 165, 194, 233-
34, 236, 240-42, 244-47, 250-51, 253,
257, 311, 322, 329, 336, 357-58, 399;
31, 201, 278, 319, 483; 32, 42, 74,
399;33, 84, 107, 123, 130-31, 142-43,
149-50, 275, 369, 376, 382-83, 385-
86, 477, 480-81; 34, 8-12, 14, 15, 19,
61,75,77,93-95, 105, 106, 109, 117.
167, 182, 185, 428
— bourgeois economists on — 30, 14,
26-28,48,89, 107, 110, 155-56, 179,
206-09. 348, 352, 354, 356, 358, 360,
362-66, 370, 374, 378, 381, 385-87,
388, 390-92, 394, 398, 402; 32, 9-10,
31-32, 41-42, 52, 57, 96-97, 174,
191-92, 210-11, 227, 275, 277, 373,
388-89, 476; 33, 7, 72-76, 101-02
See also Economic laws; Profit; Rate of
surplus value; Rent; Revenue (income)
T
Taxes, taxation —30, 158, 179, 361, 374;
31, 188, 209, 456; 32, 18-19, 243, 422;
33, 18, 206, 223; 34, 140-41, 279-80,
283, 291-93, 296-300, 446
Technological composition of capital — 31,
497, 498, 520; 32, 88, 89; 33, 168, 304,
305, 307, 462-63, 465; 34, 204
See also Organic composition of capital;
Value composition of capital
Technology —30, 55, 90, 92, 115, 169,
273, 293, 295, 325-27; 33, 84, 384, 387-
91, 411-12, 441, 481, 486-89; 34, 95-96,
102, 106, 181, 429, 433, 441
See also Factory, workshop; Industry —
large-scale; Inventions; Machines, machinery;
Means of labour; Means of production;
Productive forces
Tendency of the rate of profit to fall—31,
59, 343, 492, 526; 32, 9, 18-19, 44, 56-
57, 72-74, 94, 375-76, 431, 445, 542; 33,
91-93, 104-05, 107, 110, 112-15, 147-
49, 367-68
Time of circulation of capital — 33, 69, 73,
89, 93, 95, 97, 225-26
Time of reproduction —33, 109, 418-21
Total product —30, 179, 191; 33, 173,
209-13, 235; 34, 80-81
Towns —30, 286, 290; 31, 453-56; 32, 403,
488, 541; 33, 19-20, 406; 34, 104. 325
Trade (commerce) —30, 26, 29-30, 136,
197, 286, 297, 303, 313; 31, 99, 113,
238, 515; 32, 122-23, 138-40, 161, 294.
308, 466, 531, 537; 33, 19-21, 39, 40-41.
44-51, 56-58, 61, 63, 64, 67-68, 113,
156-57, 166-72, 174, 177-78, 204, 207,
208, 220-22, 226-28, 229, 241, 397,
402, 405; 34, 270, 277, 280, 318, 325-
26, 328, 426
See also Commodity; Competition; Foreign
(international) trade; Market; Mercantile
(commercial, merchant's) capital;
Money; Price; Profit from trade; Purchase
and sale; Supply and demand
Trade unions —30, 250; 34, 121, 168-69,
342
Transport, transport system — 32, 116,
123, 420; 33, 38-41, 226, 255; 34, 112,
113, 145
See also Railways
Turkey — 34, 454
Turnover of capital—30, 101-03; 31, 142;
32, 58, 262, 276; 33, 48-50, 52-54, 102,
127, 140, 147, 154-56, 177, 201, 250,
314, 315, 317, 318; 34, 13
U
Unemployment —33, 374-75, 386-87, 423-
24, 495-96; 34, 39, 54, 166, 206
See also Industrial reserve army; Relative
overpopulation
United States of America, the — 30, 183, 197,
343; 31, 255, 272, 276, 328, 382, 515,
523-25, 569; 32, 199-200, 303, 378, 420;
33, 336, 395, 445; 34, 102, 142, 308,
438, 468
Use value —30, 9, 12, 16, 18-20, 22, 33-
35, 51-63. 74-76, 79-82, 84, 86-88, 113,
122-26, 132-35, 141, 152-53, 158, 159,
170, 190-93, 197, 235, 255, 258, 267,
272, 281, 284, 290, 299, 303, 310, 313-
16. 322, 325-26, 329, 333, 348-51, 353-
54, 410, 413, 417; 31, 14, 15, 29, 77,
100, 168, 179, 200, 481; 32, 43, 120,
132, 138-40, 246-47, 280, 290-92, 306-
08, 313-18, 363, 369, 386, 397-98, 418,
422, 425, 461, 489, 520-22, 526; 33, 15,
16, 18, 41, 89, 112, 113, 145-47, 158,
189, 239-40, 244-45, 360; 34, 20, 65, 66,
82, 88, 97, 98, 100, 101, 114, 115, 128-
29, 137, 138, 193-95, 198, 199, 202,
218, 220, 221, 246, 247, 281, 363, 365,
417, 419, 446
— vulgar bourgeois economists on —
30, 99, 155, 232
Usurers' capital, usury, usurers — 30, 390;
31, 453; 32, 436, 453, 463, 526, 533-36;
33, 10-19, 169; 34, 118-20, 237, 272,
280
V
Value —30, 22-26, 29-36, 40-44, 53, 95-
96, 100, 105-09, 111-12, 119, 148-50,
152-53, 160, 162-63, 165-68, 173-78,
182, 187, 191, 200-02, 209, 234, 260,
318-19, 322-26, 328, 332, 334-35, 339,
345, 356, 363, 376, 380, 390-91, 399-
408, 410-14, 420, 427, 443-45; 31, 45,
68, 260, 261, 268-69, 276, 359-62, 369,
376, 380, 393-94, 401, 415-17, 423-24,
439, 445-46, 454, 465, 480, 481, 552-
53, 574-77; 32, 40, 49-50, 69-70, 104-
06, 144, 145, 147, 162, 167-68, 178-79,
181, 209-11, 232-33, 264-65, 270-73,
275-76, 285-86, 298, 299, 345-48, 349-
52, 360-61, 364-65, 368-69, 388, 409,
439, 482-84, 510, 513, 516-20; 33, 12-
14, 67-68, 74, 78, 80-85, 88-92, 96, 97,
101, 103, 128-29, 134, 136, 156, 173-
74, 179, 209, 232, 247-49, 264, 299-
300, 382, 477, 478; 34, 14, 22, 23, 25,
63, 72, 80, 82, 85-86, 110-11, 113-17,
129, 132-33, 151-52, 155-56, 159, 171,
180-82, 191-92, 196-202, 254, 270,
280-84, 301-03, 305, 320, 345, 361,
365-75, 377, 379, 381, 383-84, 399-400,
434
— of total (annual) product — 32,
106-08, 301; 34, 80, 191-93, 199,376,
377
— Adam Smith on — 30, 377-78, 381-
84, 392, 401-02
— Ricardo's theory of— 32, 9, 32, 34-
37, 41, 69, 134-35, 222-23, 258, 261,
284-85, 311-12, 317-18, 324-26, 344-
45, 354-55, 361, 374
— "real value" in James Steuart and
Ricardo — 30, 351-52; 32, 52, 312,
326, 353-56
— standard measure of, in bourgeois
political economy — 32, 37-38,209,
320, 322, 332-33', 341-42
— confusion of value with price of
production in bourgeois political
economy — 32, 9, 21-23, 30, 55, 60,
100, 223, 225, 258, 261, 269, 344,
349, 363
— in vulgar bourgeois political economy—
30, 101, 154, 155; 32, 233-34,
266, 273, 284-85, 287, 331-32,
339-42, 346-47, 349, 353-56, 359-
61
See also Commodity; Economic laws; Exchange
value; Form of value; Law of
value; Market value; Money; Price; Price
of production; Surplus value; Use value
Value composition of capital — 31, 496,
503-04, 520-21; 33, 32-34, 87, 88, 106,
306, 310, 380
See also Organic composition of capital;
Technological composition of capital
Variable capital —30, 117-18, 134, 139,
144, 176-80, 188-90, 198-99, 269, 295-
96, 322, 326, 327, 332-33, 345-46, 450-
51; 31, 113; 32, 51, 183, 203-04, 377,
382, 426, 468, 482; 33, 36, 70, 77-80,
85, 87, 96-97, 106, 109-12, 115,119-20,
131, 147-50, 180, 182, 185, 187-93,
196-203, 216-18, 227-28, 232-36, 246-
48, 293-94, 305-06, 372, 380-82, 423,
477, 482; 34, 9-15, 19, 20, 23, 55, 64,
66, 107, 178-80, 182-83, 191, 195, 203,
204, 206, 214-16, 222-27, 229, 241,
243, 259, 323, 324, 366, 376, 392, 393,
394, 412
See also Exploitation of labour capacity
by capital; Labour capacity; Means of subsistence
W
Wage labour —30, 11, 69, 81-82, 93, 113-
17, 135, 141-42, 144, 199, 232, 290,
399; 31, 8, 9, 83, 96, 130, 190, 378-79,
516; 32, 33, 197, 198, 390, 393, 404-05,
422-23, 449, 450, 470, 490-92, 514,
524, 528, 530-31; 33, 162, 479; 34, 16,
27-30, 38, 40-41, 71-74, 77-80, 82-86,
95, 101, 226-34, 237, 256-60, 262, 295,
307-09, 328-29, 389, 403, 411-17, 420-
21, 435-36, 442, 455-56, 459, 461-63,
467, 470
— antagonism of capital and wage labour
---30, 81-82, 93, 112-17,' 135,
136, 139, 141, 146-48, 158-60, 290,
399; 31, 378-79; 32, 37, 51, 247-48,
288, 385, 398, 405, 427-29, 446, 449,
456-58, 473, 492, 494-96
— historical character of —30, 139,
141-42, 146, 180, 212-13; 32, 393-94,
446, 449
-— bourgeois economists on — 30, 114-
15, 135, 139-42, 145-60, 290
See also Exploitation of labour capacity
by capital; Labour, Worker
Wages— 30, 44-47, 53, 81-83, 89-92,
103-04, 109-11, 116-17, 119, 121, 129,
133, 139-40, 144, 147-50, 158-59, 165,
166, 172, 174-78, 180, 183, 189, 193-
96, 201, 203, 212-13, 215, 219, 231-32,
234-38, 240, 242-45, 250-52, 295, 302,
309, 312, 319-21, 327-28, 330, 333-35,
337-39,345-46,354-56,400-02,412-13,
451; 31, 212, 250, 252, 494, 530; 32,
15, 21-24, 27-32, 40, 42, 44, 52-
54. 58-59, 73, 93-94, 97, 110, 178,
184, 192, 205-08, 226-27, 258, 271,
282-84, 302, 335, 350, 370, 376-79,
381-85, 434, 441, 444-45, 486, 490-91,
494-98, 502-06, 529-31; 33, 10, 21-35,
98-99, 108-09, 126, 134-35, 142-43,
151, 159-63, 172-76, 178-82, 185-87,
190-91, 194-208, 211-13, 222-27, 230,
257-58, 261, 280, 377-78, 383, 386-87,
480, 492-93; 34, 8, 11, 14, 21, 23-24,
39-40, 45, 46, 63-70, 72-77, 80, 82-83,
85-86, 93-96, 99-101, 103, 116, 120,
153, 157-58, 160-62, 165, 167-69, 195,
198, 211, 223, 224, 229-30, 241-42,
266, 269, 285, 287, 291-93, 297-98,
305, 315-21, 323, 344-45, 366, 393,
433-36
See also Revenue (income); Variable capital
War(s) — 32, 29, 243; 34, 307, 310, 316
See also Army
Wealth —30, 19, 26-28, 37, 39-41, 69,
87-88, 99, 112, 135, 159-60, 170, 182,
190, 192, 197, 206, 214, 241, 299, 302,
312-13, 382-83, 398, 406; 31, 26-27, 98,
107, 116-17, 156, 168, 177, 179, 181,
182, 183, 199-200, 202, 203, 317, 355;
32, 15, 134, 162, 176-77, 217, 246-48,
316, 347, 381, 387-88, 390-91, 475,
542; 33, 12, 16, 18, 107, 208-09, 224,
320, 345-46, 352, 491; 34, 32, 87, 94,
97, 100, 107, 109, 126, 127, 137, 143,
145, 150, 183, 185, 195-96, 199, 201-
02, 231, 232, 234, 243, 245, 276, 277,
281, 285, 294, 303, 322, 326, 357, 410,
411, 434, 449, 456
See also Accumulation of capital; Capital;
Gold and silver; Money
Worker (as an agent of production)—30,
37, 40, 49, 51, 71, 90,95, 111-13, 117-
18, 131, 144, 159-62, 168, 174, 186,
192-93, 195, 197-99, 240, 243-46, 258,
262, 269, 279, 294-96, 301-02, 331,
335, 351-53, 359-60, 380, 385, 399,
413; 31, 8-9, 12, 14-16, 23, 135, 150,
212-13, 218-19, 275, 349, 365; 32, 33,
36-37, 41, 42, 51, 175, 190-91, 197-98,
218, 279-80, 307, 382, 425-26, 441,
487; 33, 74, 162, 209-14, 478, 491; 34,
24, 25, 27-31, 34, 37, 41, 54, 56, 85, 98,
101, 104, 113, 122, 136-37, 148-49,
172, 208, 228, 233, 234, 250, 295, 296,
317, 391, 395-99, 404, 415, 431, 442,
448
— bourgeois economists on — 30, 98,
104, 109, 138-39, 142-43, 145-47,
149, 157-58, 199-203, 224, 259-60,
273-76, 280, 287-90, 293-94, 341-42,
345
See also Exploitation of labour capacity
by capital; Labour capacity; Wage labour;
Wages
Working day —30, 81-86, 91, 106, 113,
119, 165-67, 180-84, 195-96, 200, 209,
215, 227-28, 230, 235, 239, 242, 245-
52, 318-19, 330-31; 31, 70; 32, 41-42,
44, 93, 335, 433, 441; 33, 84, 103, 161,
379-80, 385, 473; 34, 22, 23, 28, 29, 64,
67, 70, 72, 74-77, 93, 99, 112, 115, 116,
129, 181, 193, 291-95, 327-28, 348,
370, 371, 372
— normal — 30, 105, 182.-83, 186,
193, 206-09, 223-25, 233, 243, 245,
255, 330, 340; 34, 23, 61, 67, 68, 77,
78, 82, 83, 85, 115, 294
— legislative regulation of—30, 169,
216, 218-28, 336, 337, 338; 34, 38,
62, 67, 68, 295
— total — 30, 185-86, 194, 202, 233-
34, 236-41, 243, 246-47, 249, 251-52,
329-31; 34, 69, 72-73, 78-85, 93,
213
— bourgeois economists on — 30, 164-
65, 169, 200, 202-03, 331, 333-34,
336-38
See also Free time; Labour time; Necessary
labour; Surplus labour; Wages







MECW VOL 35-37






A
Absolute ground rent
— definition of— 37, 747, 749
— formation of— 37, 748-55
— essence of—37, 758
— in the extracting industry — 37, 758
Absolute surplus value
— definition of— 35, 320
— production of— 55,270-71,314-15,
510-12
— distinction between absolute and
relative surplus value — 35, 512
Abstraction
— significance of abstraction in the
analysis of economic forms — 35, 8
— examples of— 35, 175-76, 187,509,
565, 579-80
Abstract labour—35, 48, 49, 53-56, 57,
59-69, 74-76, 84, 90, 99-100, 119, 209-
12
Accessories —35, 191-92, 213, 566, 600,
617
Accumulation of capital
— definition of— 35, 578, 579-81,
587-91, 608-09, 610, 613-14, 615-
16, 618-21, 638-40; 37, 216, 217,
243, 262, 265
— necessary conditions, sources and
factors of— 35, 564-65, 579-80,
581-82, 593-95, 598, 599-604, 616-
17; 37, 264-65
— results and consequences of—35,
620, 623, 626, 628-29, 639-40
— in agriculture — 35, 599
— and condition of the working
class — 35, 598, 608-10, 613-15,
624-27, 629-32, 638-40, 651
— and laws of commodity production—
35, 583-84
— historical tendency of—35, 748-55
— as aim and compelling motive of industrial
capital — 36, 64-65, 502-03
— hoarding as factor of accumulation—
36, 83-84, 89-90, 125, 472-
73, 488-89
— as a means to expand production of
surplus value — 36, 84-85, 124-25
— as capitalisation of surplus value —
36, 86-87
— accumulation of money capital in
bank deposits and securities — 36,
90, 124-25
— money reserve fund — 36, 90, 166,
174, 319, 345, 448
— and growth of productive power of
labour — 36, 354; 37, 217-18, 246-
49, 395, 396-97
— necessity of accumulation under
capitalism — 36, 493-95
— simple reproduction as an actual
factor of— 36, 390-94
— expenditure of surplus value in accumulation—
36, 495-96
— extension of business without accumulation—^,
499-500
— rate of accumulation — 36, 520
— and relative overpopulation — 37,
217, 220, 243, 247, 248, 250-53,
254-55, 262, 263
— and concentration and centralisation
of capital — 37, 244-45
— and primitive accumulation — 37,
245
— and a drop in the rate of profit —
37, 248, 255, 258, 261, 264-65
Accumulation of loan capital
— and bankers — 37, 476-77
— discovery of Australian and Californian
gold mines — 37, 500
— as a form distinct from actual accumulation—
37, 500, 501-02
— and the crisis — 37, 500-01
— source of— 37, 501-02, 503-04
— special forms of— 37, 503-04, 505
Acts for enclosures of commons — 35, 715
Adulteration of means of subsistence — 35,
184-85, 256-58, 597
Advance
— forms of— 37, 338, 342-43, 348
— character of— 37, 343-44
— movements of—37, 345-47
— kinds of advance — 37, 443
Advanced capital—37, 33-34, 37, 39, 40,
503
— minimum magnitude of—36, 85-
86, 89, 90, 112, 124-25, 258
— time for which fixed capital is advanced—^,
164-65, 170-71
— and capital value turned over annually—^,
186
— and terms of payment — 36, 189
— and distribution of social surplus
value — 36, 218
— and duration of productive acts —
36, 230, 231, 234
— and length of working period — 36,
233, 315-16
— and credit system — 36, 235, 236
— and interruptions in working period—
36, 241-43
Africa
— its division by the European powers—
37, 897
Agriculture —35, 433, 505-08, 599, 601,
636, 665, 668-70, 683-84, 698-99, 736-
37
— commodity character of farmer's
economy — 36, 120
— natural economy — 36, 120, 121
— production of raw materials — 36,
146-47
— expansion of production — 36, 175-
76
— Quesnay on capital employed in—
36, 190-91
— working period in — 36, 237, 241-
42
— difference between production time
and working time in — 36, 241-42,
243, 244, 247
— condition of agricultural labourer—^,
242-43
— shortening of turnover time in —
36, 243-45
— production time and forestry — 36,
244-46, 247
— turnover cycle in — 36, 248
— and the process of reproduction —
36, 357; 37, 448
— employment of labour power in —
36, 449, 480-81
— reproduction of constant capital
in — 36, 521
— change of the value of capital in
the case of agriculture — 37, 115-
16
— and manufacture — 37, 331-33
— features of small-peasant agriculture—
37, 608
— capitalist nature of—37, 608, 609,
611, 612
— and private property in land — 37,
611, 612
— and classes — 37, 612
— in England — 37, 623, 624
— in Europe — 37, 664
— relative overproduction in — 37,
664-65
— natural laws of—37, 669
— precapitalist — 37, 669
— slow and uneven development in —
37, 669-70, 777, 778
— organic composition of capital in —
37, 746, 747, 749, 750, 751, 753
— drawbacks of small agriculture —
37, 793, 794
Agricultural labourer
— conditions of life and labour of—
35, 259-61, 279, 505-07, 556, 596-
98, 635-37, 648-51, 665-88, 694-
703, 707-09, 727-29, 731-33
— class struggle of—35, 505-08
America
— as a centre of the crises of 1825-
57 — 57, 75, 491
— American census — 37, 80
— Civil War in — 37, 111, 129-30
— development of production in —
37, 121, 122
— ownership in — 37, 383, 613, 790
— stock companies in — 37, 435
— trade of America with Asia — 37,
560, 561
— rate of exchange of America with
England — 37, 578-79
— land speculation in — 37, 661-62
— quality of land in — 37, 756
American War of Independence — 35, 9
Anarchy of capitalist production — 35, 186,
359-62, 480, 504, 530
— and waste of productive forces —
36, 174-75
— and disturbances in production —
36, 314-15
— and overproduction — 36, 468
— and crises — 36, 494-95
See also Crises
Anti-Corn Law League — 35, 15
Ami-Jacobin War— 35, 666, 739
Antiquity —35, 69-70, 90, 92-93, 101, 109,
142-43, 146, 163, 178, 181, 292, 339,
353, 370-71, 513-14, 716-18
Arabs
— effect of world trade on — 36, 42
Argentina — 37, 713
Aristocracy — 35, 15, 666, 667, 701, 712-
13, 760
Asia — 35, 151, 173, 338-39, 364
— high rate of profit in — 37, 150
— precapitalistic modes of production
in — 37, 532, 591
— combination of small-scale agriculture
and home industry in — 37,
332
— capitalist nations as debtors of—
37, 509-10
— export of silver to — 37, 548, 560
— rate of exchange with — 37, 554-55,
571, 572, 573, 574, 575, 576, 577,
578, 579
See also China, India
Athens (Ancient)—35, 93
Australia —35, 454, 760; 37, 500, 573,
585
Austria —35, 282
Average profit—35, 623, 632; 37, 141, 152-
53, 155, 156, 157, 158, 167, 168, 171,
172-73, 178-79, 194-96, 197, 207
B
Banks —35, 135-39, 147-49, 153-55, 156,
743
— deposits — 36, 90-91, 124-25, 343,
347, 492-93; 37, 469-70, 471
— concentration of banking operations—
36; 138
— withdrawal of deposits and money
market — 36, 291
— and circulation of money capital —
36, 344, 411-12
— assets of— 36, 343, 347; 37, 538,
539, 601
— and loan capital — 37, 426
— gold reserve and the banking reserve—
37, 430-31, 432, 461-62,
469
— and issue of notes — 37, 431
— bank capital — 37, 461-62, 463,
464, 467, 468-69
— the Bank of Amsterdam — 37, 597
— the Bank of Hamburg — 37, 597
— English Bank of Credit — 37, 598
— Crédit mobilier— 37, 600
See also Bank of England
Bank Act of 1844 —37, 429, 550, 551, 552,
553-54, 555, 557
Banknotes —35, 137-38, 149-50, 151, 153
— definition of—37, 401-02, 441-42
— circulation of banknotes and the industrial
cycle — 37, 456, 523-24,
525, 526, 527
— law of the circulation of—37, 519-
20
— circulation of notes of the Bank of
England — 37, 519-20, 521, 522,
523, 524, 525
— number of circulating banknotes
and the turnover — 37, 519-20,
521, 522, 523, 524
— issue of banknotes and metal reserve—
37, 522, 523, 524
— and reserve fund — 37, 525-26, 527
— and advance of capital — 37, 535,
536
— and circulation of bills — 37, 535,
536, 537
Bank of England
— its securities — 37, 447, 448, 452,
454, 455
— circulation of its notes — 37, 449,
452, 454
— and demand for gold — 37, 449,
450, 451, 454-55, 457
— gold reserve in the Bank of England—
37, 450, 451-52, 453
— accommodations by — 37, 452,
454-55, 456
— reserve fund of— 37, 472, 473, 474,
511-12, 534
— its rate of interest in 1844-45 — 37,
509, 510-11
— inflow and outflow of notes in — 37,
526-27
— the largest capital power in London—
37, 537, 538, 539, 540
— its profits for the period from 1797
to 1817 — 57, 540, 541
— and the Bank Act of 1844 — 57,
549, 550-51
Basis and superstructure — 35, 88, 92-93, 95,
486, 488-89, 587-88, 610-11
Belgium —35, 282, 303-04, 596, 663-64
Big landowner
— and the farmer—37, 612, 613, 614,
615, 619, 620, 621
— enrichment of the landlord in the
course of economic development —
37, 613, 614
— and the Corn Laws in England —
37, 620, 621
— role of big landlords in capitalist
mode of production — 37, 807, 808
Bill of exchange
— definition of—57, 398-99
— discounting bills —57, 423, 425,
483, 484
— discounting bills and borrowing capital
— 37, 424, 425
— speculative bill — 37, 427
— and swindling — 37, 483, 486, 489,
490
— accumulation of money capital in
the form of— 36, 90-91
Bimetallism —35, 106-07, 153-54
Bourgeoisie — see Capitalist
See also Capital; Capitalist mode of production;
Classes
Buying and selling —37, 179-80, 194,
280-81, 287-88, 293, 340, 341, 343-44,
345, 367, 426, 427
C
Capital
— definition of— 35, 162, 165-66,
167, 174-75, 241, 270-73, 274-75,
313-14, 569-70, 660, 748-49, 752-
53; 37, 243-44, 245
— history of— 35, 157, 173-77, 179-
83, 193-96, 335-36, 514, 731-32,
743, 748-51
— general formula of—35, 157-66;
37, 45
— influx and outflow from branch to
branch — 35, 626, 633
— movement of— 35, 335-38, 443-45,
465-66, 504-05, 564, 635-36; 37, 27,
52
— and wages — 35, 595-99
— capital employed and capital consumed—
35, 603-04
— augmentation of capital as condition
of its preservation — 36, 85-86
— as a value generating value — 36,
87-88
— characteristic features of social capital—
36, 103, 110-11
— revolutions in value of social capital—
36, 111-12, 113
— social capital as joint-stock capital
of all individual capitalists — 36,
431
— magnitude of the total capital
value and the magnitude of surplus
value — 37, 49, 50, 51
— technical composition of—37, 49,
50
— organic composition of capital in
industry — 37, 78-80
— tie-up of— 37, 112, 113, 114, 115,
116, 117-18
— change of value of capital — 37,
112-13
— release of capital — 37, 111-12, 115-
16
— as a social power — 37, 193, 262,
263
— depreciation of— 37, 234, 248, 251,
253, 254
— absolute overproduction of—37,
250, 251, 253, 254, 255
— plethora of— 37, 250, 255
— circuit of— 37, 253, 254
— exports of capital in productive and
money form — 37, 255, 571, 572,
573-74, 575, 576
— merchant's capital invested in the
purchase and payment of the
means of circulation — 37, 285-86
— criticism of theory of the origin of
capital from savings and abstention
of the capitalist — 37, 436-37
— as the production relation — 37,
801, 802
— as the historically determined social
form — 37, 802, 803
— fetishism of— 37, 810, 811, 812,
813
See also Advanced capital; Money;
Money capital; Productive capital
"Capital" by K. Marx
— subject-matter and method of—
35, 7-8, 9-10, 16-20, 23, 45, 86, 87,
88, 93, 157, 174-75, 179-80
— significance for the working class —
35, 35
— attitude of the bourgeoisie to it —
35, 16
— translations of— 35, 17, 23, 24, 27,
30, 37
— history of— 35, 1, 12-13, 17, 24-28,
30, 37-38
Capitalist
— growth of individual consumption
of— 36, 74-75
— as personification of industrial capital—
36, 122-23
— and labourer — 36, 408-09, 442,
514-15
— consumption and revenue of—36,
417-19
— and circulation of money — 36, 331
— and variable capital — 36, 438, 446
— industrial capitalist and idle capitalist—
36, 480-88; 37, 368, 369
— his illusion regarding the origin of
surplus value and profit — 37, 42,
45, 46, 48, 51, 137, 207-08
— and production of a commodity —
37, 45, 866-67
— and the working class — 37, 45,
196, 197, 378
— and advanced capital — 37, 45, 46
— money capitalist — 37, 368, 369,
370, 371, 372, 373, 507, 508
See also Capital; Capitalist mode of production;
Classes
Capitalist mode of production
— general definition of—35, 14-15,
18-19, 45, 69-71, 92, 103, 111-12,
142, 153, 156, 174-77, 178-82, 186,
206-09, 225-27, 270-71, 306-07,
324-26, 336-39, 425-26, 489-91,
492, 509-10, 530, 532-33, 539-41,
542, 614-15, 616, 619, 623-24, 628-
29, 638, 651-52, 749-51, 754-55
— decisive aim of—35, 161-66, 196,
200-06, 226, 238-39, 240-41, 302-
04, 312, 335-37, 509-10, 587-88,
590-91, 614, 616
— starting-point and premises of—
35, 157, 178-81, 326-27, 339-40,
358, 570-71, 619, 705, 706, 748-51,
759; 37, 195, 589, 590, 609, 610,
611
— contradictions of— 35, 8, 15, 19-20,
122-23, 186, 295-97, 336-37, 361-
62, 410-11, 435, 443-45, 446-50,
464-65, 480-83, 503-04, 506-07,
509, 530, 639-40, 651-52, 749-50;
36, 315-16; 37, 89-90, 121-22, 243-
44, 247-48, 249, 255, 256, 257, 262,
263, 265, 284, 285-86, 567-68, 569
— and feudalism — 35, 706
— historical necessity of—35, 339-40,
516-17
— as a passing historical phase — 35,
10-11, 14-15, 34,489, 581,587-88,
748-51
— purchase and sale of labour power
as a basic condition of—36, 20-21,
36, 42-43, 81-82, 88-89, 121-22,
343, 351, 383-84
— and separation of labour power
from means of production — 36, 38
— and commodity production — 36,
42, 115, 121, 494-95, 499-500; 37,
179, 180, 181
— labourers and means of production
as factors of production — 36, 40-41
— and revolutionisation of economic
structure of society — 36, 42, 62-63
— compelling motive of—36, 63-65,
74-75, 84-85, 102, 124-25, 157,
349, 383-84, 444, 502-03
— vulgar political economy on capitalist
process of production — 36,
73
— and technique — 36, 42, 62-63, 83-
84, 112, 172-73
— continuity of capitalist production—
36, 107-08, 110, 280-81
— and evolution of agricultural labourer
into wage labourer — 36,
121-22
— mode of production and mode of
exchange —iff, 121-22
— and market — 36, 154-55; 37, 111,
265
— anarchy of production and waste of
productive forces — 36, 174-75,
315-16, 468-69
— crisis and abnormal conditions of
process of production — 36, 317-18
— unproductive expenses (faux frais)
of—36, 135, 140, 142-43, 152-53,
344
— and credit — 36, 344
— and condition of working class —
36, 409-10
— and foreign trade—36, 469-70
— method of analysing — 36, 508, 509
— as a synthesis of the processes of
production and circulation — 37,
28, 45, 813, 814
— its distinction from the mode of
production based on slavery — 37,
33
— and economy of constant capital —
37, 87-88, 89
— and development of the productive
power of labour—37, 88-89, 256,
257, 258, 265
— and social character of production—
37, 91-92, 93, 191, 265, 567-
68, 569
— as immediately preceding the socialist
mode of production — 37,
92, 434-35
— classes under capitalist mode of
production — 37, 194, 851-52, 853
— and the process of accumulation —
37, 215, 216, 217, 264, 265
— and relative overpopulation — 37,
216, 220, 227, 235
— production of surplus value and
profit as purpose of—37, 239-40,
241, 242, 243, 244, 250, 255, 256,
863-64
— historical character of—37, 240,
256, 257, 258, 262, 614, 615, 801,
802, 866
— barriers of production under — 37,
248-49, 256, 257, 262, 505
— and agriculture — 37, 610, 611,
643-44, 668-69, 670, 787-88, 796-
97, 798, 799
— and impoverishment of the direct
producers — 37, 612
— and the price of land — 37, 796-97,
798, 799, 800
— and large landed property — 37,
798, 799, 800, 807
— and precapitalist production relations—
37, 818
— and reproduction of production relations—
37, 857-58, 859, 865
Capitalist reproduction
— replacement of constant capital —
37, 821-22, 823
— its conditions — 37, 187
— two departments of the social capital—
37, 823, 824
— exchange between two departments—
37, 824, 825
— scheme of simple reproduction —
37, 824-25
— reproduction of capitalist production
relations — 37, 826
— and advanced capital — 37, 825,
826
— and revenues — 37, 826
Capital of circulation
— as opposed to productive capital —
36, 193-94, 197-98, 200-01, 206,
208
See also Circulation; Commodity capital;
Money capital
Cartels—37, 122, 434-35, 436
Castes — 35, 345
Cattle-breeding —36, 237, 238-39, 246,
247
— use of replacement fund to expand
production in—36, 175-76
— means of reducing working period
in— 36, 238-39, 243-44, 245, 246
See also Agriculture
Centralisation of capitals
— one-sided accumulation and centralisation
of money capital and
productive capital — 36, 348
— scale of production and — 36, 354
— as a changed distribution of individual
capitals — 36, 354
See also Concentration
Centralisation of production and capital —
35, 314, 338, 619-23, 742-43, 749-51,
759-60
Chartism —35, 286, 288, 290
Chemistry —35, 189, 191, 313, 601
China —35, 137, 141, 384, 739, 740
— effect of capitalist world trade on —
36, 42
— Chinese artisans — 36, 107
— commodity production of Chinese
peasants — 36, 115
— precapitalist mode of production
in — 37, 331-32
— imports of European and American
goods to — 37, 331-32, 333, 405,
564
— English opium trade in — 37, 405,
548, 573
Circuit of capital
— purpose and outcome of—36, 53,
63, 105
— interruptions in circuit of capital —
36, 57, 108
— fixation of capital for certain
lengths of time in various phases
of— 36, 57
— as a unity of circulation and production—^,
65-66, 105, 108
— disturbances in it and reserve
fund — 36, 91
— three formulas of—36, 105
— as unity of its three forms — 36,
105, 108-09
— and its turnover—36, 158, 306-07
— in production of precious metals —
36, 325
— circuit of social capital — 36, 350,
352
Circulating capital—35, 606
— money form of— 36, 91, 281 -82; 37,
78-79
— circulation of capital value — 36,
160-61, 170-71
— additional investment of—36, 233,
238, 258-59
— and methods to reduce time of turnover
in agriculture — 36, 243-45
— changes in amount of—36, 258
— turnover of constant and variable
part of— 36, 293-94
— and the cost price — 37, 34, 37-38
— and value of the commodity product—
37, 109-10
— and development of the productive
forces of labour — 37, 258
— loan of— 37, 341-43
Circulation
— and the metamorphoses of commodities—
35, 114-16, 118-22
— simple circulation — 35, 167-69
— difference from the direct exchange
of products — 35, 121-23
— identity of sale and purchase — 35,
122-23
— and capitalism — 35, 157, 356-58
— of money — 35, 124-28, 130-31,
144-45, 146, 149-50; 36, 413, 477
— production of commodities and circulation
of commodities — 36, 39
— of surplus value and capital value—
36, 48, 50, 73-74
— of capital as part of general circulation
of commodities — 36, 65-66,
75-76
— of surplus value in simple reproduction—
36, 71-72, 73, 75-77
— and formation of a fund for purchase
and payment — 36, 82-83
— money capital and speed of—36,
114
— of industrial capital and world
market — 36, 115
— amount of money required for —
36, 118, 284, 323, 327, 329-30, 339,
343
— as a phase of reproduction process—
36, 30-31, 132-33, 349; 37,
278-79, 288, 813, 814
— and formation of supply — 36, 147,
148, 151
— improvement in means of transportation
and time of— 36, 252, 253
— credit and metallic circulation —
36, 499-500
— seeming derivation of surplus value
from circulation — 37, 43-44, 47,
137, 814
— time of circulation — 37, 47, 74-75,
84, 278-79, 301, 814
— and the value of commodities — 37,
279
See also Exchange
Civil War in America —35, 9, 292, 296,
305-06, 424, 436, 437, 574, 760
Clan —35, 718-20
Classes
— capitalist reproduction as reproduction
of class of wage labourers
and class of capitalists—36, 39,
378, 390-91, 414-15
— exploitation of working class under
capitalism — 36, 43, 353, 509, 515-
16
— industrial capital and class antagonism
between capitalists and wage
labourers — 36, 62-63
— working class and crises of overproduction—
36, 316-17, 409-10
See also Capitalist; Peasantry
Classical bourgeois political economy
— general definition of—35, 14, 91,
440, 533, 537, 541, 562, 606, 611-
12
— analysis of economic categories and
processes — 35, 30-34, 56-57, 90-91,
154-55, 159, 177, 180-82, 214-15,
310-12, 353, 359, 366-67, 390-91,
510, 517-18, 520-25, 537-40, 541,
584-87, 590-92, 595, 602, 604-05,
609-10, 616-17, 625-26
— Ricardo on the correlation of the
prices of production and values of
commodities — 37, 177-79
— Ricardo on the ground rent — 37,
182, 642-43, 671, 673, 743-44, 758
— Ricardo on the influence of foreign
trade on the general rate of profit—
37, 236-37
— Ricardo on the rate of profit — 37,
239, 240, 241
— Newman on the correlation of commerce
and industry — 37, 278
— Ricardo and Smith on industrial
capital — 37, 322
— Ricardo and Smith on merchant's
capital — 37, 322
— Tooke on interest, credit and money—
37, 368, 369, 398, 399, 439,
440, 441, 442, 443, 444
— Smith on manager's salary — 37,
381
— Smith on the role of capital in
money lending — 37, 471
— Ricardo's theory on the value of
money — 37, 542-43, 544-45
— Smith on ground rent — 37, 609,
754, 755, 758, 759-60, 761, 773
— Petty on ground rent — 37, 770
— its merits — 37, 817, 818
— its limitations — 37, 818, 822-23
— criticism of Smith's dogma — 37,
827, 828, 829
— Ricardo and Smith's dogma — 37,
827, 828
Class struggle of the working class — 35,
15, 288, 556-57
— for shorter working day — 35, 242,
259, 276, 288, 297, 299, 301, 303,
305-06, 412
— for limitations in the employment
of women and children — 35, 285-
86, 288, 296-97, 398
— Chartism — 35, 286, 288, 290
— revolts of workmen against machines—
35, 431
— growth of indignation and organisation
of the working class with the
development of capitalism — 35,
648, 750
— great service of English factory
workers to international working class
movement — 35, 303-04
— struggle of agricultural labourers—
35, 260, 506
Coin —35, 135-40, 150; 37, 442
Colonial system —35, 454, 515, 739-42,
745; 37, 326-27, 330-31, 332, 586, 587,
784, 895, 896
Colonies
— high rate of profit in — 37, 149,
150, 235-36, 237-38
— role of the commercial capital in —
37, 328, 329-30
— profit on capital invested in — 37,
577, 586
— lack of private ownership of land in
colonies — 37, 610, 723, 743, 744
— differential rent in — 37, 644, 669,
670
— difference of the modern colonies
from those of ancient times — 37,
662-63, 664
— agricultural — 37, 741-42, 743
— seizure and exploitation of colonies
by the European powers at the end
of the 19th century — 37, 896, 897
See also India
Colonisation — 35, 751-61
Commerce
— foreign — 37, 235, 236
— size of— 37, 323
— and the development of production—
37, 323-24, 328, 329, 330,
331-32, 333-34, 335
— role of the revolution of the 16th
and 17th centuries in — 37, 331
Commercial capital
— as a special function of capital —
37, 266, 268, 269, 271-72, 276-77,
461
— two forms of—37, 266
— its movement — 37, 268, 269, 270,
271, 272, 273
— as a form of the social division of labour—
37, 271
— as a portion of industrial labour—
37, 273
— and the process of reproduction —
37, 273-74, 275
— as the oldest state of existence of
capital — 37, 323, 324, 334-35
— and commercial profit — 37, 327,
328
— its role in the transition from feudalism
to capitalism — 37, 332-33,
334
See also Merchant's capital
Commercial credit
— foundation of credit system — 37,
478
— its tools — 37, 478
— its circuit — 37, 478, 479
— its limits — 37, 479, 480
— and the reproduction process — 37,
480, 481, 486, 487
— and actual money credit — 37, 483
— and interest — 37, 509-10
— and circulation bills — 37, 518-19
Commercial knowledge of commodities—35,
46
Commercial labour — 37, 296-99
Commercial prices — 37, 305-07
Commercial profit
— source of— 37, 279-84
— definition of— 37, 284-85, 286, 300
— and the industrial profit — 37, 284-
85, 286
— source of merchant's income — 37,
289
— limits determining commercial profit—
37, 305, 306
Commodity
— general definition — 35, 7-8, 45, 50,
81-82, 83-84, 93
— its twofold nature — 35, 45-51, 57,
70-71, 84, 98, 114, 123-24, 196
— twofold character of labour embodied
in it — 35, 51-58, 84-85, 90,
209-12
— conditions and prerequisites of conversion
of product into commodity—
35, 49-54, 57, 71-72, 81-85,
95-99, 178-81; 37, 630-32
— value of— 35, 46-50, 55-56, 59-62,
67, 70-72, 74, 93, 111-13, 196-97,
211, 535, 601-02
— fetishist character of—35, 81-83,
85-86, 93
— historical character of—35, 72, 85,
86-87, 90-91
— and money — 36, 20, 35, 53, 352;
37, 180
— universal character of commodity
production under capitalism — 36,
38,42, 120-21, 139-40, 147,494-95,
500-01
— and division of social labour — 36,
42
— transformation of commodity production
into capitalist production—
36, 42, 115
— as element of commodity capital —
36, 43, 46, 99, 146-47
— hoarding in production of—36, 89
— commodity production in precapitalist
modes of production — 36,
115, 383-84
— purchase and sale with small independent
producers of commodities—
36, 134, 136
— commodity production and capitalist
production with Adam
Smith — 36, 387
— its origin — 37, 176-77
— as the use value — 37, 183, 629, 630
— metamorphosis of— 37, 323, 324
— as the unity of use value and exchange
value — 37, 640, 641
See also Circulation; Commodity capital;
Commodity production
Commodity capital
— and money capital — 36, 52-53, 86-
87
— as a functional form of industrial
capital — 36, 54-55, 62-63, 86-87
— general formula of its circuit — 36,
92, 100
— its circuit and that of surplus value—
36, 93, 98, 102
— and discrepancy between price and
value — 36, 97
— circuit of commodity capital and its
reproduction — 36, 97
— consumption as condition of its circuit—
«, 98, 102, 391-92
— depreciation of— 36, 114
— and commodity supply — 36, 140,
143, 146
— speedy growth of—36, 500-01
See also Commodity
Commodity market—35, 157
See also Home market; Labour market;
World market
Commodity production —35, 157, 207-09,
355, 618-21
— conditions of existence — 35, 49-53,
57, 70, 82-85, 97-99, 178-81
— presence under different modes of
production — 35, 122-23, 178-80
— simple — 35, 178-80
— and capitalism — 35, 70, 196-209,
358-59, 618-19
— identity and difference of simple
and capitalist commodity production—
35, 122-23
— spontaneous and contradictory nature
of— 35, 114-18
— transformation of property laws of
commodity production into laws of
capitalist appropriation — 35, 581-
83
Communism — 35, 89-90
— forms of property — 35, 89-90, 750
— distribution — 35, 89-90
— conditions and organisation of labour—
35, 89-90, 631
— necessary labour — 35, 530
— material and technical basis — 35,
395-96, 587-88
— and development of individual —
35, 486, 490-94, 588, 616
Communist mode of production
— discipline under — 37, 86-87
— development of agriculture
under — 37, 123
— and labour productivity — 37, 260,
806
— and the co-operative factories of
the labourers — 37, 438
— and abolition of landed property —
37, 653, 761-62, 763
— and surplus labour — 37, 806, 807,
834, 862-63
— freedom and necessity under — 37,
806, 807
— and shortening of the working
day — 37, 807
— distribution of the social product
under — 37, 834, 835, 862, 863
— regulation of labour time and the
distribution of social labour
under — 37, 837, 838
— wages under — 37, 863
Communist society
- bookkeeping in collective production—
36, 138
— supply in socialised production —
36, 467-68
— preservation of difference in behaviour
of means of production in labour
process — 36, 197-99
— distribution of labour power and
means of production in socialised
production — 36, 356
— reproduction in — 36, 356, 450,
467, 468
— planning of production in — 36,
356
— distribution of products of department
I in socialised production —
36, 422-23
— control of society over process of reproduction—
36, 467-68
Community
— in India — 35, 52, 88, 98, 339, 362-
64; 37, 333-34, 714, 772, 864
— in the Danubian principalities —
35, 244-45; 37, 789-90
— exchange of commodities between
communities — 35, 98, 357
— and wage labour in Russia — 36,
40; 37, 713, 714
— commodity production of—36,
115, 119, 385
— bookkeeping in primitive Indian
communities — 36, 138
— natural economy of primitive communities—
36, 478
— and evolution of products into
commodities — 37, 175-76
— communal society — 37, 818
Competition —35, 276, 321, 324, 350, 361,
396, 588, 601, 621
— between commodity capitals — 36,
82-83
— and replacement of old instruments
of labour by new ones — 36, 171-72
— and minimum size of capital investment—
36, 258
— main law of—37, 42
— in the world market — 37, 121
— and the monopoly — 37, 122, 192,
434-35, 436
— and the capitalist class — 37, 193,
194, 251, 252
— role of competition in the distribution
of social capital among the various
spheres of production — 37,
171-72, 195
— among labourers — 37, 173-74
— determining market value — 37,
182-83, 192
— mechanics of— 37, 192, 223, 229,
252, 253, 254, 255, 263, 264
— role of competition in the formation
of the average profit and price of
production — 37, 194, 195, 205-06,
207, 208, 312
— fall of the rate of profit — 37, 223,
224, 254, 255
— and overproduction of capital —
37, 251, 252
— in European grain markets — 37,
713, 714
Concentration
— of capital — 35, 312-14, 338, 480,
619-23, 740-41; 37, 90, 218, 240,
245, 246, 248, 249, 250, 262, 434,
588
— and costs of bookkeeping — 36, 138
— of supplies — 36, 146-47
— of transport industry — 36, 153-54
— in the era of developed capitalism—
36, 235, 251
— and credit — 36, 237, 492-93; 37,
363
— of centres of production and markets—
36, 251
— of money capital — 36, 412; 37,
359-60
— of means of production — 37, 82-
83, 95, 264, 265
— of labourers — 37, 85, 218
— and centralisation of capital — 37,
240, 245, 436-37
— of commerce — 37, 294
— of the national reserve fund — 37,
451
— of payments — 37, 513
Concrete labour — 35, 48, 51-52, 56, 57,
68, 75, 205, 209-12
Constant capital
— definition of— 35, 219-21, 222,
225-26, 310
— as category first introduced by
Marx — 35, 606
— forms of existence in the process of
production — 35, 235, 319-22, 365,
390, 408, 409-10, 584, 605-06, 618
— as condition of functioning of variable
capital — 35, 224
— transfer of the value of various
parts of constant capital to the product—
35, 197-200, 213-18, 390-
91, 392-93
— its role in the creation of surplus value—
35, 263
— interdependence of the outlay of
constant capital and the mass of labour
set in action — 35, 629-30
— and accumulation of capital — 35,
598-603
— division of capital into fixed and
circulating and difference between
variable and constant capital — 36,
215, 220
— difference in turnover of constant
and variable part of circulating capital—
36, 293
— employed and consumed in production—
36, 394-95
— production of new constant capital—
36, 363, 425, 437; 37, 32, 55-
56, 83-84, 87-88, 112, 117-18, 119,
152, 233, 234, 839
Consumer power
— of society — 37, 242-43
— of labourers — 37, 482
— of non-productive classes — 37,490
Consumption
— individual — 35, 191-94, 195, 571-
73, 606-07; 36, 71-72, 408, 410
— productive — 35, 192-94, 205-09,
217-18, 328-30, 571-72, 584-86; 36,
31, 40, 48-49, 57, 62-63, 64-65, 80-
81, 82-83, 159-61; 37, 187-88
— of labour power by a capitalist —
35, 193-96, 570-74, 584-86
— of the labourer and reproduction of
labour power — 36, 41, 64-65, 98,
209, 350
— precapitalist modes of production
and — 36, 42
— individual consumption of labourer
as condition of productive consumption
— 36, 64-65, 81-82, 98,
166-67, 209, 350
— and crises of overproduction — 36,
81-82, 83, 409-10
— as condition of the circuit of commodity
capital — 36, 102, 391-92
— individual consumption fund — 36,
98, 209, 366-67
— contradiction between production
and consumption — 37, 185, 187,
243, 255, 256
— and competition — 37, 192
— and production — 37, 156
— and the turnover of merchant's capital—
37, 301-02
— its limits — 37, 481
— volume of labourer's consumption
under capitalism and under socialism—
37, 862-63
See also Use value
Contradiction
— between private landownership
and rational agriculture — 37, 123,
798-99
— between production and consumption—
37, 185, 243, 244, 255, 256
— between productive forces and production
relations—37, 247-48,
249, 256, 262, 263, 870
— between the social character of production
and the private form of appropriation
— 37, 264, 265, 437-38,
567, 568
Co-operation
— definition of— 35, 330-31, 389-92
— starting-point of— 35, 332-35, 339,
364-65
— significance and advantages over
individual form of labour—35,
330-37
— factors determining the scale of—
35, 333-37
— results of the development of—35,
333-37, 365
— early forms of—35, 339-40
— simple — 35, 340, 365-66, 388-89
— capitalist — 35, 339-40, 341, 509-
10, 618
— necessity of social regulation of labour
process in large-scale co-operation—
55, 334-37, 426-28
— as factor of great revolutions in agriculture—
35, 433
— and increase in productive power
of labour — 36, 144-45
— and working period — 36, 235-36
Co-operative factory — 37, 385, 386, 438
Corn Laws in England—35, 286, 288, 296,
458, 462, 668, 702; 37, 109, 325, 621,
649, 672, 713
Corvée —35, 88, 243-47, 539, 568
Cost of production —35, 333-35, 347-49,
395-96, 415, 538
Cost price
— of the commodity — 37, 28, 31, 32,
33, 34
— capitalist — 37, 28
— actual — 37, 28
— and changes in the value of the
constant and variable capital — 37,
32, 33
— and distinction between fixed and
circulating capital — 37, 34, 37, 38,
51
— and value of commodity — 37, 40-
41, 162, 163, 164, 167, 169, 170
— and price of commodity — 37, 41
— Proudhon's theory of—37, 43, 44
— component parts of—37, 48, 49
— and the distinction between variable
and constant capital — 37, 152
— and intensification of labour — 37,
230, 231
Costs of circulation —37, 280-81, 287, 288,
293, 294, 297, 300, 314, 433
— and value of commodities — 56",
132-33, 139, 148-49, 151-52
— and exploitation of workers employed
in trade — 36, 134-35
— money and — 36, 138, 344
— and commodity supply — 36, 141,
142, 147-48, 150-51
— productive character of costs of
transportation — 36, 151-53
Country— 35, 275, 357, 506, 636, 673-75,
682-84
Course of exchange — 35, 155-56
Credit
— money economy and credit economy—
36, 120
— and supply — 36, 145-46
— and wrapping of real movement of
reproduction in mystery — 36, 151-
52
— development of—36, 184, 235,
319-20, 344, 355
— and concentration of capital — 36,
237, 492-93
— and different usances — 36, 253-54
— use of fluxes and refluxes of money
as auxiliary means of—36, 478
— and metallic circulation — 36, 499-
500
Creditor
— and the debtor-state — 37, 462, 463
— division of profit between lender
and borrower — 37, 510-11
Credit system
— origin and development of—35,
145, 147-48, 150-53, 589, 621
— credit money — 35, 137, 150, 743
— state credit — 35, 742-44
— international credit — 35, 742-44
— in Ancient Rome — 35, 146
— in Middle Ages — 35, 146, 148
— as factor of primitive accumulation—
35, 742-43
— in the process of capitalist production—
35, 183-86, 621, 626, 627
— crediting of a capitalist by workers—
35, 183-86, 518-19
— and money as a means of payment—
37, 367, 397
— functions of— 37, 399-400
— forms of commercial credit — 37,
400-01
— forms of banker's credit — 37, 401
— and industrial cycle in England —
37, 404, 405, 406, 407, 408, 412,
429, 430
— swindling through credit — 37, 422
— role of credit in the equalisation of
the rate of profit — 37, 432-33
— and the formation of stock companies—
37, 433, 434, 435, 436, 437
— and wholesale commerce — 37, 437
— and centralisation of capitals — 37,
436-37
— and sharpening of contradictions in
capitalist society — 37, 437-38, 439
— dual character of— 37, 439, 600,
601, 602
— and the period of prosperity — 37,
444
— and the crisis — 37, 456, 489
— as the social form of wealth — 37,
567, 568
Crises
— and contradiction between production
and consumption—36, 80-81,
82
— manifestations of—56", 82-83
— and renewal of equipment — 36,
171-72
— material basis of periodic crises —
36, 187-88
— and material basis of next turnover
cycle — 36, 186-87
— and unemployment — 36, 314-15,
409
— on money market and abnormal
conditions in process of production—
36, 316-17
— and wages — 36, 409-10
— in simple reproduction — 36,466-67
See also Anarchy of capitalist production;
Cycle
Crises of overproduction — see Economic crises
Currency principle — 37, 414-15, 416, 450,
542, 544, 547-48, 549, 554-55
Currency school in bourgeois political economy—
35, 614-16
Cycle
— of turnovers of advanced capital
value — 36, 186-248
— of turnovers of fixed capital, and
crises — 36, 186-87
— successive phases of—36, 187-88
— of turnover in agriculture — 36, 248
— fluctuations of annual production
in industrial cycle — 36, 521
See also Crises
D
Darwinism —35, 346, 375
Degree of exploitation — see Rate of surplus
value
Demand and supply
— of industrial capitalist and class of
capitalists —36; 120-24; 37, 187,
188
— labourer's savings from wages and
his demand for necessities of life —
36, 121-22; 37, 187, 188
— of capitalist and turnover of capital—
36, 122-23
— scale of production and demand —
36, 146-47; 37, 187, 191, 193
— volume of supply and demand —
36, 148-49
— and the market value — 37, 176-77,
178, 179, 180, 183-91
— productive demand — 37, 188
— social need for commodities — 37,
188
— inconsistency of—37, 188-90
— and market prices — 37, 190
— and the division of the total revenue
of society — 37, 194
— and the commodity capital — 37,
511-12, 513
Depreciation — see Replacement of capital;
Wear and tear
Dialectics —35, 582-83
— idealist — 35, 19-20
— materialist — 35, 17-20
— contradictions — 35, 9, 33-34, 110,
114, 123, 149-50, 186, 335-37, 362,
410, 435, 443-50, 465-80, 490-91,
502-04, 509, 530, 592-93, 639, 651,
749-51
— unity and struggle of opposites —
35,58-59,71,76-78,97-98, 114-16,
122-23, 130-31, 149-50, 160, 357-
58, 507, 509
— passing of quantity into quality —
35, 312, 325, 329-30
— negation of the negation — 35, 750
— possibility and reality — 35, 122-23
— necessity and accident — 35, 8-9,
74, 85-86, 176-77, 358-61
— cause and effect — 35, 626-28
— form and content — 35, 46-47, 86-
87, 90-92, 103-04, 110-14, 581-83
— essence and phenomenon — 35, 46-
47, 57-58, 63, 66-67, 68, 71, 309-13,
320-22, 537, 538-39, 540-42, 547-
50, 569
See also Method of Marxist political
economy
Dictatorship of the proletariat—35, 491,
750-51
Differential ground rent
— formation of— 37, 633-42, 733,
734, 739, '740
— and natural forces — 37, 637-40
— Ricardo on — 37, 642-43, 671
— on the worst cultivated soil — 37,
726-32
— its source — 37, 732-33, 734
— definition of— 37, 809
Differential rent I
— and natural fertility of soil — 37,
643-44, 645-64, 666, 809
— and the location of land sites — 37,
643, 644
— and market value — 37, 653, 654
— and the rate of rent — 37, 654, 657-
60
— and surplus product — 37, 671
Differential rent II
— and intensive cultivation — 37,
666-67, 668, 672
— and differential rent I—37, 668,
669, 670
— and the difference in distribution of
capital among tenants — 37, 669
— and the formation of surplus profit—
37, 669-74
— its distinction from differential rent
1—37, 674-76
— when price of production is constant—
37, 677-84, 704, 705
— when price of production is declining—
37, 684, 699, 704, 705, 708
— when price of production is rising—
37, 700-04, 705, 707-09
— its growth with the development of
capitalist agriculture — 37, 712-13
Direct social labour—35, 68, 87-90, 104
Discounting — 37, 468-69
Distribution
— conditions determining the mode of
distribution — 35, 89
— distribution of work among members
of patriarchal peasant family—
35, 87-90
— in communist society — 35, 90
— of surplus value — 35, 522, 534,
564-65
Division of labour—35, 114-18, 179-80,
357-59, 360, 361-62, 363-64, 367-72,
485-86, 619, 635-36; 37, 186, 265, 274,
293, 294, 295, 298, 314, 315, 629, 630,
631
— natural — 35, 87, 356-58
— in manufacture and at the factory—
35, 341, 342-43, 349, 351, 353,
355-64, 366, 368-70
— international — 35, 454
— social — 35, 52, 83-84, 85-86, 115-
16, 117-18, 356, 357-62, 370-72,
448, 514-15
— territorial — 35, 357-60
— and commodity production — 36,
40, 41
— and increase in productive power
of labour — 36, 236
Domestic industry
— as sphere of capitalist exploitation—
35, 303, 348, 468-69, 475-
76, 481, 492, 504, 510-11, 696
— position of labourers — 35, 347-49
— system of remuneration — 35, 552-
53, 661-62, 696-97
— influence of the factory — 35, 464-
65, 477-80, 493
— impact of factory legislation — 35,
503-04
E
East India Company — 35, 458, 740
Economic crises — 35, 15, 20, 133, 164, 249,
661
— essence and causes of—35, 122-23,
148-49, 216-17, 584-85
— condition of conversion of their
possibility into reality — 35, 122-23
— and monetary crisis — 35, 148-49;
37, 246-47, 248, 489, 492, 513-14
— influence on the position of the
working class — 35, 544-45, 637-38,
647, 660-64
— money panic in 1847—37, 126
— and the redundant labouring population—
37, 262
— the contradiction between the development
of productive forces and
limited consumption of working
people under capitalism as the
main cause of— 37, 264, 481
— breaks out in the sphere of wholesale
trade and banking — 37, 303,
304
— of 1847 in England — 37, 405, 406,
407, 408, 409, 410-11, 412, 413,
414, 415, 416, 417, 418, 485, 486,
492
— and superabundance of productive
capital — 37, 482, 490
— and flooding of the market with commodities—
37, 486, 490
— and sudden stoppage of credit —
37, 489
— of 1857 in the U.S.A.— 37, 491
— development of a crisis into a general
crisis —37, 491, 492
— exports of precious metal in time
of— 37, 491
See also Industrial cycle; Overproduction of
capital
Economic law
— distortion of the economic law in
the conceptions of the manufacturer,
merchant, and banker — 37,
49, 121-37, 138, 223-24, 311, 312,
313, 378, 380, 381, 387-88
— under capitalist production — 37,
160, 174-75, 188, 232, 233, 236,
866
Economy
— of means of production — 35, 194,
197-98, 205-09, 330-31, 334, 389-
93, 413, 428-31, 465, 468, 530, 618-
19, 750; 37, 86-87
— of labour — 35, 183-86, 205-06,
325-26, 530, 699
— of the constant capital and the rate
of profit — 37, 64, 65, 370-71
— of the constant capital and the increase
of labour productivity — 37,
81, 83, 84-85
— of production conditions — 37, 81,
82
— of the constant capital and the social
character of labour—37, 82,
83
— as the result of continuous improvements
of machinery — 37, 83
— in the use of the constant capital —
37, 85-86, 90-91
— in the generation and transmission
of power, and in buildings — 37,
99-103
— in the utilisation of waste products—
37, 103-05
— in the application of the constant
capital through inventions — 37,
106
— of payments — 37, 505-06
— of means of circulation — 37, 517-
18
Egypt —35, 339, 466, 514, 515
Employment of children
— general condition of—35, 372, 398,
464-65, 470-73, 629, 684
— consequences of exploitation of
children — 35, 400-06, 471
— as a reason for relative overpopulation—
15, 529, 629-30
— in England— 35, 250-56, 264-67,
268-70, 279, 284-85, 294-95, 397-
402, 464-73, 492-501
— regulation by laws — 35, 284-88,
295-305, 398-402, 405, 446-47
Employment of women
— definition of— 35, 398, 473, 475,
530, 629-31, 684
— history of exploitation of women —
35, 372, 397
— consequences of exploitation of
women — 35, 401-02, 403, 404-05
— as a reason for relative overpopulation—
35, 529
— in manufacture — 35, 465
— in domestic industry — 35, 468-72
— in England — 35, 400-04, 466-69,
473-74
— regulation by laws — 35, 286, 293,
296-97, 299
Enclosures of commons — 35, 713-18
England
— general characteristic of—35, 8,
14-15, 247-48, 283, 287-89, 303,
376-77, 380-81, 642
— primitive accumulation — 35, 433,
707-31, 738-48
— money and banking systems — 35,
107, 108-09, 154, 742-43
— industry — 35, 247, 283, 303-04,
380-81, 435-37, 457-61, 469-73
— towns — 35, 652-53
— agriculture and agrarian relations—
35, 433, 665, 667-71, 673-
76, 707-09, 713, 731-32, 738; 37,
669
— foreign trade — 35, 454-59, 461-62,
740-41; 37, 331, 577, 578
— slave trade — 35, 747
— export of capital — 35, 607
— colonial system — 35, 516, 739-42,
744-45
— population — 35, 445-48, 449-50,
625, 642
— condition of the working class — 35,
185, 247-69, 283-302, 398-405, 412,
413-32, 434-35, 454-61, 469-76,
573-77, 595-98, 647, 650-703, 726-
28
— labour movement — 35, 185, 283,
286, 288, 295-97, 303-04, 305, 430-
32
— legislation — 35, 246-48, 275-79,
283-85, 426-27, 491-99, 502-03,
666, 711-13, 723-31
— trade and credit relations with India—
36, 316-17
— accumulated wealth in England
and Ireland (according to Thompson)—
3ff, 321-22
— Corn Laws in — 37, 620, 621, 622,
672, 673, 713
— protective tariff system — 37, 109,
123, 124, 127, 128, 129-30
— cotton industry in — 37, 109
— woolen industry in — 37, 122, 123,
124
— cotton crisis of 1861-65—57, 125,
126, 127, 128, 129-30
— settlement laws in — 37, 173-74
— working day in — 37, 213
— commercial estate — 37, 325, 326
— accumulation of capital in 1792-
1815—37, 421, 422
— monopoly of England in industry—
37, 489
— industrial cycle of— 37, 498-99
— English exports to Ireland since
1824 until 1863—37, 498
— England's balance of trade — 37,
585, 587
— usage of land in — 37, 612, 613,
618, 754
— farm labourers' wages in — 37,621,
622, 623, 624
— grain prices in — 37, 650
— classic land of the capitalist mode of
production — 37, 669, 870
— Enclosure Bills — 37, 757
— classes in — 37, 870
Enlighteners of the 18th century — 35, 101-
02, 605
Equality, bourgeois — 35, 169, 177-78,
186, 295-97, 305-07, 582-83
Equivalent form
— as materialised value — 35, 59-63,
65-69
— as form of direct exchangeability —
35, 65-66, 69-70, 76-77
— three peculiarities of—35, 66-68
— enigmatical character of—35, 67
— as compared with relative form of
value — 35, 58-59
— interdependence of its development
and the development of the relative
form of value — 35, 63-64, 65-66,
76-79. 99
Europe —35, 708
— movement of gold reserve in Europe
in the 19th century — 37,
560-62, 564
— influence of grain imports from
Russia, India and America on
West European agriculture — 37,
713, 714
Exchange
— as necessary condition of the transformation
of products into commodities—
35, 50, 83-84
— direct barter of products — 35, 98-
99, 121-23
— between communities — 35, 98, 99,
357; 37, 175, 882
— and the origin of money — 35, 113-
16
— mode of production and mode of—
36, 120-21
— exchange between two departments
of social production — 36,
396-401, 411-13, 414-20, 426-27
— exchanges among dealers and
among dealers and consumers —
36, 474-75
— balance in exchange — 36, 493-95
See also Circulation
Exchange value —35, 46-50, 51-52, 57-58,
70-71, 91-94, 98, 99, 110-13, 114-15,
168, 169, 170, 180
Exploitation of labour
— in different spheres of production—
37, 141, 142
— national differences in the degree
of— 37, 142, 236
— of the working class by the sum total
of capital — 37, 196
— the degree of— 37, 196, 230-33,
242, 245, 246-47, 254
— and the intensification of labour —
37, 230, 231
— and the prolongation of the working
day — 37, 231
— in colonies — 37, 236
— conditions of—37, 242-50
— means of—37, 257
See also Rate of surplus value
Exploitation of labour power by capital—
35, 510-11
— economic essence — 35, 335-38
— intensive and extensive growth-
35, 613-15
— expression for its degree — 35, 224-
29, 531-34, 595-97, 600
— and anarchy of production — 35,
481
Export of capital—35, 607, 756; 37, 254,
255, 477, 570, 571, 575, 576, 585
Expropriation
— expropriation of immediate producers—
35, 705-07, 712-13, 715, 726,
736-37, 748-51, 760
— expropriative influence of fiscality
on petty bourgeoisie — 35, 744-45
— of expropriators — 35, 750
— as the starting-point and purpose of
the capitalist mode of production—
37, 218, 249, 437, 610, 785,
808, 864, 865
— and the formation of stock companies—
37, 438
Extra surplus value —35, 323, 324, 409
F
Factory
— general definition of—35, 9, 282,
420-23, 453, 462-64
— division of labour at the factory —
35, 51-54, 422-26
— factory worker — 35, 282, 420-39,
455-58
Factory legislation — 35, 8-9, 246-48,
286, 295-97, 299-300, 302-05, 306-07,
426-27, 483, 486, 504
— in England — 35, 8-9, 246-48, 276,
282-307, 426-28, 492-98
— in France — 35, 282, 283, 304
— in Belgium — 35, 282
Family and tribe —35, 89-90, 356, 492,
736
Farmer, farming —35, 707-09, 715-16,
731-32, 737-38
— and flax manufacture — 37, 104
— and capitalist farming — 37, 608,
611, 737, 784-85, 786
— capital incorporated in the land
of— 37, 613, 614, 615
— contract period — 37, 613, 615
— and the rent — 37, 614, 615, 617,
618
— and the landowner — 37, 614, 615,
617, 618, 734-35, 785, 787-88
— in Ireland — 37, 619
— in England — 37, 619-22
— and the farm labourers' wages —
37, 622
— and the farmer's surplus profit —
37, 666, 667, 668, 669, 696-97, 739,
741-42
— in Sicily — 37, 773
— and agricultural labourers — 37,
782
— price of agricultural products — 37,
788
Fenians — 35, 703
Fertility of soil
— factor of productivity of labour —
35, 513-15, 528, 617
— plunderous exhaustion of the soil
under capitalism — 35, 247, 271-
72, 507-08
Fetishism
— of commodities — 35, 81-94
— of interest-bearing capital — 37,
386-95
— of interest — 37, 390
— of profit — 37, 390
— commercial — 37, 514
— of capital — 37, 810-13
Feudalism
— general definition of—35, 88, 337-
38, 339, 589, 705-09, 738-40
— in India — 35, 594
— in England—35, 707-09, 711-12,
713, 723-24
— in Germany — 35, 721
— in France — 35, 733
— dissolution of— 35, 432-33, 705-06,
709, 711, 713-14, 721-22
— characteristic of the feudal mode of
production — 37, 323-24, 328, 330,
332
— and the feudal lord — 37, 324, 328,
591, 776
— transition from the feudal mode of
production to the capitalist mode
of production — 37, 330, 332-35
— and usury —57, 590, 591
— and landed property — 37, 609-10
— and non-economic compulsion —
37, 773
— relations between countryside and
town under feudalism — 37, 786,
787
Fief—35, 707-08, 733
Financial aristocracy — 37, 325, 435-36,
507, 508, 541
Fines —35, 426-28
Fiscal system — 35, 744
Fixed capital — 35, 606
— and instruments of labour — 36,
161-62
— confusion in the minds of bourgeois
economists of properties inherent
in bodily form of instruments of labour
with properties of fixed capital—
56, 162-63
— difference between it and circulating
capital — 36, 159-60, 162-63,
169-70, 189, 196-97, 201-02, 205,
278
— and locally fixed instruments of labour—
36, 164-65, 212-13
— scale of production and magnitude
of— 36, 167-68
— repairs of—36, 176-77
— division of capital into fixed and
circulating and difference between
constant and variable capital — 36,
215, 220
— and prolongation of turnover
time — 36, 238
— and reduction of production
time — 36, 240-41
— replacement of— 36, 172-73, 185,
448-51
— and the cost price — 37, 34, 37, 38,
39, 40-41
— wear of— 37, 37, 84-85, 109-10,
113-14, 115-16, 225, 264, 767-68
— portion of constant capital — 37,
77-78, 83, 120-21, 211
— reproduction of—37, 81
— and value of the commodity product—
57, 84-85, 109-10
— changes in its value with the development
of the productivity of labour—
57, 258, 259
— advance of— 37, 341, 342
— in agriculture — 37, 612
See also Circulating capital; Productive
capital
Force —35, 412, 705, 739-40, 744
See also Expropriation
Foreign trade
— and capitalist mode of production—
57, 235, 236, 322
See also Trade
Formal subjection of labour to capital—
35, 335, 511, 726
Form of value —35, 58, 68-70, 164, 602-
03
— two poles of— 35, 58-59, 76-79
— its development alongside development
of exchange — 35, 75-
76
— elementary — 35, 58, 70-73, 75-77,
78, 80-81, 104-05
— total — 35, 73-76, 78, 104-05
— general — 35, 75-76, 78-84, 95-97,
104-05, 117-18
— money — 35, 58-59, 80-81, 86-87,
103-56, 602-03
See also Equivalent form; Exchange value;
Relative form of value
France —35, 10, 15, 35, 151, 155, 276,
283-84, 304, 314, 358, 396, 466, 684,
712, 726, 727, 730-31, 733
— silk industry in —57, 332-33
— and the Panama swindle — 37, 437
— increase of the rental in — 37, 623
— improvement of land fertility in —
37, 756
— peasant proprietorship of land parcels
in —57, 792-93
Franco-Prussian War of 1870-71 — 35,
155
Freedom, bourgeois — 35, 178, 179, 180-81,
185-86, 403, 540, 582, 634-36
Free trade —35, 15, 35, 71, 186, 248, 262,
286-88, 296, 299, 483, 670, 737
French bourgeois revolution at the end of the
18th century —35, 99, 611, 730-31
French materialism of the 18th century — 35,
101-02, 605
G
General law of capitalist accumulation —
35, 611-12, 614-16, 634, 638, 639, 647-
48, 651-52, 654-55, 683-84; 37, 220
See also Accumulation of capital; Intensification
of labour; Pauperism; Relative
overpopulation
General or average rate of profit
— its formation — 37, 153-67, 172-73
— its definition — 37, 156, 157, 171-
72, 364-65
— factors determining the general
rate of profit—37, 161, 165, 167, 168
— its amount and the value of the commodities—
37, 165
— and the degree of labour exploitation—
37, 165, 196
German "Arbeiter-Verein" in Brussels — 35,
578
Germany —35, 9, 10, 13-14, 15-16, 28, 35,
245, 278, 314, 377, 384, 396, 431, 433,
466, 504, 721, 728
"Glorious revolution" of 1688-89 — 35,
713-14
Gold
— as money commodity — 35, 80-81,
99-100, 109-10, 118-19, 124-28,
140-41
— special natural properties of—35,
99-100
— doubling of use value of—35, 100-
01
— value of— 35, 100-02, 127-30
— parallel functioning as money —
35, 105-07
— ratio of value — 35, 105-06, 154
— change in value of gold and influence
on its function as money —
35, 107-08, 127-28
— increase of power of gold along
with extension of commodity production—
35, 141, 142
— production of— 36, 53-54, 324,
469-70
— circuit of capital in production of
precious metals — 36, 62-63, 325-26
— expenditure of labour power and
social means of production for production
of gold and silver as circulating
media — 36, 344, 355
— annual reproduction of gold and
silver—36, 469-70
— as universal money — 37, 315, 316
— demand for — 37, 429, 430, 431,
455, 457, 458
— sources of production — 37, 559-60
— as the expression of the social character
of wealth — 37, 568
See also Money; Precious metal
Greece (Ancient)—35, 69-70, 92, 142
Gross profit
— and the national income — 37, 538
— and interest — 37, 583, 584
Ground rent —35, 245, 524, 534, 564-65,
733
— rate of— 37, 240, 762-63
— as the surplus over the average profit—
37, 241, 769, 786, 787, 788
— characteristics of ground rent — 37,
612, 618, 619, 627, 628
— its distinction from interest on capital
incorporated in the land — 37,
612, 618
— as the obstacle to a rational development
of agriculture — 37, 614
— and the rate of interest — 37, 617
— and farm labourers' wages—37,
621, 624
— confusion of surplus product with
ground rent — 37, 626
— and rent in kind — 37, 628
— and money rent — 37, 631, 783-84,
788
— cause of the increase in the price of
products — 37, 748, 749
— monopoly ground rent — 37, 749,
819, 820
— building site rent — 37, 759-62
— mining rent — 37, 759, 762
— and the amortisation of capital —
37, 760-61
— and production relations — 37, 762-
63
— and the price of land — 37,
762-68
— and the price of the agricultural
product — 37, 762, 763-64, 774-76,
796-97
— growth of its mass — 37, 763
— rent in kind — 37, 773-75, 780-83
— labour rent — 37, 776-80
— and the state as landowner — 37,
777
— and ownership of land parcels —
37, 790-91, 792-93
See also Corvée; Quit rent; Rent
Guild system —37, 313, 327, 345, 364,
369, 706, 738, 739
H
Handicraft production —35, 303, 327, 339,
342-55, 362-64, 369, 372-73, 384-87,
425, 452-53, 468-74, 475-76, 493, 504
Hired labour
— as feature of capitalism — 35, 180-
81
— general relations between capital
and hired labour at various levels
of workers' receipts — 35, 553-54
Hoard—see Money
Holland—35, 276, 378, 384, 396, 515,
726, 739, 740, 743
Holy Alliance —35, 15
Home market —35, 696-97, 734-37
I
Identity —35, 123, 583
Impoverishment of the working class — 35,
613, 615-16, 646-48
— absolute — 35, 434-35, 484-85, 489,
505-08, 595-97, 610, 611, 613, 634,
638-39, 651-53, 750
— relative — 35, 608-11, 638-39, 651-
53
See also Adulteration of means of subsistence;
General law of capitalist accumulation
Income
— of a capitalist — 37, 78-79, 80, 807,
808, 809, 810, 811, 812, 813, 814,
815, 817
— of a labourer—37, 78-79, 80, 807-
18
— as a fund for accumulation and as
a fund for consumption — 37, 196,
197
— result of actual accumulation — 37,
501-02
— of a landowner — 37, 807-18
— gross — 37, 827, 828
— net —57, 827, 828
— Say on the net and gross income —
37, 828, 829
Independent peasant—37, 224, 333-34, 643-
44, 668, 785-86, 790, 792-93, 862, 882-
83, 886-87, 892
See also Small landowner
India —35, 52, 98, 141, 145, 333, 362-63,
384, 395, 435, 454, 515, 594, 739, 740-
41
— effect of capitalist world commerce
on — 36, 41-42
— commodity production of Indian
ryots — 36, 115
— bookkeeping in Indian community—
36, 138
— influence of American Civil War on
Indian economy — 36, 144
— famine of 1866 — 55, 144
— famine and cattle-breeding in—36,
238-39
— trade and credit relations with England—
36, 253
— export of English cotton goods and
yarn to—36, 316-17
— as the centre of the crises of 1825-
57 — 57, 75
— precapitalist mode of production
in — 37, 214, 330, 331, 332, 714,
773, 777, 864
— peasant in—37, 214, 714
— English rule in —57, 330, 331, 332,
575, 587, 783
— swindling in Anglo-Indian trade —
37, 406, 407, 409-10, 418
— export of capital from England
to — 37, 548, 571, 572, 573, 574
Individual value —35, 206, 321-25, 409
Industrial capital
— general definition of and forms of
its circuit — 35, 164, 173-74, 748-
51; 36, 57-58, 84-85
— genesis of— 35, 706-07, 731-48
— transformation of money capital into
industrial one— 35, 165-66, 175-
76, 196-209, 312-15, 334-36, 619-
23, 739, 742-46, 758
— concentration and centralisation
of— 35, 313-15, 741-46, 748-51,
760
— and capitalist character of production—
55, 62-63, 66-67
— and other kinds of capital — 36, 62,
63
— and money capital — 36, 112
— commodity circulation — 36, 114—
15
— world market and circulation of—
36, 115, 120
— its extended operation without
changing its magnitude — 36, 506
Industrial cycle
— general definition of—35, 29, 35,
457, 481, 613-15, 627-28, 631, 660-
61
— crisis of 1825 as beginning of the
cyclic development of industry under
capitalism — 35, 15, 35
— periodic change of the cycle and
the condition of the working
class — 35, 458-62, 615, 627, 647-
49, 661-63
— cyclic development of the English
industry — 35, 458-60, 462-63, 660-
61
— in Britain — 37, 404, 498, 499
— in times of prosperity — 37, 444,
445, 487, 488
— and the crisis — 37, 446, 488, 489
— and the depression — 37, 484, 485,
486, 488, 489, 493, 494
— change in the time of cycle with the
development of industry — 37, 488,
489
See also Economic crises; Overproduction of
capital
Industrial revolution of the 18th century —
35, 375-82, 385-89, 432, 476-77
Instruments of labour — 35, 214, 335-36,
358, 368-69, 375-77, 425-27, 595-96,
618
— general definition of—35, 188-94,
206-07
— as factor of labour productivity —
35, 346
— in the process of the formation of
value — 35, 389-97
See also Means of production
Insurance
— insurance companies — 36, 141
— insurance of destructions — 36,
179-80
— insurance fund intended for reproduction—
36, 362
Insurance offices — 35, 214
Intensification of labour — 35, 345-46, 412-
20, 524-31, 636
Interest —35, 533-34, 564-65, 592
— its definition — 37, 343-49, 351, 352
— as the price of capital — 37, 352,
353
— and competition — 37, 354, 355,
360, 361, 367-68
— and profit — 37, 356, 357, 358
— and the average rate of profit — 37,
358, 508, 510
— as the fruit of owning capital — 37,
371-72, 373
— its nature — 37, 373-74, 375
— and wage labourers — 37, 380
— and the relationship between two
capitalists — 37, 380
— its movement — 37, 583
— usurer's interest — 37, 590, 591, 592
— in the Middle Ages — 37, 592, 605,
606-07
See also Rate of interest
Interest-bearing capital
— its movement — 37, 338, 339, 340
— its distinction from the commodity
capital — 37, 340, 342, 343, 344,
345, 346, 347, 348-49
— its specific character — 37, 341,
342, 343, 344, 345, 462
— as a specific form of money-dealing
capital — 37, 342, 351-52, 604
— and the process of production — 37,
361-62
— and the functioning capital — 37,
369-70
— as a property and as a function —
37, 372-73, 376, 377, 378
— its general formula — 37, 388-89,
390
— and the development of labour productivity
— 37, 394-95, 396
— its fetishism — 37, 395, 816
— and usury — 37, 594, 595, 596, 597,
598
— and capitalist mode of production
— 37, 601, 602
See also Loan capital; Usurer's capital
International Working Men's Association—
35, 38, 305
Ireland—35, 259, 274, 688-703, 718,
745; 37, 104, 121, 126, 128, 522, 619
Italy —35, 35, 466, 707; 37, 21, 334, 773,
784, 787, 888-89, 890, 891
J
Japan —35, 151, 708; 37, 103
Joint-stock capital—35, 314, 339, 743
— as part of social capital — 36, 102,
432
— nature of stocks — 36, 164-66, 347
— joint-stock companies as associated
capitalists — 36, 235, 476-77
— house-building stock companies —
36, 235-36
— stock companies and money market—
36, 355
— circulation of titles of ownership in
shape of stocks — 36, 164-66, 212
I,
Labour (general propositions)—35, 51-
52, 76, 187-95, 204-09, 210-11, 212,
314-15, 537, 541-42, 565-66, 603
— and creation of value — 36, 19-20,
21-22, 23, 35, 384-85
— and labour power — 36, 20-23, 121
— capitalist society and wage labour—
36, 110-11, 121-22, 342
— character of labour performed in
sphere of circulation — 36, 133-36
— labour process as measured by
time — 36, 297-98
— twofold character of labour — 36,
375-76, 381-82
— purposive nature of labour—37,31
— social combination of—37, 82-83,
84, 85
— universal — 37, 106
— co-operative — 37, 106
— intensity of—37, 196
— agricultural and industrial — 37,
626, 627
— natural productivity of agricultural
labour — 37, 626, 753
— and the monopolisable force of Nature—
37, 638
— enforced labour — 37, 780
— forced character of—.36", 38,
235, 384-85, 478-79; 37, 806
— as the general agent in production—
37, 810
— labour process as process between
man and Nature — 37, 812
See also Exploitation of labour; Productive
power of labour
Labourer
— and the social character of his labour—
37, 84
— and the economy in his labour conditions—
37, 89-90, 91, 92
— labour conditions of the labourer in
the factory — 37, 91-99
— exploitation of— 37, 141, 142, 195,
196, 230, 231, 233, 236, 242, 243,
245, 246-47, 254, 255, 256, 383
— and the rate of profit — 37, 175,
179
— living conditions of—37, 187
— and the capitalist — 37, 195, 196,
197, 378
— commercial worker — 37, 290, 291,
298, 299
— agricultural labourer — 37, 612,
785-86
— as the seller of his individual labour
power — 37, 808
Labour fund—35, 568, 604-07, 608
Labour market
— conditions necessary to form market
of labour power — 35, 177-82,
504, 706
— and industrial cycle — 35, 504, 631-
32
— in "free colony" — 35, 756-61
Labour money — 35, 104
Labour movement—see Class struggle of the
working class
Labour power
— definition of— 35, 177-78, 182-86,
212-13, 225-26, 570-73, 585, 598-
99, 604
— transformation into commodity —
36, 36; 37, 350
— conditions of its selling as commodity—
35, 177-79, 182-86, 337-38,
581-82, 614
— value of— 35, 181-84, 185-86, 218-
19, 223-26, 239-40, 271-72, 307,
317, 320, 355-56, 397-98, 519, 523,
526-27, 558, 595, 614-15, 663,
729; 36, 22-23, 119-20, 378-79,
380-81, 382; 37, 32, 33, 350, 383,
390
— change of its value — 37, 115-16,
117, 204
— specific character of its use value —
35, 177-78, 195, 203, 240-42, 364-
65, 519, 540-41, 574-77, 583
— process of its consumption — 35,
185, 195, 338, 519
— limits of its cheapening — 35, 181-
84, 355-56, 473, 595-97
— reproduction of— 35, 180-84, 218-
19, 226-27, 425, 570-75, 576-77,
580, 608-10, 614; 36, 41, 64-66, 98,
166-67, 207, 350
— purchase and sale of, as basic condition
of capitalist production —
36, 20-21, 34, 42, 80-81, 87-88, 111,
119-21, 342, 351, 383-84
— ratio of investment in labour power
and means of production—36, 32
— transformation into capital — 36,
43, 93-94, 118-19, 207, 369, 376-77,
378-79, 438
— and self-expansion of value — 36,
42-44, 80-81, 213, 217
— and evolution of agricultural producer
into wage labourer — 36,
120-22
— its exclusion from productive capital
by Adam Smith — 36, 206-07,
212-14
— its absolute increase with the development
of capitalism — 37, 218-19
— and the development of productive
power of labour — 37, 245
— determination of the value of labour
power — 37, 291, 464, 728,
808, 809, 845
— under a slave system — 37, 464
— and profit — 37, 511
— and rate of interest — 37, 510-11
— unproductive labourers — 36, 409
— employment of labour power in
agriculture — 36, 449, 479-80
See also Reserve army of wage labourers
Labour productivity—35, 56, 319-20, 338,
512-14, 559, 600-01, 616-19, 638-39
— conditions determining its level —
35, 48-50, 51, 330-31, 333-34, 336-
40, 345-46, 512-15, 528-29, 530,
558-59, 618-19
— influence of its changes on commodity
value — 35, 47-50, 55-56, 211-
12, 323-26, 600-02
— influence of its changes on the value
of labour power and surplus value—
35, 319-20, 520-21
— as factor of accumulation of capital—
35, 600-01, 616-17, 619-20
Labour Statutes —35, 276-79, 555, 727-30
Labour time—37, 629, 638, 838
Land
— universal subject of human labour—
35, 188, 190, 604
— instrument of labour — 35, 188-89
— source of wealth — 35, 53, 507, 598-
99
— and capital incorporated in it — 37,
612, 613
— use of land for building purposes —
37, 615
— nationalisation of land under capitalism—
37, 615, 616, 653
— value and price — 37, 616, 617,
618, 627, 640-41, 661-62, 765, 766
— sale and purchase of—37, 630
— monopoly of—37, 638
— natural fertility of—37, 643, 644,
660-61, 662, 663, 731, 733, 756,
766, 767, 798-99, 800, 802
— extending cultivated land — 37,
661, 662
— its exploitation under capitalist
mode of production — 37, 797, 798
— material element of every process of
production — 37, 803
Landed property —35, 11, 15, 93, 157, 564-
65, 591, 666, 667, 702-03, 708, 711,
731-33, 734
Landlord, landlordism — see Big landowner;
Large landed property
Language—35, 85
Large landed property
— its precapitalist forms — 37, 608,
609, 610, 618
— under capitalist mode of production—
37, 608, 609, 610, 611, 612,
613, 614, 615, 616, 796, 797, 798,
802, 807, 808
— criticism of Hegel's views concerning—
37, 610, 611
— and the surplus profit — 37, 641
— limitations to the investment of capital
in the land — 37, 733, 734,
750
— its role in the development of capitalist
mode of production — 37,
798-99, 800, 807, 808
— fetishist character of—37, 810,
811, 812
Law
— Roman law — 35, 101, 292, 717
— in Middle Ages — 35, 101, 733
— bourgeois — 35, 94-95, 178, 186,
242, 294, 296-97, 300-02, 303, 304-
05, 306-07, 400-01, 426-30, 581-83,
597
"Law" of diminishing returns — 35, 507
Law of population — 35, 624-26
Law of value —35, 83, 111-12, 175-76,
310, 324, 361, 536, 559, 581-83; 37, 13-
23, 175-76, 178, 179, 629, 630, 638,
866-67, 876, 878, 881, 882, 883, 884,
886
Laws against Trades' Unions — 35, 458,
728, 729, 730
Laws of capitalist production — 35, 8, 320-
21, 322-23, 581-83, 584, 587-88, 613-
15, 632-34, 637, 638, 726
Lease
— term of— 37, 613, 614, 667
— and the interest on capital incorporated
in the land — 37, 613, 614
— share cropping — 37, 664
— and fixation of rent — 37, 667
— lease money — 37, 618, 619, 742
— and wages of the agricultural labourers—
37, 621, 622, 742, 743
— and rent — 37, 741-42
Legislation against vagabondage—35, 723
Loan —35, 744
— its definition — 37, 471-72
Loan capital
— its function in the process of circulation—
37, 340, 341
— as a commodity of a special kind —
37, 339, 340, 341, 342, 348-49, 351-
52, 353, 354, 363, 364-65
— its use value — 37, 349-50, 351, 352
— sources of its origin — 37, 399-400
— fictitious character of the loan capital—
37, 505, 506
— and the crisis — 37, 509-10, 511
— and the period of renewed activity—
37, 510
See also Interest-bearing capital
Luddite movement — 35, 432
M
Machinery
— general definition of—35, 347,
375-77, 387-89, 464-65
— history of— 35, 352-54, 375-82,
385-89, 431
— as material basis of the capitalist
mode of production—35, 374, 385-
87, 388-91, 409-10, 415, 453-54
— as an element in the formation of
value and as a constituent element
of a new product — 35, 214, 390-91
— limits of use — 35, 396-97
— effects of use under capitalism — 35,
395-420, 421-29, 433, 435-36, 437-
40, 443-46, 447-48, 457, 464-65,
632-34, 639
— measure of productiveness of machines—
35, 394
— as a means of increasing labour
productivity — 35, 406-07; 37, 259
— material wear and tear and moral
depreciation — 35, 214-16, 407,
574-76, 600-01, 603; 36, 172-73,
174, 448; 37, 114-15
— and structure of social product —
35, 447-49
— distinctions between the cooperation
of machines of one kind and
a complex system of machines —
35, 381-85
— automatic system of machines —
35, 384, 435-36, 438-39
— revolts of workmen against machines—
35, 430-32, 435
— employment in communist society—
35, 396
— employment of, and productive
power of labour — 36, 144-45
— as commodity capital and as fixed
capital — 36, 162-63, 193-95, 227
— peculiarity of turnover of its value—
36, 166-67, 196-97
— use of replacement fund for improvement
of—36, 174-75
— labour of cleaning of—36, 176-77
— repair work -36, 176-78
— employment of, and working
period — 36, 234
— reproduction of the value of—37,
81, 84-85, 109-10, 114-15, 118-19,
263, 264
— introduction of new machines under
capitalism — 37, 115, 261
— relative overproduction of—37,
121
See also Means of production; Technique
and technology
Malthusianism — 35, 173, 357, 508, 529,
611, 628, 641, 695, 700
Man (as productive force of society) —35,
52-53, 82, 187-88, 193, 212-13, 331,
375, 509, 599
Manufacture
— essence of— 35, 30-34, 327, 341,
350-52, 353-55, 372-73, 430-31,
736-38
— starting-point of—35, 364-65, 374
— ways of its rise — 35, 341-43, 369,
372-73, 735, 738-39
— capitalistic character of—35, 364-
73
— fundamental forms of—35, 347-55
— and division of labour — 35, 341,
343, 347-49, 350-51, 352-53, 355-
56, 366-71, 381-82, 384
— and use of machinery — 35, 347-48,
352-53, 380-81, 384-87
— and labour productivity — 35, 345-
46
— manufactory, detail labourer — 35,
342-55, 358-62, 364-70, 373, 385,
423
— as the starting-point of a factory —
35, 384-85, 745
Market
— world market and circulation of industrial
capital— 36, 114
— development of world market and
magnitude of supplies — 36, 146-47
— and period of selling — 36, 248
— transport and concentration of—
36, 249-50
— transport and world market — 36,
250-51
— crises on money market and abnormal
conditions in process of production—
36, 317-18
See also Trade
Market value —37, 177, 178, 179, 180-85,
189, 190, 191
Materialist conception of history — 35, 9-10,
91-92, 189, 302-03, 375, 489-92, 587-
88, 604-05, 610
Material wear and tear of instruments of labour—
35, 193, 214, 407-08, 600, 603
Means of production — 35, 315-16, 320-21,
330, 694
— definition and composition of—35,
179, 190-95, 219-20, 314-15, 600,
705
— as material factor of living labour
and material element of fresh products—
35, 188-95, 216-17, 565-66
— and labour power as elements in labour
process — 35, 213-17; 36, 86,
87, 166-67
— and the process of creating value —
35, 196-202, 209-13, 214-18, 219,
583, 601
— as means and material for intelligent
productive activity — 35, 314-
15, 509
— as factor of productive power of labour—
35, 50, 602, 617
— their conversion into capital — 35,
178-81, 314-15, 705, 752-54
— social fetters upon their development—
35, 749-51
— transfer of value of instruments of
labour to product —36; 58-59, 159-
60, 161
— instruments of labour and fixed capital—
36, 162-63
— degree of fixity and durability of instruments
of labour— 36, 162-63
— confusion by bourgeois economists
of properties of instruments of labour
in their bodily form with properties
of capital — 36, 163-64, 199-
201
— locally fixed instruments of labour—
36, 163-64, 211
— revolutions in instruments of labour
-36, 172-73, 187
— more effective use of instruments of
labour without additional outlay of
money — 36, 353
— products of department I and revenue—
36, 363-64, 366
— capitalist as owner of—37, 45
— and surplus value — 37, 49, 50
— economy in — 37, 86-87
— cheapening of—37, 87-88
— as means of exploiting labour — 37,
88-89
— as social property — 37, 436-37
— as capital — 37, 801, 802, 811, 867
Means of subsistence
— classification of means of subsistence
of labourers by Adam Smith as
circulating capital — 36, 213
— consumed by labourer and capitalist—
Jo-, 226-27
— consumer necessities and articles of
luxury — 36, 402, 410
— crisis and consumption of luxuries—
JS, 409
— consumption of necessities of life by
unproductive labourers — 36, 409
Medium of circulation
— and credit — 37, 439-40
— and the industrial cycle — 37, 524
— and the rate of interest — 37, 527
— and foreign trade — 37, 529-31
Mental and manual labour—35, 188,
426, 485-86, 509-10
Mercantilism —35, 71, 154-55, 165-66,
516-17; 36, 12, 64-66, 68, 103-04; 37,
335, 770, 771
Merchant's capital—35, 157, 160-61, 166,
175, 426, 511, 738
— wholesale trade and mass production—
Jo', 80-81, 115
— and commodity production — 36,
115
— its functions and economy of working
time of society — 36, 135
— exploitation of trade workers — 36,
134-36
— as the independent part of the industrial
capital — 37, 274, 289, 290,
307, 309, 322
— role of merchant's capital in capitalist
reproduction — 37, 274, 290,
309, 322, 323, 324
— criticism of bourgeois economists'
views on the nature of—37, 278
— and the turnover — 37, 274, 286,
301, 302, 303, 304, 306-07, 308,
309, 310
— and the formation of average profit—
37, 285, 306-07, 308
— and the commercial profit — 37,
286, 295, 308
— under precapitalist modes of pro
auction — 37, 309
— the pure form of merchant's capital
in wholesale trade — 37, 287, 288
— forms of— 37, 321
See also Commercial capital; Money-dealing
capital; Purchase and sale;
Trade
Method of Marxist political economy
— general characteristic of—35, 18-
20, 23
— methodology of— 35, 7-8, 12, 45,
51-52, 54, 57, 86-87, 93, 157, 174-
77, 180
See also Abstraction; Dialectics
Mexico — 35, 178, 741
Middle Ages— 35, 88, 146, 148, 313, 327,
339, 344-45, 364, 393, 431-32, 433,
511, 706-07, 731-32, 738, 739, 741-42
Mode of production — see Socio-economic formation
Modern industry —35, 382-84, 385-87, 388-
89, 391-92, 447-48, 452-55, 462-63,
464, 491-93
— history of— 35, 14-15, 190-93, 374,
397-98, 744-45
— significance of— 35, 374, 397-98,
488-92
— technical basis of—35, 489-90
— and division of labour — 35, 486-87
— its influence on agriculture — 35,
507, 736-38
— and home market — 35, 736-37
Monetary system — 35, 93
Money
— definition of— 35, 7-8, 68, 71, 80,
100-02, 103, 118-19, 140, 143, 148-
49, 157
— history of— 35, 99-100, 103, 108-
10, 135
— as form of existence and measure of
values — 35, 103-13, 118-19, 128;
36, 63-64, 65; 37, 457, 513, 514, 850
— as standard of price — 35, 106-08,
109-10
— as a means of circulation — 35, 124-
40, 145, 147-49, 152-53; 36, 340; 37,
318-19, 336, 337, 528, 529
— quantity of circulating money —
37, 443, 444
— as form of hoard — 35, 140-45; 36,
72, 83, 84, 89, 151-52, 319-20, 323
— as means of payment — 35, 145-53;
36, 117, 188-89
— as universal equivalent — 35, 153-
56; 36, 34-35, 48-49, 50; 37, 513
— paper money — 35, 136-40
— credit money — 35, 136-38, 150; 36,
116; 37, 432-33, 513, 514, 533
— as a form of capital — 37, 416, 440,
443, 446
— conversion of money into capital —
35, 157-86, 203-05, 311-14, 564,
570, 583, 705; 36, 19-21, 35-37, 42,
51-52; 37, 336, 337
— fetishism of— 35, 103
— illusion created by money form of
wages — 35, 535-41, 567; 36, 413
— commodity and — 36,20-21,34-35,
53-54, 352-53
— functions of money and functions of
capital — 36, 33-34, 36-37, 51-52,
82-83
— and use form of commodities — 36,
53-54, 63-65
— money-making as compelling motive
of capitalist production —
36, 63-64
— money reserve as premiss of money
circulation — 36, 151-52
— laws governing circulation of commodities
and money — 36, 117,
327, 329-30
— money market — 37, 363-64, 365,
366, 508-09, 527
— and reproduction — 36, 489-90; 37,
444, 445
— expenses of producing or buying
money — 36, 355
— mass of circulating money and
banks — 36, 411-12
— quantity of money accumulated —
36, 472-73
— fluxes and refluxes of money and
credit system — 36, 478-79
— and exchange among various component
parts of the social capital—
37, 527, 528-29
— as the expression of the social character
of wealth — 37, 568
— as the expression of the social character
of labour — 37, 602
See also Circulation; Coin; Gold; Reserve
fund; Universal equivalent
Money capital
— formula of its circuit — 36, 31
— stages of its circuit — 36, 31-54, 57-
58, 59
— and commodity capital — 36, 53-
54, 57-58, 86-87
— and industrial capital — 36, 57-58,
62-63, 86-87; 37, 286, 461
— circulation and circuit of—36, 66-
67
— form of hoard as function of— 36,
82-84, 89-90
— within the circuit of industrial capital—
36, 83-84
— latent — 36, 84-85, 89-90, 320-21,
347, 449
— tying-up and setting free of—36,
112-14
— and credit system — 36, 281-82, 343
— plethora of money capital after crisis—
36, 282-83
— and annual social production — 36,
320-21
— scale of capitalist production and
functioning of—36, 353
— and banks — 36, 411-12
— potential (virtual) —36, 489-90,
491, 492-93, 495-500, 501-03
— formation of new money capital —
36, 509
— its concentration with the development
of capitalist mode of production —
37, 385-86
— demand for — 57,416-17,418, 421,
431, 513
— and value of commodity capital
and productive capital — 37, 419
See also Advanced capital
Money crisis — 35, 148-49
Money-dealing capital
— as an individualised part of industrial
capital — 37, 313, 314, 315
— its metamorphosis — 37, 313, 314
— its movement — 37, 313, 314, 315
— its origin — 37, 315, 316, 317, 318,
319, 320
— and formation of a hoard — 37,
317, 318, 319, 327, 328
— and commercial capital — 37, 319,
320
— profit of— 37, 320
See also Merchant's capital
Money market —37, 364, 365, 508-09
— and rise in prices — 36, 295-96
— and speculative railway schemes —
36, 314-15
— crises on, and abnormal conditions
in process of production — 36", 317-
18
— and joint-stock companies — 36,
355
See also Credit
Monopoly
— in industry — 37, 193, 195, 198,
223, 236, 305, 312, 435, 436
— of landed property — 37, 613, 614,
615, 618, 632, 737-38, 740, 744,
749, 750, 759-60, 770, 846-48
— large-scale production as its
basis — 36, 112
Moral depreciation of instruments of labour—
35, 407, 575, 600-01
N
National debt —35, 742-45
Natural economy —35, 87-89, 140-41, 736;
36, 119-20, 121, 477-78; 37, 111, 781-
82
Nature (as primary factor of creating
a product and material elements of
capital)— 35, 187-90, 193-94, 380-
81, 389-91, 509, 599, 601
Necessary labour
— definition of— 35, 225-27, 239,
269-70
— and working day — 35, 239-40,
317-18
— in the conditions of capitalism and
the corvée system — 35, 245-47,
319-20
— surplus labour as its function — 35,
532-33
-— in communist society — 35, 530
Nominal wages — 35, 542-45, 559
O
Opium wars — 35, 739
Organic composition of capital—35, 309-
12, 445-46, 453, 608, 617-18, 623-25,
627, 726
— its definition — 37, 144, 145, 153,
740, 749, 750
— and distribution of social surplus
value — 36, 218
— as ratio of constant to variable capital
—36, 218
— and process of circulation — 36, 218
— conditions for the growth of—36,
514-15
— and the rate of profit — 37, 154
— capital of higher composition — 37,
163, 746
— capital of lower composition — 37,
163, 746
— capital of average composition —
37, 163, 746
— and the development of the productivity
of labour — 37, 211, 212,
214
— in the extractive industry — 37, 746
— in the mining industry — 37, 746
— in agriculture — 37, 747, 751, 752,
753,^754
— in industry — 37, 752, 753
Overproduction — see Crises
Overproduction of capital
— relative — 37, 184, 255, 256
— absolute — 37, 250, 251, 254
— depreciation of capital — 37, 251,
253, 254
— and the function of money as a medium
of payment — 37, 253
— credit system as the main lever
of— 37, 437-38
See also Economic crises; Industrial cycle;
Value composition of capital
P
Panama swindle — 37, 437
Pauperism —35, 434-35, 544-45, 636-37,
647, 683-84, 711
Peace of Utrecht — 35, 747
Peasant proprietorship of land parcels—37,
789, 790, 792, 793, 794, 795, 796, 797,
798, 799-800
See also Small landed property
Peasantry—35, 51, 89, 279, 339
— expropriation of peasants in the
period of primitive accumulation of
capital — 35, 707-23, 744-45, 748-
49
— medieval peasants — 35, 51
— corvée peasants—35, 245-47, 568-
69
— transformation of small peasants
into wage labourers with the development
of capitalism in the country—
35, 736
— feudatory peasants in European
countries — 35, 708
— independent peasants in England
in the 15th century — 35, 731-32
— independent peasantry of England
in the epoch of Cromwell — 35, 713
— Russian peasantry at the end of the
16th century — 35, 713
— commodity production based on
serfdom — 36, 112-13, 119
— capitalist production and evolution
of agricultural producer into wage
labourer — 36, 120-22
— supplies in peasant economy — 36,
143-44
— disarrangements caused among
small farmers and peasants by prolongation
of turnover — 36, 238
— domestic peasant industries — 36,
242-43
— combination of agriculture with
subsidiary industries — 36, 242-43
Peasant War in Germany — 35, 245
Peloponnesian war—35, 370
Peonage —35, 178
Persia — 35, 515
Petty-bourgeois political economy
— Proudhon on loan capital — 37,
343-44, 345, 346
— Proudhon on the perpetuation of
commodity production without
money — 37, 602, 603
Petty-bourgeois socialism — 35, 79, 95, 97
Physiocrats —35, 93, 174, 201, 325-26,
510, 534, 586, 752; 36, 357-60
— circuit of commodity capital as
a basis of Quesnay's Tableau économique—
36, 105
— Quesnay on the difference between
fixed and circulating capital — 36,
190-92, 199-200
— origin of surplus value according
to —36, 214, 221
— simple reproduction according to
Quesnay's Tableau économique—
36, 357
— system of, as first systematic conception
of capitalist production —
36, 358
— analysis of reproduction by — 36,
357-58
— avance (advance) in — 36, 'ill, 495
— their doctrine — 37, 599, 743, 744,
770, 771, 772
— Turgot on ground rent and interest—
37, 616
Piece wages—35, 550-58
— general characteristic of—35, 551-
52, 554-55, 558
— irrational character of their form —
35, 551-52
— history of—35, 554-55
— as means of intensifying labour and
prolonging the working day — 35,
551-56
— as means of decreasing average
wages — 35, 554-55
— and time wages — 35, 550-52, 553-
54
— and productivity of labour — 35,
556-58
— and individual differences of the
workers — 35, 353-54
Political economy
— history of— 35, 370-71, 611-12
— subject of— 35, 8, 10
— method of Marxist political economy—
35, 7-8, 12, 16-20, 23, 45, 52,
54, 57-58, 86-87, 93, 157, 174-76,
179-80
— general characteristic of bourgeois
political economy — 35, 13-14, 15-
17, 604-07, 611-13, 627, 752
Political economy, bourgeois
— criticism of Rodbertus' views on
surplus value — 36, 11-22
— Mercantilists on source of surplus
value — 36, 12
— Adam Smith on surplus value and
its origin — 36, 12-13
— Ricardo on value and surplus value—
36, 15-16, 20-21, 218-19, 388
— communism of Owen is based on
Ricardo's economic theory — 36",
17
— on purpose of capitalist production—
Jo", 74-75, 97
— fetishism peculiar to — 36, 128-29,
225, 296
— confusion of categories of constant
and variable capital with categories
of fixed and circulating capital—
36, 162-63, 213, 218, 219,
226, 227, 436
— confusion of properties of things as
such with properties of capital —
36, 162-63, 202-03
— confusion of money capital and
commodity capital with circulating
part of productive capital — 36,
168-69, 205
— Adam Smith on fixed and circulating
capital— 36, 190-215, 358, 359-
60
— Ricardo on fixed and circulating
capital — 36, 217-28
— Ricardo's theory of profit — 36, 225
— analysis of reproduction with
Physiocrats — 36, 358
— analysis of reproduction with
Adam Smith — 36, 358-87, 433-36
— Smith's mistake as regards component
parts of price of commodities—
36, 358-59, 367-68, 370-
71, 387-89
— revenue as original source of exchange
value in Adam
Smith — 36, 369, 381, 386
— identification of commodity production
with capitalist production
in Adam Smith — 36, 387
See also Mercantilism; Physiocrats
Polytechnical schools — 35, 491
Poor Laws (in England)— 35, 434, 458,
641, 666, 674, 712
Population
— growth of the labouring population—
37, 217-18, 247
— growth of population and poverty—
37, 217-18
— excessive population — 37, 217-18,
243, 247
— and productive power of labour —
37, 217-18, 222, 239-40, 265
— reduction of the agricultural population
with the development of capitalism—
37, 631
— and means of existence — 37, 663
— and the development of agriculture—
37, 756, 757
Portugal — 35, 739
Precious metal
— movement of—57, 318, 319, 559-
60, 561-62, 563, 564, 565
— determination of its reserve fund —
37, 561, 562, 563
— magnitude of a hoard of a country—
37, 562-63
— export and import of—37, 564,
565, 566, 580
— amount of precious metals under
the credit system — 37, 566, 567,
600
— as expression of the social character
of wealth —57, 568
See also Gold; Money; Silver
Price
— general characteristic of—35, 104-
05, 106, 108-13, 115, 116-17, 118,
127, 167-69, 170-73, 175-76, 181-
84, 200-02
— definition of—57, 352, 353
— of commodities and amount of
money in circulation — 36, 117,
284, 322, 337-38
— market, prices and acts of purchase
and sale — 36, 291, 315-16
— wages and price of production —
36, 335-36
— wage increases and rises in prices —
36, 337-38
— divergence of prices from values,
and movement of social capital —
36, 390-91
— rise of prices in periods of prosperity—
36, 409
— and the cost price—37, 42
— monopoly price — 37, 166, 744,
749, 752, 754, 758, 762, 819, 820,
837, 848
— average market price — 37, 189,
190
— market price —57, 189, 190, 354
— and the rate of interest — 37, 581,
582, 583
Price of land
— its definition —57, 794, 795
— and the monopoly price — 37, 762,
796-97
— and the price of the agricultural
product — 37, 763-64, 766, 796-97
— its role in the case of small-scale agriculture—
57, 793, 794, 795, 798-
99
— and the rate of interest — 37, 786,
787
— and the form of private landownership—
57, 799-800
Price of product
— its definition —57, 156, 157, 164,
282-83, 284
— as the converted form of value —
37, 158, 159, 162, 163, 171-72, 173,
177-78, 193, 195, 825, 826
— and the cost price — 37, 164
— conditions affecting changes of its
amount—57, 164, 204, 205
— and the value of commodities — 37,
171-72, 175-76, 204-05, 206, 207,
633-34, 635, 741-42, 744
— centre of gravitation of market
prices —57, 177-78
— its definition by bourgeois economists—
37, 197
— effects of wage fluctuations on price
of production — 37, 198, 199, 200,
201
— and the value of agricultural product
— 37, 747, 749, 750, 751, 752
— and the price of agricultural product—
37, 751, 752
See also Law of value
Primitive accumulation of capital
— general characteristic of—35, 569,
619, 704-07, 711-12, 726, 747-48,
760-61
— factors and main aspects of—35,
705-07, 738-39, 742, 743, 744
— eviction of peasants from land —
35, 432-33, 707-23, 755
— usurpation by landlords of communal
property — 35, 713-18
— general characteristic of its methods—
35, 723, 738-40, 747-48,
759-60
Primitive slate of humanity — 35, 88-89, 187-
90, 356-57, 513, 610
Private labour—35, 52-53, 68-69, 77, 83-
86, 104, 123
Private landed property — see Large landed
property
Private property
— and the capitalist mode of production—
37, 265, 433, 600
— and communism — 37, 762, 763
Product
— and demand — 37, 649, 650
— value of the annual product — 37,
808, 809, 825, 826, 831, 832, 839,
840, 852-53, 854
— gross product — 37, 822-23
See also Surplus value
Product, half-finished—35, 190-91
Production —35, 187-95, 326-27, 361-62,
509-10, 536, 566-68, 748-49
See also Capitalist mode of production;
Reproduction
Production relations —35, 121-23, 611
— in the ancient world — 35, 90, 178
— under the slave system — 35, 339,
748-49; 37, 762, 818, 867
— in feudal society—35, 88, 151, 339,
707-09, 748-49
— under capitalism — 35, 86-87, 91-
92, 102-03, 177-78, 283, 304-07,
335-40, 426-27, 488-89, 537, 549,
613-16, 639-41, 705-06, 747-50,
752-53; 37, 49, 87, 88-89, 388-89,
633-34, 801, 802, 804, 805, 862
— in communist society — 35, 88-90;
37, 762-63
— reproduction of— 35, 570-72, 609-
10, 615-16; 37, 779-80
— contradiction between the productive
forces and — 37, 248, 249, 256,
257, 262, 437, 870
— correspondence of the production
relations to the character of productive
forces — 37, 779-80
— under the exploiting modes of production—
37, 779-80
Productive capital
— and creation of value and surplus
value — 36, 33-34, 54-58, 80-81
— distribution of elements of production—^,
38
— general formula of circuit of—36,
70, 91-92
— productive consumption and circuit
of— 36, 80-81
— formula of reproduction on an enlarged
scale — 36, 85-86
— its division into fixed and circulating
capital — 36, 160-61, 169-70,
190, 196-97, 198-99, 202-03
— difference in behaviour of its elements
in labour process — 36, 196-
98
— constantly functioning quantity
of— 36, 267-68
— multiplication of its elements without
additional money capital — 36,
352
— production of additional productive
capital — 36, 496-97
Productive forces —37, 240-41, 247-48, 249,
256, 262, 437-38, 870
— elements of— 35, 187-95, 364,66,
507-08, 570-72
— significance of instruments of labour
 for characterising a given society—
35, 189-90
— under capitalism — 35, 489, 506-
07, 530, 639-41
See also Man; Means of production
Productive labour
— in the simple labour process — 35,
190-91, 210-11, 215-17, 509-10
— from the viewpoint of Physiocrats—
35, 510
— in the capitalist sense — 35, 190-91,
509-10, 584-86
Productive power of labour
— and continuous change in value relations—
35, 78-79
— growth of, and cheapening of elements
of production — 36, 98-99
— capitalist mode of production
and — 36, 143-44
— methods of increasing of—36, 143-
44
— and mass of means of production —
36, 143-44
— and transportation of goods — 36,
152-53
— and continuity of production — 36,
279-80
— and expansion of production — 36,
319; 37, 245-46
— and scale of production — 36, 354
— and accumulation of capital — 36",
354; 37, 246-47, 248
— and growth of organic composition
of capital — 36, 513-14
— as the productive power of capital—
37, 49, 770
— and saving of constant capital —
37, 80-81, 83, 84, 85-86
— and the rate of profit — 37, 88-89,
90, 261, 262, 263
— and the production of machines —
37, 110, 259, 260
— and the increase of the organic
composition of capital — 37, 161,
211, 212, 215, 248, 745, 746
— degree of its development — 37, 162
— and value of the commodity — 37,
169-70, 171, 189, 190, 259, 260,
263, 264, 635, 636
— its significance for the capitalist society—
37, 196, 197
— and profit — 37, 196, 197, 198, 228,
229, 235, 236
— and accumulation — 37, 216, 217,
218
— and wages — 37, 218-19
— and population — 37, 221, 222,
246-47, 248, 249, 265
— price of the individual commodity—
37, 224, 225, 228, 229, 263
— and employment of labour power—
37, 245
— and the mass of use values — 37,
247, 264
— and the disproportion in its development—
37, 258
— and circulating capital — 37, 259
— and fixed capital — 37, 259
— its increase — 37, 259
— and the communist mode of production—
37, 260, 806, 807, 808
— and the relative decrease of the
number of wage workers — 37, 262
— and competition — 37, 263, 264
— and the wear and tear of fixed capital—
37, 264
— and the material elements of capital—
37, 264
— Nature's productive power of labour—
37, 732-33
— and the wealth of society — 37, 806
Profit~35, 33-34, 162, 224, 524, 534,
564-65, 632, 748
— definition of— 37, 39, 40, 41, 46,
47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52
— law of value and average rate of—
36, 22-23
— equalisation of general rate of—36,
216
— Ricardo's theory of— 36, 224-25
— Malthus' theory of—37, 43
— Ramsay's theory of—37, 43
— Torrens' theory of—37, 42, 43
— and surplus value — 37,51,53,165,
172, 173, 178-79
— and the prolongation of the working
day — 37, 80-81
— average profit — 37, 141, 152, 155,
156, 157, 158, 166, 168, 170-71,
172, 173, 178-79, 194, 196, 208,
209
— and capital — 37, 151, 152, 168
— source of— 37, 166, 167, 168, 209
— capitalists' conception of the origin
of— 37, 166, 168, 209, 228, 229
— bourgeois political economy on —
37, 167, 212
— industrial — 37, 281-82, 295
— money dealers'—37, 320
— in the stock company — 37, 433
— as the appropriation of national labour—
37, 538
— average profit as a regulator of capitalist
production — 37, 769
— limits of profit — 37, 846-47, 848
See also Surplus value
Profit of enterprise
— and the rate of interest — 37, 369-
70, 371, 372
— and the interest — 37, 370-71, 375-
76, 377, 378, 379
— as the capitalist conceives it — 37,
378, 379, 380, 381, 386
— and the wages of management —
37, 385, 386, 387
Proletariat
— its historic role as grave-digger of
capitalism — 35, 14-15, 749-51
— its growth with the accumulation of
capital — 35, 457, 507, 608-10, 613,
618, 683, 749-51
— economic sense of the term "proletarian"—
35, 609
— lumpenproletariat — 35, 637
See also Agricultural labourer; Class
struggle of the working class; Impoverishment
of the working class; Working class
Property
— communal — 35, 88-89, 245-46,
339, 362-64, 707-08, 714-16
— private property based on the personal
labour of producers — 35, 87-
89, 708, 749-50, 751, 760
— private property based on exploitation
of other people's labour — 35,
194-95, 582-83, 651-52, 704-06,
707-10, 711-12, 713, 748-51, 760
— social — 35, 748-51
— in communist society — 35, 88-90,
750-51
See also Landed property
Protectionism —35, 35, 561, 736-37, 739,
744-45, 752-53
Protective tariffs — 37, 435
Purchase and sale
— scale of reproduction and time of
realisation — 36, 46, 140-41
— transfer of functions of purchase
and sale to merchant — 36, 134
— volume of supply and volume of
sales — 36, 148-49
— period of selling and fluctuations of
market —36; 249-50
— distance from market and time of
selling —36; 249-50, 316-17
See also Merchant's capital; Trade
Q.
Quantitative theory of money — 35, 133
Quit rent —35, 51, 708
R
Railways — see Transport
Rate of exchange
— as a barometer for the international
movement of money metals — 37,
318, 569, 570, 571
— and crisis — 37, 563, 564
— of England with Asia — 37, 571-72,
579
— and export of capital — 37, 571,
572, 574-75, 576, 577, 578, 579
— and the interest rate — 37, 574-75,
576, 584, 585, 586
— and conditions which determine its
changes — 37, 587, 588
Rate of interest
— and the average rate of profit — 37,
357, 358, 360, 361-62, 363
— and the industrial cycle — 37, 358-
69
— its tendency to fall — 37, 359
— average rate of interest — 37, 360-
63
— its volume — 37, 363-66
— market rate of interest — 37, 364
— in 1847 — 57, 418
— in 1856 — 57, 419
— and the rate of profit — 37, 419-20,
421, 422
Rate of profit
— definition of— 37, 46, 47, 49, 50,
51, 52, 114-15
— and the rate of surplus value — 37,
47, 51, 52, 53, 54-55, 72, 73, 137,
138, 139, 140, 165, 210
— and the rate of interest — 37, 355,
356, 360
— its measurement — 37, 50
— and differences between fixed and
circulating capital — 37, 51, 150,
151
— value of money — 37, 53-54
— and the turnover of variable capital—
37, 53-54
— and labour productivity — 37, 53,
54, 84-85
— and variable capital — 37, 55-56,
57, 58-59, 146, 147
— and the turnover — 37, 73-74, 75,
76, 77, 78, 79, 80
— and the time of production — 37,
73-74, 75
— and the time of circulation — 37, 75
— and the constant working day —
37, 80, 81
— and the prolongation of the working
day — 37, 80
— and the value of constant capital —
37, 83-84
— and quality of raw materials — 37,
86
— and the adulteration of elements of
production — 37, 86-87
— and economy in labourer's living
conditions — 37, 90
— and fluctuations in the price of raw
materials — 37, 106-07, 108, 109,
110, 113, 114
— and foreign trade — 37, 108
— and the organic structure of capital—
37, 141, 142, 143, 144, 146,
147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152
— comparison of national rates of profi
t— 37, 142, 149, 213, 214
— and the value of advanced capital—
37, 196
— stimulus of capitalist production —
37, 239-40, 241, 257, 258
— and its reduction — 37, 244-45
— and formation of new capitalist enterprises—
37, 257
— Ricardo on — 37, 258
— as the starting-point of the historical
development of capital — 37,
888, 889, 890
Rate of surplus value
— definition of— 35, 224, 227, 533;
37, 46, 52-53, 232
— formulas of—35, 531-34
— method of calculation — 35, 227-
30, 238-39
— conditions of raising — 35, 226-28,
595, 599-600
— mass of surplus value — 35, 307-13
— and surplus value — 37, 47
— and the rate of profit — 37, 47, 51,
52, 53-54, 72, 73, 137, 138, 139,
210
See also Exploitation of labour
Raw materials— 35, 188, 191, 192-93,
199-200, 211-14, 365
— quality of raw materials and the
rate of profit — 37, 86
— component part of the constant capital—
37, 108, 113-14
— influence of the price of raw materials
on the rate of profit — 37, 108,
109-10, 113-14, 137
— and the value of the product — 37,
109-10, 113-14
— and the productive power of social
labour — 37, 109-10
— component part of the circulating
capital — 37, 109-10, 111
— influence of changes in prices of
raw materials on the process of reproduction—
37, 110-11, 118-23
— available supplies of—37, 113-14
Real subordination of labour to capital —
35, 305-07, 313-15, 334-37, 510-12,
616, 726-27, 755-57
Real wages —35, 527-29, 559-60
Reformation—35, 711-13
Relative form of value
— essence of—35, 59-63
— quantitative determination of—
35, 63-64
— influence of changes in magnitude
of value of commodities on magnitude
of relative value — 35, 63-65
— and equivalent form — 35, 55-61,
63-64, 65-66, 76-77, 98-99
Relative overpopulation — 35, 634-36; 37,
217, 220, 222, 243-48, 249, 250, 254,
255, 262, 264, 623
— essence and causes — 35, 274, 434,
453-55, 529, 624-26, 628, 629-31,
755-56
— forms of— 35, 634-38
— its role — 35, 454, 490-91, 626-31,
632-34
— and phases of industrial cycle — 35,
627-28, 631-32, 634-35
Relative surplus value
— concept of— 35, 317-18, 319-20
— methods of its production — 35,
317-18, 319, 321-23, 325-26, 413,
510-12
— and absolute surplus value — 35,
511-12
— influence of its production on
technical labour processes — 35,
510-11
— and productive power of labour —
35, 321-24, 413
— and relation between necessary and
surplus labour — 35, 317-19; 321-
24, 325-26, 510-11
— and manufactory division of labour—
35, 367-70
Religion — 35, 83, 89-92, 270, 375, 612,
616, 733
Rent—35, 733
— Rodbertus' conception of—36,
10-11, 14-15, 16-17
— Adam Smith's definition of—36,
14
— Ricardo's conception of—36, 15-
16
— speculative building and growth
of— 36, 235
Repairs
— cost of— 36, 122-23, 175-76, 177,
178, 444
— calculation of cost of—36, 177-78
— ordinary and substantial — 36, 178-
79
— repairs proper and replacement —
36, 179-81
— intermingled with partial reproduction—
36, 182
Replacement of capital
— and extension of production — 36,
172-73
— and repairs — 36, 179-81
— size of— 36, 181-82
— and previous accumulation of money—
36, 182-83
— replacement of fixed capital — 36,
172-73, 184, 448-51
— replacement of means of production
and moral depreciation — 36,
187
— replacement of wear and tear of
a hoard—iff, 323-24
— and process of reproduction — 36,
391-92
See also Reproduction; Wear and tear
Reproduction —35, 151-52, 565-66, 593-94,
601-02
— peculiarity under capitalism—35,
566, 627-28
— of production relations—35, 151-
52, 564, 570-73, 576-77, 579-80,
608-10, 615-16, 705-06
— of labour power—35, 180-84,217-
19, 225-27, 320, 355, 570-71, 576-
77, 580, 609-11, 613-14
— peculiarities in different branches
of economy — 35, 598-99, 601
— capitalist reproduction as reproduction
of class of wage labourers
and class of capitalists — 36, 40,
379-80, 390-91, 414-15
— and circulation — 36, 46-47, 150-
52, 201-02, 349-51
— and separation of realised capital
into capital value and surplus value—
36, 49-50
— as a periodical renewal of functioning
of productive capital — 36, 70,
97
— and consumption — 36, 81-83
— and crises — 36, 82-83, 466-67, 493-
94
— formation of reproduction fund —
36, 98
— effect of changes in values of means
of production on scale of reproduction—
36, 111-13
— and unproductive functions — 36,
134
— credit and real movement of—36,
150-51
— time of reproduction of living instruments
of labour— 36, 172-73
— in agriculture — 36, 244-45, 357
— reduction of reproduction period
and annual rate of surplus value —
36, 313-14
— and two departments of social product—
36, 366, 393-95
— and replacement of value and substance
of component parts of social
product — 36, 390-91, 392
— and hoarding — 36, 450
— annual reproduction of gold and
silver — 36, 468-69
See also Replacement of capital; Reproduction
on an extended scale; Simple reproduction
Reproduction on an extended scale
— essence of— 35, 580, 583, 587-89,
593-94, 608-10, 614
— in different socio-economic formations—
35, 593-94
— of production relations — 35, 609-
10, 615-16
— of fixed capital — 35, 600-01
— and degree of exploitation of labour—
35, 615-16
— and increased individual consumption—
36, 81-82
— and its proportions — 36, 83-84,
495-96, 514
— and latent money capital — 36, 83-
84, 319-20
— and productivity of labour — 36,
98, 99, 104
— and fall in value of means of production—
36, 112
— and accumulation — 36, 112, 319,
500-01
— and money reserve fund for replacement
of capital— 36, 174-75
— and simple reproduction — 36, 495-
96, 504-06, 517
Reserve army of wage labourers — 36, 315-
16, 409, 500-01, 513-14
See also Labour power; Relative overpopulation
Reserve capital — see Supply
Reserve fund—37, 469
— and surplus value — 36, 91, 344
— and bank deposits — 36, 342
Revenue
— net revenue and consumption
fund — 36, 361-62
— value of annual product of revenue
of society — 36, 363, 366
— derivative revenues — 36, 370
— Adam Smith's erroneous views
on — 36, 370, 387
— and capital in Adam Smith — 36,
376-83
— of labourer — 36, 376, 377-78, 379,
380, 386
Revolution, bourgeois, in England, in the
17th century —35, 711, 712, 713, 736-37
Revolution of 1848-49 — 35, 13-14, 15, 290,
304
Rome (Ancient)—35, 92, 109, 146, 151,
173, 243, 292, 353, 366, 573, 706, 717
Russia —35, 246, 466, 560-61, 674, 713
— study by Marx of agrarian relations
in Russia — 36, 7; 37, 714
— transition from serf system to capitalism—
36, 39-40; 37, 332
— landownership of village community—
36, 40
— commodity production under serfdom
— 36, 115
— domestic industries in agriculture—
36, 241-43
— foreign trade of— 37, 128, 332, 714
— circulation of banknotes in — 37,
521
S
Science — 35, 23, 30-35, 189, 389-90, 605
— its application and role in production—
35, 387-91, 426, 464-65,
489, 507, 600-01, 617-19, 639
— capitalist appropriation of science—
35, 366-67, 390, 593-606, 750
See also Chemistry
Securities
— title of ownership — 37, 476
— component parts of—37, 461, 462
— in the period of crisis — 37, 467
— depreciation of—37, 467
— title to future production — 37, 468
— their quotation on the stock exchange—
37, 476
— and the development of capitalist
production — 37, 476, 477
See also Stock
Serfdom
— production relations — 35, 88, 539-
40, 567-68, 705, 706-07, 708-09
— peculiar form of surplus value — 35,
539-40, 567-68
— in England — 35, 707-10, 713-14
— in Italy — 35, 707
— in Russia — 35, 713
— in the Danubian principalities —
35, 245
— state production based on — 36,
115
— labour of peasant serf—36, 383-85
Silver—37, 315, 318, 548, 554, 560, 561,
562, 573, 586-87
See also Precious metal
Simple reproduction
— essence of— 35, 565-67, 569-72,
579-80
— production relations — 35, 569-71
— and variable capital — 35, 569
— and surplus value — 35, 569-70
— and individual consumption of capitalist—
36, 72, 75-76, 322, 394-
95, 407-08, 410
— and circulation of surplus value —
36, 72, 73-76
— and production of new constant capital
value—36, 366, 425, 437
— as an actual factor of accumulation—
36, 393-94
— and two departments of social production—
36, 393-94
— and crises — 36, 467
— and storing up of money — 36,471-
72
— and reproduction on an extended
scale — 36, 495-96, 504-06
Simple unskilled labour—35, 54-55,
208
Skilled labour —35, 54-55, 181-83, 206-
09
Slavery, slave economy
— general propositions — 35, 99, 207,
226, 243-44, 272, 339, 512, 540,
542, 613, 700; 37, 790
— in Ancient Rome — 35, 292, 573
— in the island of Java — 35, 704
— in America — 35, 178, 243, 272-73,
305
— purchase and sale of slaves — 36, 38
— commodity production based on —
36, 115, 119, 384-85; 37, 175-76,
323
— capital invested in purchase of labour
power under — 36, 477-78
— and natural economy — 36, 478
— direct physical compulsion
under — 36, 478
— and the capitalist mode of production—
37, 33, 338
— role of commerce in the development
of the slave economy — 37,
329
— work of supervision — 37, 382, 383
— and the usurer's capital — 37, 588,
589, 590
— spoliation of the soil by the slave owners
in the United States —
37, 613
— and landed property — 37, 627-28
— production relations under —
37, 762, 818, 867
— and the slave's labour conditions —
37, 776-77
— price of slaves — 37, 795
— antagonistic form of surplus labour
in the slave system — 37, 806
Slave trade —35, 272-73, 740, 746-48
Small landed property
— form of landed property for small scale
operation — 37, 608, 793
— causes of decay of small-scale
landed property — 37, 793
— and the development of productive
power of labour — 37, 793
— and price of land — 37, 794, 796,
797, 798-99
— illusions created by — 37, 796
— and exploitation of land — 37, 798-
99, 800
See also Peasant proprietorship of land
parcels
Small landowner—37, 785, 788, 789,
790, 791, 792
Small producer, small production — 37,
174, 175-76, 214, 331, 332, 333, 608,
681-82, 776, 777, 778, 779, 780, 781,
782, 784-85, 793, 796-98, 881, 883
Social product
— two departments of—36, 366, 393-
95
— replacement of value and substance
of component parts of—36, 391-
92, 393
— composition of—36, 428-30
— as capital and as revenue — 36, 435
Socialised production — see Communist society
Socialism — see Communism; Communist
mode of production
Socialist revolution — 35, 16, 35, 491,
504-07, 749-51; 37, 263, 438
Socially necessary labour time
— definition of— 35, 49, 82, 220-21,
329-30, 551-52
— as substance of value — 35, 49, 55-
56, 82-83, 196-97, 198-99, 205-07,
220-21, 321-24
— and competition — 35, 350
Society
— its wealth — 37, 354, 437-38, 568,
807
— its economic and political structure—
37, 778-79, 805
Socio-economic formation
— character of its development — 35,
10
— division of labour in different formations
of society — 35, 364-65
— reproduction, simple and on an extended
scale in different formations—
35, 594
— form of surplus value as a distinguishing
feature of antagonistic social
formations — 35, 226-28, 243-
45
— capitalist relations as the product of
the downfall of previous forms of
society — 35, 179-81
— significance of means of labour for
the investigation of extinct economic
forms of society — 35, 189-90
— instruments of labour as a distinguishing
feature of social formations—
35, 188-89
Spain —35, 35, 515, 739, 747
Speculation —35, 160-61, 202, 219-20,
275, 589, 660-61, 742-43, 759-60
State
— the weapon of capital — 35, 276,
290-91, 314, 367-68, 610-11, 641-
42, 726-31, 739-40
— state "regulation" of economic
life — 35, 246-48, 276-78, 283-302,
303-05, 492-98, 502-05, 562
— and import and export of precious
metal — 37, 318
— as owner of the surplus product in
the precapitalist societies — 37, 328
— national debt — 37, 392-93, 394,
462, 463, 523-24
— government bonds — 37, 400-01,
406, 455, 456, 467, 475, 476, 500-
01, 795
— and differential rent — 37, 654
— as a landowner — 37, 779
See also Factory legislation
State capital
— functions of industrial capitalists
performed by governments — 36,
102
— state production under precapitalist
systems — 36, 115, 234
— government securities as outstanding
claims on annual product of nation—
36, 347
Statistics, bourgeois — 35, 277, 423
Stock
— and gambling on the stock exchange—
37, 437
— and contradiction between the social
character of production and individual
appropriation — 37, $"51
— as a title of ownership, a fictitious
capital — 37, 464, 467
— circulation and market value of—
37, 467, 468
— preferred and deferred stocks — 37,
470
Stock capital
— and the general rate of profit — 37,
238-39
— as capital of associated individuals—
37, 434
— contradiction of—37, 434, 435,
436
— as a mere phase of transition to
a new form of production — 37,
435, 436, 437-38
Stock company
— and falling of the general rate of
profit — 37, 261, 435
— and the separation of the capital
function from the capital ownership
in the process of reproduction—
37, 384, 385, 433, 434
— the separation of wages of management
from profits of enterprise —
37, 385, 386, 433
— profit in stock companies — 37,
386, 433, 434
— and competition — 37, 434, 435
— as the next high stage in development
of capitalist production — 37,
434, 896
— parasitic nature of—37, 436
— organisation of—37, 435-36
— United Alkali Trust — 37, 435, 896
— development of stock company
during the second half of the 19th
century — 37, 896
Stock exchange~37, 436-37, 507, 896
— marginal transactions — 36, 341
Storage
— costs of— 36, 126-27, 139-40, 249
See also Supply
Subject of labour—35, 188, 200-01, 210,
212, 214-15, 320-21, 509, 598-99
Suez Canal and world trade — 36, 253
Supply
— formation of—36, 140-46
— commodity supply proper — 36,
145-51
— productive supply and continuity
of process of production — 36, 124-
25, 140, 147, 189-90
— commodity capital and commodity
supply —36, 140, 141, 146-49, 189-
90
— Adam Smith on formation of—36,
143-44
— forms of— 36, 143-44
— and consumption fund — 36, 143
— volume of— 36, 143-45, 148-49,
150, 151
— costs of formation and preservation
of—36, 146-52
— social concentration of—36, 147-
48
— formation of, and commodity circulation—
36", 147-50
— and stagnation of circulation — 36,
149-50, 151-52
— renewal of— 36, 149-51
— in socialised production — 36, 467-
68
— bulging size of commodity supply—
36, 151-52
— volume of, and repetition of purchases—
36, 189-90
— in agriculture — 36, 245-46
— size of productive supply and turnover
of capital — 36, 246-47
— working period and productive
supply—36, 290
— analysis of annual reproduction
and commodity supply — 36, 504-
05
Surplus labour
— definition of— 35, 226-28, 238-39,
531-34, 615-16
— as a distinguishing feature of socioeconomic
formations — 35, 226-28,
244
— conditions, means and ways of getting
surplus labour — 35, 255, 317-
21, 322-25, 355, 510-16, 599-600;
37, 210
— determination of its magnitude —
35, 317-21
— forms of surplus labour — 35, 245-
47, 510-11; 37, 776, 777, 778-79
— as source of profit — 35, 548-50; 37,
681-82
— limit of its diminution under
capitalism — 35, 614-16; 37, 778
— and the cost price — 37, 48
— its natural basis — 37, 626
— ground rent as the product of unpaid
surplus labour — 37, 628, 776,
777, 778, 779
— as a non-historical category — 37,
806
— compulsory character of surplus labour
under capitalism — 37, 806
— and necessary labour — 37, 808,
819-20, 821
— and the general rate of profit — 37,
861-63
See also Surplus value
Surplus product —35, 32, 238-39, 579-81,
594, 613, 626, 694
See also Surplus value
Surplus profit
— its formation — 37, 196, 198, 634-
42, 643, 714-20
— for waterfalls — 37, 635-42
— transformation of surplus profit
into rent — 37, 638-42, 714-25,
750-51
— in industry — 37, 748
Surplus value — 35, 165-66, 567
— definition of— 35, 161-62, 218-19,
221-22, 224-28
— formation of—57, 38, 39
— origin of— 35, 175-76, 218, 223-25,
409-11, 579, 591-92; 37, 41-43, 44,
48, 137, 814
— vulgar theories of its origin — 35,
168-75, 200-05, 215-16, 217-18,
226-27, 233-38, 521-22, 587-94,
602-04
— as a distinguishing feature of economic
formations of exploiter society—
35, 224-28
— its production as purpose of capitalist
production— 35, 161-64, 165-
66, 196, 200-07, 226-27, 238-39,
241-42, 243-46, 302-03, 334-36,
409-10, 509-10, 587-89, 614
— dependence of its magnitude on the
value of labour power — 35, 519-31
— annual rate of— 35, 224-26, 227-
29, 238-39, 240, 307-08, 409-11,
511-12, 523-24, 531-34, 595-96,
601, 603-04
— mass of— 35, 307-08, 409-11, 601,
603-04; 36, 295, 301-03, 313-14,
319
— forms of— 35, 32-35, 93, 161-64,
226-28, 243-47, 510, 522-24, 533-
34, 564-65, 584-87, 591, 593-96,
694-95, 747-48; 37, 819, 820, 821,
827, 828, 833-35, 839-40
— capitalisation of—35, 578-81, 584-
87, 639
— theory of, pith and marrow of political
economy — 36, 6, 11
— Mercantilists on source of—36, 12
— criticism of Rodbertus' views on
it — 36, 11-12, 21-22
— Adam Smith on it and its source —
36, 13
— Ricardo on — 36, 15-18, 21-23,
224-26
— as a general form of value appropriated
without equivalent — 36,
14
— anti-capitalist English literature of
1820s and 1830s on — 36, 15-16
— Marx's theory of, a revolution in
political economy — 36, 17-20
— circulation of, in simple reproduction—
36, 71-72, 73-76
— capitalisation of— 36, 84-90, 112,
124-25, 319, 502-03
— circuit of— 36, 92-93, 97-99, 102
— division of, into revenue and part
to be accumulated — 36, 103, 502-
03
— difference between constant and
variable capital and formation
of— 36, 222-23, 226-27
— magnitude of variable capital and
quantity of—36, 296-97, 298
— accumulation of, and expansion of
business — 36, 319-20
— distribution of— 36, 221-32, 409-
10, 420
— and potential money capital — 36,
489-90, 491
— source of— 37, 38, 148
— as the transmuted form of profit —
37, 39, 40, 41
— Proudhon on the origin of—37, 44
— and the time of circulation — 37,
47, 278, 279, 814
— and the profit — 37, 52-53
— and the wages — 37, 54-55, 56
— and the length of the working
day — 37, 54, 55, 56
— and the turnover of capital — 37,
73-74
— its seeming origin from total capital—
37, 165, 166
— relative surplus value — 37, 217
— factors determining surplus value—
37, 246
— conditions for its existence — 37,
628-29
— its division in capitalist society —
37, 807
— historical development of—37,
890-92
See also Absolute surplus value; Extra
surplus value; Profit; Relative surplus
value
Sweden — 35, 714
Switzerland—35, 35
T
Taxes — 35, 562
— forms of— 35, 150-52
— as means of primitive accumulation
of capital — 35, 739-40, 743-45
— and surplus value — 35, 522
— in Roman Empire — 35, 150-52
— in Asia — 35, 151
— in France — 35, 150-51
— in England — 35, 711-13
— in USA — 35, 760
Technical composition of capital—35, 617-
20, 621-22, 623
Technique and technology — 35, 375, 488-
89, 600-01, 605-06, 626
— capitalist mode of production and
revolutions in — 36, 43, 62-63, 111,
171-72, 185-86
— and expansion of production — 36,
83-84
— introduction of technical improvements
and accumulation — 36,
123-24
See also Machinery; Means of production
Tendency of rate of profit to fall, law of
— as the result of the development of
the productivity of labour — 37,
211, 212, 214, 215, 218, 257
— and the rising of the organic composition
of the capital — .97, 211-16,
237
— and bourgeois political economy —
37, 212, 222, 223
— as the law of capitalist production—
37, 212
— and growth of absolute magnitude
of the surplus value — 37, 216, 217-
19, 221-23, 246-47
— and relative overproduction — 37,
217, 220, 222, 234
— and the increasing intensity of exploitation—
37, 230, 231, 237
— and technological progress — 37,
231, 232
— and depression of wages below the
value of labour power — 37, 233
— and counteracting agencies — 37,
230-39, 248
— and cheapening of elements of constant
capital — 37, 233-34
— and foreign trade — 37, 235-37
— and the productive labour — 37,
237
— and stock capital — 37, 238-39
— and the capitalist mode of production—
37, 240
— and the competitive struggle — 37,
252-53, 254-55
Terminology, scientific — 35, 30-35, 225,
587
Thirty Years' War—35, 721, 728
Time of circulation
— and productive capital — 36, 127-
28
— and sale — 36, 129-30, 249
— and change of prices — 36, 253
See also Purchase and sale
Time of production — 37, 74, 301
— and period of labour process — 36,
125, 126, 239-40
— and time of functioning of means of
production — 36, 125-26
— and velocity of turnover of capital—
36, 233-34, 240-41
— difference between production time
and working time in agriculture —
36, 241-42, 243, 244
— and timber-growing — 36, 244-45
Time wages — 35, 542-50
— general characteristic — 35, 542-43,
550-52, 553-54, 698
— conditions determining their size —
35, 543-44, 547-49, 558-59
— unit measure — 35, 544-45
— profitability for capitalist — 35,
544-45
Tithe —35, 51, 88
Town —35, 506, 636, 652-57, 706-07
— role of commerce in the development
of towns — 37, 330
— and countryside — 37, 785-86, 787
Trade —35, 159-61, 170-71
— exchange — 35, 102, 179-80
— retail — 35, 149-50
— world — 35, 153-56, 580, 740-41,
742
— and accounts in trade transactions
proper — 35, 149-50
— slave trade — 35, 272, 747-48
— and industry — 35, 742
— development of, as premiss of
capitalist production — 36, 39, 42,
115
— effect of world trade on peoples of
the East — 36, 42
— as function of merchant's capital —
36, 115, 135, 136
— world trade and development of
transportation facilities — 36, 251-
53
— capitalist production and foreign
trade — 36, 467-68, 469-70
— foreign trade and analysis of reproduction—
36, 469-70
See also Market; Merchant's capital
Trade profit —35, 564
Trade unions —35, 260, 305, 634, 691-92;
36, 338
Trade wars —35, 739, 741-45
Transport —35, 387-88, 454, 482, 740
— useful effect of transport industry—
36, 61-62, 162
— production and consumption in
transport industry — 36, 61-62,
161-62
— formula of circuit for transport industry—
36, 63
— development of transport facilities
and supplies — 36, 146
— costs of transportation — 36, 151-
55
— transport industry as continuation
of process of production within process
of circulation— 36, 155
— transport industry, an independent
branch of production — 36, 155
— moral depreciation in transport —
36, 172-73
— development of, and new centres of
production — 36, 250
— development of, and turnover of
capital —36", 251, 252
Transport industry — see Transport
Tribe and family —35, 88-91, 356, 492
Truck system — 36", 516
Turkey — 35, 151, 466
Turnover of capital
— circuit and turnover of capital —
36, 158
— turnover time — 36, 158-59
— formula for number of turnovers —
36, 159
— peculiarity of turnover of fixed
capital — 36, 165-66
— and difference between fixed and
circulating capital — 36, 169-70,
190, 201-02, 277-78
— different turnover times of different
elements of fixed capital — 36, 171-
72
— aggregate turnover of advanced
capital — 36, 185
— cycle of turnovers — 36, 186-87,
253-54
— velocity of turnover — 36, 233-34,
240-41, 251-52
— reduction of turnover time in agriculture—
36, 243-46
— and development of transportation—^,
250-51
— and relation between capital advanced
and capital employed — 36,
301
— accelerated turnover and accelerated
currency — 36, 340-41
— shortening of turnover period — 36,
354-55
— turnover period and material nature
of process of production — 36,
355
— and the rate of profit — 37, 54, 73-
80, 151, 226, 227
— and surplus value — 37, 73-74
— of merchant's capital and mercantile
prices — 37, 274-77, 301, 310,
311, 313
— of industrial capital—37, 275, 301,
302, 307, 308, 311
— rate of turnover and the amount of
merchant's capital — 37, 111
— and the commercial profit — 37,
312, 313
U
Unemployment
— and crisis of overproduction — 36,
315-16, 409
See also Relative overpopulation
United States of America — 35, 9-10, 244,
262, 277, 305, 387, 396, 398, 424, 447,
463, 506, 574, 703, 741, 744, 747, 751,
754, 760
— Civil War — 36, 144
— export of cotton to England — 36,
146-47
— production of gold and silver — 36,
469
— slavery — 36, 478-79
Universal equivalent—35, 78-81, 96-97,
99-101, 102-03, 116
See also Money
Use value —35, 46, 47-50, 51-54, 55-57,
95-99, 163-164, 166-68, 169-71, 190-
93, 198-99, 202-04, 205, 217-18, 579
— of money commodity — 35, 100-01;
37, 278
— of labour power—35, 177-79, 183-
86, 187-88, 194, 202-05, 206-07,
328-29
— and value — 35, 46, 55-56, 205-06,
211-15, 216-17, 219-20
— commodity as — 36, 65-66, 81-82
— and time of circulation of commodities—
36, 79-80, 130-31
— of machinery — 37, 83-84
— and the capitalist mode of production—
57, 194, 569
— of money serving as capital — 37,
337, 341, 349, 350, 353, 389-90
— as the bearer of exchange value —
37, 639-40, 641
Usurer's capital—35, 157, 174, 511, 738
— historical form preceding the capitalist
mode of production — 37,
588-89
— developed to its highest point in Ancient
Rome — 37, 588
— in precapitalist formations — 37,
589, 590-91
— and capitalist mode of production—
37, 590, 591, 592, 605, 606
— its influence on precapitalist modes
of production — 37, 591, 592
— and the generating of capital — 37,
592
— and the functions of money as
a means of payment — 37, 594
— opposition to — 37, 595-98
— and preconditions for the development
of industrial capital — 37, 605
See also Interest-bearing capital
Usury — see Usurer's capital
Utopian socialism — 35, 87-88, 104, 304,
486, 504, 592, 725
V
Value
— definition of— 35, 49, 55, 59-62,
73-75, 93-94, 535
— as social relation — 35, 57, 67, 93-
94
— as most general form of bourgeois
mode of production — 35, 90-91
— and exchange value — 55,46-49,71
— use value — 35, 55-56, 211-13
— determination of its magnitude —
35, 48-51, 55, 73-75, 111-12, 198-
99, 535
— change of its magnitude with the
change in labour productivity —
35, 48-51, 55-56, 601-02
— average rate of profit and law of—
36, 22-23
— purchase of labour power and
transformation of value into capital—.
36, 33-34
— changes in value relations — 36, 78-
79, 109-10, 391-93
— revolutions in value of social capital—
Jo', 109-10, 111
— its identification with exchange
value by Bailey — 36, 111
— of social product and its material
constituents — 36, 428-29
See also Equivalent form; Exchange
value; Form of value; Individual
value; Relative form of value; Surplus
value
Value composition of capital—35, 607-08,
618
— its effect on magnitude of capital
value — 36, 73-74
— its change with the growth of capital—
36, 88
— and minimum size of capital to be
. advanced — 36, 88, 89
See also Organic composition of capital
Value of commodity
— definition of— 37, 46, 89-90, 139,
140, 149, 848-51, 867-68
— and the cost price — 37, 28
— and the average rate of profit — 37,
152
— and the price of production — 37,
175-76, 847, 880-93
— conditions determining the sale of
commodities at their value — 37,
175, 176, 177, 178, 179, 180, 186-
87
— and market value — 37, 176, 177,
178, 663-64, 853-55
— individual value — 37, 177, 180-81,
182, 183
— average value — 37, 183
— and the commodity price — 37,
191-92, 856, 857-58
— its social character—37, 664
— and the monopoly price — 37, 848
— Loria on — 37, 876, 877
— Sombart on — 37, 881
— Schmidt on— 37, 881, 882
Variable capital—37, 33, 34, 54, 55-56,
116, 117, 118, 144, 145, 146, 170-71,
528, 839
— definition of— 35, 218-21, 223-25,
232-33, 307, 309-11, 410, 440-41,
565-69, 585-86, 608-09, 623-24
— as category first introduced by
Marx — 35, 606
— its form of existence in the production
process — 35, 224-28, 232-33,
364-65, 533, 565-69, 606, 608-09,
618-19, 623
— necessary condition for functioning—
35, 224-25
— interdependence of the amount of
variable capital advanced and the
mass of the surplus value — 35, 307-
13
— its magnitude and the number of
labourers — 35, 307-14, 623, 726-
27
— transformation of means of subsistence
of a section of agricultural population
into material elements of
variable capital — 35, 726-27, 733-
34
—• and accumulation of capital — 35,
618-19, 628-29
— labour power as — 36, 166-67,208,
367-69
— Adam Smith's erroneous views on
variable capital — 36, 207-08, 214-
15, 221
— turnover of constant and variable
part of circulating capital — 36,
293
— advanced and employed — 36, 298-
99
— time for which it is advanced — 36,
413
Vulgar bourgeois political economy — 35,
71, 160-61, 164, 167-70, 172-73, 193-
94, 195, 202-03, 309, 440-50, 561-63,
584-85, 603-06, 614-15, 753
— general characteristic of—35, 16-
17, 65, 90-92, 123-24, 167-70, 186,
201-03, 216, 311-12, 537,538,630-
35, 704-05
— its theories of surplus value — 35,
169-74, 217-18, 226-27, 232-38,
521-23, 587-94, 602-03
— Malthus on the regulation of the
cost of production by demand and
supply — 37, 190
— criticism of the methodology of vulgar
economists — 37, 229, 772, 804-
05, 814
— Say on the correlation of commerce
and production — 37, 278
— vulgar economists on mercantile
profit, commodity capital and
money capital — 37, 321, 322
— Roscher on commodity capital —
37, 322
— Bosanquet on interest — 37, 368
— vulgar economists on profit — 37,
11-13, 386
— vulgar economists on capital — 37,
391
— "Currency Principle" school — 37,
415, 416, 449, 543-44, 545-48, 550,
558-59
— Overstone's confusion over
capital — 37, 417, 418, 419, 427-32
— Fullarton on capital — 37, 446,
447, 448, 449, 450, 451, 455, 456,
457, 461
— criticism of the theory of abstinence—-?/,
505-06
— vulgar economists on the crises of
overproduction — 37, 549
— John Stuart Mill on the Bank Act
of 1844 — 37, 551-52
— John Stuart Mill's theory of money—
37, 551-52
— little-shilling school — 37, 555
— Carey on the capitalist mode of
production — 37, 616
— Rodbertus on rent — 37, 765
— criticism of Malthus' theory of diminishing
returns — 37, 652, 663-
64
See also Malthusianism
W
Wages — 35, 180-86, 194-95, 535-42, 613-
15
— definition of— 35, 538-42, 558,
595-97
— national differences in — 35, 180-
83, 558
— and tendency of capital — 35, 595-
97
— limits of— 35, 180-84, 614-16; 37,
845
— and accumulation of capital — 35,
608-09, 614-16
— and industrial cycle — 35, 630-32
— and working day — 35, 538-41,
546-50
— and commodity prices -,— 35, 547-
49; 36, 337, 339; 37, 198, 199, 200,
201, 202
— legislative "regulation" of—35,
726-31
— creation by Marx of first rational
theory of— 36, 19-20
— and value of product — 36, 20-21,
76-77
— as the converted form of value and
the disguised form of price of labour
power — 36, 35-36, 118; 37,
33, 38, 115-16, 463, 464, 804, 805,
806, 845-47, 856-58
— and intensification of exploitation—
36, 353
— as form of labourer's revenue — 36,
386-87
— role of money advanced for wages
in circulation — 36, 412-13, 477-78
— and the rate of profit — 37, 54, 55-
56, 59-60, 61, 68, 69, 106-07, 177-
78, 179, 198, 511, 841
— and introduction of the ten-hour
working day — 37, 109
— and labour productivity — 37, 218,
843
— depression of wages below the
value of labour power — 37, 233,
253
— and the requirements of the labourers—
37, 244
— of commercial labourer — 37, 296,
297
— and the supply and demand of labour
power —37, 354, 849-51
— for skilled labour — 37, 384
— and ground rent — 37, 618-19
— of farm labourers — 37, 621, 622,
623, 625, 626
— and labour — 37, 801,802, 809,810
— as the basis of the limitation of revenues—
37, 845
— and competition — 37, 850, 851
— basis of wages common to all modes
of production — 37, 867
See also Nominal wages; Piece wages;
Real wages; Time wages
Wars and usury — 37, 593
Waste
— its usage —37, 83, 103, 104-05
Wealth, material
— sources of— 35, 51-54, 506-08, 570-
71, 598-99
— elements of— 35, 143-44, 178-79,
190-95, 219, 601, 705
— social manifestation of—35, 140-
42, 143, 154-55
— appropriation of—35, 163-64
— its transformation into capital —
35, 570-71
— conditions of its reproduction — 35,
565-66
— national — 35, 742-43
Wealth of society
— its antagonistic character under
capitalism —37, 354-55, 437
— its social nature —37, 437-38, 568
— and labour productivity — 37, 806,
807
Wear and tear
— and costs of repairs — 36, 124
— moral depreciation of means of
production — 36, 172-73, 187
— sinking fund — 36, 182-84
— of fixed capital and price of products—
36, 198-99
— replacement of wear and tear—36,
452-56
See also Replacement of capital
Worker, working class — see Classes; Labour
power
Workhouses (in England)— 35, 280-82,
647-48
Working class
— condition of workers under capitalism—
35, 183-85, 303-06, 426-27,
435-36, 457-58, 459-60, 510-11,
601-02, 613, 655-56, 659-60, 726-
28
— competition among workers in capitalist
conditions — 35, 544-46,
547-49, 629-30, 633-34
— worker as a means of production
most indispensable for the capitalist—
35, 570-72, 616, 753-54
— reproduction of— 35, 180-84, 218-
19, 225-27, 570-74, 576-77, 580
— individual consumption of workers—
35, 570-73
— productive consumption of workers—
35, 570-72
See also Agricultural labourer; Proletariat
Working day
— component parts of—35, 239-40,
530, 532, 533, 539
— maximum limit of—35, 239-40,
545-47; 37, 814, 845-46
— prolongation of working day and
magnitude of surplus value — 35,
519-30, 547-49; 37, 115, 231
— and economy in labour under capitalist
production —35, 325-26, 483-
84
— and intensification of labour — 35,
412-17, 524-30, 552-53
— compulsory shortening of working
day — 35, 247-48, 275-78, 283-89,
290-92, 295-99, 306, 412, 546-48
— striving of capital to overstep the
moral and purely physical limits of
working day — 35, 271, 274-77,
283, 285, 288-89, 293, 294-95, 297,
302-03, 409-11; 37, 196, 214
— workers' struggle for shorter working
day — 35, 185-86, 237-38, 242-
43, 259, 275-77, 284, 287-89, 294-
97, 412-13; 37, 807
— and wages — 35, 547-48, 549-50
— under socialism and communism—
35, 530
— and working period — 36, 230
— length of, and employment of fixed
capital — 36, 238
— and production of surplus value —
36, 383-84
— its length and the rate of profit —
37, 54-55, 68, 69, 728-29
— division of the working day into necessary
labour and surplus labour—
37, 819-21
Working period
— undertakings requiring a long
working period — 36, 232-34
— means of reducing it — 36, 234, 235
— time of production and working
time — 36, 238-46
— and fixed capital — 36, 276-77
— and material conditions of production—
36, 315-16, 355
Work of management and supervision
— necessity of—37, 381-83
— Mommsen on — 37, 382-83
— Aristotle on — 37, 383
— its origin — 37, 383, 384
— and wages — 37, 383, 384
World market—35, 135-36, 153-56, 157,
243-44, 387-88, 454-55, 559, 595-97,
642, 647-48, 706-07, 738, 750
— basis of capitalist production — 37,
112
— competition in — 37, 121-22
— creation of— 37, 265, 331
— struggle for supremacy in — 37,
334-35, 489
See also Circulation; Market; Trade






MECW VOL 38





A
Abstraction, abstract and concrete—13, 28,
100-02
Accounting--253, 276, 327-28, 393-94
Adventurism (political)
— adventurist idea of 'export of
revolution'—320, 321-22, 501,
539-40
— voluntaristic attitude towards revolution,
'play at revolution'—
255, 280-81, 284, 320, 354-55,
382, 426-29, 432, 437, 438, 439,
455, 460, 473-74, 483, 486, 499-
502, 560-61
See also Bonapartism; Communist
League, the—struggle against sectarian
tactics of the Willich-Schapper
group; Revolutionary phrasemongering
Agitation club (Union) (the 1850s)—
439-41, 520
Agrarian revolution—363, 364
Agriculture— 258, 261-62, 271, 423-24,
462, 476
Agronomy— 258, 261, 476
Alliances and agreements in revolutionary
struggle of the proletariat—394
See also Party, proletarian—tactics
Ancient Rome—504-05
Anti-communist tendencies of bourgeois and
petty-bourgeois ideologists (critique and
exposure by Marx and Engels)—11-
12, 80-82, 85, 87, 104, 286-87, 351-
52, 365, 369, 384, 398, 402, 423, 424,
441
Anti-Corn Law League—211
Army— 328-29, 332-33, 362, 468-71,
505
See also Military science
Association
— in Proudhon's—63, 70-71, 81-84,
109, 410, 414-15, 419-20, 421,
424
Australia— 461-62, 479
Austria— 206, 211, 352, 372, 471
B
Bank(s)
— functions—274-75
— and banking capital—424
— reserve fund—274-78, 299-300
— and deposits—275-78, 299-300
— and foreign loans—206
— rate of exchange and money circulation—
274-78, 299-300
— discount rate of interest—274-78,
299-300, 419-22, 492
— and the state—46, 274, 278,
419-22
— and economic crises—274, 300
— bankruptcy—449-50, 461, 478
— in the period of transition from
capitalism to communism (socialism)—
168, 419-22
— in Proudhon's theory—63-64,
411, 413, 419-24, 491
— of England—274-76, 299-300
— of France—411, 492
— of St. Petersburg—206
See also Credit
Bank notes— 274, 352
Basis and superstructure—96-97
See also Historical materialism; Literature;
Philosophy; Political system; Productive
forces; Relations of production;
Religion; Social relations; Social system;
State, the
Belgium—123, 129, 133, 140, 158-60,
163, 165, 471
Bill of exchange— 275-78, 299-300
Bonapartism— 211, 505, 513
Bourgeoisie
— English—10, 205-06, 211, 220,
279-81
— French—136, 168
— German—11, 30, 172, 390,
392-93
— Italian—454, 457
— Russian—364, 462
Bourgeois political economy— 100-01,
102-03, 205-06, 274-76, 325
See also Ricardian school in political
economy
C
California— 461, 479
Capitalist mode of production—100-04
Categories—100-03
Censorship— 7, 21, 131
Central Committee of European Democracy—
249, 267-68, 279, 283, 285, 287,
313, 319, 380-81, 426, 432, 439
Central Committee of German Democrats
(Berlin)—180
Chartism, Chartist movement
— before 1848—144
— in 1848—161
— in the 1850s—2i l , 220, 263-65,
272, 285, 294-97, 346, 380, 498,
502
— Chartist press—243, 244, 251,
285, 295, 346, 399
— part played by Marx and Engels
in Chartist movement—133-35,
263-64, 279, 285, 287-88
Christianity—10, 76-79
Civilisation— 5, 97, 102, 258
Civil society— 11, 96
Class(es)— 82, 96, 149, 434-45
See also Petty bourgeoisie; Working
class
Colonies— 97, 98, 101-02
Colonies, communist—6
Commerce (Verkehr)—97
Committee for German Affairs, the
(1850s)—321, 342, 345, 351, 355,
391, 427, 428, 446
Communism (social formation)
— as the future of mankind—82,
421, 434-35
— necessity of proletarian revolution—
81-82, 392
— formation and development of
communist society, period of
transition from capitalism to communism
(socialism)—169, 392,
419-20
— abolition of private property—82,
174, 419
— production—368, 419-21
— agriculture—262, 424
— social relations—102, 434-35
— communist transformation of society—
393-94, 434-35, 467, 469-72
— social consciousness—368
See also Period of transition from
capitalism to communism (socialism);
Revolution, proletarian, socialist
Communism (theories and trends)—61,
87, 104
See also Communism, scientific; Communism,
Utopian; Communism in Germany;
Communists
Communism, scientific—34, 82, 149
— as natural result of historical development—
3
— origin of scientific communism—
3
— history of appearance and development
of—34
— as theoretical expression of revolutionary
movement of proletariat—
82, 104
— revolutionary character of—82,
104
— demand for socialisation of the
means of production—82
Communism, Utopian—27, 87
See also Communism in Germany;
Weitlingianism
Communism in Germany (theories and
trends)
— pre-Marxist communism—105
— and working class, working-class
movement—122, 390
— dissemination of communist ideas
among progressive circles of
bourgeoisie (1840s) —3-10, 17-18,
23-24, 28-29
— struggle against petty-bourgeois
interpretations of communism—
81-83, 375-76
— and petty-bourgeois democracy—
174, 222, 393-94
— miscellanea—69, 152, 170
Communist Correspondence Committee in
Brussels—38-39, 56, 81
Communist League, the
— foundation, role of Marx and
Engels in its organisation—56,
60-62, 81-84, 91-92
— social composition—80
— its international character—134
— theoretical and programmatic
principles—149, 173, 207-08,
215, 381-82, 390, 391-94
— programme documents of—138,
149, 154, 173, 239-40, 352, 374,
384, 389-90, 392-94, 560-61
— Rules—154, 257, 374, 560-61
— congresses—117, 138-39, 144-46,
149-50, 152, 154, 240
— before 1848-49 revolution—110-
11, 117, 130, 134, 138-39, 143,
144, 146, 149-50, 152, 154
— and Weitlingianism—154, 452
— and 'true socialism' and
Proudhonism—105, 138, 154
— in the 1848-49 revolution—158,
160, 162-65, 170, 171-74, 352,
394
— after defeat of 1848-49 revolution—
225, 239-40, 249, 257, 331,
342, 347, 351-52, 359, 363, 366,
369, 374, 383-84, 389-90, 392-94,
397, 435, 483, 496-97, 521,
560-61
— tendencious character of the Cologne
trial of 1852, activities of
Marx and Engels in defence of
arrested communists—365, 374,
384, 389, 392-93, 472-74, 477-78,
482-84, 487, 491, 492, 497-98
— struggle against sectarian tactics of
the Willich-Schapper group, split
in the Communist League—242,
245-55, 265-66, 273, 280, 283-90,
297-98, 303-04, 309-10, 319-22,
334, 343, 362, 366, 372-73, 374,
375-78, 380-82, 385, 391, 407,
443, 445, 452, 458, 460-61, 463,
467-68, 473, 474, 477-78, 483-84,
498, 507, 560-61
— and educational workers'
societies—122-30, 141, 218, 222,
227-28, 539
— and petty-bourgeois democracy—
134-35, 207-08, 215, 223, 231-35,
279, 283-88, 302-04, 329-30, 334,
345, 351-52, 359-60, 362-63, 375-
77, 384-87, 389-90, 392-94, 398,
402-04
— communes in Belgium—130, 162,
163
— communes in England—245, 397-
98, 477, 521
— communes in France—138, 143,
154, 158, 163, 173-74, 452
— communes in Germany—160,
343, 359, 360, 362-63, 366-69,
384-85, 390, 467, 560-61
See also German Workers' Educational
Society in London; League of the Just
Communists, communist movement—20,
82, 104, 402
See also Communist Correspondence
Committee in Brussels; Communist
League, the
Competition— 87, 99, 101-03, 262, 409
Constantinople— 98
Consumption (econ.)—96, 97, 99, 160,
327
Corn Laws (in England)—205, 211,
220, 376
Cosmopolitanism—123, 124, 283, 455
Credit— 99-100, 275, 409, 413, 420-24,
492
Crime—5
Criticism
— of various social phenomena and
social consciousness—13, 27-29,
39, 100, 131, 215, 290
Cult of personality
— criticism of—290, 293
D
Democracy, bourgeois (political movement)—
136
Democracy, petty-bourgeois (political
movement)—279-80, 376-77, 381-82,
392-94, 402, 403, 511
See also Communist League, the—and
petty-bourgeois democracy; Democratic
Association in Brussels; Emigration—
bourgeois-democratic, petty bourgeois;
Fraternal Democrats; Revolution
of 1848 in France. Second
Republic— petty-bourgeois democracy;
Resolution of 1848-49 in Germany—
democratic movement
Democratic Association in Brussels
(1847)—122-30, 132, 141, 160-61
Denmark-— 93-94
See also Literature—Danish; Schleswig-
Holstein question, the
Dialectics
— Hegel's—97-98, 492
— in Proudhon's—97-98, 101-02, 103
Dictatorship, military—470
Division of labour—98-99
Doctrinarianism—103-04
Dogmatism— 100
E
East, (Ac—363
See also Orient, the
Economic categories—98-104
Economic crises— 99, 220, 274, 276-77,
281, 299-300, 357, 395, 420, 461-62,
476, 479, 521
Economic laws—100-01, 258, 261-62,
274-75, 423-24
See also Economic categories
Economic relations— 61, 97, 99, 101-03
See also Relations of production
Eighteenth century—98, 99
Emigration
— bourgeois-democratic, petty bourgeois—
232-33, 279-81, 283,
292-93, 309-10, 380-82, 431-32,
437-48, 499-503, 507-08, 555
— proletarian—223, 232-33, 377,
502, 555-57
— French—235, 239-40, 247-48,
250, 254, 283, 284, 291-94, 309-
11, 317-18, 381-82
— German in Belgium—67-70, 132,
141, 159-60, 163-65
— German in England before
1849—39, 89-92
— German in England after defeat
of 1848-49 revolution—221, 223,
232-34, 245-48, 265-67, 283-86,
296-98, 315-17, 319-22, 334, 342-
43, 345-47, 355-56, 359-60, 362,
366, 380-82, 384-87, 390-91, 397-
98, 402-04, 418, 426-32, 467-68,
474, 486, 498, 502, 549
— German in France—39, 53, 56-
57, 60-62, 71-72, 80-83, 85-87,
89-91, 112, 116, 138, 154, 158,
162, 166, 539
— German in Switzerland—184,
221-22, 362
— German in the USA—84, 225,
296, 334, 341, 398, 402, 406, 408,
417-18, 429, 446-48, 473-74, 483,
486, 496, 499-501, 516-17
— Hungarian in European countries
and in the USA—248, 255, 279,
281, 321, 488
— Italian—254, 255, 279, 310, 321,
455, 457, 459
— Polish—179, 247, 279, 310, 321
— emigre society (1850s)—222, 279,
467
Engels, Frederick
— on himself—192, 202-03, 217,
370
— friendship with Marx and family—
6, 22, 115, 179, 202-04, 251,
563
— joint work with Marx—9, 26,
53-54, 111, 113-14, 117-18, 156-
57, 207, 213, 269, 344
— Marx on Engels—179, 207
— before 1844 (general)—3-6, 9-14
— from 1845 to February 1848—16-
20, 21-30, 44-46, 52-54, 56, 61,
62, 71-72, 78-87
— in the 1848-49 revolutions (general)—
153, 158, 166, 167, 170-71,
179, 182, 185-86, 192, 202-04,
208-09, 213, 215-16
— during post-revolutionary reaction—
228, 233-34, 236, 267-68,
290, 370, 401, 515-17, 518-19
— as leader of Communist League—
134, 138-39, 146, 149, 158, 163-
64, 174, 239-40, 384, 389, 392-94,
397, 444
— contribution to workers' and
democratic publications—4-6, 16-
18, 24-25, 34, 117, 137-39, 152,
154-55, 156-57, 164-65
— as editor of Neue Rheinische
Zeitung— 207, 212-13, 221-22,
228-29, 231-32, 279-80
— contribution to Chartist press—
135, 152, 268, 279-80, 285-86,
289, 399, 400-01
— contributions to bourgeois and
democratic publications—28-29,
34
— contributions to New-York Daily
Tribune— 408-09, 418, 425, 434,
436, 453, 459, 469, 497, 518
— activity in workers' and democratic
organisations—56-59, 60-62,
80, 81, 84-86, 87, 122-30, 132,
134, 138-39, 144, 154, 159-61,
184, 228-29, 233-34, 236
— and labour and socialist movement
in England—134, 263-64,
279, 285-86, 287-88
— and labour and socialist movement
in France—61, 134-36
— and study of history—279, 315-
16, 336-37, 347, 363-64
— and study of military history and
theory—207, 301-02, 325, 328-29,
332-33, 336-37, 363, 370-72, 405
— family ,of—19-20, 28-30, 32-33,
37, 166, 172, 179, 181, 253-54,
301-02, 378-79, 540-41, 543-46
England (Great Britain)—97, 423
— history—97, 98
— in the 1850s (from 1849)—205,
218-20, 255, 279, 296, 461-62,
478, 479, 520-21
— economy—211, 320, 395, 461
— trade—376, 395, 449, 462-63, 513
— economic crises—99, 275
— social and political system—97
— aristocracy, nobility—205, 211,
220
— Free Traders—205-06, 211, 219
— bourgeois-democratic movements—
211, 219-20, 376
— foreign policy, diplomacy—205-
06, 211, 220
See also Bank(s)—of England;
Bourgeoisie—English; Chartism; Corn
Laws (in England); English Revolution
of 1640-60; Literature—English; Tories
(in England)
English Revolution of 1640-60— 97
Europe—471
Exchange— 71, 96, 97, 409, 413
F
Family, the—96
Fertility (of land)—258, 261-62
Feudalism—97, 98, 100, 103-04
See also Society, feudal
Feuerbach, his philosophy— 8, 12, 22, 54,
68, 75-79, 448, 475, 478
Fifteenth century—98
Force
— and revolution—81-82, 469
— and proletarian revolution—81-
82, 87
Foreign trade— 98, 102, 206, 274-78,
347, 451
See also World market
Fourier, his doctrine—13, 25-27, 104
Fourteenth century—98
France—133, 357, 512
— history—198-99, 421, 471
— July Revolution of 1830 and July
monarchy—58, 85, 133-37, 142-
44, 168, 512
See also Bank(s)—of France;
Bourgeoisie—French; Emigration—
French; French Revolution (18th century);
Revolution of 1848 in France.
Second Republic
Fraternal Democrats (international organisation,
1845-53)—87, 141, 144,
298
Freedom (liberty)—96, 435
French Revolution (18th century)—103-
04, 206, 362
See also Jacobin dictatorship
G
German Democratic Legion (1848)—167,
539
German Democratic Society in Paris
(1848)—162, 163, 539
See also German Democratic Legion
German philosophy— 7', 8, 11, 49-50, 105,
422, 428
See also Feuerbach, his philosophy;
Hegel; Young Hegelianism
German Workers' Club in Paris (1848)—
539
German Workers' Educational Society in
London (1840-1918)—69, 222, 228,
229, 245-47, 281, 283-85, 287-88,
289, 298, 307, 334, 374, 384-85, 442,
447, 477, 498
German Workers' Society in Brussels
(from 1847)—122-23, 126-30, 141
Germany
— history—98, 478
— economy—5, 87, 131-32, 392, 478
— peasantry—392-93
— bourgeois liberalism —10, 58-59,
71, 390
— democratic movement— 120-21,
131-32, 215, 220-22, 342, 345,
351-52, 376-77, 382, 392-94, 398,
417-18, 463-67, 499-502
— science, culture—17, 51, 160, 403
— foreign policy—363
See also Bourgeoisie—German; Emigration—
German; German philosophy;
Literature—German; Prussia; Revolution
of 1848-49 in Germany; Rhine
Province
God(s)—U, 12, 76-79
Gold and silver
— as basic material of money and.
credit systems—206, 274-78,
299-300
— as money—206, 274-78, 299-300
— significance of discovery of gold
in Australia and America—461,
479
— circulation of—274-78
— as reserve fund—206
— as luxury articles—477
— as a hoard—206
— and foreign trade—274-78
— and rate of exchange—274, 276
— and crises—461, 479
— substitution of paper money for
gold and silver in the period of
transition from capitalism to communism
(socialism)—419-20
— as seen by Proudhon and
Proudhonists—413, 419-20, 492
H
Hegel, Hegelianism—94, 274
— idealism—12-13
— dialectics—97-98, 492
— logic—13
— philosophy of history—97-98, 505
— and Marxism—12
Historical approach
— historical development—100-01,
102-03
— historical character of division of
labour—98-99
— historical character of production—
100
— historical character of mode of
production —103
— historical character of economic
production relations—97, 102-03
— historical character of economic
laws and categories—100-03
— criticism of bourgeois economists'
anti-historical approach—100-01
— criticism of Proudhon's antihistorical
approach—97-104
Historical materialism, materialist conception
of history— 95-96, 425, 434
See also Basis and superstructure;
Class(es); Historical approach; History;
Productive forces; Relations of production
Historical school of law, the—434
History— 3, 96-97, 102, 103
See also Historical approach; Historical
materialism; Idealism—idealist conception
of history
Housing question, the—412
Human activities—96-97, 103
Hungary— 205, 470
See also Emigration—Hungarian in
European countries and in the USA;
National liberation war of 1848-49 in
Hungary
Hypothesis— 96-97, 100, 261-62
I
Idealism
— and reality—12-13
— and materialism, their opposition—
11-13, 68, 398
— and religion—11-12
— idealist conception of history—12,
95-97, 102-03
— idealism of Hegel and
Hegelians—12-13
See also Abstraction; Dialectics; German
philosophy; Ideology
Ideas
— origin and nature of—102-03
— and reality—13, 104
— idealist conception of alleged rule
of ideas in the world—97-98
— Hegel's Absolute Idea—97
— as conceived by Proudhon and
Proudhonists—97-98, 102-03, 104
Ideological struggle in working-class movement—
SX-8Z, 86-97, 91-92
— during creation of proletarian
party (1840-50s) —39, 81-83, 91-
92, 120, 285, 290, 351-52, 382,
460-61
See also Communist League, the
Ideology—115, 116
India—395, 450, 460
Industry—see Large-scale industry
Internal politics—467, 469-70
International relations—98
Internationalism, proletarian—39
Inventions
— as objectively and socially conditioned—
99
— and industrial revolution—99-100
Ireland—455
Italy—352, 455, 456-57
See also Bourgeoisie—Italian; Emigration—
Italian; Literature—Italian;
Maziini
J
Jacobin dictatorship, Jacobins—470, 512
June uprising of Paris proletariat (1848)—
512
L
Landed property— 264, 392, 412-13, 419-
20, 423-24
Large-scale industry— 63, 98, 101-02,
258, 261, 414-15
Laws—5, 290, 423
League of the Just—SI, 92
— leaders of—69, 89-92
— Paris communities—52-53, 56-57,
61-62, 71-72, 80, 82-87, 89
— and Weitlingianism—52, 56, 59,
61, 79, 87, 91
— and 'true socialism' and
Proudhonism—53, 61-63, 68, 70-
72, 80-87
— role of Marx and Engels in its
reorganisation—52-53, 56, 60-62,
71, 80-87, 89-92
Liberalism (description)—29, 255
Literature
— Ancient Greek—444
— Danish—93-94
— English—140, 301-02
— French—11, 28, 294
— German—38, 68, 111, 131, 474,
494
— Italian—474-75
— Swedish—93
Lumpenproletariat— 421
M
Malthusianism
— and 'law of diminishing returns'—
261, 425
Man, individual, personality—11-13, 54,
95-98
— and nature—54, 75-78
— and society—5, 27, 75-78, 95-97,
102-03
— and the historical progress—5,
11, 95-98, 102-03, 104
— idea of man in the history of
social thought—11-13, 54, 75-78,
80, 97-98
'Manifesto of the Communist Party' by
K. Marx and F. Engels—494
Marx, Karl
— friendship with Engels—179, 207,
210, 213, 242, 285, 326-27
— joint work with Engels—9, 26-27,
53-54, 110, 114, 116-17, 156-57,
207, 213, 269, 344
— Engels on Marx and his role in
international working-class movement—
128, 129, 132, 133
— from 1844 to February 1848 (general)—
15, 21, 22, 31, 38-39, 49-
51, 105, 117, 141-42, 150
— in the 1848-49 revolutions (general)—
158, 159, 162, 170, 179, 181,
192-93, 195-96, 198-200, 208-10,
212, 214, 216, 539-40
— 1849-51—223, 237, 239-40, 257,
285, 355, 377, 382, 431-32, 498,
519, 549, 555-58, 561-62
— as leader of Communist League—
111, 134, 146, 149, 158, 239-40,
257, 273, 309-10, 384, 389, 392-
94, 397-98, 444, 473, 496, 498
— as editor of Neue Rheinische
Zeitung—171, 179-82, 183-84,
188-94, 195-96, 199, 201, 403,
555-56
— as editor of Neue Rheinische
Zeitung. Politisch-ökonomische
Revue— 207, 212-13, 217, 219,
222-23, 224-26, 231, 237, 238-39,
252, 257, 549, 556
— contribution to bourgeois and
bourgeois-democratic publications—
208, 210, 409, 506
— and labour and socialist movement
in England—285, 289, 294-
95, 399
— his family—149-51, 207, 210,
226-27, 238, 242, 250, 323-24,
402-03, 525-26, 527-32, 546-48,
549, 555-59, 563
See also Engels, Frederick
Marxism (description)—3, 34, 82, 104-
05, 149
See also Communism, scientific; Engels,
Frederick; Historical materialism; Marx,
Karl; Marxist political economy
Marxist political economy
— its superiority over bourgeois and
petty-bourgeois political economy—
49-51, 100-01, 258, 261-
62, 271, 274-75, 299, 357
Materialism
— and idealism, their opposition—
11-13, 68, 398
— vulgar—76
— history of—28, 76-78
— and socialism—66
See also Historical materialism
Mazzini, Mazzinists—454-55, 456, 459
Merchants)— 327-28
Middle Ages, medieval society—97
Military science—371
— material basis of—425
— military history—328, 336-37,
371, 372
— military literature—301-02, 329,
463-67, 470
— study by Marx and Engels of
military history and problems of
military theory—207, 301-02,
325, 328-29, 332-33, 336-37, 362-
63, 370-74, 405
Mode of production— 97, 98, 101-02, 479
Money
— as means of circulation—274-78,
299-300
— as means of hoarding—275-76
— metal—206, 274-78, 299-300
— laws of its circulation—275
— amount in circulation—274-78,
299-300
— use pi money in the period of
transition from capitalism to communism
(socialism)—168, 419
— bourgeois theories on origin and
essence of money—274-75
— critique of Proudhon's theory of
money—62-63, 109, 411, 413,
419-22, 424
See also Bill of exchange; Cold and
silver; Money capital; Money circulation;
Paper money
Money capital— 275-76, 450
Money circulation (currency)—274-78,
299-300
Moscow—364
N
Napoleonic wars— 206, 364, 370, 372,
471
Nationalisation of land—264
Nationalism— 39
National liberation war of 1848-49 in
Hungary— 212, 328-29, 372, 470
National question, the—455, 457
Naturalisation— 363-64
See also National question, the
Nature— 27, 75-77, 290
o
Orient, the— 77-78
Owenism, Owenites—6, 27, 255, 360
P
Paper money—206, 274, 277-78, 300,
420
Party, proletarian
— its character—512
— Marx's party, 'our party'—133,
219, 289-90, 402, 442, 473, 488
— before 1848 revolution—105,
133, 138, 149
— in the 1848-49 revolution—167,
198
— criticism and self-criticism—39,
290
— tactics—392-94, 512
— propaganda—3, 290, 394
— and religion—137-38
See also Communist Correspondence
Committee in Brussels; Communist
League, the
Period of transition from capitalism to
communism (socialism)—392-94,
419-22
Petty bourgeoisie—104-05, 110, 392-93,
512
Philistinism—10, 19, 20, 110, 113, 336,
351-52, 435
Philosophy— 7, 27-28, 95, 104-05
See also Dialectics; German philosophy;
Historical materialism; Idealism;
Materialism
Poland—179, 329, 363-64
See also Emigration—Polish; Polish
question, the
Polish question, the—363-64
Political economy—261-62, 325
See also Bourgeois political economy;
Marxist political economy
Political rule of proletariat (idea of the
dictatorship of the proletariat)—392-
93
Political system—96-97
Popular masses, people, the—103
Portugal—358
Private property—&2, 99-100, 424
Productive forces— 71, 95-97, 100-03,
419
Propaganda—3, 394
Proudhonism, Proudhonists
— as ideology of petty bourgeoisie—
82, 102-05, 154, 255, 420-23, 424
— unscientific, anti-historical, Utopian
character of—63, 71, 95-
105, 421, 444, 492
— sectarian, doctrinaire, dogmatic
character of—63, 81, 87, 99-100,
102, 103
— reformist essence of—63, 255,
409
— Proudhon's anti-communism—
104-05, 423, 424
— criticism of Proudhon's philosophical
views—95-105, 422,
434-35
— Proudhon's speculative, metaphysical
method—97, 100-01
— false dialectics (sophistry)—95,
97-98, 101-02, 435, 492
— idealist view of history—95-98,
100-01, 102-04, 435
— criticism of Proudhon's economic
views—62-63, 70-71, 95-96, 98-
101, 102, 409-15, 418-24, 434-35,
492
— criticism of Proudhon's theory of
'determination of value'—98, 415,
421, 423
— on the workers' collective forces—
410, 414, 415
— on production costs—63, 70, 415
— on price—415, 422
— on wages—70, 414-15, 423
— on money—62, 413, 419-20, 424
— on capital—63, 71, 423-24
— on national debt—409, 411, 412,
419-20, 421, 492
— on exchange—70, 410, 413
— on division of labour—98-100,
409, 410, 414, 415
— on competition—99, 100-01, 409,
415, 419-20
— on monopoly—99, 100-01
— on industry—63, 99, 100, 409,
414, 419-20, 424
— on property—82, 99, 100, 412-13
— on landed property—412-13,
419-20, 423-24
— on taxes and customs—99, 416,
422, 424
— on trade—99, 410, 415-16'
— and bourgeois society—95, 102,
104, 423-24, 434-35
— workers' associations and companies
in industry—63, 70-71, 81-
83, 109, 410, 414-15, 419-20, 421,
423-24
— exchange bank—63, 411, 413,
419-20, 424
— on reduction and abolition of
interest—71, 411, 419-24, 492
— on credit—99-100, 413, 419-24,
492
— 'organisation des forces économiques'—
409, 413
— 'liquidation sociale'—411, 423,
444
— Proudhonist views on solving
housing question—412, 423
— and bourgeoisie—423, 434-35,
511
— and working class—103, 423, 435
— and revolution—63, 409-10, 435
— and policy and the state, anarchy—
96, 409-11, 415, 416, 418,
419-20, 421, 435
— and 'true socialism'—61-63, 71,
81-83, 87, 255
— and scientific communism—39,
435
— and various socialist and communist
theories and trends—104,
219, 423, 424, 434, 435
— and Stirner's views—416, 422
Prussia—186, 211-12, 267, 372, 384
R
Relations of production—95-97, 132
Religion— 9-14, 22, 53-54, 76-79
See also God(s)
Rent of land
— and law of value—423-24
— ways of calculating—258, 261-62
— overall rental—258, 262
— historical character of—262
— and difference in situation and
fertility of land—258, 261-62,
270-71
— and improvements in agriculture—
258, 261-62
— and its influence on cost and price
of agricultural products—258,
261-62, 270-71
— as studied by Marx—274
— in Ricardo's theory—258, 261-62,
270-71
— in the theories of vulgar economists—
258, 261
See also Landed property
Revolution (general)—103, 290, 419-21,
469, 470, 512
See also Revolution, bourgeois; Revolution,
proletarian, socialist; Revolution of
1848 in France. Second Republic;
Revolution of 1848-49 in Germany
Revolution, bourgeois, bourgeois-democratic—
97, 103-04, 220, 290
Revolution, proletarian, socialist—81-82,
103, 105, 424, 469-70, 521
Revolution of 1848 in France. Second
Republic
— February to June 1848, proclamation
of republic—165, 166-69,
189, 211, 355, 357, 484, 485
— Constitution of 1848—360-61,
363, 366-38
— National (Constituent) Assembly,
its policy, struggle between the
parties—205, 285, 288, 360-61,
363, 367
— Legislative Assembly (from 28
May 1849), its policy, struggle
between the parties—205, 288,
360-61, 363, 366-67, 484-85
— events of 13 June 1849—198-99,
210-12, 479, 509
— universal suffrage, its abolition on
31 May 1850—288, 367, 484,
505, 512
— economy—206, 219, 462
— and bourgeoisie—162-63, 165,
166-69, 367
— and petty-bourgeoisie—168, 220,
512
— and the working class—166-69,
220, 511-12, 539
— and peasantry—169, 211, 484
— Legitimists—167, 205, 211,
484-85
— Orleanists—205, 211, 484-85
— Bonapartists—167, 205
— Party of Order—360-61, 485,
504, 510
— and bourgeois republicans (National
party)—168-69, 357, 360-
61, 363, 485, 512-13
— petty-bourgeois democracy—166-
69, 208-09, 309, 360-61, 480, 510,
511
— coup d'état of 2 December 1851 —
503-18
Revolution of 1848-49 in Germany
— preconditions and causes of. progress
and character of—160, 164-
65, 166, 175-77, 183. 198-200,
203, 207, 214-15, 222-23, 372
— classes, estates, social groupings—
160, 171, 172-76, 390
— state apparatus, representative assemblies—
16, 17, 18-19, 160,
175-77, 222-23, 293, 325, 327
— democratic movement—184, 199,
200, 207, 215
— Marx, Engels and Communist
League in the revolution—160,
171, 173, 181, 186, 199, 203, 207,
215, 352
Revolutionary phrasemongering—285,
290, 384, 393
Rhine Province— 4, 5, 29-30, 141, 471
Ricardian school in political economy—
258, 270-71
Russia (Russian Empire)—205-06, 363-
65, 462
— Marx's and Engels' contacts with
Russian liberals and revolutionaries
in 1840-50s—6, 38,
95, 105, 116, 141
See also Bank(s)—of St. Petersburg;
Bourgeoisie—Russian; Moscow
S
Saint-Simon's socialism—27, 57, 434
Schleswig-Holstein question, the—69-70,
239
Science— 38, 40, 103-04, 156-57
— and society—105, 258, 261, 271,
368
— classification, system of sciences—
48, 157, 325, 370
— historical development of
science—50, 258, 261, 368
See also Communism, scientific;
Philosophy; Political economy
Seventeenth century—98
Slavery, slave trade—101-02
Social-Democratic Refugee Committee (late
1840s-early 1850s)—218, 231, 232,
233-34, 236, 247, 442-43, 445
Social estates— 96, 103-04
Social relations— 96-97, 99-103, 132
Social system—5, 95-97, 102
Socialism, Utopian—see Fourier; Owenism;
Saint-Simon's socialism
Society— 5, 27, 95-97, 102, 104, 131-32,
290
See also Civil society; Social relations;
Social system; Society, bourgeois; Society,
feudal
Society, bourgeois—5, 11, 95, 99, 102,
103, 423
Society, feudal— 97, 99, 103-04
Speculation (in money, in stock)—321,
461-62, 479
State, the— 96, 384, 435
See also Civil society
Suffrage— 484-85, 509
Sweden— 93-94
See also Literature—Swedish
Switzerland—181, 185-86, 203
T
Tatars, the—363
Taxes, taxation system—99, 168, 281,
352, 416, 422, 424
Theory and practice—3, 10, 27, 92,
103-05, 138-39, 157
Tories (in England)—333
'True socialism' (general), petty bourgeois
essence of—12, 50, 61-63,
68,. 75, 79-87, 89-91, 105, 108-10,
113, 203
U
United States of America—101-02, 406,
502
— economy—99, 101-02, 395, 462,
476-77, 479
— technology—476-77
See also California
Uprisings of Lyons workers, 1831 and
1834—512
W
Weitlingianism, Weitlingians—52, 56-57,
59, 61, 87, 154
Working class—92, 149
See also Party, proletarian; Revolution,
proletarian, socialist
World market—99, 101, 461, 479
World outlook—3, 4
See also Communism, scientific; Dialectics;
Historical materialism; Idealism;
Ideology; Marxism; Materialism;
Philosophy
V
Young Hegelianism, Young Hegelians—
ll-l3, 16, 27-28







MECW VOL 39







A
Abyssinians (Ethiopians)—340
Adventurism (political)
— voluntarist attitude towards revolution,
'play at revolution'—73,
85, 101, 103, 106, 125, 127-29,
140-42, 154-56, 158, 161, 168-70,
172, 187, 197, 224, 225, 279,
280-81, 577
See also Communist League—struggle
against sectarian tactics of the Willich-
Schapper group, split in the
League
Afghanistan, Afghans—327, 404
See also Anglo-Afghan war, 1838-42
Agitation club (Union) (1850s)—14, 42,
44, 97, 151, 173
Agriculture
— and industry—345
— and price formation —164-65,
253, 512-13
— and application of chemistry —
382, 392
— and natural conditions—339
See also Agronomy
Agronomy—382, 513
Alsace— 388, 476
Anglo-Afghan war, 1838-42— 432
Anglo-Sikh wars, 19th cent.—82, 84, 96
Anti-communism (critique and exposure
by Marx and Engels)
— persecution and slander of communists—
22, 220, 575-76
See also Cologne Communist Trial
— of petty-bourgeois ideologists—
34, 308, 570
Anti-Corn Law League—53, 56
Arab—326-27, 332, 339-41
Aristocracy—see Nobility
Army
— Austrian—279, 460, 541, 546
— British—12, 21, 53
— Danish—451-52
— French—48, 263, 388, 452, 490,
495, 496, 524
— Indian—332-33
— Neapolitan (of the Kingdom of
the Two Sicilies) — 540
— Russian—427, 470-71, 495
— Schleswig-Holstein—451-52
— Turkish—374, 394, 422, 444, 479
See also Artillery
Artillery— 422, 424, 539-40
Asia, Asiatic mode of production—333,
339, 346-48
Assyria—327
Australia
— immigration—165, 513
— foreign trade—165, 374, 514
— discovery of gold in—83, 84, 96,
130, 165, 231
Austria— 5, 105, 195, 495
— trade—286, 294-95
— and the Italian states, their oppression—
314-17, 343, 493, 545
— and France—5, 11-12, 44, 195,
277, 308, 494
— and Prussia—5, 56, 143, 195,
286, 307
— and Russia—5, 143, 463, 546
See also Army—Austrian; Austro-
Italian war, 1848-49; Crimean war,
1853-56—and Austria

Austro-Italian war, 1848-49—509-10
B
Babylon— 327
Bank(s)— 111, 257, 388
— of England—150, 161, 162, 164,
199, 274, 275, 368
Bedouins— 327, 340
Belgium—12, 45
Bible—249, 326, 327, 492, 558
Bonapartism
— and bourgeoisie—47, 48, 68
— and working class—47, 197, 320
— Bonapartist (imperial) 'socialism'—
17, 68, 123
See also France—Second Empire
(1852-70)
Bourgeoisie— 62, 65, 68, 191, 473-74
— American — 346
— English —21, 53, 55, 59, 61, 68,
119, 143, 474
— French—17, 45, 48, 51, 59, 68,
261, 387, 474
— Italian—171, 279
— Prussian—307, 349
Bourgeois political economy—61-62, 163,
345-46, 382, 383
— Carey's economic views, Marx's
criticism of—62, 93, 345-46,
378, 381, 384
See also Ricardo, Ricardian school
Bulgaria—444, 460
Byzantium— 44 7
C
California— 57, 83, 84, 96, 165, 253,
556
Caliphate of Baghdad— 327
Campaign of 1812 in Russia—305
Capital
— and wage-labour—378, 381, 383
— and division of labour—381
Capitalist mode of production
— its historical necessity—65
— antagonistic contradictions—62
— as the basis of bourgeois society—
191, 345
— bourgeois conceptions of—61-62,
65, 345-46
Catholicism—381
Central Committee of European Democracy—
73, 171, 433
Chaldeans, the— 327
Chartism, Chartists
— as first independent political party
of working class—3
— and bourgeois and petty bourgeois
radicals—107, 196, 536
— in the 1850s—15, 31, 59, 68, 196,
324-25, 350, 355, 483, 502, 521,
523, 525
— Chartist press, the—15, 42, 60-61,
72, 89, 99, 107, 162, 176, 196,
265-66, 276, 325, 502
— Marx's and Engels' participation
in Chartist movement—11,
68, 75, 96-97, 175, 196, 414, 502,
521
See also Labour Parliament
China—5, 165, 346
Christianity— 341, 447
See also Bible; Catholicism; Protestantism
Civilisation— 289, 392
Civil war— 62, 305-06
Classes, class struggle—59, 61-62, 65, 68,
87, 191, 285, 473-74
See also Lockouts; Preston strike,
1853-54
Cologne Communist Trial
— Marx's and Engels' defence of the
accused and exposure of the provocative
methods used in staging
the trial—9, 10, 20, 25, 27-29, 34,
59, 79, 96, 107, 115, 132, 134-35,
136-37, 138, 142-44, 211-12, 215- -
24, 226-38, 240-45, 246-47, 250-
51, 252, 259-66, 270, 275, 281-82,
287-88, 301, 302, 323, 324, 326,
558, 570, 575-80
— and the Willich-Schapper group—
74, 112-13, 170, 177, 222-24, 236,
244, 260, 264, 313, 326, 330-31,
335-36, 576
— class character of the trial—134,
136-37, 143, 206, 212
— conduct of the accused at
the trial—134, 137, 195, 197,
212, 242-43, 262-63, 308, 559,
575-76
— and the bourgeois press—23, 30,
34, 142, 210
— relief organised by Marx and
Engels for the accused and
their families—247, 259-60, 282,
297
— historic significance and consequences
for the international working-
class movement—247, 308,
309
Commune (medieval)—474-76
Communism, scientific; communist movement—
308, 476
See also Communist League; Marxism
(general characteristics)
Communism, Utopian; non-scientific conceptions
of communism—67, 345-46
See also Owenism; Saint-Simonism;
Weitling
Communist League, the
— foundation—143
— in the 1848-49 revolution—308,
553
— after defeat of 1848-49 revolution—
8, 14, 59, 66, 71, 73, 75,
76, 79, 151, 160, 176-77, 207,
244-45, 247
— Rules of 1850—66
— elaboration of tactical principles—
308-09
— struggle against sectarian tactics of
the Willich-Schapper group, split
in the League—15, 44, 74, 86, 92,
100-01, 103, 125-26, 143, 151-52,
162, 169, 173, 177-78, 226-27,
244, 260, 264, 266, 296, 309, 317,
325-26, 330-31, 351, 378, 403-04,
575-76
— and petty-bourgeois democracy—
14, 262-63, 308, 575-76
— dissolution of Communist League,
causes of—247
See also Cologne Communist Trial;
German Workers' Educational Society in
London (1840-1919); League of the Just
Community, the
— old Slav—67
— oriental —339, 347-48
Consciousness
— as understood by Hegel—556
Corn Laws— 61, 69, 143, 512-13
See also Anti-Corn Law League
Crafts, craftsmen—82, 84
Credit
— state—257, 263, 388
— in Proudhon's theory—261, 263
Crimean war, 1853-56
— causes and character—288, 487
— preparations for the war, plans
and forces of belligerents—406,
425, 427, 435, 470-71, 487
— and diplomacy of European
states—408-10, 461-62, 518, 519
— and prospects for revolution—
422, 487
— battle of Sinope, 30 November
1853—408, 423, 518
— military operations in Danubian
theatre of war, 1853-54—368,
395, 411, 422, 426, 427, 446, 460,
469-71
— battle of Oltenitza, 4 November
1853—404, 408
— battle of Chetatea, 6 January
1854—408, 410
— siege of Silistria, 1854—411, 458,
460, 461, 463, 472
— military operations in the Crimea,
1854-55—444, 446, 451-53, 472,
484, 485, 499, 507, 509, 538, 541,
550
— naval operations—409, 410, 460,
466, 485
— and England, foreign policy and
diplomacy—408-09, 446, 452,
472-73, 485, 487, 500, 518
— and France, foreign policy and
diplomacy—409, 487
— and Turkey—408, 410, 422, 444,
518
— and Russia, foreign policy and
diplomacy—409, 410, 446, 461
— and Austria—419, 431, 461, 464,
485
Customs Union (Germany, 1834-71)—
186, 195, 307
D
Danish-Prussian war, 1848-52—404,
451-52
Danubian Principalities—461, 518
See also Moldavia; Wallachia
Democracy, petty-bourgeois (political
trend)—65, 73-74
— relations between Marx and Engels
and petty-bourgeois democrats—
14, 34, 236, 290-91,
439-40
See also Communist League—and
petty-bourgeois democracy; Emigration,
emigrants—bourgeois-democratic,
petty-bourgeois
Denmark-— 366, 376, 456
See also Army—Danish; Danish-
Prussian war, 1848-52; Schleswig-
Holstein question, the
Dictatorship of the proletariat
— as a result of developing class
struggle—62, 65
— as the State in the period of
transition from capitalism to communism
(socialism)—62, 65
Diplomacy— 395, 432
Division of labour—381, 384
Doctrinairism, doctrinaires—388
E
Eastern Question, the—278, 516
— nature of—288
— as a source of international discord—
487
— aggravation in early 1850s—288,
388
See also Crimean war, 1853-56; Egyptian
crisis, 1839-41; Russo-Turkish
war, 1828-29
East India Company—517
East, the (specific features of economic
and social development)—327, 332-
33, 339-41
See also Asia, Asiatic mode of production;
Community (oriental); State,
the (oriental)
Economic crises
— and condition of working
people—374, 376, 388, 512-13
— and prospects of socialist development
and revolution—163, 165,
197, 388
— forecasting of, by Marx and Engels—
32, 54, 83, 96, 162-63, 164-
65, 190, 275, 286, 306, 367, 372,
387
— chronic character—165, 197
— and trade—45, 46, 49, 53, 54, 57,
69, 165, 221, 368
— and market situation—82, 83, 84,
165, 253
— and bourgeois state—263
Economics and politics—62, 339-40
Egypt— 295, 340
See also Egypt, ancient; Egyptian crisis
Egypt, ancient—327
Egyptian crisis, 1839-41—456
— London conventions of 1840 and
1841—404, 432, 447, 457
Emigration club (1850s)—14, 42, 44, 97
Emigration, emigrants
— as a consequence of capitalist
development—165, 320, 512,
542
— aristocratic—45
— bourgeois-democratic, petty-bourgeois—
73-74, 141, 281, 521, 523
— revolutionary—42, 373
— English—165, 512
— French—42, 50-51, 70-71, 73, 74,
76-77, 135, 136, 141, 171, 174,
199, 281, 295-96, 317, 320,
367, 388, 434, 462, 502, 521,
555
— German emigrants in England —
6, 74, 93, 95-96, 121-22, 124-26,
128, 130, 136, 139-41, 146, 148-
49, 154-56, 187, 194-95, 236, 266-
67, 283-84, 304-05, 309, 433, 498-
99, 569
— German emigrants in Switzerland—
44
— German emigrants in the USA—
6, 41, 52, 86, 92, 122, 139,
148-49, 158, 161, 282, 296, 297,
351, 367, 542; see also German-
American revolutionary loan
— Hungarian—30-32, 56, 73, 101,
106, 126, 141, 150, 151, 153, 158,
171, 194, 232, 261, 267-69, 279,
280, 281-82, 283-84, 290-91, 297,
304, 572
— Italian—521; see also Mazzini
— Polish—80, 172, 345, 401, 479,
521
— Russian —306, 345, 359-63, 365,
438, 521, 522-23, 553
Engels, Frederick
— on himself—424
— friendship with Marx and family—
69, 81, 530, 533
— joint work with Marx—4, 37, 86,
90, 109, 120, 147-48, 188-89, 209,
211, 217, 238, 246, 272, 288-89,
332, 368, 370, 372, 374, 375-76,
414, 429, 463, 464, 477, 515-20,
537-41
— Marx on Engels—376, 391, 407,
423-25, 529-30, 533
— before 1850—293, 424
— between 1850 and 1855 (general)—
11, 16, 67, 75, 427-28, 435
— language studies—67, 80, 180,
305, 341, 424
See also Chartism, Chartists—Marx's
and Engels' participation in Chartist
movement; Democracy, petty bourgeois—
relations between Marx
and Engels and petty-bourgeois
democrats; Marx, Karl; Military science—
Marx's and Engels' study of
military history and problems of
military theory
England (Great Britain)—21, 54, 334-
35, 345
— industry—5, 57, 82-84, 96, 147,
188-90, 253, 276, 285-86, 289,
293, 306, 320, 345, 374
— agriculture—253, 275, 306,
512-13
— trade—5, 54, 57, 82-84, 96, 165,
294-95, 374, 434, 511-13, 514; see
also Corn Laws; East India
Company
— finances, budget, taxation—162-
63, 253, 274-76, 284, 306, 333,
355, 515, 517-18, 519; see also
Bank(s)—of England
— social and political system, class
relations—see Bourgeoisie—
English; National Reform League
(England, from 1849); Nobility,
aristocracy—English; Parliament,
British; Working class—in England;
Working-class movement in England
— oligarchic character of government—
21, 276, 289
— political parties of ruling classes,
crisis of (1850s)—129, 135-36,
197, 306; see also Free traders
(England); Peelites (England); Tories
(England); Whigs (England)
— electoral system, electoral reforms—
54, 56, 136, 284, 516,
518-20
— coalition 'Cabinet of all the Talents',
1852-55—284, 518
— foreign policy, diplomacy—54,
288, 376, 431-32, 446, 456-57,
487-90, 516; see also Crimean war,
1853-56—and England, foreign
policy and diplomacy
— and France—10, 11-12, 54, 276,
432, 447, 456, 487-89, 495-96,
554-55
— and Greece—284, 404, 455-56
— and Italy—53
— and Prussia—437
— and Russia—53, 285, 288, 432-33,
446, 456-57, 487, 489
— and Spain—53, 456, 495
— and Turkey—285, 288, 432
See also Anglo-Afghan war, 1838-42;
Anglo-Sikh wars, 19 cent; Army—
British; Emigration—English; India—
colonisation by Britain and its consequences;
Ireland; Literature—English;
Navy—British; Scotland
F
Feudalism—191, 339, 381, 392, 474,
490
See also Society—feudal
Feuerbach, his philosophy—45
Fortification—411
France
— French, the; national character—
51, 171
— in the Middle Ages—475-76
— during the Consulate and First
Empire (1799-1814)—388, 490;
see also Napoleonic wars
— during the July monarchy (1830-
48)—17, 200, 307, 388, 447,
492-97
— Second Empire (1852-70)—96,
221, 334, 387-88; see also
Bonapartism; Crimean war—and France, foreign policy and diplomacy
— coup d'état of 2 December 1851 —
7, 42, 46-48, 91, 320, 456
— industry—306, 320
— agriculture—162, 165, 388
— trade—47, 82, 83, 320
— finances, financial policy—68,
122, 257, 263, 372, 388, 545
— internal situation, home policy—
7, 12, 17, 27, 45, 47-49, 68-69,
122, 126, 263, 306-07, 320, 388,
545
— corruption of ruling circles—48-
49, 257, 388
— monarchist groups—126, 129,
130, 172, 200, 263, 307, 308
— growth of oppositional sentiments
in French society—44, 47-49,
126, 128, 200, 263, 307, 387-88,
555
— Bonapartist regime and wars—7,
10, 11-12, 257, 276, 307
— and Austria—5, 12, 45, 194, 277,
307, 494
— and Belgium—12, 45
— and England—10, 12, 54, 276,
432, 447, 456-57, 487-89, 496,
555
— and Germany—36, 44, 276
— and Hungary—45
— and Piedmont—12
— and Poland—45
— and Prussia—5, 12, 307, 494, 524
— and Russia—5, 11-12, 45, 277,
416, 456-57, 487, 492, 494, 495,
496
— and Spain—490, 492-97
— and Switzerland—12
— and Turkey—277, 289, 456-57
See also Army—French; Bourgeoisie—
French; Emigration, emigrants—
French; French revolution (18 century);
Literature—French; Peasantry—
French; Revolution of 1848 in France;
Second Republic (1848-52); Working
class—in France
Free trade
— and bourgeois political economy—
275, 346; see also Free
traders (England)
— and working class—513
Free traders (England)—56, 59, 84, 111,
147, 253
See also Anti-Corn Law League; Manchester
School
French Revolution (18th century)—51,
474
G
Galicia— 546
Geographical environment
— influence on development of society—
339, 392
German-American revolutionary loan—42,
72, 77, 80, 92, 96, 101, 126, 136,
141, 149-51, 154-57, 158, 161-62,
165, 166, 169, 172-73, 176-77, 206-
07, 225, 245, 266, 274-75
German philosophy—345, 412
See also Feuerbach; Hegel; Young
Hegelianism
German Workers' Educational Society in
London (1840-1919)—14, 113, 195,
217, 226, 336, 521
Germany— 309, 459
— history—45, 305, 474-76
— economy—162-63, 164-65, 195,
286, 346, 563
— bourgeois liberalism—502
— democratic movement—65, 73-
74, 251, 308-09
See also Austria; Customs Union
(Germany, 1834-71); Emigration—
German emigrants in England,—
German emigrants in Switzerland,—
German emigrants in the USA; German
philosophy; Literature—German;
Peasantry—German; Poetry—German;
Prussia; Revolution of 1848-49 in Germany;
United Diet (Germany); Working-
class movement in Germany
Gold
— as money—162, 253
— social and economic consequences
of its discovery in Australia and
America (California)—57, 83, 84,
96, 165, 253, 275
— as viewed by mercantilists—275-
76
Greece—447
— insurrection in Greek provinces of
Turkey, 1854—414, 444
— and England—284, 404, 456
— and Russia—285, 447, 456
H
Hegel, Hegelianism—45, 65, 87, 104,
208, 306, 462, 587
See also Consciousness—as understood
by Hegel
Hinduism— 348
Historical approach— 62, 65, 103, 473-74
Historiography
— in the Middle Ages—341, 476
— reactionary romantic—492
— bourgeois, in 19th cent.—62, 65,
305, 473-76, 500, 503, 506
— French, of the Restoration
period—62, 65, 305, 473-76
Holy Alliance—12, 53, 289, 432
— congresses—492-97
Hungary—31, 53, 105, 432
See also Emigration, emigrants—
Hungarian; Revolution of 1848-49 and
national liberation war in Hungary
I
India
— natural conditions—339
— before British conquest—327,
332-33
— crafts, home industry—82, 84,
347
— agriculture—339, 346-47
— village communities, their stagnation—
347-48
— colonisation by Britain and its
consequences—5, 82, 84, 96, 165,
253, 339, 346, 347, 374, 514, 517
See also Anglo-Sikh wars, 19 cent.;
Army—Indian; East India Company;
Hinduism
Internationalism, proletarian—259-60
Ireland— 512, 517, 518
See also Parliament, British—Irish
MPs ('Irish Brigade')
Islam— 284, 327, 332, 340, 348, 432
See also Koran
Italy
— history—305, 432, 476
— economy—307
— Austrian domination — 278-81,
307, 493, 545
— national liberation movement—
73, 101, 142, 281-82, 283-84, 307,
458-59
See also Austro-Italian war, 1848-49;
Bourgeoisie—Italian; Emigration—
Italian; Kingdom of the Two Sicilies;
Literature—Italian; Mazzini; Nobility,
aristocracy—Italian; Peasantry—Italian;
Piedmont; Revolution of 1848-49
in Italian states
]
Jamaica— 346
Java— 348
Jews— 326, 327, 332
Judaism— 326, 327, 341
K
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Naples) —
541
See also Army—Neapolitan
Koran— 285, 328, 340
L
Labour Parliament (England)—417, 419
League of the Just, the—143
Literature
— style—492
— American—217, 301
— ancient Scandinavian—328
— Arabian—328
— English—440
— French—74, 203, 209, 249, 297,
332-33, 341, 447, 492-97
— German—296, 307, 328, 353,
390, 440, 447, 457, 563, 568
— Hebrew—327
— Hungarian—543
— Italian—125-27, 131, 390
— Persian—341
— Slav—67
— Spanish—447, 480, 492
See also Poetry .
Lockouts—374, 561
Lorraine— 388, 476
M
Machines
— and wages—513, 561
Manchester School, Manchester men—44,
69, 355
See also Anti-Corn Law League (England);
Free traders (England)
Market price—383
Marx, Karl
— on himself—507
— friendship with Engels—403-04,
530, 533
— joint work with Engels—4, 37, 80,
84, 109, 120, 147-48, 188-89, 209,
211, 217, 238, 246, 272-73, 288-
89, 332, 368, 370, 372, 374, 375-
76, 414, 417, 429, 463, 464, 477,
515-20, 537-41
— Engels on Marx and his role in
the international working-class
movement—308
— work on treatise on political
economy—28, 46, 62, 99, 125,
163, 259, 293, 367, 522
— contributions to New-York Daily
Tribune—4, 32, 41-42, 55, 107,
115, 120, 147, 261, 272, 288, 292,
299, 315, 329, 331-32, 345, 346,
355, 367, 368, 375, 385, 387, 390,
395, 404, 406-07, 414, 422, 429-
30, 432, 436, 439, 447, 472, 484,
485, 502, 536, 537, 544, 560, 588
— language studies—275, 331, 447
— living conditions in London—35,
40, 42, 50, 85, 181-82, 216, 221,
270, 289, 385, 414, 439, 464-65,
500, 501-02
— police persecution—216, 235,
576-78
— his family—181, 182, 186, 199,
216, 385, 406, 421, 453, 454,
464-65, 515, 525, 528, 529-33,
541, 578, 581
See also Chartism, Chartists—Marx's
and Engels' participation in Chartist
movement; Democracy, petty bourgeois—
relations between Marx
and Engels and petty-bourgeois
democrats; Engels, Frederick; Military
science—Marx's and Engels' study of
military history and problems of
military theory
Marxism (general characteristics)—62,
65, 68, 308-09
Mazzini, Mazzinists—31, 42, 46, 56, 59,
71, 74, 76-77, 101, 107, 141-42,
170-72, 278-82, 283-84, 290, 458-59
See also Young Italy
Mercantilism—311
Mexicans—504
Military science—103-04, 133, 425, 452
— Marx's and Engels' study of military
history and problems of military
theory—12, 18-19, 52-53, 80-
81, 103-04, 128, 133, 138, 158,
159-60, 164, 305, 309-11, 393-94,
405, 419-20, 424-26, 431-32, 451-
52, 460, 500-01, 504
See also Fortification
Mode of production—191, 349
See also Asia, Asiatic mode of production;
Capitalist mode of production;
Feudalism ; Slavery
Mohammedanism—see Islam
Moldavia— 295
Monetary system
— and mercantilism — 275
Mongols, the— 327
Monotheism—327
N
Napoleonic wars— 305, 406, 409, 411,
490, 538
See also Campaign of 1812 in Russia;
Spain—first Spanish revolution
(1808-14) and struggle against
Napoleonic rule
Nation
— national consciousness, national
feeling—340
National Reform League (England, from
1849)—59
Navy
— British—12, 18, 21, 408
— Russian—422, 427, 487
— Turkish —394
Negroes— 346
Nobility, aristocracy—191, 473
— English—20, 61, 276
— Italian—279
— Russian —53, 203, 365
— Spanish—490
O
Opera— 199, 455, 556
Owenism— 192
P
Palestine— 295, 327
Pan-Slavism— 67, 373, 534, 536
Parliament, British—61, 94, 135
— House of Commons—56
— Irish MPs ('Irish Brigade')—516,
518
Party, proletarian
— Marx's party, 'our party'—90, 96,
108, 275, 290, 293, 309, 312, 569,
570
— after defeat of 1848-49 revolution—
43-44, 259-60
— and petty-bourgeois democracy—
308-09, 349
— significance of party press and
publications—41, 293, 309
See also Communist League; Internationalism,
proletarian
Peasantry
— its role in a bourgeois revolution—
474
— under capitalism—191
— French—122, 307, 388, 474
— German—276
— Italian —279
— Russian —53, 67, 305-06
Peelites (England) —54, 129, 455
Period of transition from capitalism to
communism (socialism)—65
Persia— 333, 339-41, 487
Piedmont— 12
Poetry
— revolutionary—8
— German—4, 8, 16, 22, 107, 118,
119, 241, 245, 262, 390, 471
— Persian—341
Poland
— population—306
— agriculture—164
— insurrection of 1830-31 — 138
— and Russia—489
— and policy of European powers—
45, 53, 432, 489
See also Emigration—Polish
Popular masses, People, the—473-74
Preston strike, 1853-54— 374, 375-76,
513
Price(s)
— determination of—383
— and wages—388, 513
— and demand and supply — 5
See also Agriculture—and price formation;
Market price
Production
— development, historical character—
62
See also Mode of production
Profit
— and wages—381, 384, 513
— as interpreted by bourgeois
economists—62, 378, 381
See also Rent of land—relation between
wages, profit (interest) and
rent
Protectionism
— and trade agreements—285-86
— critique of bourgeois economists'
views—345, 346
See also United States of America—
protectionism
Protestantism—381
Proudhon, Proudhonism—147, 257, 260-
61, 381
See also Credit—in Proudhon's
theory
Prussia
— economy—307
— home policy development—5, 56
— and Austria—5, 56, 143, 195,
286, 307
— and England—440
— and France—5, 12, 307, 494, 524
— and Russia—5, 143
See also Bourgeoisie—Prussian; Danish-
Prussian war, 1848-52; Schleswig-
Holstein question, the
R
Railways— 388
Reform, bourgeois—44, 68
Religion—327, 332, 340, 381
See also Christianity; Islam; Judaism;
Monotheism
Rent of land
— as a product of capitalist mode of
production—381, 382, 392
— conditions giving rise to—382-84
— source of—382-83
— and difference in location and
fertility of land—348, 381-83, 392
— relation between wages, profit (interest)
and rent—378, 383-84
— in Ricardo's theory —378, 381-83,
392
— in Carey's theory—62, 378, 384
Republic, bourgeois
— and working-class movement—
308
Revolution—164, 334, 388
See also Adventurism (political)—
voluntarist attitude towards revolution,
'play at revolution'; French Revolution
(18 century); Revolution,
bourgeois, bourgeois-democratic; Revolution
of 1848-49 in Europe; Revolution,
proletarian, socialist; Spain—bourgeois
revolutions in Spain, 19th cent.
Revolutionary League in America
(1850s)—141, 150, 153-57, 161-62,
166, 167, 173
Revolution, bourgeois, bourgeois-democratic—
388, 474
Revolution, proletarian, socialist
— prerequisites for — 308
See also Period of transition from
capitalism to communism (socialism)
Revolution of 1848-49 and national liberation
war in Hungary—77, 101, 104,
105, 128, 158, 159, 249, 308, 309-11,
424, 460, 586
Revolution of 1848-49 in Europe— 306,
308
Revolution of 1848 in France. Second
Republic (1848-52)— 51, 157, 200,
308, 509
Revolution of 1848-49 in Germany—37,
56, 90, 307, 308, 424, 449, 45_8
Revolution of 1848-49 in Italian states—
307-08, 458
Ricardo, Ricardian school—62, 345, 383
See also Rent of land— in Ricardo's
theory
Rome, ancient—527
Russia (Russian Empire)
— population—53, 306
— agriculture—164
— trade—53, 295, 514
— revolutionary movement—305
— relations between Marx and Engels
and Russian revolutionaries
in the 1840s-50s—306, 359-63
— and revolutionary movement in
Europe—305-06, 308, 334, 361,
495
— annexation of the Caucasus—395,
432, 487
— tsarist policy in Poland—489
— and Austria—5, 143, 461, 546
— and England—53, 285, 288, 432-
33, 446, 456-57, 487, 490
— and France—5, 11-12, 45, 277,
414, 456, 487, 492, 495, 496
— and Germany—361, 365, 392-93
— and Greece—285, 447, 456
— and Prussia—5, 143
— and Turkey—285, 288-89, 487;
see also Russo-Turkish war, 1828-
29; Treaty of Unkiar Skelessi, 1833
See also Army—Russian; Campaign of
1812 in Russia; Crimean war, 1853-
56; Emigration, emigrants—Russian;
Navy—Russian; Nobility, aristocracy—
Russian; Peasantry—Russian
Russo-Turkish war, 1828-29—394
S
Saint-Simonism, Saint-Simonists— 195
Schleswig-Holstein question, the
— London protocol of 1852—456
Science
— and politics—425
— and philosophy—104, 260
See also Military science
Scotland—512, 519
Serbia— 404, 419, 431
Seven Years' War (1756-63)— 487-88
Shares, joint-stock companies—111, 165,
253
Slavery, slave trade—527
— in the USA—346
Slavs— 67, 447
See also Community—old Slav; Literature—
Slav; Pan-Slavism
Social-Democratic Refugee Committee (late
1840s-early 1850s) —345
Social estates—473
Social relations—62
Social system—500
Society—192
— and mode of production —191
— and classes—62, 65
— bourgeois—62, 65, 191, 192, 381,
382, 392
— feudal—191, 192
See also Social relations; Social system
Spain
— Spanish nation, national character—
500, 504
— social system—500
— bourgeois revolutions in Spain,
19th cent.—480, 484, 500
— first Spanish revolution (1808-14)
and struggle against Napoleonic
rule—53, 500
— second Spanish revolution (1820-
23) and French intervention—
492-97
— first Carlist war (1833-40)—456,
490
— fourth Spanish revolution (1854-
56)—469, 479, 485
— and England—53, 496
— and France—490, 492-97
See also Nobility, aristocracy—Spanish
Speculation (in money, in stock)
— speculation fever—165, 197, 263,
306
— in raw materials—111, 165
— Stock Exchange as the centre of
speculation and corruption—162,
257, 388
— and economic crises—197
— in railway stock—162, 257, 306,
388
Spinozism—144
Slate, the (oriental)— 333, 339-40, 346-48
— Asiatic despotism—347
Statistics—189-90, 511-12
Stock Exchange—162, 257, 286, 388,
518
Switzerland—12, 346
— Swiss mercenaries—541
Syria—295
T
Tartars, the—327
Taxes, taxation system—122, 388
Theory and practice—263, 308
Tories (England)
— general characteristics, class
character of the party—49, 53-54,
56, 69, 105, 135, 143, 145, 197,
306, 518
— and free trade—53-54, 84, 143,
253
— and foreign policy of England —
54
Treaty of Unkiar Skelessi, 1833—412,
432, 456, 457
Turkey
— Turks, national character—285
— specific features of historical development—
333
— decline of the Ottoman Empire —
288-89, 444
— trade—294-95
— and European civilisation—285,
289
— Christian population, oppression
of—278, 444, 447; see also
Greece—insurrection in Greek provinces
of Turkey
— and England —285, 288, 432
— and France—277, 288, 456-57
— and Russia—285, 288, 487; see
also Russo-Turkish war, 1828-29;
Treaty of Unkiar Skelessi, 1833
See also Army—Turkish; Crimean
war, 1853-56; Eastern Question, the;
Islam; Navy—Turkish
U
Ukraine, Ukrainians—306
United Diet (Germany) — 475
United States of America
— development of capitalism—62,
111, 162-63, 306, 346
— industry —57-58, 320
— agriculture—320
— trade—54, 57, 82-83, 111, 320,
374, 514
— social system—62, 191
— classes and class struggle—62
— home policy—514
— protectionism—146, 147, 346
— political parties—145-47, 154-55,
262
See also California; Slavery, slave
trade—in the USA; US-Mexican war,
1846-48
Urquhartism, Urquhartists—284-85, 373,
395, 412-13, 422, 430, 439-40, 448,
455
US-Mexican war, 1846-48—498, 500-01,
503-04
W
Wages— 62, 378, 384, 388, 513, 561
Wallachia— 295, 419, 426, 431, 464
War(s)— 410-11, 425-26
— influence on economic and social
development—340
— threat of European war in the
1850s—7, 9-10, 11-12, 53, 409,
411
See also Army; Military science; Navy
Weitling, Weitlingians—122, 275, 296,
449
Whigs (England)—49, 56, 89, 129,
135-36, 145, 306
Working class
— position in bourgeois society—
191, 384
— world-historic role—65
— concentration of workers in industrial
centres—388
— in England—42, 44, 67-68, 72,
513, 561; see also Working-class
movement in England
— in France—47, 59, 197, 261, 300,
307, 320, 388
Working-class movement in England—57,
512-13, 539, 541, 561
See also Chartism; Labour Parliament
(England); Preston strike, 1853-54
Working-class movement in Germany—
308-09, 365, 367
World market
— expansion of—57, 82-83, 84, 165,
253
Y
Yemen—340
Young Hegelianism, Young Hegelians—
87, 449, 534-35, 562-63
Young Italy—458







MECW VOL 40






A
Abstraction, abstract and concrete—261,
298, 301-03, 304, 328, 396, 420-21,
444
Aesthetics—135, 419-21, 440-45
Agriculture— 49-50, 220, 305, 347
Algeria— 381
Anglo-Persian war of 1856-57—101-OS,
115
Anti-Corn Law League—113-14, 116
Appropriation— 303
Army^l60, 177-79, 186
— Austrian—204, 382, 515
— British—161, 234, 412
— French—6, 216, 290-91, 381, 402,
405, 427
— German—204, 235, 381-82
— Prussian—161, 366, 381-82
— Russian—234
See also Cavalry
Art
— and artistic taste—423, 441
— realism in art—419-21, 443, 444
See also Literature: Music; Painting,
different national schools; Poetry;
Theatre
Art of war—124, 178, 181, 186-87, 204,
241
— its foundations—186-87
See also Army; Navy
Australia— 71, 347
Austria— 21, 26, 86, 89, 292, 346,
381-82, 401, 431, 436
See also Army—Austrian; Austro-
Italian war of 1848-49; Austro-Italo-
French war of 1859
Austro-ltalian war of 1848-49—431-32
Austro-Italo-French war of 1859 (Italian
war of 1859)
— general characteristics—380-81,
392, 399, 405, 415, 430-31, 435-
36, 464, 465, 469-70, 473-74, 537,
538
— preparations for war, Plombières
Agreement of 1858—401
— course of military operations—
414, 448, 473-74, 475
— Villafranca preliminary peace treaty
of 1859—464, 469
— and Austria—382, 401, 414, 425-
28, 430-32, 464, 465
— and Italy—465, 537
— and Piedmont—426, 465
— Mazzini's attitude—382, 452, 455,
464
— actions by Garibaldi's detachments—
452, 455
— and France (Second Empire)—
368, 380-81, 401, 405, 425-27,
432, 465, 537-38
— and diplomacy of European
states—368, 380, 401, 405, 411,
425-27, 430
— and Britain—368, 381, 401, 405,
411, 425-27, 431-32, 465, 538
— and Germany—382, 401, 435-36,
537
— and Prussia—381, 430, 464, 465,
537, 538
— and Russia—368, 381, 382, 401,
405, 411, 426-27, 430-31, 432,
465, 537, 538
— and revolutionary movement in
Europe—381-82, 414, 430, 464,
465, 538
— and European democracy—381-
82, 403-04, 428, 435-36, 439, 452,
464, 465, 538, 543
B
Balance of trade—-73, 229, 230, 243
Bank(s)
— and banking capital—133
— reserve fund—126, 208, 229-30
— profit—133, 215
— and bill operations—208, 211,
219, 220, 229-31, 256, 291-92,
343
— and deposits—133, 208-09, 229,
231
— and money circulation—126, 208
— and discount rate—71, 83, 199,
208-09, 211-12, 229
— and railways—216, 230-32
— and the state—133, 208, 214-16,
230-32, 256, 73
— and financial aristocracy—133
— and economic crises—126, 133,
197, 202, 208-09, 212, 215-17,
218-19, 220-21, 222-23, 229-31,
235-36, 303
— joint-stock—34, 81, 144, 208-09
— in Proudhon's theory—90
See also Bank legislation; Bank of
England; Bank of France; Bankruptcy;
Belgian Bank; Credit; Crédit mobilier;
Royal British Bank; Stock Exchange
Bank legislation— 202, 208,- 214-15
Bank notes—152, 208, 213, 222-23
Bank of England— 72, 73, 208-09, 212,
567
Bank of France— 93, 133, 152, 193, 208,
216, 229-31, 256, 273
Bank rate—126, 229
Bankruptcy— 81, 83, 197, 200-01, 207,
208-09, 211, 212, 215, 219, 222-23,
235-36, 567
Belgian Bank—71
Berlin— 286
Bill of exchange— 208, 211-14, 220-21,
229-31, 256, 291-92, 343-44
Bimetallism—71, 73, 90
Bohemia, Bohemians—19, 26-27, 87, 346,
381
Bonapartism—90, 108, 109, 291, 537-38
See also France—Second Empire
Bourgeoisie— 216, 291
— English—115, 344, 374-75
— French—6, 215, 216, 229, 256,
291, 381-82, 401, 405
— German—27
— Prussian—292, 349, 358, 436
— Spanish—61
Bourgeois political economy—102, 126,
13», ,249, 282, 283, 287, 298-301,
303, 317-18, 377
See also Abstraction, abstract and concrete;
Ricardianism, Ricardos theories
Brandenburg—see Prussia
'Bundschuh' (peasant association in Germany
in 15th-16th cent.)—445
C
California— 71, 203, 344, 347
Capital—191-92, 215-216, 249, 287,
298, 303
— accumulation of—303
— fixed—278, 279, 281, 282, 283;
see also Machines
— circulating—212-13, 256, 281,
282-83, 287
— loan (monetary)—71, 273; see
also Bank(s); Credit; Loan interest
— share—298
'Capital' by K. Marx
— first stage in writing it—270, 286-
87, 297-98, 301-05, 498
— manuscript of 1857-58 as the first
variant of Capital— 216, 224, 226,
244, 269-70, 272, 286-87, 295,
298, 317-18, 353-54, 358, 368,
376, 498, 508, 511-12, 523
— A Contribution to the Critiqtie of
Political Economy— 270, 272, 286-
87, 295, 297-98, 301-05, 341, 353-
54, 358, 368-69, 376-77, 393-96,
408, 471, 473, 477, 478, 482, 498,
502, 518
— Marx's method of economic research—
249, 270, 298, 304-05,
470-71
— dialectics in Marx's economic
works—249, 298, 304-05
Capitalism (as socio-economic formation)—
301-02
— transient character of—473
Carbonari— 380
Cavalry— 289
Causality—435
Cell— 326-27
Chartism, Chartist movement
— in 1848—31-32, 44, 210, 249-50,
375, 376
— Chartist press, the—38, 44
— part played by Marx and Engels
in Chartist movement—38, 418
— causes of its decline—344
China
— general characteristics—347
— economy—203, 347
— foreign trade—73, 344, 347, 362
— as object of colonial expansion by
capitalist states—347, 413
— opium trade—347, 362, 413
See also Opium wars
Circulation of money capital—301-02
Classes, the— 420, 442-45
See also Bourgeoisie; Class struggle;
Nobility; Peasantry: Petty bourgeoisie;
Working class
Class struggle— 419-20, 443-45
Coin—302, 377
Cologne Communist Trial—477, 552,
554
Commerce, (rode—81, 222-23, 226, 235-
36, 256, 271, 342
See also Commercial (merchant's) capital;
Foreign trade; World market
Commercial (merchant's) capital—303
Commodity
— its analysis in Marx's work A
Contribution to the Critique of Political
Economy—298-303, 358, 368,
376-77, 473
— criticism of Proudhon's views—
377
Commodity circulation—301-03
Commune (community)
— in Germany—20
— in Poland—75, 80
— in Romania—80
— in Russia—18, 75
Communism (social formation)
— prerequisites for communist transformation
of society—298
— necessity of proletarian revolution—
38, 41, 346
See also Revolution, proletarian,
socialist
Communism in Germany (theories and
trends)—502-03, 519-20
Communism, primitive—298
Communism, scientific—377, 518
Communism, Utopian—21
See also Communism in Germany;
Weitlingianism, Weitlingians
Communist League, the—38-41, 376
See also Cologne Communist Trial;
German Workers' Educational Society in
London (1840-1918)
Communists, communist movement—555
See also Communist League
Competition— 35, 298, 305
Conflict— 322, 419-20, 445
Consignment—191, 202
Content and form— 298-301, 316,
442-443
Contradiction—133, 287, 298, 301, 445
Corn Laws (in England)—215
See also Anti-Corn Law League
Credit— 71, 83, 126, 220-21, 229-32,
236, 291-92, 298, 302, 344
Crédit mobilier— 34, 119, 126, 128, 133,
142, 145, 216, 225, 240, 244, 291-92,
296, 349, 567
Crimean war of 1853-56
— and European diplomacy—119
— military operations in the Crimea
in 1854-56—22, 177-78, 297
— capture of Kars by Russian troops
in 1855—22, 28-30
— its results, Paris Peace Treaty of
1856—7, 42, 346, 368
— and England—31-32
— and Turkey—346
— and France—7
— and Sweden—3
Criticism
— general features—260, 441
— of various social phenomena and
social consciousness—91, 260,
261, 270, 316
— Marxism as critical revolutionary
teaching—261, 270, 441, 446
Cuba— 340
Customs Union (Germany, 1834-71)—
230
D
Darwinism— 551
Definition—287, 298, 301, 303, 327
Demand and supply— 235-36, 350
Democracy, petty-bourgeois—25, 90, 568
Democracy, vulgar—436, 522, 525
Denmark—132, 229
Development—186, 270, 278, 298, 303,
325, 326-27, 443, 551
Dialectical materialism—326-27
Dialectics
— in nature—326-27
— in politics—537
— and natural science—326-27
— and political economy—260-61
— Hegelian—249, 259-61, 316,
326-27
See also 'Capital' by K, Marx—
dialectics in Marx's economic works;
Hegel, Hegelianism
Dividend— 201, 244
Dixnsion of labour—186-87
Drama (literature)—419-21, 441-45
Duel— 319, 320, 322-23, 324
E
Economic categories—270, 301
Economic crises
— as phase of industrial cycle—202-
03, 214-15, 220-21, 222-23, 278,
281, 282
— their chronic character—83, 126,
203, 291
— overproduction as main form of
their manifestation—220-21, 343,
344
— their forecasting—34-35, 71-72,
73-74, 152, 199, 202-03, 216-17
— industrial—215-16, 220, 273, 282
— commercial—81, 222-23, 226,
256, 271, 343
— monetary and financial—32, 70,
71-72, 83, 152, 200, 207, 212-13,
220-21, 235, 236, 302-03
— of the world market—202, 203,
220-25, 230-31, 235-36
— and condition of working
people—216, 221, 223, 241, 350
— and bourgeois state—81, 83, 133,
202, 208, 214, 216, 221, 229, 232,
256, 273, 291, 292
— and prospects of revolution—74-
75, 83, 203-04, 216, 223, 243-44,
291
— crisis of 1837—221
— crisis of 1846-47—202, 208, 221,
229, 232, 240, 243
— world economic crisis of 1857-
58—71, 74, 126, 133, 197, 200-
03, 208-09, 211, 216, 218-25, 226,
228-32, 235-36, 239, 240, 243,
253, 256, 271, 343, 346-47, 350,
567
— crisis of 1857-58 in England—71-
72, 73-74, 197, 201, 202, 208,
209, 211, 212, 213, 214-15, 219,
220-21, 222, 223, 224-25, 228,
235-36, 239-40, 243, 253, 343,
350, 567
— crisis of 1857-58 in Germany—
200, 202, 212-13, 219, 220, 221,
222, 223, 224-25, 243, 567
— crisis of 1857-58 in France—71-
72, 126, 133, 200, 214, 215-16,
223, 224-25, 228, 232, 235, 240,
243, 256, 271
Economic laws—126, 282-83, 301-03
Economic situation— 71-72, 73-74, 126,
208-09, 214-15, 219-21, 229-31,
291-92
Emigration, emigrants
— as social phenomenon—50-51
— bourgeois-democratic, petty-bourgeois—
37-38, 359, 375-76, 382,
455-56
— revolutionary—37-38
— proletarian—37-38, 359-60, 386
— French—37-38, 339-40, 465, 480
— German emigrants in England,
from mid-1850s—38-41, 366,
369, 370, 372-73, 375-76, 382-83,
437-40, 461, 463-64, 467, 492-93,
502-04, 508, 513, 519-21, 523,
526
— Irish emigrants in the USA—50
— Italian—346, 381-82, 452, 455,
464
— Polish—381
Engels, Frederick
— friendship with Marx and his
family—51-52, 96-97, 109, 114-
15, 121, 143-44, 149-50, 307-08,
311, 313, 314, 331, 332-33, 517-
18, 542, 555-57, 563-64, 565, 568-
69, 572, 573-75
— joint work with Marx—51, 122-
25, 182-83
— Marx on Engels—186, 248-49,
391-92, 393, 400-01
— during the 1848-49 revolutions
(general)—392
— in 1849-59 (general)—24-25, 49,
109, 122-25, 203-04, 274-75, 288-
89, 337-38, 391-93, 399-400, 402-
03, 471-72
— contribution to The New American
Cyclopaedia—122-25, 135-37, 144,
155, 158, 162-64, 165-68, 171-72,
174-76, 177-81, 190, 195, 196,
200, 204-07, 213, 239, 241-42,
247, 252, 254, 257, 263, 268, 274,
281-82, 288-89
— contribution to New-York Daily
Tribune—201, 393, 417
— study of military history and military-
theoretical problems—84,
123, 124, 136-37, 144, 153, 158,
160-61, 162-68, 171, 172, 174-76,
177-81, 189, 190, 195, 200, 204,
241-42, 247, 252, 254, 256, 257,
263, 266, 274, 281-82, 285, 289,
293, 294, 492, 515
— Marx on significance of Engels'
study of military theory—186-87,
248-49, 391
— study of natural sciences—326-27,
551
— studies in languages and history
of Slav peoples—26-27, 73, 105,
403, 516
— and working-class movement in
England—188-89, 190, 196, 264,
344, 348
— and working-class movement in
Germany—24.25, 36
— his friends and associates—72,
252-53, 386, 509
— his family—421-24, 528-29
See also Chartism, Chartist movement—
part played by Marx and Engels in
Chartist movement; Marx, Karl
England (Great Britain)
— general characteristics—344
— in the 1850s (from 1849)—:».">, 42,
71-72, 104-05, 113-14, 115-16,
221, 239, 253, 270, 273-78, 344,
349, 401, 405, 411, 429
— economy—72, 81, 305, 344
— trade—35, 202, 214, 229, 234-35,
305-06, 307
— trade with Asia (Turkey, Middle
East, India, China)—201-02, 211-
12, 253, 344, 347, 362, 413
— finances—413
— aristocracy—344
— social and political system—108,
358, 411
— electoral system—115
— Peelites—104
— Radicals—210, 374, 411
— bourgeois-democratic movements
— 357-58
— colonial policy—49-51, 413
— foreign policy, diplomacy—8-10,
80-81, 107, 115, 429
See also Anglo-Persian war of 1856-
57; Anti-Corn Law League; Army—
British; Bank of England; Bourgeoisie—
English; Chartism, Chartist
movement; Com Laws (in England);
Economic crises—crisis of 1857-58 in
England; Free Traders; Literature—
English; Opium wars; Poetry—
English; Royal British Bank; Tories
(England); Urquhartism, Urquhartites;
Whigs (England); Working-class movement
in England
Epic—19
Epicureanism—124, 226, 269, 316
Equality— 303
Estate— 80
Europe—203, 272, 358
Exchange—301, 303
F
Feudalism—86, 298, 302, 346, 418-19,
442-45
See also Serfdom; Society—feudal
Feuerbach, Feuerbachianism—55
Forecast— 34-35, 71-72, 73-74, 152, 199,
202-03, 216
Foreign trade— 73, 191, 200, 201-02,
208, 212, 216, 229-30, 243, 347, 362,
412, 413
See also World market
France
— general characteristics—85-86,
229-30
— July revolution of 1830 and July
monarchy—380
— Second Empire—6-7, 31, 35, 37-
38, 42, 50-51, 71-72, 82-83, 93,
94, 119, 126, 128, 133, 142, 145,
152, 156-58, 193, 194, 208, 214-
16, 225, 229, 232, 240, 244, 256,
264, 266, 273, 289-93, 296, 297,
306, 343, 348-49, 357, 380-82,
401, 405, 427, 476, 537, 552, 567
— foreign policy and diplomacy, colonial
policy—7, 94, 291, 357, 380,
425-26, 427, 473, 538
See also Army—French; Bank of
France; Bourgeoisie—French; Crédit
mobilier; Economic crises—crisis of
1857-58 in France; Emigration, emigrants—
French; French Revolution
(18th cent.); Literature—French;
Peasantry—French; Poetry—French;
Revolution of 1848 in France; Working
class—in France; Working-class movement
in France
Freedom— 49, 303
Free Traders—104, 113, 115-16, 127
See also Anti-Corn Law League; England
(Great Britain)—Radicals
French Revolution (18th cent.)—38, 84,
86, 473
G
Galicia— 381
German Confederation (1815-66)—437
German philosophy—124, 127, 135, 260
See also Feuerbach, Feuerbachianism;
Hegel, Hegelianism
German Workers' Educational Society in
London (1840-1918)—41, 363, 437,
451, 519-20
Germany
— and the French Revolution (18th
cent.) and Napoleonic wars—38,
41, 164-65, 169, 174-75, 178-81
— fragmentation of the country and
the task of its unification—435-36
— economy—34, 81, 213, 229, 243,
253
— bourgeois liberalism—393
— democratic movement—25, 90,
393, 435, 458, 568
— science—355
— revolutionary movement—38, 41,
435, 445-46
— foreign policy—21, 75, 86-87,
346, 435, 537
See also Army—German; Bourgeoisie—
German; Customs Union
(Germany, 1834-71); Economic crises—
crisis of 1857-58 in Germany; Emigration,
emigrants—German; German Confederation
(1815-66); German
philosophy; Hanse; Literature—
German; Nobility—German; Peasantry—
German; Peasant War in Germany,
1524-25; Poetry—German; Prussia; Reformation;
Revolution of 1848-49 in
Germany; Rhine Province
Gold and silver
— as money—213, 260, 301, 377
— output of—203
— significance of discovery of gold
in Australia and America—71,
203, 344, 346
— relative to each other—71, 73
— circulation of—208, 212, 216, 229
— demonetisation of—90
— and crises—208, 212, 217, 229
— as seen by Proudhon and
Proudhonists—90
— miscellanea—260, 377
Goths— 26
Greek philosophy^-124, 226> 227, 259-
60, 262, 270, 316, 324, 394-96
See also Epicureanism; Pythagoreanism;
Scepticism, sceptics; Stoicism, stoics
H
Hanse—229, 243
Hegel, Hegelianism—249, 259-61, 270,
316, 326-27
See also Old Hegelianism
Historical materialism, materialist conception
of history—186-87
Historiography
— ancient—270
— of Renaissance—187
— of Enlightenment—16, 187
— Junker—21, 346-47
— bourgeois, in 19th cent.—16-17,
58, 85
— progressive and democratic trends
in bourgeois historiography—85
History— 419
Holland— 230
Hungary— 86, 292, 381, 382
I
Ideas
— and interests—420
— and classes—442
— intellectual content—442-43
— ideas of equality—303
— as conceived by Hegel—326-27
— as conceived by Proudhon and
Proudhonists—303
Ideology, ideologists—419
India—74, 192-93, 201-02, 249, 413
See also Indian uprising of 1857-59
Indian uprising of 1857-59
— and Sepoy troops—185
— military forces of England—249
— course of—152, 175, 182-85, 192-
93, 197, 198, 234-35, 242, 244,
247, 249, 336
— and situation in England—218
— and English and European working
class—346-47, 565
— its results—413
Industrial reserve army—83, 223
Industry—220, 237, 281, 282
Inventions— 280
Ireland
— as British colony—49-51
Italian war of 1859—see Austro-Italo-
French war of 1859
Italy
— economy—221, 275
— national movement (1850s)—142
— revolutionary upsurge in 1859—
452, 455, 515
— foreign policy—381
See also Austro-Italian war of 1848-49;
Austro-Italo-French war of 1859; Emigration,
emigrants—Italian; Kingdom of
Sardinia; Pointing, different national
schools; Revolution of 1848-49 in
Italian states
J
Jacobin dictatorship, Jacobins (1793-94)
— Comité du salut public—85
Japan—347
Joint-stock companies
— setting-up and development of—
81, 82-83, 208-09, 231, 295-96
— activity of—114, 119, 133, 208-
09, 231, 295-96
— and Stock Exchange—133
— and railways—229-31
— and the state—119
— in Germany—34, 81
— in France—119, 133, 229-32,
295-96
See also Capital—share; Crédit
mobilier; Shares, speculation in shares
Junkerdom, Prussian—20
K
Kingdom of Sardinia (Piedmont)—426-
27, 515
Knighthood—419
— knights' uprising in Germany in
1522-23—443-46
L
Labour aristocracy (in England)—344
Labour, social—301
— right to work—215
Land-division— 80
Landed property— 49-50, 80, 298
Language— 26, 132, 402, 516
Lassalleanism, Lassalleans
— Lassalle and his role in German
working-class movement—23-25,
27, 36, 44, 129, 391-93, 435, 461,
498, 542
— criticism of Lassalle's theoretical
views—128, 227, 255, 259-61,
315, 355, 394-97, 419-21, 441-45
— and peasantry—420, 444-45
— Lassalle's nationalistic attitude
during Austro-Italo-French war of
1859—382-83, 435, 452, 459-60,
461, 464-65, 497-98, 508, 522,
538, 542
— criticism of Lassalle's aesthetic
views—419-21, 441-45, 461
— criticism of Lassalle's personality
cult—24
Law of conservation and transformation of
energy— 326-27
See also Economic laws
Law, Roman—186
Linguistics—19, 26, 403, 516
Literature
— general features—441
— Realism—419-20, 442-45
— Romanticism—4
— typical and individual in—419-20,
442-45
— form and content—441-43
— topicality—419, 420
— folklore—6, 19-20, 26
— literary criticism—441, 445
— irony—91
— Greek—257, 339, 397, 443
— Roman—56
— Bohemian (Czech)—19-20, 26
— English—33, 46, 91, 356, 424,
441-44
— French—42, 266, 278
— German—14, 46, 71, 91, 124,
356, 366, 419-21, 423-24, 436,
441-45, 461, 530-31
— Polish—20, 26
— Russian—15, 19, 26, 31, 37
— Serbian—19-20, 26
— Slav—19-20, 26
See also Drama; Epic; Novel; Poetry;
Tragedy, tragic; Writers
Loan interest—287
Loans (state)—380
Love—54-57
M
Machines (machinery)— 278, 279-81, 283,
305
See also Capital—fixed; Inventions
Manchester School—see Free Traders
Man, individual, personality—322, 324-
25, 327
Marianne (secret republican society in
France)—37, 42
Market— 35, 71, 212-13, 240, 347
Marx, Karl
— friendship with Engels—97-98,
108, 111, 119, 132, 139, 145,
146-47, 149, 150-51, 152, 168-69,
173, 181, 186, 191, 198, 217, 232,
238, 243, 249, 263, 335, 374, 532,
565, 568
— joint work with Engels—43, 51,
133, 169, 181, 186, 224, 259
— from 1856 to late 1859 (general)—
37-38, 38-41, 43-44, 53, 54,
210, 312, 369-70, 374-75, 376,
436, 440, 450-51, 458-59, 520
— contribution to New-York Daily
Tribune— 63, 68, 81, 93, 96, 97,
98, 99, 101, 111, 114, 115, 181,
197, 215, 224, 250, 309, 336,
341-42, 362, 374, 401, 409, 523
— contribution to The New American
Cyclopaedia—127, 134, 142, 148,
158-59, 169, 170, 173, 181, 187,
198, 238, 249, 251, 259
— as editor of Das Volk—438-39,
449, 452, 456, 457, 459, 461,
463-64, 466, 471, 473, 477, 480,
482-83, 484, 497, 501, 508, 511,
519-21
— study of political economy—102,
126, 135, 216, 224, 226, 238, 244,
249, 256, 269-70, 295, 298-304,
310, 315, 317-18, 354-55, 369,
376-77, 395-96, 432, 566
— study of world history and history
of diplomacy—8-12, 17-18, 21, 67
— study of military history and military-
theoretical problems—100,
158-59, 169, 170, 173-74, 182,
197, 259, 263, 266, 273, 294, 297,
403
— study of Greek philosophy—226,
268, 315-16
— and working-class movement in
England—32, 37-38, 87, 210,
228, 250, 263, 342, 345, 375, 418
— and working-class movement in
Germany—15, 25, 30, 38, 42, 43,
44, 99, 100, 134, 135
— and working-class movement in
the USA—338, 374-77, 384, 440
— his friends and associates—68-69,
100-01, 218, 226, 228, 249, 271,
374-75, 376, 384-85, 387, 390,
396-97, 406, 440, 566-68
— his family—33, 45, 54-57, 59-60,
63, 66, 67-68, 71-74, 127, 255,
323-24, 328-31, 335, 337, 339,
360, 542, 548, 571
See also 'Capital' by K. Marx; Chartism,
Chartist movement—part played
by Marx and Engels in Chartist
movement; Engels, Frederick
Marxism (general characteristics)—377,
482
See also Communism, scientific; Dialectical
materialism; Engels, Frederick;
Historical materialism, materialist conception
of history; Marx, Karl; Marxist
political economy
Marxist political economy
— as theoretical basis öf scientific
communism—518
— subject of its research—376-77
— Marx's use of mathematics in
political economy—244
— its superiority over bourgeois and
petty-bourgeois political economy—
249, 270, 298-304, 354-55,
396, 473
See also 'Capital' by K. Marx
Material, the—282, 302, 303
Materialism— 209, 326-27, 478
See also Greek philosophy; Historical
materialism, materialist conception of
history
Means of communication
— navigation—347
— and trade—235-36
Means of labour
— their moral wear and tear—280-
81
Method—249, 270, 471, 551
See also 'Capital' by K. Marx—Marx's
method of economic research; dialectics
in Marx's economic works
Military science
— military history—170, 172
— military literature—189, 241
See also Art of war; Engels, Frederick—
study of military history and militarytheoretical
problems
Mode of production—298
Moldavia—80
Money
— general features—126, 301-03
— as measure of value—301-03, 377
— as medium of circulation—301-
03, 377
— as means of hoarding—302-03
— as means of payment—135, 212-
13, 220-21, 241-42, 302, 377
— of the world—377
— metal—186, 260, 301, 377
— credit—126
— amount in circulation—301-02
— value of—301, 303
— transformation into capital—303
— depreciation of—212-13
— and possibility of crises—302
— Engels' evaluation of Marx's
theory of money—304-05
— its analysis in Marx's work A
Contribution to the Critique of Political
Economy—286, 301-03, 358,
368, 369, 378
— bourgeois theories on origin and
essence of money—90, 102, 126,
135, 301-04, 370, 378
— quantity theory of money—395-
96
— metallic theory of money—377
— criticism of 'labour money'
theory—90, 301, 303, 378
— critique of Proudhon's theory of
money—90, 301, 303, 377-78
— criticism of Lassalle's views on
money—260, 394-96
See also Bant notes; Bill of exchange;
Coin; Gold and silver; Money circulation;
Money market; Paper money
Money circulation— 71, 126, 208, 301-
03, 317, 342, 358, 368
Money market— 35, 71, 73, 126, 208-09,
215, 219, 220-21, 229-31, 235-36,
240, 292
Mongolia, Mongols—187
Morauia—381
Music—8, 512, 530
— opera—503
N
Napoleonic wars—165-67, 170, 174-75,
177, 179, 180-81, 436
Nation—86
National debt—193-94, 413
Nationality— 21, 552
Natural science—209, 326-27
See also Cell; Darwinism; Dialectics—
in nature; Law of conservation and
transformation of energy
Navy—84, 169
Necessity and chance—291
— in history—445
Nobility
— German—26, 419-20, 444-45
— Polish—420
— Russian—552
See also Knighthood; Junkerdom,
Prussian
Northern War (1700-1721)— 8-10, 91
Novel (literature)—441
O
Objective and subjective—55, 298, 315-16
Old Hegelianism—227, 255, 261
Opium wars
— Anglo-Chinese war of 1840-42—
107, 362
— Anglo-Franco-Chinese war of
1856-60—105, 115, 350, 362, 387
— Tientsin treaties of 1858—347,
362
Opposition—152, 259, 260, 419
Organism (biological)—327
P
Painting, different national schools—131
Pan-Slavism—5, 17, 51, 73, 75, 100,
381
Paper money—133, 216-17, 231
Party, proletarian
— its character—460
— Marx's party, 'our party'—409,
440, 446, 538, 540, 547
— criticism and self-criticism—446
— theoretical discussions—538
— its tactics—409, 446
— party discipline—436, 538
— and opposition parties—210
— conditions of its coming to
power—446
See also Communist League; Communists,
communist movement; Marxism
Peasantry
— in feudal society—80, 419-20, 444
— in bourgeois-democratic revolution—
419-20
— as ally of proletariat—38
— French—358, 381
— German—444-45
— Irish—49
— Polish—80
— Russian, peasant movement in
Russia—358, 552
See also 'Bundschuh' (peasant association
in Germany in 15th-16th cent.);
Peasant War in Germany, 1524-25;
'Poor Konrad' (peasant association in
Germany in 16th cent.); Serfdom
Peasant War in Germany, 1524-25—38
Petty bourgeoisie
— in England—264
— in Prussia—292
Philistinism—116, 467, 537
Philosophy—133, 226, 241, 268-69, 315-
16, 326-27
See also Dialectical materialism; Dialectics;
Epicureanism; Feuerbach, Feuerbachianism;
German philosophy; Greek
philosophy; Hegel, Hegelianism; Historical
materialism, materialist conception of
history; Materialism; Roman philosophy;
Scepticism, sceptics; Stoicism, stoics
Physiocrats—4, 377
Piedmont—see Kingdom of Sardinia
Poetry
— verses—418-19, 442
— political—6
— Roman—56
— Bohemian (Czech)—19, 26
— English—356, 444
— French—6
— German—32, 69, 356, 360, 372,
375, 388, 418-19, 423, 442, 458,
475, 477, 508, 511-13, 514, 516,
530-31, 534-36, 555-56
— Polish—19-20, 26
— Serbian—19
— Slav—19-20, 26
— poet—371, 372, 458, 514, 556-57
Poland—19, 26, 75, 80, 85-86, 172
See also Emigration, emigrants—Polish
Political economy (as science, its
method)—244, 260-61, 282-83, 354-
55, 396
See also Abstraction, abstract and concrete;
Marxist political economy;
Bourgeois political economy
'Poor Konrad' (peasant association in
Germany in 16th cent.)—445
Prerequisites—282, 298, 303
Press, the—113-14, 218, 487, 494-95
Price(s)— 35, 102, 126, 201, 202, 205,
208, 209-10, 212, 213, 214, 216,
220-21, 235-36, 239-40, 253, 267, 301,
302, 304-05, 342, 350, 357, 381
Price (value) of land—95
Production—187, 347
Productive forces—186
Pro/it—215, 249, 283, 287
Protectionism— 304-05
Praudhonism, Proudhonists
— general characteristics—377, 473
— as trend in French pettybourgeois
socialism—303, 377
— as expression of tendencies of
small private property—377
— criticism of Proudhon's economic
views—90, 303, 377
— on commodity, failure to understand
its relation to money—377
— on money—90, 301, 377
— on exchange—90, 303, 377
— idealisation of commodity production—
377
— idea of equality—303
Prussia— 21, 72, 86, 87, 89, 90, 94, 114,
179, 243, 266, 346, 348, 436, 537
See also Army—Prussian; Bourgeoisie—
Prussian; Junkerdom, Prussian;
Petty bourgeoisie—in Prussia; Working
class—in Prussia
Pythagoreanism— 56
R
Radicalism, Radicals—375
.Rate of exchange—126
Rate of interest—71, 83, 126, 229
Raw material—283
Real, the—260, 302
Realism—see Art—realism in art; Literature—
realism
Reformation—21, 86, 443
Reformism, struggle against it—344
Relations of production— 55, 298-301,
303
Relativity— 322
Reserve, insurance fund— 208, 229-30
Révolution (general characteristics)—
291
See also Revolution, feourgeois,
bourgeois-democratic; Revolution, proletarian,
socialist
Revolution, bourgeois, bourgeoisdemocratic—
7 3-Ï 4, 83, 85, 86, 145,
203, 243, 291
See also French Revolution (18th
cent.); Revolution of 1848-49 in
Europe; Revolution of 1848 in France.
Second Republic; Revolution of 1848-49
in Germany; Revolution of 1848-49 in
Italian states
Revolution, proletarian, socialist—41, 203,
347
Revolution of 1848-49 in Europe (general
characteristics)—419
Revolution of 1848 in France. Second
Republic—291, 310
Revolution of 1848-49 in Germany—25,
90
Revolution of 1848-49 in Italian states—
425
Rnine Province— 24-25, 32, 34, 44, 464
Ricardianism, Ricardo's theories—283-84,
287, 298, 395-96
Roman philosophy—270
Royal British Bank—72, 209
Russia (Russian Empire)
— history—8-10, 310, 346, 381, 552
— economy—34-35, 230, 236
— science, culture, spiritual life—19
— revolutionary movement in 19th
cent.—349, 552
— agrarian revolution—381
— prospects, character and motive
forces of revolution in—381, 552
— Tsarism, autocracy—423
— foreign and colonial policy of
Tsarism, its diplomacy—3, 8-9,
86, 310, 346, 368, 381, 401, 405,
426, 537-38, 552
See also Army—Russian; Crimean war
of 1853-56; Nobility— Russian;
Peasantry—Russian, peasant movement
in Russia
S
Saint-Simonism— 72
Scepticism, sceptics—226
Schiller Society, the (Manchester, 2nd
half of 19th cent.)—517, 527, 530-31
Science
— classification, system of sciences—
241, 260, 354-55, 396
— scientific cognition—261
— historical development of—261
— miscellanea—187, 270, 278, 327,
354
See also Communism, scientific; History;
Natural science; Philosophy; Political
economy
Serfdom— 80
Seven Years War (1756-1763)— 289, 294
Shares, speculation in shares—32, 72, 73,
119, 133, 200, 207, 216, 230, 240
See also Capital—share; Jointstock
companies
Sixteenth century (general)—346-47, 420
Slavs— 21, 26-27, 85-86, 292, 346
Socialism (theories and trends)
— petty-bourgeois—303
See also Lassalleanism, Lassalleans;
Proudhonism, Proudhonists
Social relations—186, 354
Société du dix Décembre (France, from
1849)—157
Society— 298
— feudal—419-20, 443-46
— bourgeois—303, 322, 347, 356,
374
See also Man, individual, personality;
Social relations; Socio-economic formation
Socio-economic formation—302
See also Capitalism; Feudalism; Mode
of production; Social relations; Society;
Relations of production
Song— 6, 20, 26
Spain—61
See also Spanish-Moroccan war of
1859-60
Spanish-Moroccan war of 1859-60—515-
16, 523, 527, 529, 530, 547, 553
Speculation (in money, in stock)—34,
71-72, 73-74, 119, 133, 200, 214,
216, 219, 231, 347
Speculation (speculative philosophy)—
260-61, 402
State, the— 298, 376
See also Loans (state); National debt
Statistics— 35, 83, 224, 243, 285, 347
Stock Exchange
— as centre of speculation and corruption—
71-72, 119, 133,214-15,
230, 343
— and banks—202, 215, 229-32
— and the state—230
— and economic crises—202
Stocks (of goods)—201, 211, 212, 221,
235-36, 239, 273, 305-06, 357, 381
Stoicism, stoics—226
Sweden—10, 86
Switzerland— 86, 89-90, 94, 230
System— 261, 270, 315-16
T
Teleology—551
Theatre— 441-42, 530-31
Theory and practice— 256, 282-83, 316,
443, 445, 418
Thinking, thought— 259, 260, 283-84,
328
See also Abstraction, abstract and
concrete
Tories (England)—8, 104, 358, 411,
431
Town
— in Middle Ages—86, 419-20,
443-44
Tragedy, tragic—46, 256-57, 418-19,
443-45
U
United States of America
— trade—35-36, 214, 347
— Protectionism—209, 304-05
— agriculture—35, 211, 305-06
Urquhartism, Urquhartites—4, 44, 61,
62, 64, 75, 93-94, 120, 243
Use-value— 298, 302-03
V
Value— 287, 298-301, 302-03, 377
See also Commodity; Money; Use-value
Vienna Congress of 1814-15 and Vienna
treaties of 1815—426, 427
W
Wallachia— 80
Wage labour— 270, 298, 303
Wages
— minimum—298
— fall of—212
— workers' struggle for higher
wages—343-44, 349
— and profit—283
— and use of machinery—281, 283
— and rotation of capital—283
— analysis in Marx's works—297-98
— criticism of Proudhon's views—
301, 303
War(s)— 50, 189, 241, 380, 381
See also Art of War; Austro-Italian war
of 1848-49; Àustro-Italo-French war of
1859; Military science; Northern War
(1700-21); Opium wars; Seven Years
War (1756-63); Spanish-Moroccan war
of 1859-60; Wars of the First French
Republic (late 18th-early 19th cent.)
Wars of the First French Republic (late
18th-early 19th cent.)— 86-87, 178,
189, 473-74
Weitlingianism, Weitlingians—440, 451
Whigs (England)—8, 10, 358, 411
Working class
— and peasantry—41
— in England—250, 344
— in France—6, 82, 83, 216, 290,
291, 310, 427
— in Prussia—25, 129
See also Party, proletarian; Revolution,
proletarian, socialist
Working-class and socialist movement in
Bohemia— 26-27
Working-class and socialist movement in
Switzerland— 89
Working-class movement in England—
204, 249-50, 344, 375
See also Chartism, Chartist movement
Working-class movement in France—82,
289-90
Working-class movement in Germany—15,
25, 44, 348-49
Working-class movement in the
USA—244
Working day—212
World market— 34-35, 202-03, 305, 344,
346-47
See also Foreign trade; Money market
Writers— 423, 555-56